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Richmond Whig and Advertiser
January-June 1847


January-June 1845 July-December 1845 January-June 1846 July-December 1846
January-June 1847 July-December 1847 January-June 1848 July-December 1848


Index ­ Volume/issue/page/column/date

January

RW47v24i2p1c3, January 5, 1847, Later from Tampico

RW47v24i2p1c3, January 5, 1847, Departure of the Troops

RW47v24i2p15e, January 5, 1847, To the Editors of the Richmond Whig

RW47v24i2p1c5, January 5, 1847, From the Lynchburg Virginian, Dec. 31

RW47v24i2p1c5, January 5, 1847, Marriage of a Volunteer

RW47v24i2p1c6f, January 5, 1847, Revolution in Campeachy– Revolution in Tabasco

RW47v24i2p1c6, January 5, 1847, From the N. O. Picayune, Dec. 26

RW47v24i2p1c6, January 5, 1847, Desertions from the American Army

RW47v24i2p1c6, January 5, 1847, The Mexican General Valencia

RW47v24i2p2c2, January 5, 1847, Col. Baker, Gen. Waddy Thompson, Lt. Generalship

RW47v24i2p2c3, January 5, 1847, Too Late! Rockingham County volunteers, Tenth Legion

RW47v24i2p2c3, January 5, 1847, Volunteer drowned, Capt. Carrington’s company

RW47v24i2p2c4, January 5, 1847, THE WAR. The Last Campaign– Future Operations

RW47v24i2p2c5, January 5, 1847, Latest from the Army

RW47v24i2p2c5, January 5, 1847, Tampico Attacked! ––– Repulse of the Mexicans!

RW47v24i2p2c5, January 5, 1847, Correspondence of the Picayune

RW47v24i2p2c6, January 5, 1847, Government Map of Mexico, 4th ed.

RW47v24i2p4c1, January 5, 1847: The Virginia Regiment. The 10th Legion

RW47v24i2p4c1, January 5, 1847, Col. Matthew Mountjoy Payne

RW47v24i2p4c2, January 5, 1847, General Scott

RW47v24i2p4c2, January 5, 1847: Capt. Bankhead’s company

RW47v24i2p4c2, January 5, 1847, Berkeley Volunteers

RW47v24i2p4c2, January 5, 1847, Louisiana volunteers, Louis G. De Russy, Colonel, and Frances Degault, Major

RW47v24i2p4c3, January 5, 1847, A Singular Fact, Volunteers are Whigs

RW47v24i2p4c3, January 5, 1847, Col. John F. Hamtramck, Colonel of the Virginia Regiment

RW47v24i2p4c3, January 5, 1847: From the Boston Courier, Dec. 28, draft of 100 seamen, for the line ship Ohio

RW47v24i2p4c3, January 5, 1847, Army to fall back

RW47v24i2p4c4, January 5, 1847, Army News

RW47v24i2p4c4, January 5, 1847: Later from the Army. Arrival of the Massachusetts – Later from Tampico– Army Movements

RW47v24i3p1c2, January 8, 1847, Honor to the Volunteers

RW47v24i3p1c2, January 8, 1847, Arrival of the Volunteers

RW47v24i3p2c1, January 8, 1847, Massachusetts Volunteers

RW47v24i3p2c2, January 8, 1847, Presentation of a Flag, Augusta Volunteers, Capt. Kenton Harper

RW47v24i3p2c2, January 8, 1847, Reception of the Volunteers from Jefferson County

RW47v24i3p2c2, January 8, 1847, Lieut. Colonel T.B. Randolph, of the Virginia regiment of Volunteers

RW47v24i3p2c3, January 8, 1847, Virginia Volunteers

RW47v24i3p2c2, January 8, 1847, Two of the three field officers of the Virginia Regiment of Volunteers are Whigs

RW47v24i3p4c1, January 8, 1847, Santa Anna’s Return

RW47v24i3p4c3, January 8, 1847, President Polk requests to increase the regular army

RW47v24i3p4c4, January 8, 1847, Public Opinion

RW47v24i3p4c4, January 8, 1847, Portsmouth and Norfolk Volunteers

RW47v24i3p4c4, January 8, 1847, Arrival of Major Early

RW47v24i3p4c4, January 8, 1847, Recall of Gen. Kearney

RW47v24i3p4c4, January 8, 1847, Santa Fe, Prick’s Regiment, sickness prevailed

RW47v24i3p4c4, January 8, 1847, Col. Yell, Lieut. Col. Roane, and Maj. Boland under arrest for disobedience of orders

RW47v24i3p4c6, January 8, 1847: Rumors as to Santa Anna’s movements, causes for desertions, death of Lieut. Desment of the Macon company

RW47v24i3p4c7, January 8, 1847, Mexican Items, 1000 volunteers in Jalapa, hostility toward Americans, American deserters

RW47v24i3p4c7, January 8, 1847, Tampico– Martial Law

RW47v24i3p4c7, January 8, 1847: Tampico– proximity of a large body of Mexicans

RW47v24i4p1c1, January 12, 1847, The Slavery Question

RW47v24i4p1c2, January 12, 1847, Petersburg Volunteers

RW47v24i4p1c2, January 12, 1847, Robert Greenhow presented copies of his History of Oregon and California

RW47v24i4p1c2, January 12, 1847, Lt. James Lawrence Parker, noble conduct in refusing to leave the Somers

RW47v24i4p1c2, January 12, 1847, Capt. Walker, Texas Rangers, procured 1000 Revolving Pistols

RW47v24i4p1c2, January 12, 1847, Important from the Army, Santa Anna advancing

RW47v24i4p1c3, January 12, 1847, Volunteers, Franklin and Bedford counties, Montgomery, Governor declined services of Norfolk company

RW47v24i4p1c3, January 12, 1847, Important from Mexico, Mexican Congress will not think of peace until every hostile foot has cleared Mexican soil

RW47v24i4p1c3, January 12, 1847, Death of Gen. Thomas L. Hamer, of Ohio

RW47v24i4p1c3, January 12, 1847, Murderer of Gen. Leslie Combs’s son dead in Matamoros

RW47v24i4p1c5, January 12, 1847, From the Seat of the War; Mexican troops concentrating at Monterey– Saltillo; police regulations in Tampico

RW47v24i4p1c6, January 12, 1847, Further News from New Mexico. Rumored Defeat of the Dragoons

RW47v24i4p2c1, January 12, 1847, General Taylor assailed by Mr. Fricklin

RW47v24i4p2c1, January 12, 1847, Military Appropriations

RW47v24i4p2c1, January 12, 1847, Saltillo, Santa Anna should attack

RW47v24i4p2c1, January 12, 1847, The Tenth Legion, no volunteers raised in Rockingham County

RW47v24i4p2c2, January 12, 1847, Gen. Charles Sterret Ridgely, the father of deceased Capt. Randolph Ridgely, died at Elk Ridge, Maryland

RW47v24i4p2c2, January 12, 1847, Anti–Slavery movements in the House of Representatives

RW47v24i4p2c2, January 12, 1847, Lt. Thomas P. August, Richmond Rangers, appointed Adjutant of the Virginia regiment of Volunteers

RW47v24i4p2b, January 12, 1847, Letter from Washington, Locofoco press, Santa Anna, bill to create ten additional regiments of a standing army

RW47v24i4p2c2, January 12, 1847, Lieutenant General, bill authorizing post

RW47v24i4p4c3, January 12, 1847, Address of Judge Baldwin, and Reply of Capt. Harper, flag for volunteers of Augusta

RW47v24i4p4c3, January 12, 1847, What does this mean? Secret negotiations before the war

RW47v24i4p4c4, January 12, 1847, Appointments by the President, By and with the advice and consent of the Senate

RW47v24i5p1c1, January 15, 1847, Massachusetts– The War, Cushing resolution for Massachusetts Volunteers

RW47v24i5p1c2, January 15, 1847, The Southern Mail, not received

RW47v24i5p1c2, January 15, 1847, The Norfolk Volunteers

RW47v24i5p1c2, January 15, 1847, North Carolina to field a full regiment of volunteers

RW47v24i5p1c2, January 15, 1847, Washington Union: preparing for assault upon Gen. Taylor

RW47v24i5p1c2, January 15, 1847, The Marshall Guards

RW47v24i5p1c3, January 15, 1847, Pennsylvania Legislature thanks Gen. Taylor

RW47v24i5p1c3, January 15, 1847, The Army, arrival of steamer Edith, advance of Santa Anna

RW47v24i5p2c1, January 15, 1847, To Correspondents, articles declined

RW47v24i5p2c1, January 15, 1847, The Virginia Regiment

RW47v24i5p2c2, January 15, 1847, News from the South

RW47v24i5p2c2, January 15, 1847, Letter to the Editor, Lieut. Thomas S. Garnett is son of H.T. Garnett of Westmoreland

RW47v24i5p2c5, January 15, 1847, Late and Important Intelligence from the Seat of War! Santa Anna’s advance contradicted. Return of Gen’l Taylor toward Victoria. Junction of Forces under Generals Worth and Wool, &c. &c.

RW47v24i5p2c5, January 15, 1847, Further from Mexico, Mexican Congress, citizens of Los Angeles resist, loss of Somers, Santa Anna

RW47v24i5p2c6, January 15, 1847, Latest from Tampico, arrival of steamers and sloop, Mr. Chase appointed collector of the customs at Tampico

RW47v24i5p4c1, January 15, 1847, From the Seat of War, advance of a large Mexican force towards Saltillo

RW47v24i5p4c1, January 15, 1847, Bearer of dispatches from the Army on his way to Washington

RW47v24i5p4c1, January 15, 1847, Generals Scott and Taylor, attitudes in Washington

RW47v24i5p4c2, January 15, 1847, Lieut. [Fayette] Maynard, tribute by city council, shipwreck of Steamer Atlantic

RW47v24i5p4c2, January 15, 1847, Majority of the men comprising the regiment of Virginia Volunteers are Democrats

RW47v24i5p4c3, January 15, 1847, Col. James Gadsden of South Carolina not appointed Brigadier General of the Volunteers

RW47v24i5p4c3, January 15, 1847, Rumors! American forces at Saltillo cut to pieces

RW47v24i5p4c3, January 15, 1847, Massachusetts Regiment of Volunteers complete

RW47v24i5p4c3, January 15, 1847, The Army Bill, ten additional regiments

RW47v24i5p4c5, January 15, 1847, News From Santa Fe

RW47v24i5p4c6, January 15, 1847, Highly Important News!! Advance of Santa Anna upon Saltillo confirmed– Probability of a Battle having been Fought– Despatch of Troops to Saltillo and Monterey– Anticipated Attack upon Camargo and Matamoros

RW47v24i5p4c6, January 15, 1847, The News from Saltillo

RW47v24i5p4c6, January 15, 1847: Later from Mexico. Movements of the Navy– Loss of the U.S. prize schooner Union– Proceedings of the Mexican Congress, &c.

RW47v24i5p4c7, January 15, 1847, From Campeachy, pronunciamiento to maintain neutrality

RW47v24i6p1c1, January 19, 1847, Extension of Area. [Tampico, Annexation and Slavery Issue]

RW47v24i6p1c3, January 19, 1847, Duration of the War

RW47v24i6p1c3, January 19, 1847, Col. Hamtramk, Virginia Regiment of Volunteers, in Petersburg

RW47v24i6p1c3, January 19, 1847, Rumors, Major Walter Gwynn as Brigadier General for Volunteers

RW47v24i6p1c3, January 19, 1847, Revolution in Yucatan

RW47v24i6p1c6, January 19, 1847, From the Gulf Squadron, A Mexican Proclamation! [Chihuahua]

RW47v24i6p1c7, January 19, 1847, Santa Anna advancing in north, Mexican Congress, Santa Anna elected president

RW47v24i6p2c1, January 19, 1847, Mexican Views; Address of General Salas to Congress

RW4724i6p2c1, January 19, 1847: Tenth Legion

RW47v24i6p2c2, January 19, 1847, New York Herald suggest change in miltiary leadership

RW47v24i6p2c2, January 19, 1847, Tenth Legion

RW47v24i6p2c2, January 19, 1847, Caleb Cushing and Massachusetts regiment

RW47v24i6p2c5, January 19, 1847: The Latest and Interesting [Mexican Congress, Veracruz]

RW47v24i6p2c5, January 19, 1847, Revolution in Yucatan, weather in Gulf of Mexico

RW47v24i6p2c6, January 19, 1847, The War– New Plan of Operations– Extraordinary Revelations [Scott to Veracruz]

RW47v24i6p4c1, January 19, 1847, Secret History of the War
Letters by former US consul at Matamoros, September 1845

RW47v24i6p4c2, January 19, 1847, Presentation of a Sword. [Augusta county volunteers]

RW47v24i6p4c2, January 19, 1847, More Volunteers [Abingdon, Locofoco counties]

RW47v24i6p4c3, January 19, 1847, Letter from Washington
US Congress, Santa Anna, Mexican Congress, ten regiments bill, Locofocos

RW47v24i6p4c4, January 19, 1847, Santa Anna

RW47v24i6p4c4, January 19, 1847, Correspondence of the New Orleans Picayune. [Tampico]

RW47v24i7p1c3, January 22, 1847, Opinion, [war of conquest]

RW47v24i7p1c3, January 22, 1847: Mr. Webster's speech in Boston printed in London Times

RW47v24i7p1c3, January 22, 1847, Outline of resolutions Calhoun to submit, opposition to continued war

RW47v24i7p1c3, January 22, 1847, The Virginia Regiment

RW47v24i7p1c3, January 22, 1847, Deserters

RW47v24i7p2c1, January 22, 1847, North Carolina Regiment

RW47v24i7p2c1, January 22, 1847, Rumors [peace talks, Taylor recalled]

RW47v24i7p2c2, January 22, 1847, A Feat by the Mexicans
Schooner Condederatione burned, Tabasquinos prepare for defense

RW47v24i7p2c6, January 22, 1847, Latest from Gen. Taylor.

RW47v24i7p4c1, January 22, 1847, Mississippi Regiment

RW47v24i7p4c1, January 22, 1847, Mexican Affairs. [Gulf Squadron, Yucatan]

RW47v24i7p4c1, January 22, 1847, Death of Private Alexander E. Birchett, Petersburg Volunteers

RW47v24i7p4c1, January 22, 1847, Pennsylvania Volunteers, disorderly in New Orleans

RW47v24i7p4c1, January 22, 1847, Appointments. [Navy, Surgeons]

RW47v24i7p4c2, January 22, 1847, Rumors [Calhoun's peace resolutions]

RW47v24i7p4c2, January 22, 1847, Interesting. [Santa Anna at San Luis Potosí, opposition of clergy, Veracruz

RW47v24i9p1c3, January 29, 1847, Whig press denounced Polk’s order that Taylor march to the Rio Grande

RW47v24i9p1c3, January 29, 1847, Gen. Taylor

RW47v24i9p1c6, January 29, 1847, Later from Mexico
Mexican politics, budget shortages, court martials of Mexican officers, reinforcements, Veracruz

RW47v24i9p2c2, January 29, 1847: Southern Brigade of Volunteers

RW47v24i9p2c2, January 29, 1847, Volunteers from Orange County, North Carolina

RW47v24i9p2c2, January 29, 1847, Barnard and Jewell of New Orleans establish the Sentinel at Tampico

RW47v24i9p2c2, January 29, 1847, Wm. B. Warren, of that place appointed Governor of Coahuila

RW47v24i9p2c6, January 29, 1847, Locofocos in Missouri reject guns in honor of the victories of Palo Alto, Resaca de la Palma and Monterey

RW47v24i9p4c1, January 29, 1847, From the Army [attack on Saltillo, Mexican dispatches captured, Taylor]

RW47v24i9p4c1, January 29, 1847, Departure of Troops, Louisiana and Pennsylvania regiments

RW47v24i9p4c2, January 29, 1847, Mails for Mexico, postage to be paid in advance

RW47v24i9p4c2, January 29, 1847, The Virginia Regiment

RW47v24i9p4c2, January 29, 1847, Late from the Army [Scott at Brazos, battle near Victoria, news from Saltillo]

RW47v24i9p4c4, January 29, 1847, Later from Mexico [Midshipman Rogers still a prisoner, Mexican elections, arms shortage in Mexico]

February

RW47v24i10p1c2, February 2, 1847, Gen. Kearny’s Proclamation.

RW47v24i10p1c5, February 2, 1847, Gen. La Vega on his return to Veracruz

RW47v24i10p1c7, February 2, 1847, Later from the Army. Important from Tampico – Arrival of Col. Kinney a that place– Later news from Genl. Taylor– Engagement of Col. May with the Mexicans– Disposition of the American forces along the line of operations, &c. &c.

RW47v24i10p1c7, February 2, 1847, War Department, General Orders no. 3, forbidding publication of private letters

RW47v24i10p2c2, February 2, 1847, Santa Anna’s Plans

RW47v24i10p2c2, February 2, 1847, Decscripton of Victoria

RW47v24i10p2c2, February 2, 1847, Tenth Legion under a cloud

RW47v24i10p2c2, February 2, 1847, Captain Voorhees restored to former rank

RW47v24i10p2c2, February 2, 1847, Gen. Gaines justifies publishing letter from Gen. Taylor

RW47v24i10p2c2, February 2, 1847: Indiana and Alabama sailed from New York for Brazos Santiago

RW47v24i10p2c2, February 2, 1847, Volunteers for Mexico

RW47v24i10p4c2, February 2, 1847, General Kearney Again, New Mexico declared a territory of US by express authority of President

RW47v24i10p4c2, February 2, 1847, North Carolina Volunteers

RW47v24i10p4c2, February 2, 1847, Gen. Taylor rumored to be recalled

RW47v24i10p4c5, February 2, 1847, General Wool's Division, extract of a letter, Santa Anna on the march

RW47v24i11p1c3, February 5, 1847, The Morals of War.

RW47v24i11p1c2, February 5, 1847, Death of Lieut. Botts

RW47v24i11p1c5, February 5, 1847, From Mexico, from the New Orleans Picayune

RW47v24i11p1c5, February 5, 1847, Appointments by the President

RW47v24i11p1c5, February 5, 1847: Later from Campeachy, from the New Orleans Picayune

RW47v24i11p1c1, February 5, 1847, Santa Anna– The $3,000,000 Bill.

RW47v24i11p2c2, February 5, 1847, Official Despatches

RW47v24i11p2c2, February 5, 1847, General Taylor’s Letters

RW47v24i11p2c4, February 5, 1847, Tom Benton and Tom Moore, Yankee Doodle with verse

RW47v24i11p4c2, February 5, 1847, Proposition for Peace.

RW47v24i11p4c2, February 5, 1847, Petersburg Union Volunteers depart

RW47v24i11p4c2, February 5, 1847, Sufferings of the Mississippi Volunteer

RW47v24i11p4c2, February 5, 1847, Rumor

RW47v24i11p4c5, February 5, 1847, Letters from the Army, The Corporal, correspondence of the New Orleans Bee

RW47v24i12p1c2, February 9, 1847, Mr. Calhoun to define his position in a few days

RW47v24i12p1c2, February 9, 1847, Outrages by volunteers in New Orleans

RW47v24i12p1c2, February 9, 1847, “curses not loud but deep,” are against Mr. Calhoun and Mr. Butler

RW47v24i12p1c4, February 9, 1847, From Tampico.

RW47v24i12p2c1, February 9, 1847, Gen. Waddy Thompson’s Letter– Mr. Berrien’s Speech.

RW47v24i12p2c2, February 9, 1847, Inconsistency of demanding of Mexico two of her provinces attracting attention

RW47v24i12p2c3, February 9, 1847, Bombardment of Guaymas

RW47v24i12p2c4, February 9, 1847, Letter To the Editors of the National Intelligencer

RW47v24i12p2c6, February 9, 1847, From the Army, from the Charleston Mercury

RW47v24i12p4c1, February 9, 1847, The Prospect of Peace

RW47v24i12p4c1, February 9, 1847, What is Democracy?

RW47v24i13p1c1, February 12, 1847, Peace with Mexico.

RW47v24i13p1c3, February 12, 1847, Mr. Calhoun.

RW47v24i13p1c5, February 12, 1847, Army News, From the New Orleans Mercury, Col. Harney

RW47v24i13p1c5, February 12, 1847, Movement of Troops, from the Matamoros American Flag

RW47v24i13p1c6, February 12, 1847, The Corporal, correspondent of the New Orleans Bee
Court martial of Bt. Second Lt. Sturges, evidence given by Col. May

RW47v24i13p1c6, February 12, 1847, The Corporal, march toward Tampico, scarcity of provision for Mexican army at San Luis Potosi

RW47v24i13p2c1, February 12, 1847, The Difficulties of the Mexican War and Prospects of its End, editorial by PACIFICUS

RW47v24i13p2c2, February 12, 1847: Supper for Col. Jno. F. Hamtramck, of the Virginia Volunteers

RW47v24i13p2c2, February 12, 1847, Com. Kearney in Boston

RW47v24i13p2c2, February 12, 1847, Col. Whistler met with a severe accident

RW47v24i13p2c2, February 12, 1847, rumor that Com. Warrington to take command of the Gulf Squadron

RW47v24i13p2c2, February 12, 1847, Letter from Washington, BRUTUS, the Three Million Bill

RW47v24i1p2c3, February 12, 1847, little truth to rumored assassination of Santa Anna

RW47v24i13p2c3, February 12, 1847, Rumor that Polk may take a trip to Mexico

RW47v24i13p2c3, February 12, 1847, Court Martial for the trial of Col. Harney, U.S. Dragoons, for disobedience of orders

RW47v24i13p2c3, February 12, 1847, Gen. Worth is confined to bed

RW47v24i13p2c5, February 12, 1847, Santa Anna president, La Vega now a general, attack on Col. May's rear guard, American forces attacked

RW47v24i13p2c5, February 12, 1847, Report from Anton Lizardo, sale of Mexican church property approved, rumor of Santa Anna's assassination, fortification of passage between Vera Cruz and Mexico, shipwrecked sailors exchanged, Rogers still held

RW47v24i13p4c1, February 12, 1847, From the Seat of War. [Scott, Taylor, rumor of Santa Anna's death]

RW47v24i13p4c1, February 12, 1847, Simmons committed suicide at Vicksburg

RW47v24i13p4c1, February 12, 1847: Three Million Bill

RW47v24i13p4c1, February 12, 1847, The Brigadier General to be either Cadwallader or Gwynn

RW47v24i13p4c1, February 12, 1847, Col. Webb on Army Bill

RW47v24i13p4c1, February 12, 1847, Three Million Bill

RW47v24i13p4c2, February 12, 1847, Gen. Taylor

RW47v24i13p4c2, February 12, 1847, House of Delegates of Virginia, resolutions of thanks to Gen. Taylor

RW47v24i13p4c2, February 12, 1847, From Anton Lizardo

RW47v24i13p4c2, February 12, 1847, Correspondence of the Whig, funereal rites of Col. Watson and Capt. Ridgely, railroad route

RW47v24i13p4c6, February 12, 1847: Arrival of the Steamship McKim– Gen. Worth at the Brazos– Gen. Wool left near Saltillo

RW47v24i13p4c6, February 12, 1847, U.S. steamship Alabama arrived from Brazos Santiago

RW47v24i13p4c6, February 12, 1847, Highly Important! News from Anton Lizardo

RW47v24i14p1c1, February 16, 1847, Mr. McPherson’s Resolution.

RW47v24i14p1c2, February 16, 1847, Mr. Calhoun read out!

RW47v24i14p1c2, February 16, 1847:Another Commissioner dispatched to Com. Conner

RW47v24i14p1c2, February 16, 1847, General Taylor.

RW47v24i14p1c3, February 16, 1847, Letter from Washington, Correspondence of the Whig, BRUTUS

RW47v24i14p1c6, February 16, 1847, To the Editor of the Washington Union, from Victoria, Tamaulipas, Mexico, Jefferson Davis

RW47v24i14p1c6, February 16, 1847, Memoranda of the transactions in conexion with the capitulation of Monterey, capital of Nueva Leon, Mexico.

RW47v24i14p1c7, February 16, 1847, Mexican Privateers at Sea

RW47v24i14p1c7, February 16, 1847: To the Editors of the Baltimore American

RW47v24i14p2c1, February 16, 1847, Senator Wallace criticized Gen’l Taylor’s military character

RW47v24i14p2c1, February 16, 1847, “the McPherson resolutions,” on the Mexican War

RW47v24i14p2c2, February 16, 1847: More Money and Troops asked for– Duty on Tea and Coffee Again Urged.

RW47v24i14p2c3, February 16, 1847, Gen. Taylor’s Letter.

RW47v24i14p2c3, February 16, 1847, Santa Anna’s letter accepting the Provisional Presidency of Mexico

RW47v24i14p2c5, February 16, 1847, Awful Predicament of Poor old “Rough and Ready!”

RW47v24i14p2c7, February 16, 1847, Death of Volunteer.

RW47v24i14p4c1, February 16, 1847, Arrival of Governor Smith at Old Point to present Virginia regiment's flag

RW47v24i14p4c2, February 16, 1847, Sword was presented to Capt. O.E. Edwards

RW47v24i15p1c2, February 19, 1847, Gen. Wallace's criticism of Taylor

RW47v24i15p1c2, February 19, 1847, The Wilmot Proviso.

RW47v24i15p1c2, February 19, 1847: Ten Regiment Act

RW47v24i15p1c2, February 19, 1847, Virginia Regiment of Volunteers is full

RW47v24i15p1c3, February 19, 1847, Letter from Washington, Correspondence of the Whig, BRUTUS.

RW47v24i15p1c4, February 19, 1847: Officers for the ten new regiments are fast being created

RW47v24i15p1c4 February 19, 1847, Americans driven back by Californians at San Pedro

RW47v24i15p2c7, February 19, 1847, Polk selected captains under Ten Regiment Act

RW47v24i15p2c7, February 19, 1847, Mexican Privateers.

RW47v24i15p4c2, February 19, 1847, New Hampshire.– Whig Cause advancing.

RW47v24i15p4c2, February 19, 1847, Swords ordered by the City Council for officers

RW47v24i15p4c2, February 19, 1847, “McPherson resolutions” amendment

RW47v24i15p4c2, February 19, 1847, The Wilmot Proviso.

RW47v24i15p4c2, February 19, 1847, Mr. Webster’s Views.

RW47v24i15p4c2, February 19, 1847, Latest from Tampico.

RW47v24i15p4c2, February 19, 1847, Lieut. General Benton, letter to the Whig, A COUNTRYMAN.

RW47v24i15p4c2, February 19, 1847, From Santa Fe

RW47v24i16p1c1, February 22, 1847, A Three Million Dollar Bill

RW47v24i16p1c1, February 22, 1847, Senator Moore's speech

RW47v24i16p1c2, February 22, 1847, Lieutenant General Benton.

RW47v24i16p1c2, February 22, 1847, From the Volunteers.

RW47v24i16p1c2, February 22, 1847, Ten Regiment Act

RW47v24i16p1c5, February 22, 1847, President Santa Anna

RW47v24i16p2c3, February 22, 1847, Mr. Calhoun

RW47v24i16p2c6, February 22, 1847, Mr. Polk's annual message

RW47v24i16p2c7, February 22, 1847: Interesting from Tampico and the Army

RW47v24i16p3c1, February 22, 1847, From Yucatan

RW47v24i16p3c1, February 22, 1847: Very Interesting from Mexico– Latest

RW47v24i16p4c2, February 22, 1847, From Havana– Latest Mexican News

RW47v24i16p4c2, February 22, 1847, Ten Regiment Act

RW47v24i16p4c3, February 22, 1847, Senator Moore's remarks

March

RW47v24i18p1c1, March 2, 1847, ARMY NEWS
Barbarities of the Mexicans

RW47v24i18p1c1, March 2, 1847, Correspondence of the Charleston Mercury
MOUTH OF THE RIO GRANDE, Feb 4th. Gen. Worth's troops to the Isle of Lobos

RW47v24i18p1c2, March 2, 1847, THE LIBERTY OF THE PRESS
Over–reaction of all parties involved in the expulsion of the editor of the Union from the Senate. Includes correspondence.

RW47v24i18p1c3, March 2, 1847, LETTERS FROM WASHINGTON
Correspondence of the Whig, Events in the Senate concerning the Three Million Bill. Signed, BRUTUS.

RW47v24i18p1c3, March 2, 1847, Signed BRUTUS
Upset his letters have not been received in time for publication. Tea and coffee tax struck out.

RW47v24i18p1c4, March 2, 1847, NAVAL
Sailing orders for a sloop to the Gulf of Mexico

RW47v24i18p1c4, March 2, 1847, AN IMPORTANT "SIGN"
Senate yesterday authorized the president to renew diplomatic relations with Mexico at anytime.

RW47v24i18p1c4, March 2, 1847, GENERAL TAYLOR
Extract of a letter from a soldier ordered to leave Gen. Taylor and go with Gen. Scott

RW47v24i18p1c6, March 2, 1847, GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF VIRGINIA
HOUSE OF DELEGATES. Mr. Scott presented bills.

RW47v24i18p1c6, March 2, 1847, For the Whig, THE GOVERNMENT EDITOR vs. THE SENATE. Parturiunt montes.
Response to the "Republican" press concerning Calhoun and expulsion of the editor of the union from the Senate.

RW47v24i18p2c1, March 2, 1847, THE "LITTLE TARIFF BILL".
Expense of the war.

RW47v24i18p2c1, March 2, 1847, COST OF THE WAR
Reports on the running total cost, how will the Mexican 'indemnity' cover it?

RW47v24i18p2c2, March 2, 1847, THE LIEUTENANT GENERALSHIP
Idea of appointing one general to command Gen. Taylor and Gen. Scott

RW47v24i18p2c2, March 2, 1847, LETTER FROM WASHINGTON
Correspondence of the Whig, events in the Senate concerning striking out the tax on tea and coffee. Signed BRUTUS

RW47v24i18p2c3, March 2, 1847, APPOINTMENTS BY THE PRESIDENT AND SENATE
List of newly formed officers.

RW47v24i18p2c3, March 2, 1847, To Colonel Goodson, of the House of Delegates,
Supports Gov. Smith.

RW47v24i18p2c4, March 2, 1847, LEGISLATURE OF VIRGINIA
HOUSE OF DELEGATES, Feb. 27th Reports of Committees

RW47v24i18p2c5, March 2, 1847, LATER FROM TAMPICO
From the N.O. Picayune, Louisiana Volunteers from the Ondiaka are safe, health of the troops.

RW47v24i18p2c5, March 2, 1847, MEXICAN AFFAIRS
Revolution in Tabasco put down, Mexican congress declared 1824 constitution still valid.

RW47v24i18p2c5, March 2, 1847, LATER FROM TEXAS
Man seized for violation of revenue laws, Indians tolerably quiet

RW47v24i18p2c5, March 2, 1847, STILL LATER FROM THE BRAZOS AND VERA CRUZ.
All the troops in motion, Gen. Scott still at Brazos.

RW47v24i18p2c5, March 2, 1847, LATER FROM VERA CRUZ
Gen. Valencia relieved of his command

RW47v24i18p2c6, March 2, 1847, Correspondence of the Journal of Commerce
Steamer Polk will go to Vera Cruz in time for the end of the battle and will probably bring back news of victory.

RW47v24i18p4c1, March 2, 1847, ORIGIN OF THE WAR
Refutes congressional expression that the war is popular.

RW47v24i18p4c2, March 2, 1847, Even Mr. Benton censored Mr. Polk in congress

RW47v24i18p4c2, March 2, 1847, No doubt an attack will be made on Vera Cruz shortly

RW47v24i18p4c2, March 2, 1847, Letter very angry at the remarks of Gov. Marcy on the war. Signed FIAT JUSTITIA.

RW47v24i18p4c4, March 2, 1847, To the Editors of the Whig
Congrats to the Senate for expressing thanks to Gen. Taylor signed. J.R.C

RW47v24i18p4c24 March 2, 1847, Proceeding of the West Point Dialectic Society
Regret the Loss of Senator Botts

RW47v24i18p4c5, March 2, 1847, From the New Orleans Picayune, MEXICAN AFFAIRS
Cannot find any evidence in the Mexican papers that the Mexican congress is interested in Peace.

RW47v24i19p1c1, March 5, 1847, Mr. Calhoun
Administration determined in prosecution of the war on that gentleman.

RW47v24i19p1c1, March 5, 1847, Mr. Corwin of Ohio not going for the presidency

RW47v24i19p1c1, March 5, 1847, Sarcastic body of the Legislature of Virginia

RW47v24i19p1c2, March 5, 1847, CONDITION OF MEXICO
Growing dissention in that distracted country.

RW47v24i19p1c2, March 5, 1847, New York Sun declares Senor Rejon re–appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs.

RW47v24i19p1c2, March 5, 1847, LETTER FROM WASHINGTON
Correspondence of the Whig, events in the Senate regarding the Lieut. Gen. Scheme, signed BRUTUS

RW47v24i19p1c3, March 5, 1847, GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF VIRGINIA
Senate, House of Delegates, March 2nd

RW47v24i19p1c4, March 5, 1847, Mr. BENTON'S SPEECH
Concluded. Copy of Mr. Benton's Speech.

RW47v24i19p1c6, March 5, 1847, For the Whig,
Soldiers at Old Point about to depart for Tampico

RW47v24i19p2c1, March 5, 1847, New from the Army.
Gen. Scott on his way to Vera Cruz, Mexican forces heading to Saltillo

RW47v24i19p2c1, March 5, 1847, The Lieutenant Generalship
Opposition in the senate of the appointment of one of the Maj. Generals commander–in–chief.

RW47v24i19p2c2, March 5, 1847, LETTER FROM WASHINGTON
Correspondence of the Whig, events in the Senate concerning the Three Million Bill, signed BRUTUS.

RW47v24i19p2c3, March 5, 1847, Manufacture of Opinion.
Editors of the Union have published many letters from its own party against the expulsion from the Senate.

RW47v24i19p2c4, March 5, 1847, GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF VIRGINIA
Senate, House of Delegates, March 4th.

RW47v24i19p2c4, March 5, 1847, To Colonel Goodson, of the House of Delegates
Sarcastic support of the war.

RW47v24i19p2c4, March 5, 1847, Loss of the U.S. Propeller Ocean.
All hands saved, vessel a total loss.

RW47v24i19p2c5, March 5, 1847, From the N.O. Picayune, The Latest from the Brazos.
Santa Anna's address to the troops, March toward Saltillo. Troop movements.

RW47v24i19p2c6, March 5, 1847, From the New Orleans Picayune. Further from the Brazos.
Gen. Taylor prepares for attack on Saltillo, Mexican losses at El Paso.

RW47v24i19p4c1, March 5, 1847, Mr. Benton's Speech
Continued.

RW47v24i19p4c2, March 5, 1847, LETTER FROM WASHINGTON
Correspondence of the Whig, Events in the Senate concerning appropriations bills, signed BRUTUS

RW47v24i19p4c3, March 5, 1847, Three million bill passed without the Wilmot Proviso

RW47v24i19p4c3, March 5, 1847, GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF VIRGINIA
House of Delegates, March 1

RW47v24i19p4c5, March 5, 1847, SPEECH OF MR.BENTON
In reply to Mr. Calhoun on the Three Million Bill

RW47v24i19p4c7, March 5, 1847, A Visit to San Juan de Ullos
Castle at Vera Cruz can be shelled.

RW47v24i19p4c7, March 5, 1847, Late from Santa Fe
Capt. Cook arranging for capture of troops

RW47v24i20p1c1, March 9, 1847, Calhoun's Reply to Benton.
Summary of Mr. Calhoun's speech.

RW47v24i20p12, March 9, 1847, Locofoco Meeting in Powhatan.
Resolutions to select a democratic candidate even though one has already been selected.

RW47v24i20p1c1, March 9, 1847, Volunteers refusing to serve under generals selected by the governor of North Carolina.

RW47v24i20p1c2, March 9, 1847, Appointments.
Officers appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate.

RW47v24i20p1c2, March 9, 1847, Brig. Gen. Worth not appointed full Maj. Gen.

RW47v24i20p1c4, March 9, 1847, MR. CALHOUN'S REPLY TO MR. BENTON,
On the three million Bill

RW47v24i20p2c1, March 9, 1847, From the Seat of War.
Gen. Scott en route to Vera Cruz but the whole of his force not yet embarked.

RW47v24i20p2c1, March 9, 1847, General Orders.
Organization of staff, punishment of crimes committed against the people of Mexico

RW47v24i20p2c1, March 9, 1847, The new Generals
Remarks on an article in the N.Y. Courier by Col. Webb who had hoped of getting an appointment and didn't.

RW47v24i20p2c1, March 9, 1847, Company of Volunteers raised too late to join the Virginia regiments will become part of the regular force.

RW47v24i20p2c1, March 9, 1847, Baltimore American reports Col. Benton may not accept the appointment.

RW47v24i20p2c2, March 9, 1847, Gen. Benton will leave Washington; will not supersede Scott and Taylor.

RW47v24i20p2c3, March 9, 1847, GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF VIRGINIA
Senate, House of Delegates, March 8th

RW47v24i20p2c3, March 9, 1847, To Colonel Goodson, of the House of Delegates.
Col. McPherson is the man for a crisis.

RW47v24i20p2c5, March 9, 1847, Ratification Meeting in Fredericksburg.
Enthusiastic Whig Meeting, Resolutions passed approving course in the senate of sending supplies to Mexico.

RW47v24i20p2c6, March 9, 1847, Late and Important from Tampico. From the N.O. Bulletin
Two letters report the arrival of Gen. Scott.

RW47v24i20p2c6, March 9, 1847, From the Brazos.
Gen. Worth would leave in a few days from Tampico, Capture of Americans by Gen. Minon. STILL LATER, Reports of the number of Santa Anna's troops

RW47v24i20p2c6, March 9, 1847, Maj. John M. Allen died suddenly at Galveston.

RW47v24i20p2c6, March 9, 1847, Matamoros Flag reports Mexican criminals broke out of the prison, shots fired, troops mustered for battle. Now confident prepared in an emergency.

RW47v24i20p2c6, March 9, 1847, Capt. Morris died with the Regiment of Illinois Volunteers

RW47v24i20p2c6, March 9, 1847, To the Editors of the Charleston Courier
NEW ORLEANS Feb.28th Prisoner escaped

RW47v24i20p2c6, March 9, 1847, NAVAL
Ships bound for Gulf of Mexico

RW47v24i20p2c7, March 9, 1847, LATER FROM NEW MEXICO
From the St. Louis Republicans, extra
Battle at El Paso between Col. Doniphan and Mexicans.

RW47v24i20p4c1, March 9, 1847, Mr. Ingersoll's Report.
Report from the Committee of Foreign relations, shows the true boundary of Texas is the Rio Grande

RW47v24i20p4c2, March 9, 1847, LETTER FROM WASHINGTON
Correspondence of the Whig, Signed BRUTUS, Events in the Senate concerning expulsion of the editor of the Union.

RW47v24i20p4c3, March 9, 1847, Mexican Views
New York Journal of Commerce reports a letter from Mexico describing a war of conquest.

RW47v24i20p4c3, March 9, 1847, Letter from Navy, off Anton Lizardo
Describing a man sent out as a spy, pretending to be French.

RW47v24i20p4c3, March 9, 1847, Senators voted for the Three Million Bill because they had confidence in the president.

RW47v24i20p4c3, March 9, 1847, Appointment by the president
Portion of the list.

RW47v24i20p4c4, March 9, 1847, GENEAL ASSEMBLY OF VIRGINIA
Senate, House of Delegates, March 5th

RW47v24i21p1c1, March 12, 1847, Mr. Calhoun
Very well received by the people of Charleston, No matter how assailed by the rest of the Union South Carolina always supports him.

RW47v24i21p1c2, March 12, 1847, LETTER FROM WASHINGTONCorrespondence of the Whig, signed, BRUTUS, Events in the Senate concerning, Col. Benton may not accept his appointment.

RW47v24i21p1c2, March 12, 1847, FROM THE ARMY
Rumor Circulating of a battle between Gen. Taylor and Santa Anna

RW47v24i21p1c2, March 12, 1847, Gen. Butler's Views
Recently arrived because of a wound, reports of evacuation of Vera Cruz ordered by Santa Anna.

RW47v24i21p1c3, March 12, 1847, GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF VIRGINIA
Senate, House of Delegates, March 10th

RW47v24i21p1c3, March 12, 1847, General Benton Declines
General Benton Declines appointment

RW47v24i21p2c1, March 12, 1847, The Rumored Battle
Between Gen. Taylor and Santa Anna at Saltillo. Gen. Taylor Fallen back. Force almost entirely of Volunteers

RW47v24i21p2c2, March 12, 1847, Rumors that General Benton declines appointment

RW47v24i21p2c2, March 12, 1847, Gen. Butler hoping return to Kentucky will help his wound.

RW47v24i21p2c3, March 12, 1847, GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF VIRGINIA
Senate, Message from the house read, House of Delegates, March 11th

RW47v24i21p2c4, March 12, 1847, For the Whig, Mr. Seddon
Reports that Mr. Seddon did not vote on the resolution censuring Gen. Taylor for the terms of capitulation at Monterey. Signed, Hampden

RW47v24i21p2c3, March 12, 1847, From the N.O. Picayune
Capture of Majors Gaines and Borland. Detailed account of their capture, signed, John J. Hardin. Col.

RW47v24i21p4c1, March 12, 1847, Ch. J. Ingersoll
Nominated to be Ambassador to France. Commentary on his worthiness.

RW47v24i21p4c2, March 12, 1847, LETTER FROM WASHINGTON
Correspondence of the Whig, VALEDICTORY, signed, BRUTUS. Concerns congress, which has just concluded will be remembered for its evil.

RW47v24i21p4c3, March 12, 1847, General Benton and the Cabinet
From the Alexandria Gazette on rumors of Gen. Benton's possible refusal of appointment

RW47v24i21p4c4, March 12, 1847, GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF VIRGINIA
Senate, House of Delegates, March 8th

RW47v24i21p4c5, March 12, 1847, The Virginia Volunteers
Troops arrived at Brazos Santiago

RW47v24i21p4c5, March 12, 1847, Editorial Correspondence of the Picayune
Three letters from the Picayune on rumors of a battle between Taylor and Santa Anna

RW47v24i21p4c5, March 12, 1847, LATER FROM CAPEACHY.
From the Picayune, Loss of the Steamer Tweed, sixty lives lost.

RW47v24i21p4c6, March 12, 1847, Appointments by the President
Complete list of many appointments to the military with the consent of the Senate.

RW47v24i21p4c1, March 12, 1847, Report of a Battle! 
Correspondence of the Delta, Great losses on both sides, long battle. Gen. Arista wounded.

RW47v24i22p1c1, March 16, 1847, Senator Benton
Arrogance of his letter to the President includes correspondence of the Virginian.

RW47v24i22p1c2, March 16, 1847, Mr. Stauard's Speech
Effective speech will be printed on the McPherson resolutions relative to the Mexican War.

RW47v24i22p1c2, March 16, 1847, GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF VIRGINIA
Senate, House of Delegates. March 13th

RW47v24i22p1c3, March 16, 1847, SUBSTANCE OF THE REMARKS OF Mr. Stanard
On the McPherson resolutions

RW47v24i22p1c6, March 16, 1847, For the Whig, The Humbug
Comments on the Democratic press's reaction to the expulsion of the editor of the union from the senate. Signed, Charles City

RW47v24i22p1c6, March 16, 1847, Additional Military Appointments.

RW47v24i22p2c1, March 16, 1847, Mr. Calhoun's Home reception
South Carolina Supports him.

RW47v24i22p2c3, March 16, 1847, GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF VIRGINIA
Senate, House of Delegates, March 15th

RW47v24i22p2c5, March 16, 1847, For the Whig, To the General Assembly of Virginia
Signed, VIRGINIUS. Assembly should appropriate more to Capt. Carrington's volunteers.

RW47v24i22p4c1, March 16, 1847, The Dilemma
Country in eminent danger, will she be rewarded by indemnity from Mexico?

RW47v24i22p4c1, March 16, 1847, Peace?
Pledge was that if the Three Million bill was passed without the Wilmot proviso then we should have a speedy peace.

RW47v24i22p4c1, March 16, 1847, Mr. Benton's arrogance

RW47v24i22p4c1, March 16, 1847, Gen. Worth may inherit Col. Benton's position

RW47v24i22p4c3, March 16, 1847, GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF VIRGINIA
Senate, House of Delegates, March 12th

RW47v24i22p4c5, March 16, 1847, Important Correspondence
From the National Intelligencer, March 12th Includes letter of Mr. Benton to the President and the President's reply

RW47v24i22p4c5, March 16, 1847, List of deaths among Volunteers at Old Point
From disease not of a local character, 14 names.

RW47v24i23p1c1, March 19, 1847, Mr. Pendlton's Speech
Summary of the speech that detailed outstanding claims against Mexico.

RW47v24i23p1c2, March 19, 1847, Col. Jacks Hays reached New Orleans from Galveston

RW47v24i23p1c3, March 19, 1847, From the Seat of War
Mr. Slidell obnoxious to the Mexicans, speedy peace not so speedy.

RW47v24i23p1c4, March 19, 1847, Fincastle Valley Whig, preference for Gen. Taylor as the next president.

RW47v24i23p1c4, March 19, 1847, Late from Tampico
Signed, L.B. Swift. Santa Anna reports army in desperate condition, beautiful women; do not have seats in their churches.

RW47v24i23p1c4, March 19, 1847, Tribute of Respect
To the memory of Maj. Charles H. Hyde

RW47v24i23p1c5, March 19, 1847, GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF VIRGINIA
Senate, House of Representatives, March 16th–17th

RW47v24i23p2c1, March 19, 1847, Mr. Polk's Ambassador
N.O. correspondent reports Mexicans particularly dislike their ambassador.

RW47v24i23p2c1, March 19, 1847, N.O. Tropic reports ship tried to run blockade but was intercepted.

RW47v24i23p2c4, March 19, 1847, GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF VIRGINIA
Senate, March 18th. House of Representatives, March 17th.

RW47v24i23p2c5, March 19, 1847, Discussion in King & Queen
To the Editors of the Whi

April

RW47v24i27p1c4, April 2, 1847, Eight Days Later from Saltillo!
More details of the battle Buena Vista; arrival of Dr. Turner; despatches from Col. Curtis

RW47v24i27p1c1, April 2, 1847, Affairs in Mexico
Report on the condition of Santa Anna's army; predictions of the battle of Vera Cruz; information on the mode of warfare; report on the affairs of the peace process

RW47v24i27p2c3, April 2, 1847, Investment of Vera Cruz!
Landing of troops near Vera Cruz; capture of Mexican outworks; skirmishing with the enemy; Captain Alburtis killed; Lieut. Colonel Dickenson wounded; position of the army; continued canonade

RW47v24i27p2c3, April 2, 1847, Memorandum furnished by Captain Powers
Weather report; information on forces activities–building trenches; Us army gained possession of all the fortifications of the enemy; water to the city cut–off

RW47v24i27p2c3, April 2, 1847, Sepcial correspondence of the Picayune
Weather report; information on troop arrival–those of Gen. Worth, Gen. Twiggs; Gen. Scott entering the harbor

RW47v24i27p2c3, April, 2 1847: Anton Lizardo
Information on vessel arrival; report of battle between Gen. Taylor and Santa Anna; information on troop movement around Vera Cruz; ships fired upon

RW47v24i27p2c3, April 2, 1847, Sacrificios, near Vera Cruz
Alabama leaving for New Orleans; information on troop movement and equipment movement–landing on Vera Cruz; battle with the enemy and Mexican retreat; report of more skirmishes

RW47v24i27p2c4, April 2, 1847, Editorial Correspondence of the Picayune
Information on the battle at Vera Cruz and death of Captain Alburtis

RW47v24i27p2c4, April 2, 1847, Camp near Vera Cruz
More details of the battle at Vera Cruz–information on troop movement, hostilities, land of troops

RW47v24i27p2c4, April 2, 1847, U.S. Sloop of War Albany
Rumor that Scott is not going to accept the surrender of the city; information on troop and ship movement; story being told with relation to the last revolution, which has been termed pronunciamento de los mugenes

RW47v24i27p2c4, April 2, 1847, US Sloop of War Albany
Weather report; enemy opening fire; US forces not striking back

RW47v24i27p2c4, April 2, 1847, From the City of Mexico
Letters about Mexican affairs have arrived; letters that give accounts of California to the 18th of January–US now has upper California; Santa Anna's report of the battle of Buena Vista

RW47v24i27p2c5, April 2, 1847, Later from the Brazos
Arrival of new vessels; rumors of action between Col. Curtis and Gen. Urrea; other volunteers arriving; praises for army already present; report of movement of Santa Anna

RW47v24i27p2c1, April 2, 1847, The Great Victory!
Report of the victory at Buena Vista; praises of the army and Taylor

RW47v24i27p5c3, April 2, 1847, Substances of the Remarks of Mr. Lee of Hardy
Remarks made in response to the debate which arose in the house of delegates on the resolution of Messers, Leake and McPherson–resolution to thank the president for his performance in conducting the war against Mexico–speech seems to portray that Mr. Lee does not think highly of the president's performance.

RW47v24i27p5c6, April 2, 1847, Glorious New from the Army
Santa Anna's army defeated by General Taylor; Loss of Cols.Yell, McKee and Hardin, Henry Clay Jr. etc; defeated handed to the Mexicans at Buena Vista–details given

RW47v24i27p5c6, April 2, 1847, Additional Particulars
List of American officers killed and wounded; Gen. Taylor maintains his position; capture of US wagons by the Mexicans; escape of a lady; safe arrival of Col. Morgan at Monterey

RW47v24i27p5c7, April 2, 1847, Further from Tampico and the Brazos
Article printed in a Mexican paper giving praises to Santa Anna; commissioners arrived from Taylor demanding the surrender of Santa Anna; letter expressing the sad condition of Mexican troops

RW47v24i27p2c1, April 2, 1847
Comments about the prospects of with a win at Vera Cruz that Mexico will surrender

RW47v24i27p2c2, April 2, 1847, For the War
Report that Captain John Eager Howard's and his company of volunteers have left for the war by train

RW47v24i27p2c2, April 2, 1847, Excitement in Houston Texas
Debate over who owned the city–Pierpont or Allen–and who then had the right to sell it

RW47v24i27p2c2, April 2, 1847
National salute was fired yesterday by the Fayette Artillery in honor of the great victory of Taylor at Buena Vista

RW47v24i27p2c2, April 2, 1847
Col. Alphonse Duperu arrived last night with other men from Tampico– Duperu has received a commission as captain; Col. Morgan and his men arrived safe in Monterey

RW47v24i27p2c1, April 2, 1847, News from Mexico
Scott has succeeded in the landing at Anton Lizardo and making preparations for an assault on the city; not surprised if heard that the city and castle were to fall within two or three days

RW47v24i27p2c2, April 2, 1847, Expenses of the War
100 million dollars will be needed for the war if it continued on top of the other expenses of the war

RW47v24i27p2c2, April 2, 1847, A Prediction Verified
Letter from Monterey written by a Kentucky Volunteer to the editor of the Louisville Courier–shows the confidence with which a victory was anticipated as well ad the opinion in the Army of the injustice with which Taylor has been treated by the Administration

RW47v24i27p1c2, April 2, 1847, Virginia Volunteers
Letter from Lieut. Portefield of the Virginia Regiment–gives information about Taylor who has driven back Santa Anna; first battalion of Virginia Volunteers has reached the Camargo

RW47v24i27p1c2, April 2, 1847
Statement in the New York Herald that our naval armament in the Gulf is the largest ever put forth by the US; lists off what the navy consists of

RW47v24i27p1c3, April 2, 1847, The Insurrection in New Mexico
Letter from Fort Bent about the insurrection in Taos; might be another popular outbreak which extends throughout all of New Mexico; can't believe the advancement the Mexicans have been able to make in Santa Fe but if got help from the Indians might be able to do serious damage

RW47v24i28p2c1, April 6, 1847, Rumored Capture of Vera Cruz––the city and the castle!
Information brought that Scott had succeeded in taking Vera Cruz and the castle of San Juan; numerical loss of Americans; Scott has not been able to land his heavy ordnance; Scott sent word to the citizens to leave town; most foreign residents have left Vera Cruz; many citizens are in favor of capitulation which has been opposed by the military

RW47v24i28p2c1, April 6, 1847, A Coincidence
The day the battle of Buena Vista began the bill authorizing Mr. Polk to appoint Mr. Benton to the chief command was before the Senate; Taylor has been decided by the people to be placed as president of the US

RW47v24i28p2c1, April 6, 1847, Narrow Escape
Assistant Adjutant Bliss mentions that Taylor received two balls during the battle at Buena Vista

RW47v24i28p2c1, April 6, 1847
Union published a number of extracts from Mexican papers, which show that civil war and anarchy are raging within the capital and the country is without a government

RW47v24i28p1c1, April 6, 1847, Substance of Remarks of Mr. Stanard
Opinions of Mr. Stanard on the resolutions relative to the War in Mexico–speech quoted in full

RW47v24i29p2c3, April 9, 1847, General Taylor's Despatches
Quote from the Charleston Mercury about Taylor's despatches–simple, reserved

RW47v24i29p1c1, April 9, 1847, The New Mexican Tariff
Comments on the adoption of the Mexican tariff

RW47v24i29p1c2, April 9, 1847, More Incidents
Report from Buena Vista about General Taylor–point of article is to show how Taylor inspires his men

RW47v24i29p1c2, April 9, 1847, Meeting in New Orleans
People gathered at the Commercial Exchange in New Orleans to celebrate the victory at Buena Vista; lists off resolutions that were adopted by the people

RW47v24i29p2c4, April 9, 1847:Aristides and Mr. Newton
Mr. Newton given the honor of writing the annexation of Texas

RW47v24i29p2c5, April 9, 1847, To the Whigs of the Metropolitan Congressional District
Comments on the President's calculations of war

RW47v24i29p2c5, April 9, 1847
Comments on General Taylor–giving praise, condemning the misrepresentation of him that has been printed in other papers

RW47v24i29p1c4, April 9, 1847, To the Whigs of the Metropolitan Congressional District
Response to the President's comment that the US was going to conquer peace; information on the land that US holds in their possession–hard to maintain order in those lands

RW47v24i29p1c5, April 9, 1847, From Our Army at Vera Cruz
Two despatches from Vera Cruz by Scott–gives information on troop actions, supplies, continued firing from the enemy, giving safe papers to the consuls of France and Spain within the city

RW47v24i29p1c5, April 9, 1847:Later from Vera Cruz
Information on the loss or horses, placement of vessels, loss of men–drowning

RW47v24i29p1c5, April 9, 1847, Editorial Correspondence of the Picayune
Mexican messenger shot lost night–escaped but lost his bag–found documents dealing with Governor of Jalapa asking for men and supplies; report on hostilities

RW47v24i29p1c5, April 9, 1847, Camp Before Vera Cruz
Report on Gen. Quitman's volunteers–what they are doing; Col. Harney arrived with his dragoons; several vessels leaving; reports of skirmishing with the enemy

RW47v24i29p1c6, April 9, 1847, Official Correspondence of the Picayune
Report on loss of horses by Cap. Ker and Thorton and Col. Duncan–all lost due to weather that ships encountered; information on the victory of Taylor over Santa Anna

RW47v24i29p1c6, April 9, 1847, Latest from Vera Cruz
Arrival of the Mississippi with Com. Perry; probable opening of US fire on Vera Cruz; continued revolution in Mexico City

RW47v24i29p1c6, April 9, 1847, New from the Army in New Mexico
Another great victory in New Mexico by American forces who overwhelmed and defeated 2,000 Mexicans in Santa Fe; details of the battle including men there; news of assassination of Gov. Bent

RW47v24i30p4c4, April 13, 1847:From the Camp
Taylor's orders from the field of battle to his division that has been victorious over the Mexican forces at Buena Vista

RW47v24i29p2c3, April 9, 1847
Letter from New Orleans to the Charleston Courier about Taylor and how much everyone now seems to like him

RW47v24i29p2c3, April 9, 1847, Col. Cushing
Report of a night of entertainment for Col. Cushing; quotes from toasts giving compliments to Taylor

RW47v24i29p4c5,April 9, 1847, A Noble Recruit
Report on barn Van Winckler and his enlistment and despatch to Texas

RW47v24i30p4c4, Aril 13, 1847, Battle of Buena Vista
Letter written by Lieutenant Colonel Mansfield to a brother officer–gives description of the battles that took place on the 22nd, 23rd of February

RW47v24i30p4c4, April 13, 1847, A Party of Mr. Polk's Tactics
Report on the number of deserters, who happen to tend to be foreigners–Irish and German

RW47v24i30p4c4, April 13, 1847, The New Project for Bombarding St. Juan d'Ulloa
Appointment of Major General Berton by the President for the purpose of blowing up the castle

RW47v24i30p4c5, April 13, 1847, Gen. Taylor's Family
Information on Gen. Taylor's family–who he is related to and what they did

RW47v24i30p4c5, April 13, 1847, Horrors of War
Letter to a St. Louis Republican about the violence taken by some volunteers against Mexicans

RW47v24i30p4c1, April 13, 1847, A Noble Tribute
Tribute by the editor of the Augusta Constitutionalist to those who died in Buena Vista

RW47v24i30p4c2, April 13, 1847
Rough and Ready clubs forming in Philadelphia

RW47v24i30p4c2, April 13, 1847
Report from the Lexington Observer about the deaths from the Battle of Buena Vista which efffected those in Lexington Kentucky

RW47v24i30p3c1, April 13, 1847
Information on troop movement using steamers and trains

RW47v24i30p3c1, April 13, 1847, From Santa Fe––Highly Important Particulars
Report on the massacre at Taos–information on how and when it happened and US force response to it

RW47v24i30p2c1, April 13, 1847, War News!
Report on actions of Gen. Scott, position of Santa Anna; list of ammunitions used during the bombardment of Vera Cruz

RW47v24i30p2c1, April 13, 1847
Leake in an electioneering speech gave praise to Taylor; question of Leake's stance on the President

RW47v24i30p2c1, April 13, 1847:The Wilmot Proviso
Response to an article in the Enquirer dealing with Mr. Leake's pledge to not support a candidate who does not favor the Wilmot Provision; comments on the Wilmot Proviso

RW47v24i30p2c1, April 13, 1847
Leake gave praise to Calhoun for his course while Secretary of State dealing with the annexation question

RW47v24i30p2c2, April 13, 1847
Leake defends the President for sending Santa Anna back to Mexico–comments on this stance

RW47v24i30p1c4, April 13, 1847, "Aid and Comfort"
Comments about a speech made by Governor Ramon Adame after the Battle of Buena Vista where the Governor says that Santa Anna was given by God to fight for Mexico.

RW47v24i30p1c4, April 13, 1847, Requisition for Troops
Probable movement of Gen. Taylor and information on exchange of prisoners

RW47v24i30p1c4, April 13, 1847, Claims against Texas and the United States
Report on claims by US citizens arising from the annexation of Texas

RW47v24i30p1c4, April 13, 1847
Article on the report of the Committee on the Judiciary to which was given the case of the memorial of Leslie Combs "praying for the payment by the U. States of certain securities issued by the late Republic of Texas"

RW47v24i30p1c5, April 13, 1847, Later from the Brazos
Letters from Santa Anna–gives details about battle of the 23rd, and the state of the Mexican troops; report that Massachusetts regiment arrived at Matamoros;  Two NC companies left Matamoros for Camargo; three VA regiments went to Camargo

RW47v24i30p1c1, April 13, 1847, Vera Cruz and the Castle taken!
Surrender of Vera Cruz and the castle; hopes that this will bring peace; however Mexican government now seems to want to fight more; Santa Anna advancing to capital

RW47v24i30p1c1, April 13, 1847, Gen. Taylor's Despatches
Report of Taylor's successful defense against an Indian attack

RW47v24i30p1c1, April 13, 1847, Our Officers in Mexico
Extract from a Washington letter–shows how our officers do not have the jealously and envy which the Mexican officers have between each other

RW47v24i30p1c2, April 13, 1847, The Discussion
Discussion between Leake, Messer and Bott (opposing candidates for Congress) about various issues–war, tariff, Oregon question, slavery

RW47v24i30p2c3, April 13, 1847, From Our Army at Vera Cruz
Details of the Battle at Vera Cruz from Scott, Morales, Landero; gives information on the battle including troop movement and actions, requests for innocent families being able to leave the city; instructions given to the commissioners appointed by the US; propositions from the Mexican Commissioners to the General–in–chief;  response by the Americans to the Mexican propositions; articles of capitulation of the city of Vera Cruz and the castle of San Juan d'Ulloa

RW47v24i30p2c5, April 13, 1847, From our Navy before Vera Cruz
Transfer of the squadron from Commodore Conner to Perry; information on the placement of ships in agreement with Gen. Scott; list of those killed; details of naval fighting and ship movement; weather reports; report of the surrender of the city; list of vessels anchored at Sacrificios

RW47v24i30p2c7, April 13, 1847, Editorial Correspondence of the N.O. Picayune
Information on the battle at Vera Cruz

RW47v24i30p2c7, April 13, 1847, The Dragoon Fight at Medelin
Report on Col. Harney–details on a battle fought by his men–information on troop movement on both sides, hostilities etc

RW47v24i30p2c7, April 13, 1847, From the Brazos
Report on Santa Anna's army; report of General Taylor's position and what troops are with him

RW47v24i31p2c6, April 16, 1847, From Vera Cruz to Mexico
Calculated distance from Vera Cruz to Mexico City

RW47v24i31p2c6, April 16, 1847, Latest from Mexico
Letter, which states, Santa Anna arrived at San Luis Potosi, report that revolution in the capital of Mexico has been ended; report of heads of the opposition rebels were shot

RW47v24i31p2c3, April 16, 1847, General Taylor
Opinion on the despatches sent by Taylor; opinion on Taylor's character;

RW47v24i31p2c3, April 16, 1847, From the Houston, More Indian Difficulties
Report of Indian hostilities; called Capt. T. Smith and his company to help

RW47v24i31p2c1, April 16, 1847
Opinion about even though Whigs opposed the war, now that the US was in the war success is what is important; remarks
made by Mr. Botts about the war

RW47v24i31p2c1, April 16, 1847
Quote from the Picayune's discussing the naming Taylor as a presidential candidate in the upcoming election

RW47v24i31p4c1, April 16, 1847, The 21st Rule––The Wilmont Provision––The Principles embodied in the Oregon Bill
Debate on the war, the question of slavery afterwards; gives opinions of others on the same topics; speaks of the Wilmont Provision

RW47v24i31p4c2, April 16, 1847, Mr. Polk and Santa Anna
Quote from Polk justifying the restoration of Santa Anna to Mexico

RW47v24i31p4c2, April 16, 1847, Mr. Calhoun––Gen. Taylor
Mr. Calhoun written a letter to his friends about being the next presidential candidate–says won't take the nomination and that his friends should back Taylor

RW47v24i31p4c2, April16, 1847
Mr. Diamond, late American Consul at Vera Cruz has been appointed Collector of the Vera Cruz port

RW47v24i31p4c3, April 16, 1847, To the Whigs of the Metropolitan Congressional District
Discussion on the fall of Vera Cruz–author gives his opinion about the Mexican people and the US as conquerors (civilized vs. uncivilized)

RW47v24i31p1c5, April 16, 1847, Col. McClung
Reprint of a letter from McClung–speaks of Santa Anna's army, praises of Taylor

RW47v24i31p1c5, April16, 1847, General Orders of Major General Scott
Speaks of surrender of Vera Cruz and the castle of San Juan d'Ulloa–gives orders to men not to approach either place, gives orders on where forces will be stationed, gives order on the treatment of the citizens of the city; names Gen. Worth as temporary governor and gives him orders as governor

RW47v24i31p1c1, April 16, 1847, Mt. W. D. Leake and Gen. Taylor
Opinion of Leake on the opinion of the administration's opinion of Taylor

RW47v24i31p1c2, April 16, 1847, Lieut. Col. Clay
Brief bio on Lieut. Col. Clay who died while in service in the war

RW47v24i31p1c2, April 16, 1847
A letter from Matamoras, which informs that Gen. Taylor is preparing to advance on San Luis Potosi

RW47v24i31p1c3, April 16, 1847, Steamboat "Rough and Ready" on the Rio Grande
Death of Paul C. Bank a native of Lynchburg Va

RW47v24i31p1c3, April 16, 1847, Tribute to Valor
Resolutions passed at a court house about Capt. Graham–praises

RW47v24i31p1c3, April 16, 1847, The Gallant Mississippians
Information on those killed and wounded in the battle of Buena Vista from the Mississippian 1st Rifle

RW47v24i31p1c3, April 16, 1847
R.K. Arthur of Mississippi gives a detailed account of Buena Vista

RW47v24i31p2c2, April 16, 1847
Opinion on an article written in the Union about Polk and other Generals fighting in the war

RW47v24i31p2c3, April 16, 1847, To the Whigs of the Metropolitan Congressional District
Opinion on the Mexican personality; information on advancement of US forces; report on rumors of fighting in the capital

RW47v24i31p2c2,April 16, 1847
Brig. Gen. Cadwallader arrived in New Orleans on the 7

RW47v24i31p2c2, April 16, 1847
Gen. Tom Thumb will begin his Public Levees in the city this evening

RW47v24i31p2c5, April 16, 1847, Correspondence of the Baltimore Patriot
Complaining about the administration no ordering flags raised and shots fired for the victories in Mexico

RW47v24i31p2c5, April 16, 1847, Compliment to Gen. Wool
Common Council of Troy has given 600 dollars for the construction of a sword for Gen. Wool

RW47v24i31p4c4, April 16, 1847, Great Whig Meeting––Nomination of Gen. Taylor for the President
Whigs in the city and county of Philadelphia ratified the nomination of Gen. Taylor for President

RW47v24i31p4c4, April 16, 1847, General Taylor–Colonel Clay
Letter to the father of Colonel Clay from General Taylor after the death of his son–praises Clay

RW47v24i31p4c4, April 16, 1847, From Tampico
Announcement of the arrival of more troops–under the command of Capts. Gardenier and Plummer, Capt. Marshall, Lieut. Wyse–information on the raising of the troops

RW47v24i31p4c5, April 16, 1847, Later from the City of Mexico
Information on the state of revolution in the capital; report of another US victory with the fall of Chihuahua; Santa Anna's progress to the capital; Mexican reports of their battles

RW47v24i31p4c5, April 16, 1847, The Effects of discipline––the Volunteers at Buena Vista
Report that volunteers who had been trained with great discipline performed excellently at Buena Vista.

RW47v24i28p1c1, April 16, 1847, The Mexican Ports
Letter from the President to the Secretary of War telling him to open Mexican ports to commerce of all nations and have duties paid to our treasury

RW47v24i28p1c1, April 16, 1847, Mr. Polk and Santa Anna
Remarks by the President about Santa Anna's return to Mexico

RW47v24i28p1c2, April 16, 1847
Mr. Richard W. Heath has been elected first Lieutenant of the Tampico Volunteers

RW47v24i28p1c2, April 16, 1847
Quote from the Union that stated that ever since Congress adjourned there has been no peace negotiations with Mexico

RW47v24i28p1c2, April 16, 1847:General Taylor
Quote from the US Gazette about General Taylor–giving praise

RW47v24i28p1c2, April 16, 1847, From Mexico
Copied from the New Orleans Picayune; information on conspiracy in New Mexico

RW47v24i28p2c2, April 16, 1847
No mediation of the British Government has been recently tendered to Polk, in the adjustment of Mexico

RW47v24i28p2c2, April 16, 1847
Capt. George Lincoln was killed at the battle of Buena Vista

RW47v24i28p2c2, April 16, 1847
Said that after the first day of fighting at Buena Vista some of Taylor's officers advised a fall back but Taylor said no

RW47v24i28p2c2, April 16, 1847, Important if True
Santa Anna has forwarded a recommendation to the Mexican Congress to sue for peace; gives information on Mexican army conditions

RW47v24i28p2c2, April 16, 1847, Santa Anna's Pass
Santa Anna on approaching Taylor asked him to let him pass–said had a pass from the President to allow; Taylor said that he would not let Santa Anna pass–not sure if true

RW47v24i28p2c2, April 16, 1847, From Santa Fe
Two companies from Missouri–volunteers were cut off by Mexicans near Santa Fe

RW47v24i28p2c5, April 16, 1847, From Vera Cruz
A continuation of northers has prevented the operation of the landing stores and heavy ordinance

RW47v24i28p2c5, April 16, 1847, Editorial Correspondence from the Picayune
Report of slight skirmishing; Mexicans passing into the city at night and taking the beach north of Taylor; information on the wound of Lieut. Col. Dickenson; Cap. Vinton keeping up rounds of firing; spies have been captured; landing mortars from ships; reconnoitering parties going out

RW47v24i28p2c5, April 16, 1847, Camp near Vera Cruz
Weather report; notes received from French and Spanish consuls; information on the firing on the castle; vessels have arrived; as soon as weather clears up they will be landing more equipment

RW47v24i28p2c5, April 16, 1847, Camp near Vera Cruz
Weather improved; enemy occasionally firing

RW47v24i28p2c5, April 16, 1847, From the Brazos
Weather report; information that Santa Anna has retired to Matehuala with his army; Gen. Taylor moved his camp to Agua Nueva; Massachusetts volunteers ordered to stay at Matmoros; ship arrivals

RW47v24i28p2c6, April16, 1847, Correspondence of the Picayune
Taylor has returned to Monterey; information on Taylor's movement and troops and position of troops in regards to Urrea; predictions on Taylor catching Urrea

RW47v24i28p2c6, April 16, 1847, Brazos Santiago
VA regiment has arrived here and gone up the Rio Grande; Massachusetts regiment arrived a few days ago and left for Monterey via Camargo; rest of regiment expected to leave tomorrow for the mouth of the Rio Grande

RW47v24i28p2c6, April 16, 1847, Steamer Corvette
Despatches from Gen. Taylor; information on steamboats now loaded and ready to head for Camargo; report that Taylor ran into Urrea

RW47v24i28p2c6, April 16, 1847, Battle of Buena Vista
Description of Gen. Taylor's position; cannonading on the 21st; Taylor's exposed situation; his white horse; battle of the 22nd of February; death of Col. M'Kee, Col. Clay, Col. Hardin, Adj't Gen. Lincoln, Col. Yell, Capt. Willis; Col. Marshall's charge; report of the Mississippians good job; Gen. Taylor's left flank turn; killed and wounded; Minon's discomfiture

RW47v24i28p2c7, April 16, 1847, The Kentucky Regiment
Report of an incident at the battle of Buena Vista involving the Kentucky regiment; details of the battle fought by the Kentucky regiment

RW47v24i28p; Col. Marshall's charge; report of the Mississippians good job; Gen. Taylor's left flank turn; killed and wounded; Minon's discomfiture

RW47v24i28p2c7, April 16, 1847, The Kentucky Regiment
Report of an incident at the battle of Buena Vista involving the Kentucky regiment; details of the battle fought by the Kentucky regiment

RW47v24i28p4c5, April 16, 1847, The Latest from Gen. Taylor
Santa Anna retreat to San Luis Potosi possibly further; information on Santa Anna's retreat and the position of the Mexican army; comments on the condition of the Mexican army; wonder about how many Mexicans have been lost

RW47v24i28p4c6, April 16, 1847, Correspondence of the New Orleans Tropic
Report on the landing of the troops at Vera Cruz; weather report; information on the role of the navy after the capture of the castle

RW47v24i28p4c6, April 16, 1847, Vera Cruz
Speech by Gen. Juan Morales to his troops–speaking of taking up arms and fighting the Americans; encouraging his men

RW47v24i28p4c2, April 16, 1847, Hard Push!
Comments on the Union and Enquirer's interpretation of General Taylor's word; letter by Gen. Taylor; RW interpretation of what Taylor meant

RW47v24i28p4c2, April 16, 1847, The Battle of Buena Vista
Letter from the New Orleans Picayune regarding the Scourge and constancy displayed by US troops, skillfulness of Taylor during the Battle of Buena Vista–part of the letter is reprinted

RW47v24i28p4c3, April 16, 1847, Official despatches
Union contains Taylor's brief account of the battle of Buena Vista, also contains a letter from the President to the Secretary of War about the opening of Mexican ports–will be printed in the next issue

RW47v24i28p4c3, April 16, 1847, From General Taylor's Camp
Report on the position of the Mexican army; flag sent from Santa Anna demanding a surrender; enemy withdrew further; report that losses have been sever

RW47v24i28p4c3, April 16, 1847, Summons of Santa Anna to Gen. Taylor
Santa Anna asking Taylor to surrender

RW47v24i28p4c3, April 16, 1847, Headquarters Army of Occupation
Taylor saying no to the surrender

RW47v24i28p4c3, April 16, 1847, Headquarters Army of Occupation
Taylor's position maintained and Mexican army withdraw; plan for exchange of prisoners; number of the killed and wounded

RW47v24i28p4c3, April 16, 1847, Headquarters Army of Occupation
Mexican army leaving and Taylor holding original position; Mexican losses seem to be high; Mexicans have made arrangement for retreat

RW47v24i28p4c3, April 16, 1847, From our Squadron off Vera Cruz
Arrival of Scott at Anton Lizardo; information on naval activities–where ships are moving; weather report; information on arms about the ships; information on troop landing and formation of lines around the city

RW47v24i28p4c4, April 16, 1847, Military Appointments
Information on the military appointment of Maxcy Gregg, Samuel Dickenson, John Wolford, Creed Huddleson, James Scantland, Edward King, Dan'l Chase, Charles Sprague, Ely Howell, Robert Humphreys and Preston Gains, Edwin Marion, Benjamin Yard, John Bronaugh, Julius Wheedin, Nathaniel Grant, D. Gray, Robert W. Bedford, Jackson Hutson, Wm. Seawell, Lewellin Boyle, James Wiley, Thomas Tiltenland, Wm. Goodloe, Marcellus Anderson, Robert Richie

RW47v24i29p3c1, April 19, 1847, Important from Santa Fe
Confirmation of the Mexican victory at Santa Fe; information on where US troops drove Mexicans during the war; report on the battle–how conducted, with how many soldiers, who was in charge

RW47v24i29p3c1, April 19, 1847
From a letter to the St. Louis Union; gives comments on the possible situation now in New Mexico; information on troop movement; rumor that US has taken Chihuahua

RW47v24i32p2c4, April 20, 1847, From New Mexico
Report on fighting in New Mexico, near Santa Fe; Captain killed–Capt Burguin; number of killed and wounded

RW47v24i32p2c2, April 20, 1847, Prospect of Peace
President calling for more troops, therefore believed that peace is not near; Mexicans conducting a guerilla war; information on the Mexican army; prediction of future events in the area–capture of the capital but cont'd war

RW47v24i32p2c2, April 20, 1847, Major General Pillow
Account of the promotion of Gen. Pillow by a correspondent of the New York Tribune

RW47v24i32p2c2, April 20, 1847, General Taylor
From a letter from Washington; giving compliments to Taylor for his behavior during conflict at Buena Vista

RW47v24i32p1c3, April 20, 1847:
Letter from Mr. Kendall, which gives a gloomy account of the situation in Mexico City

RW47v24i32p1c3, April 20, 1847, From the Brazos
Rumors about interactions between Taylor and Gen. Urrea's forces; report from the Flag about Taylor giving provisions to wounded Mexicans; announcement of the arrival of 8 companies of volunteers

RW47v24i32p1c4, April 20, 1847, Battle of Buena Vista–Santa Anna's Report
Details of the battle of Buena Vista from Santa Anna

RW47v24i32p2c5, April 20, 1847, Late from the Brazos
Information on troop movement; orders from Taylor; report of small hostile encounters between the enemy and US forces; brief story on the capture and death of a Mexican

RW47v24i32p2c5, April 20, 1847, From the N.O. Delta, April 11
Information on troops near Caperero, south of Cerralvo; road from Camargo to Monterey and from Brazos to Saltillo is open; rumor of Taylor planning to march to San Luis; arrival of Virginia regiment; meeting to honor Taylor in Matamoros

RW47v24i32p2c5, April 20, 1847, Excerpts from the Flag of the 3d inst.
Massachusetts Regiment now in Matamoros; attempted revolution in Mexico City

RW47v24i32p2c6, April 20, 1847, From Vera Cruz
Newspaper started in Vera Cruz; Scott had a resolution of Congress presenting to thank Taylor; report on an attack by the Mexicans on some US forces who had left camp; condemnation by Scott of actions taken by some US forces; citizens of Vera Cruz to give up their arms;

RW47v24i32p2c6, April 20, 1847, Arrival of Troops
Announcement of the arrival of troops from Pittsburgh

RW47v24i32p2c6, April 20, 1847, The Mississippi Regiment
Report on how the Mississippi Regiment was beaten battle at Buena Vista but kept fighting

RW47v24i32p1c1, April 20, 1847, To the Polls!
Urging voters to vote on Tuesday–come out and vote against those who would expand/continue the war with Mexico

RW47v24i32p1c2, April 20, 1847
Letter from Mr. Kendall states that nothing has been heard from the expedition to Alvarado even though it was believed that the town would surrender without a fight

RW47v24i32p1c2, April 20, 1847, Mr. Polk's Terms
Excerpt from a Mexican newspaper on the US government's recent terms of peace given to the Mexicans

RW47v24i32p1c2, April 20, 1847, Mexican Official Papers
Report on the Mexican loss at the battle of Sacramento–numbers of those dead on both dies, when the battle took place, names of commanders, number of forces there on both sides

RW47v24i32p2c3, April 20, 1847, To the Whigs of the Metropolitan Congressional District
Explanation of what the war has to do with the upcoming election and comparing the merits of the different candidates

RW47v24i32p3c1, April 20, 1847, Further Call Upon Volunteers
President as called for more volunteers

RW47v24i32p3c1, April 20, 1847
From an extra published by the Government Press in Santa Fe–information on the massacre at Taos, battles fought at Canada, El Emboda, and Taos, report of more US victories

RW47v24i32p4c2, April 20, 1847
Comments on an article published in the Enquirer warning young men of joining with the Whigs in condemnation of the war

RW47v24i32p4c2, April 20, 1847, To the Whigs of the Metropolitan Congressional District
When will the end of the war come? What will it entail?

RW47v24i32p4c3, April 20, 1847, Late from Vera Cruz
Information brought by Mr. Haile including a memorandum written on one of the last days he was in Vera Cruz; information on the establishment of a government in Vera Cruz; information received about Santa Anna being inducted as president; list of passengers on board the Alabama

RW47v24i32p4c3, April 20, 1847, Vera Cruz, March 31, 1847
Quitman's brigade set out for Alvarado; no information from Mexico city; information on Mexican troops stations between Vera Cruz and the capital

RW47v24i32p4c4, April 20, 1847, Later from Vera Cruz
Report that the revolution in the capital has not ended; terms by our government for peace were published in a Mexican paper

RW47v24i32p4c4, April 20, 1847, Headquarters of the Army, Vera Cruz
General Order No. 80–congratulations to the army for the capture of Vera Cruz

RW47v24i32p4c4, April 20, 1847, Later from Mexico
Santa Anna's address to his army; Santa Anna's arrival in the capital and his inauguration,  inaugural address and the policy of his new administration

RW47v24i32p4c5, April 20, 1847, From Tampico
Forces manage to keep continually on quivipe in expectation of a combined attack and revolt

RW47v24i32p4c5, April 20, 1847, Santa Anna's report of the Battle of the 22nd and 23rd
Letter will be published tomorrow

RW47v24i32p4c5, April 20, 1847, From the Brazos
General Taylor returned to Saltillo

RW47v24i32p4c5, April 20, 1847, The Illinois Troops
Article published in the St. Louis Reveille about the Illinois Troops–some new, some veterans etc.

RW47v24i32p4c5, April 20,1847: Compliment to Gen. Wool
Common Council of Troy has given 600 dollars to make a sword for Wool

RW47v24i32p4c5, April 20, 1847, "Mexican Whigs"
Most of those who have fallen in the war have been Whigs

RW47v24i33p2c4, April 23, 1847, Affairs in New Mexico
Correspondence from New Mexico; gives detail of two battles; confirmation of murders at Taos; troop movement

RW47v24i33p4c1, April 23, 1847, Events in New Mexico
Article on events in New Mexico; what to do with those who have been caught trying to start a revolution against the US?, can the US punish them?; what would happen if the Mexican government gives up New Mexico?;

RW47v24i33p4c1, April 23, 1847
Rumor that authorities in Jalapa have made overtures to Scott for the surrender of the city; and another rumor that Gen. Twiggs had taken the National Bridge without resistance

RW47v24i33p4c2, April 23, 1847, A Peace Mission
Report that a messenger of peace was sent to Mexico by the US government; President has sworn not to give any land to Mexico where US soldiers have been killed

RW47v24i33p4c2, April 23, 1847, Requisition on Missouri
Governor of Missouri called upon to give another regiment of volunteers to serve in Mexico; the regiment is to serve establishing forts on the route to Oregon

RW47v24i33p1c3, April 23, 1847, Official Despatches
General Taylor's detailed report of the Battle of Buena Vista

RW47v24i33p1c5, April 23, 1847, From New Mexico
Report on the recent revolution in the territory from Sterling Price the Col. Commanding the army in New Mexico

RW47v24i33p1c7, April23, 1847
Administration want money in order to gain peace with Mexico but now that they got the money reports from the administration say that peace does not look good

RW47v24i33p1c1, April 23, 1847, From the Seat of War
Information on movement of troops, US positions; rumors constantly from the capital; information on Santa Anna's position

RW47v24i33p1c1, April 23, 1847
Letter from Taylor to Gen. Butler giving a detailed description of the Battle of Buena Vista; comments from Taylor about his nomination for president

RW47v24i33p1c1, April 23, 1847
Report that General La Vega left Puente Nacional and is now fortifying a position at Cerro Gordo

RW47v24i33p1c2, April 23, 1847, Letter from Waddy Thompson Esq.
Comments by the former Minister to Mexico about the war and US actions/use of force and call for peace

RW47v24i33p2c4, April 23, 1847, Letter from General Taylor
Letter from Taylor to Gen. Butler about the battle of Buena Vista and also containing comments about his nomination for the presidency

RW47v24i33p2c5, April 23,1847: From the Brazos
Nothing interesting has occurred on the Rio Grande; depot has been established at China and on just below Camargo at Santa Anna; Capt. Arnold has reached Camargo; Lieut. Leslie Chase has gained an appointment to judge advocate for the western division of the US army; Maj. Gorman, Lieut. J. A. Picket and J. A. Buckmaster have been wounded; post office at Point Isabel has been moved to the Brazos

RW47v24i33p2c1, April 23, 1847, Gen. Taylor's Letter
Comments on the letter sent by Taylor to Gen. Butler–special attention paid to his reaction to nomination

RW47v24i33p2c2, April 23, 1847
Gen. Houston of Texas in a speech stated that the commission of Major General was given to him and a colleague and both declined because they held different opinions with the officers who would have been their seniors in rank

RW47v24i33p2c2, April 23, 1847, Negotiations with Mexico
Triste left for Vera Cruz; no new proposals will be given to Mexico; Mexico will now probably acknowledge the Rio Grande as border; if Mexico wont go for peace then Scott and Taylor have been order to fight for more victories; Triste will stay in Mexico until a document is signed

RW47v24i33p2c2, April 23, 1847, Mr. Poinsett, Mr. Calhoun and the Mexican War
Report on the difference of opinion between Mr. Poinsett and Mr. Calhoun on the Mexican War

RW47v24i34p2c2, April 27, 1847, New Requisition for Volunteers
Request by the President to the Governor of Virginia for two more regiments of volunteers

RW47v24i34p2c4, April 27, 1847, From the N.O. Picayune, April 18
Announcement of the arrival of troops from Louisville; report that the steamer James L. Day has been ordered to Vera Cruz

RW47v24i34p4c4, April 27, 1847, From the Capital
Report of the ceasing of arms hostilities in the Mexican Capital; Santa Anna now president; wealthy want peace and willing to give the Upper California and the left bank of the Rio Grande; popular masses in favor of continued hostilities; information about US troop positions

RW47v24i34p4c6, April 27, 1847, The Company of Voltigeurs
Company leaving for war; under command of James D. Blair and William S. Walker and Washington Terret

RW47v24i34p1c1, April 27, 1847, General Taylor
Article about Taylor's nomination as Whig candidate for president; reports that Taylor is anti–Whig; responses to articles written in other papers about Taylor's opinion on the nomination

RW47v24i34p1c1, April 27, 1847, Later from California
Documents received from California; report that the war has ended in California, Californians want to join the United States; report of the probable loss of the Launch–a ship belonging to the US sloop–of–war Warren; result of an engagement near the Pueblo of los angles; congratulations to men of the Southern Division by Stockton

RW47v24i34p1c1, April 27, 1847, Gen. Taylor–Mexican Banditti
Letter from General Taylor about the depredations committed by a Mexican banditti on public and private property on the route from Camargo to Monterey; Taylor explains what he is going to do about the actions of the Mexican banditti

RW47v24i34p1c2, April 27, 1847, From Vera Cruz
Information on orders given by General Scott; report of sending prizes from the castle and city to home; announces the arrival of animals

RW47v24i34p1c2, April 27, 1847, General Orders
Two orders from Scott (No.80 and No. 87); congratulations on the victory at San Juan d'Ulloa; condemnation of atrocities committed at Vera Cruz by the army, gives strict orders to soldiers about where to stay/be at all times

RW47v24i34p1c3, April 27, 1847, Details of operations before Vera Cruz
Information about operations before the battle of Vera Cruz including a list of those killed and wounded

RW47v24i34p1c3, April 27, 1847, Artillery Headquarters
Information about a small skirmish including a numbers of those killed and wounded, details about the hostilities

RW47v24i34p1c3, April 27, 1847, Artillery Headquarters
Report of firing on the city; loss of Captain Vinton; information on ammunition used

RW47v24i34p1c3, April 27, 1847, Artillery Headquarters
More information about the firing at the city

RW47v24i34p1c3, April 27, 1847, Artillery Headquarters
Information on the firing of the city; report on the movement of the troops

RW47v24i34p1c4, April 27, 1847, Headquarters, Regiment MD. Riflemen
Information on Mexican troops near the bridge and on the road leading to it

RW47v24i34p4c1, April 27, 1847, General Taylor
Response by a correspondent at a Whig meeting in New York; comments about Taylor's nomination to the Presidency

RW47v24i34p4c1, April 27, 1847, Nomination of Gen. Taylor
Citizens of York County called together to nominate Taylor for President; prints the resolutions made at the meeting

RW47v24i34p4c2, April 27, 1847, Who is Senor Atocha?
Extract from the New Orleans Delta about Mr. Polk's late ambassador to Mexico–disagreement with the appointment of Senor Atocha for various reasons one being that he is a Mexican.

RW47v24i34p4c2, April 27, 1847, Letter from Vera Cruz
Letter from a Virginian in Mexico; information on those killed, description of ceremonies of surrender that took place, information on troop activity; details about hostilities

RW47v24i34p4c2, April 27, 1847, From the Pacific Squadron
Report from Com. Stockton–number of men, details on meeting with the enemy; information on the fighting–including numbers of those lost on both sides; Stockton refused to negotiate with Flores; Flores surrendered

RW47v24i34p2c3, April 27, 1847, Official Despatches
Despatches from Com. Stockton; Lieut Gray has left San Diego; information on the movement of officers. Information about fighting, movement of troops, numbers of those killed and wounded; arrival of Lieut. Col. Fremont; Flores sending men to camp to work out a peace

RW47v24i34p3c3, April 27, 1847
Terms of the peace between the forces in California–lists the articles of the agreement

RW47v24i34p3c3, April 27, 1847, Civil and military government of the Department of California
Document from Flores expressing his desire for peace

RW47v24i34p3c3, April 27, 1847, Late from Mexico
Report from a Mexican paper about the situation in the country–loss of Vera Cruz and an address by Santa Anna (reprinted), information on the build up of troops outside the capital at the National Bridge, report that the Mexican army from the North has returned

RW47v24i34p1c4, April 27, 1847, Camp Washington, Before Vera Cruz
Praising about the officers of the engineers who were engaged in the battle

RW47v24i35p1c2, April 30, 1847, Remains of Lt. Botts
Report that the remains of an officer have been escorted to the city; information about the funeral–who was there, when, where.

RW47v24i35p2c2, April 30, 1847, Father Rey
Reverend accompanied the army into Mexico as Roman Catholic chaplain; feared that he has been killed or taken prisoner; Freeman's Journal said fear was unfounded and reverend with a Mexican family in Matamoros.

RW47v24i35p4c4, April 30, 1847, General Scott at Church
Letter from Vera Cruz speaking of Easter Sunday; Scott at church; opinion about US and Mexico being religious enemies

RW47v24i35p4c4, April 30, 1847, Gen'l Lamar Captured
Gen. Lamar with his company tried to join Gen. Taylor; was attacked and eventually had to surrendered

RW47v24i35p4c4, April 30, 1847, Arrival of More Troops
Announcement of Steamer Mountaineer arriving; gives number of troops and where they are to go in Mexico; tells of who is in command and where the troops came from

RW47v24i35p2c1, April 30, 1847, General Taylor
Comments on General Taylor–presidential nomination, success, Polk's opinion of

RW47v24i35p2c2, April 30, 1847, A Mexican Account
Comments on a Mexican opinion of events connected to the siege of Vera Cruz

RW47v24i35p2c2, April 30, 1847
Colonel Bankhead arrived in New Orleans from Vera Cruz bringing despatches and trophies from Scott; information on Bankhead's position in Vera Cruz

RW47v24i35p2c2, April 30, 1847
Washington Union contradicts the rumor that Taylor and Scott are to be delayed until the volunteers arrive

RW47v24i35p2c2, April 30, 1847
A correspondent of the Cincinnati Atlas nominates Scott for President and John J. Crittenden as VP

RW47v24i35p1c2, April 30, 1847, Views in Washington
A Baltimore Sun correspondent has called for a speedy peace; however information has been received that states that Santa Anna will resist as long and has hard as possible

RW47v24i35p1c4, April 30, 1847, Despatches accompanying Gen. Scott's last letter
Despatches giving different scenes of the battle at Vera Cruz

RW47v24i35p1c4, April 30, 1847; Details of the operations before Vera Cruz
Information of the actions of the 2nd Brigade of the army–names officers involved, reaction of the enemy

RW47v24i35p1c4, April 30, 1847, Division Headquarters, Camp Washington
More information on the actions of the division–troop movements, names of officers involved, reaction of the enemy to the hostilities,

RW47v24i35p1c4, April 30, 1847, Headquarters Second Regiment Dragoons
Report on the movement of the second regiment dragoons–their fighting with the Mexican

RW47v24i35p1c5, April 30, 1847, From Vera Cruz
Doubt of more fighting with the Mexicans because many have been called to the capital city; enemy forces fell back to Jalapa, which is after the National Bridge; rumors that Santa Anna is set on war

RW47v24i35p1c5, April 30, 1847, Brevets
Brevets given to officers of the 3rd or 4th regiments; information on officer status in both regiments; belief that there was some oversight in the promotions–some left out that should not have been

RW47v24i35p1c5, April 30, 1847, Com. Stockton and Gen. Kearney
Report that Stockton has assumed a power in suspending Kearny from the position of civil Governor, which Stockton had given Kearny after his arrival in California

RW47v24i35p2c4, April 30, 1847, Mexican narrative of events at the heroic city of Vera Cruz, while besieged by the
American army; Detailed report about the battle of Vera Cruz from a Mexican inside the city

RW47v24i35p2c4, April 30, 1847, Correspondence of the New York Commercial Advertiser
Report of the new arriving about the victory at Buena Vista; more volunteers leaving for Mexico; comments about Taylor nomination for President

RW47v24i35p4c1, April 30, 1847, Prospects of Peace
Predictions based on information from Mexico about the future prospects of peace; unfavorably comments about Triste's ability to be helpful; disagreements on border; extract from the Baltimore American about annexation

RW47v24i35p4c1, April 30, 1847, Lieut. A. B. Botts
Report that the body of Botts, who died in Mexico, reached the city yesterday

RW47v24i35p4c2, April 30, 1847, Santa Fe Correspondence
Letter from the city of Taos–requests for medical supplies, comments about the battle of Puebla, rumor about an American fighting against the US and killing most of those who died and he was eventually killed by American forces

RW47v24i35p4c6, April 30, 1847; Volunteers Wanted
Ad requesting soldiers

RW47v24i35p4c6, April 30, 1847, Later from Vera Cruz
Report of Gen. Twiggs and Gen. Quitman moving with their command upon Jalapa; report of the American crew of a Vermont schooner being taken prisoner by Mexicans; report of location of US bomb vessels; US sloop of war arrived at Sacrificios

RW47v24i35p4c6, April 30, 1847, Editorial Correspondence of the Picayune
Information about forces at Vera Cruz; details on the battle–size or armies, opinion about Mexican language in papers dealing with Americans, information on fleet movement and the capture of Alvarado, Twiggs moving towards the capital; Santa Anna issuing an order about continuing the war

May

RW24i36p1c1, May 4, 1847, A LOCOFOCO PUZZLE
Editors ask how Whigs can say war was unjustly waged yet rejoice in victories.

RW24i36p1c1, May 4, 1847, THE UNION AND GENERAL TAYLOR
The Washington Union's commentary on General Taylor's possible candidacy.

RW24i36p1c2, May 4, 1847, CALIFORNIA
Reports of conflicts between territorial governors from the N.O. Picayune and Charleston Mercury.

RW24i36p1c2, May 4, 1847, COMING FROM THE WAR
Reports the dramatic weight loss of a Capt. McManus just returned from the War.

RW24i36p1c4, May 4, 1847, AN ACCOUNT OF THE BATTLE OF BUENA VISTA, IN SCRIPTURAL STYLE
An unsigned poem from the New York Herald.

RW24i36p1c5, May 4, 1847, OFFICIAL – Headquarters, Army of Occupation
Camp near Monterey, March 22, 1847. A letter just arrived to the war department from Gen. Taylor. Published in the Washington Union praising Col. Morgan an Ohio Volunteer.

RW24i36p2c2, May 4, 1847, GENERAL TAYLOR IN KENTUCKY
Illegible.

RW24i36p2c2, May 4, 1847, INTERESTING FROM MEXICO
State of Mexico's internal affairs.

RW24i36p2c2, May 4, 1847, A LETTER FROM VERA CRUZ
Courrier des Etats Unis of New York. Dated April 9. Santa Anna's heart is inclined to peace.

RW24i36p2c5, May 4, 1847, LATER FROM THE BRAZOS
From New Orleans Picayune, April 24. Latest news carried by the Trumbull.

RW24i36p2c5, May 4, 1847, THE CHANCES OF PEACE
Reports of lack of Mexican Support.

RW24i36p2c5, May 4, 1847, THE MARINES OF THE GULF SQUADRON
Their organization and sacrifice.

RW24i36p2c5, May 4, 1847, FROM THE ARMY
Extracts from a letter of Capt. Hughes of the Corps of Topographical Engineers dated April 14th. Recently arrived from Vera Cruz published in the Washington Union May 1st.

RW24i36p4c2, May 4, 1847, A LETTER FROM CAPT. HARPER OF STAUNTON
Summary of his feelings regarding General Taylor.

RW24i36p4c2, May 4, 1847, THE LATE APPOINTMENTS
Picayune remarks on the promotions of Generals Quitman, Pillow, and Cashing.

RW24i36p4c4, May 4, 1847, LATER FROM VERA CRUZ
From the Picayune April 23rd, regarding intelligence, advances, and Santa Anna's defense preparations.

RW24i36p4c4, May 4, 1847, TO THE GOOD PEOPLE OF MEXICO
A proclamation of Winfield Scott. Mexican people should rest easy and go about their daily lives.

RW24i36p4c4, May 4, 1847, CORRESPONDENCE OF NEW ORLEANS DELTA
Various reports from Mexico between March 29th and April 13th.

RW24i36p4c5, May 4, 1847, NOTICE TO COMMERCE
From the Mexican consulate at Havana. Regarding confiscation of goods. April 12th. Faro Industrial.

RW24i37p1c5, May 7, 1847, GENERAL TAYLOR'S PERSONAL APPEARANCE
A "true" picture by a correspondent of the Philadelphia Ledger to replace "abominable caricatures."

RW24i37p1c5, May 7, 1847, THE VICTORY TO COME
Prentice says "We have before us maps of the battle grounds upon which General Taylor won his four great victories in Mexico. We have also before us a map of the battle ground upon which he win his great battle of 1848 – that is to say, a map of the United States"

RW24i37p2c1, May 7, 1847, OFFICIAL DISPATCHES
Dispatches from Col. Doniphan and General Kearny fighting in places which get little attention.

RW24i37p2c1, May 7, 1847, UNTITLED
Picayune comments on Taylor's writing style.

RW24i37p2c2, May 7, 1847, UNTITLED
San Antonio raises four companies of volunteers as others arrive there with enthusiasm.

RW24i37p2c3, May 7, 1847, CAUSE AND CONSEQUENCE
Mass Peace Society offers five–hundred dollar prize for an essay on war.

RW24i37p2c4, May 7, 1847, OFFICIAL: CALIFORNIA
General Kearny's letter between December 12, 1846 and January 14, 1847.

RW24i37p2c5, May 7, 1847, CHIHUAHUA
Col. Doniphan's letters between March 4th and March 20th.

RW24i37p2c6, May 7, 1847, YUCATAN
Extract of a letter from Merida, March 31, 1847.

RW24i37p4c1, May 7, 1847, UNTITLED
Baltimore Sun explains Mexican defenses between Vera Cruz and Jalapa.

RW24i37p4c2, May 7, 1847, THE VOLUNTEERS
Picayune comments on volunteers.

RW24i37p4c4, May 7, 1847, LATER FROM BRAZOS
Papers from Brazos Santiago delivered by steamship telegraph and published in New Orleans Bee April 27th.

RW24i37p4c5, May 7, 1847, GENERAL TAYLOR ON THE FIELD OF BATTLE
Lieut. Corwin writes to Cincinnati Chronicle sketching Taylor at Buena Vista.

RW24i37p4c4, May 7, 1847, A NOBLE VOLUNTEER AT BUENA VISTA
The story of an Illinois Volunteer.

RW24i37p4c4, May 7, 1847, CAPT. BURGWIN.
A deserved tribute to Capt. Burgwin for his efforts in putting down the Taos insurrection. Published in the Charleston Mercury.

RW24i38p1c1, May 11, 1847, THE "TERRITORIES" OF NEW MEXICO
The consequences of occupation.

RW24i38p1c2, May 11, 1847, GENERAL TAYLOR AND THE LOCOS
Locofocos in SW may support his candidacy.

RW24i38p1c3, May 11, 1847, UNTITLED
Coming soon. Scott's official account of Cerro Gordo.

RW24i38p1c3, May 11, 1847, ORGANIZATION OF THE GOVERNMENT IN NEW MEXICO
Power of Courts – treason – What does it all end to? Correspondent of Missouri Republic. March 18, 1847. Regarding the hangings of Mexicans.

RW24i38p1c4, May 11, 1847, UNTITLED
From Picayune May 1st. An editorial regarding what happens to wounded by George Wilkins Kendall.

RW24i38p1c4, May 11, 1847, FURTHER DETAILS OF THE BATTLE
American Eagle published at Vera Cruz. Provides great detail of the battle of Cerro Gordo.

RW24i38p1c4, May 11, 1847, FROM THE CITY OF MEXICO
Printed in Picayune May 1st. Papers recently arrived from Tampico dated to April 9th.

RW24i38p1c4, May 11, 1847, CORRESPONDENCE OF THE BALTIMORE SUN
Discussion of Mr. Parish and the possible contents of the dispatches he is to carry to Mexico.

RW24i38p2c3, May 11, 1847, THE PROSPECT OF PEACE
Latest papers breathe fierce spirit.

RW24i38p2c3, May 11, 1847, THE NEW ORLEANS PICAYUNE GIVES THE FOLLOWING INCIDENT OF THE BATTLE OF CERRO GORDO
Particular mention of the bravery of Tennessee.

RW24i38p2c4, May 11, 1847, OFFICIAL: GENERAL SCOTT'S LATEST DISPATCH
Printed in the Washington Union, dated April 19th.

RW24i38p2c5, May 11, 1847, MEXICO
State of internal affairs from New Orleans Times. May 3rd.

RW24i38p2c6, May 11, 1847, LATER FROM VERA CRUZ
Coverage from New Orleans Times and Picayune regarding victories, the capture of Tuspan an the triumph of the Navy.

RW24i38p2c6, May 11, 1847, FROM MATAMOROS
Regarding indemnification.

RW24i38p4c1, May 11, 1847, IMPORTANT INTELLIGENCE!
After Santa Anna escaped, warring factions make country weaker with their rallying man gone.

RW24i38p4c1, May 11, 1847, UNTITLED
Volunteers in New Mexico reluctant to reenlist.

RW24i38p4c2, May 11, 1847, THE VIRGINIA REGIMENT
A letter from Capt. Kenton Harper of Augusta Company, editor of the Staunton Spectator. Dated March 27th.

RW24i38p4c2, May 11, 1847, GENERAL TAYLOR
Washington Union believes Whigs are just using the General for his popularity and really intend to elect Mr. Clay.

RW24i38p4c2, May 11, 1847, UNTITLED
Rumor that General Lamar has been cut to pieces by Mexicans is discredited by Houston Telegraph.

RW24i38p4c3, May 11, 1847, IMPORTANT INTELLIGENCE!
Another Glorious Victory!! Battle of Cerro Gordo! From Picayune Extra, April 30th.

RW24i38p4c4, May 11, 1847, LATE FROM MONTEREY
A letter dated April 4th from Monterey arrived at New Orleans from the Brazos. Printed in Mobile Register and Journal, May 1st.

RW24i38p4c4, May 11, 1847, LATER FROM SANTA FE
Reports the trials of Mexican Rebels are progressing.

RW24i39p1c2, May 14, 1847, WHAT NEXT?
Does occupation mean peace?

RW24i39p1c3, May 14, 1847, GENERAL TAYLOR'S MOVEMENTS
Determined to advance his current position. National Intelligencer.

RW24i39p1c3, May 14, 1847, OFFICIAL
Brief and only dispatch to the Navy department concerning capture of Tuspan.

RW24i39p1c4, May 14, 1847, MR. BOTT'S POSITION ON THE WILMONT PROVISO
Because Mr. Bott's has been elected we should give his proposal the proper consideration. editorial signed ONE OF THE PEOPLE.

RW24i39p1c6, May 14, 1847, CHARGES AND SPECIFICATIONS
Detailed description of the charges against Lieut. Charles G. Hunter by Commodore Matthew C. Perry. Includes Lieut.'s reference, findings, and reprimand.

RW24i39p1c7, May 14, 1847, FROM SANTA FE
Reports include: finding of Col. Burns' body and a half million dollars remitted.

RW24i39p1c7, May 14, 1847, CORRESPONDENCE FROM BALTIMORE SUN
Commissioners soon to be sent.

RW24i39p2c1, May 14, 1847, EVENTS IN MEXICO
Results of the Mexican Congress extraordinary session called after Santa Anna's defeat at Cerro Gordo.

RW24i39p2c2, May 14, 1847, THE TEHUANTEPEC CANAL
Strict constructionists will require ship canal across Isthmus of Tehuantepec as part of peace terms.

RW24i39p2c3, May 14, 1847, UNTITLED.
Whig reaction to the Washington Union’s position that Church Property in Mexico be sequestered.

RW24i39p2c3, May 14, 1847, FROM TAMPICO
Letter from correspondent dated April 15, 1847 about Mexican police conspiracy.

RW24i39p2c3, May 14, 1847, UNTITLED
Discusses a proposition made to Scott by Lieut. Maynard of the Navy to arm sailors with revolvers instead of muskets.

RW24i39p2c4, May 14, 1847, HIGHLY IMPORTANT FROM MEXICO
Latest papers arriving from Vera Cruz on steamship New Orleans, regarding Jalapa, Tuspan, Santa Anna, and the merging of Scott and Taylor's armies.

RW24i39p4c2, May 14, 1847, NEW MEXICO AND CHIHUAHUA
Possession cannot be maintained without fresh troops.

RW24i39p4c2, May 14, 1847, PEACE OR WAR
As discussed by the Eagle, a recently established newspaper by Americans in Vera Cruz.

RW24i40p1c1, May 18, 1847, OBJECT OF WAR
Comments on the administrations unwillingness to speak on the wars causes and objectives.   Commentary by a knowledgeable Washington correspondent to the New York Herald.

RW24i40p1c4, May 18, 1847,  UNTITLED
Union contradicts rumor that Gen. Scott had been ordered to halt at Jalapa.

RW24i40p1c4, May 18, 1847, UNTITLED
Account of Buena Vista from an Arkansas officer appearing in the Little Rock Gazette.

RW24i40p1c4, May 18, 1847, THE VALLEY OF EL PASO
Washington Union describes the fruitful valley and its importance to the U.S.

RW24i40p1c4, May 18, 1847, GEN. LA VEGA
Thoughts on the distinguished Mexican General.

RW24i40p2c1, May 18, 1847,  THE NEWS FROM MEXICO
Picayune reports "cessation of hostilities" likely.

RW24i40p2c2, May 18, 1847, UNTITLED
The gallantry at Cerro Gordo by Capt. Magruder of Caroline County, Virginia, as told by Mr. Kendall of the Picayune.

RW24i40p2c2, May 18, 1847, UNTITLED.
List of killed and wounded at Cerro Gordo. From the Picayune.

RW24i40p2c3, May 18, 1847, LATER FROM THE BRAZOS
All is quiet in Brazos.

RW24i40p2c4, May 18, 1847, OFFICIAL.
Matthew Perry's reports from Flag Ship Mississippi off Vera Cruz. Dated April 19–24.

RW24i40p2c5, May 18, 1847, LATER FROM MEXICO
From Picayune May 11. Topics include: Guerilla War, Santa Anna, and end of hostilities. From Vera Cruz on Steamship James L. Day.

RW24i40p2c5, May 18, 1847, SCRAPS FROM THE AMERICAN STAR
Excerpts from the American paper begun in Jalapa soon after April 19th.

RW24i40p4c1, May 18, 1847, CONFISCATION OF CHURCH PROPERTY IN MEXICO
Should U.S. punish the Church for its financial support of the war?

RW24i40p4c2, May 18, 1847, THE MEXICAN TARIFF
Discussion of the affects it will have on the economy.

RW24i40p4c2, May 18, 1847, UNTITLED
Volunteers committed from Maryland.

RW24i40p4c2, May 18, 1847, KILLED AND WOUNDED
Casualties from Gen. Twigg and Shield's divisions at Cerro Gordo. From Picayune.

RW24i40p4c4, May 18, 1847, WAR ITEMS: MEXICAN INCIDENTS
From New Orleans Picayune, May 4. The Storming of Cerro Gordo, Jalapa, and Santa Anna.

RW24i41p1c1, May 21, 1847, A NEW AND BOLD SUGGESTION
The New York Sun suggests ways in which the United States could be indemnified for the expenses incurred in war.

RW24i41p1c2, May 21, 1847, CAPT. STEVENS T. MASON
Severely wounded at the battle of Cerro Gordo, a native of Loudoun country, Virginia.

RW24i41p1c3, May 21, 1847, UNTITLED
New Orleans Times has letter from Mexico City dated April 30th. Writer seems to be unaware of the deputation proceeding to Scott's head–quarters.

RW24i41p1c3, May 21, 1847, UNTITLED.
New Orleans reports arrival of troops being sent to Mexico.

RW24i41p1c4, May 21, 1847, FROM THE CITY OF MEXICO
From the New Orleans Picayune, May 12. Covers internal state of Mexican affairs as well as the treatment of American prisoners.

RW24i41p1c4, May 21, 1847, THE SEAT OF WAR
From the New Orleans Bulletin, May 12. Discussion of how General Scott is going about reinforcing his army before taking Mexico City.

RW24i41p1c5, May 21, 1847, SANTA ANNA'S DISPATCH FROM CERRO GORDO
Dated April 17th, Santa Anna gives a rich account of the engagement of the first day to the Minister of War and Marine.

RW24i41p2c1, May 21, 1847, JEFFERSON IN 1805, VERSUS POLK IN 1846
A comparison, with Texas being an important consideration for Polk.

RW24i41p2c2, May 21, 1847, CHURCH PROPERTY IN MEXICO
Washington Union reemphasizes that it's suggestion that the United States confiscate Church property as party of the indemnifications was purely their own unauthorized speculation.

RW24i41p2c2, May 21, 1847, UNTITLED
Washington Union says that accounts of possible peace agreements may not be correct.

RW24i41p2c2, May 21, 1847, UNTITLED.
French reaction to General Taylor’s reply to Santa Anna’s surrender summons.

RW24i41p2c2, May 21, 1847, UNTITLED.
Distances from Vera Cruz to other places of note in Mexico, as reported by the Charleston Courier.

RW24i41p2c3, May 21, 1847, LETTER FROM THE ARMY
A letter from a young Virginia officer attached to Gen. Scott's army. Dated April 25th, 1847 from Jalapa. Signed W.B.B.

RW24i41p2c5, May 21, 1847, AMERICAN PRISONERS IN MEXICO
From the New Orleans Picayune, May 13. Regarding the Letter from Major Gaines, the Encarnacion Prisoners, Mexican Gratitude, and the Route from Saltille to Mexico.

RW24i41p2c5, May 21, 1847, ONE DAY LATER FROM THE BRAZOS
A letter from Monterey dated April 15th, 1847. Carried by the transport steamer Telegraph. Signed  J.E.D.

RW24i41p2c6, May 21, 1847, OFFICIAL
General Scott's report from Jalapa dated April 23, 1847.

RW24i41p2c6, May 21, 1847, CORRESPONDENCE OF NEW ORLEANS BULLETIN
Dated May 6, 1847 from Brassos. Reports that Brig. Gen. Cadwallader has just arrived. Gives the opinion that General Taylor should advance on San Louis once he has 10,000 men.

RW24i41p4c1, May 21, 1847,  THE MEXICAN NEWS
New Orleans Bulletin confirms that the Mexican Government has abandoned the capital and it is now under the protection of General Scott.

RW24i41p4c1, May 21, 1847, UNTITLED
General Taylor's army is not on the move to San Louis de Potosi, but is forced to remain due to the expiration of many volunteer's terms of service.

RW24i41p4c2, May 21, 1847, UNTITLED
General Taylor's popularity surpasses party lines.

RW24i41p4c2, May 21, 1847, SANTA ANNA AND THE PRESIDENT
The knowledgeable Washington correspondent to the Philadelphia Ledger speaks despairingly about the capture of Santa Anna, believing that the best hopes for peace rested on his shoulders.

RW24i41p4c2, May 21, 1847, UNTITLED, Col. Anderson
Lieut. Col. Anderson of Tennessee left his hospital bed to join the boys despite opposition from his surgeon. From the N. O. Picayune.

RW24i41p4c2, May 21, 1847, UNTITLED
The heroics of  young Lieut. French.

RW24i41p4c4, May 21, 1847, THE MARINE CORPS
From the Philadelphia American. The role of the Marine Corps in the war.

RW24i41p4c5, May 21, 1847, FROM GENERAL TAYLOR'S ARMY
From the N. O. Picayune, May 11. The latest from General Taylor's camp as they face expiration of volunteer terms and the low water of the Rio Grande

RW24i41p4c5, May 21, 1847, LATE AND INTERESTING FROM BRAZOS
A report from the American Flag, published in Matamoros, containing the depredations of the Camanche Indians. From the N.O. Bee.   

 RW24i41p4c5, May 21, 1847, ARRIVAL FROM THE CHIHUAHUA.
From the N.O. Picayune, May 11. Reports the arrival of Major Campbell of Springfield, M.O.

RW24i41p2c3, May 21, 1847, LETTER FROM THE ARMY
Extracts from a letter written by a young Virginia officer, W. B. B.

RW47v24n41p4c5, May 21, 1847, FROM GEN. SCOTT’S ARMY.
Editorial Correspondence of the Picayune. Includes: Three reports from Jalapa: April 29, May 1, May 4, 1847. All signed G.W.K; A proclamation from Jose Mariana Salas; and an article from the American Eagle dated May 5th.

RW47v24n42p1c1, May 25, 1847, THE DESTINY OF MEXICO.
What action shall the United States take if Mexico continues to refuse peace?

RW47v24n42p1c2, May 25, 1847, GENERAL LA VEGA.
Follow up on the censure of the General and his actions towards certain American prisoners. A letter to the Picayune by one of his aids, Enrique Mejia, attempting to exonerate him. Not found acceptable by the editors.

RW47v24n42p1c2, May 25, 1847, UNTITLED.
No army reports from Vera Cruz, only reports of sickness, says Picayune of the 15th.

RW47v24n42p1c2, May 25, 1847, UNTITLED.
Report from the Washington correspondent that one of Mr. Polk’s dear friends was killed in the battle of Buena Vista. Mr. Polk has adopted Col. Yell of Arkansas’s son.

RW47v24n42p1c2, May 25, 1847, RUMORED BATTLE.
N.O. Bulletin says that if Gen. Taylor has had another clash with the Mexicans it must have been on a very small scale.

RW47v24n42p1c3, May 25, 1847, FROM THE JALAPA AMERICAN STAR OF APRIL 29.
Mexican officer reports recent losses to be 980, a figure that was supposed much higher. Writers believe hundreds have been shaved off the actual number.

RW47v24n42p1c3, May 25, 1847, GUERILLA WAR ON THE RIO GRANDE.
From the Picayune, May 14. Reports of Guerilla activity all along the valley, and warnings that such activities should be of primary consideration.

RW47v24n42p1c4, May 25, 1847, EXTRACT OF A LETTER FROM LIEUT. CORWIAE.
A letter dated April 4, 1847 from Monterey. Published in the Cincinnati Chronicle.

RW47v24n42p1c4, May 25, 1847, JEFFERSON’S OPINION OF WAR.
Many lies have been told to persuade the people that it is in their best interest to go to war. From Jefferson’s Virginia, page 290.

RW47v24n42p1c4, May 25, 1847, UNTITLED.
Summary of comments made recently by a Mr. Benton on the nature of Gen. Scott’s capture of San Juan de Ulua.

RW47v24n42p2c1, May 25, 1847, MR. BENTON’S SPEECH.
Commentary regarding a speech by Senator Benton at St. Louis praising the Polk administration for its stance on the Oregon question in light of the developments in Mexico at the time.

RW47v24n42p2c1, May 25 1847: SANTA ANNA AND HIS FEDERAL MEXICAN ALLIES.
Commentary on an editorial in the Washington Union that forgets Santa Anna is only in Mexico because of Mr. Polk.

RW47v24n42p2c2, May 25 1847: FAINT PROSPECT OF PEACE.
Courrier des Etats Unis encourages optimism.

RW47v24n42p2c2, May 25 1847: FROM GENERAL TAYLOR’S ARMY.
Latest dispatch from Taylor’s camp at Monterey. Dated April 21, 1847.

RW47v24n42p2c4, May 25 1847: COL. BENTON’S SPEECH.
From St. Louis Republican, May 14. More commentary on the Senator’s speech regarding the administration.

RW47v24n42p4c1, May 25 1847: THE PROSPECT BEFORE US.
The United States’ goal has always been to conquer a peace, but although Mexico cannot defend itself, she is no more willing to settle for peace now than after Palo Alto.

RW24i42p4c2, May 25 1847: MEXICAN CHURCH PROPERTY.
The Baltimore Patriot comments on the Union’s coverage of the issue of taking church property as indemnification.

RW47v24n42p4c4, May 25 1847: FROM THE ARMY.
A letter from Castle of Perote, dated April 25, 1847.

RW47v24n42p4c5, May 25 1847: OFFICIAL.
Includes the following reports: April 19 from Gen. Twigs, April 24 from Jalapa by Gen Twigs, April 23 from Jalapa by R. Patterson, April 22 from Perote by W.J. Worth, April 18 from Plan del Rio by G.J. Pillow, and April 21 from Jalapa by W.M. Sharney.

RW47v24n43p1c1, May 28 1874: THE WAR.
Discussion of the volunteer problems for Gen. Scott. Illegible.

RW47v24n43p1c1, May 28 1874: UNTITLED.
Intelligence from Santa Fe confirms hangings of Mexicans as traitors, but suggests Indians are the biggest problem.

RW47v24n43p1c2, May 28 1874: LETTER FROM JALAPA.
Dated May 1. Unsigned. Describes the geography of the land.

RW47v24n43p1c2, May 28, 1847, MR. TRIST.
The mystery of Mr. N.P. Trist’s departure from Washington appears to be solved as he has reportedly arrived in Vera Cruz.

RW47v24n43p1c3, May 28, 1847, STILL LATER FROM SANTA FE.
The St. Louis Republican reports nothing new in Santa Fe. Only continuing

RW47v24n43p1c3, May 28, 1847, UNTITLED.
Union repudiates opinions of the Philadelphia Ledger and New York Sun regarding the administration as “atrociously false”. Reports the New York Commercial.

RW47v24n43p1c4, May 28, 1847, LATER FROM VERA CRUZ.
From the Picayune May 19. Nothing new to report from Vera Cruz, only the rumors spreading about Santa Anna and that sickness does not appear to be on the rise. Contains editorial by G.W.K regarding Scott’s movements, as well as a summary of letters from the Mexican capital covering various subjects.

RW47v24n43p1c5, May 28, 1847, DEPARTURE OF TROOPS.
Steamship New Orleans leaves Vera Cruz. From Picayune, May 19.

RW47v24n43p1c5, May 28, 1847, AMERICAN PRISONERS IN MEXICO.
From the Picayune, May 19. A report that Majors Gaines and Borland were allowed the freedom of the city of Mexico. This is not believed due to reports only a short time before that they were in close confinement in the felons’ castle of Santiago.

RW47v24n43p1c5, May 28, 1847, FROM THE VERA CRUZ EAGLE OF MAY 12.
Activities of Com. Perry.

RW47v24n43p2c1, May 28, 1847, LETTER FROM GENERAL TAYLOR.
New Orleans Bulletin publishes extracts of a letter from Gen. Taylor to a distinguished citizen of Louisiana regarding his candidacy. He does not deny his willingness to serve, but states he has no aspirations for the position.

RW47v24n43p2c2, May 28, 1847, THE WHOLE OR NONE.
a letter writer to the Baltimore Sun says this should be the war cry in regard to Mexico as it was in Oregon. Whig editors warn of this sentiment.

RW47v24n42p2c2, May 28, 1847, UNTITLED.
Major John P. Gaines, although a prisoner in Mexico, is the Whig candidate for Congress in the Marysville district in Kentucky.

RW47v24n42p2c2, May 28, 1847, UNTITLED.
National Intelligencer publishes correspondence between the U.S. Navy Pacific Stations and Lieut. Edward F. Beale.

RW47v24n42p2c2, May 28, 1847, LIEUT. WILLIE P. HALE.
From the Picayune. The story of a young Virginian who lost his life at Cerro Gordo.

RW47v24n42p2c4, May 28, 1847, LATER FROM GEN. SCOTT’S ARMY.
From the Picayune, May 20. Correspondence from Vera Cruz, May 13 and from Jalapa, May 11. As well as a Proclamation to the Mexican people from Scott and reports from the Flag.

RW47v24n42p2c6, May 28, 1847, THIRD DRAGOON.
Troops previously ordered to join Gen. Taylor have been redirected. This seems to indicate that the Rio Grande Army will not move towards San Louis Potosi at this time.

RW47v24n42p4c1, May 28,1847: THE PEACE RUMORS.
Santa Anna appears to be raising up another army to defend the city, while Scott faces loss of volunteers.

RW47v24n42p4c1, May 28, 1847, UNTITLED.
Col. Butler, who commands the regiment of South Carolina Volunteers, writes to his governor that peace would be welcome.

RW47v24n42p4c2, May 28, 1847, THE NEW TARIFF FOR MEXICO.
Discussion on which country would benefit more from a proposed tariff.

RW47v24n42p4c2, May 28, 1847, GENERAL TAYLOR.
Compares his wild popularity in the army with the opinions of him in Europe.

RW47v24n42p4c2, May 28, 1847, A PROMPT RESPONSE.
Illinois quickly sends more regiments.

RW47v24n42p4c2, May 28, 1847, UNTITLED.
New York Sun publishes outrageous letter supposedly written in England to further their cause of “the whole or none” of Mexico. Similar articles were published in 1844 regarding the annexation of Texas.

RW47v24n42p4c4, May 28, 1847, FROM TEXAS.
Steamship Yacht arrived from Galveston on the 16th with the latest news including fears of the Camanches and movements of volunteers.

RW47v24n42p4c5, May 28, 1847, LATER FROM GEN. SCOTT’S ARMY.
From the Picayune May 18. Includes correspondence on the March on Puebla, Arrival of the Voluntters, and the return of Gen. Patterson, dated May 11 from Jalapa, May 8 from Vera Cruz as well as a proclamation from Santa Anna dated April 22 from Orizaba.

RW47v24n42p4c6, May 28, 1847, LATEST FROM SANTA FE AND CALIFORNIA.
From the St. Louis Republican, May 17. Reactions of the natives to the American occupation as well as reports of troops joining Gen. Kearny.

June

RW47v24i44p1c2, June 1, 1847 General Taylor
–Commentary on his character

RW47v24i44p2c1, June 1, 1847 General Taylor

RW47v24i44p2c2, June 1, 1847 The Battle of Buena Vista
–Stories of praise and heroism

RW47v24i44p2c3, June 1, 1847 To his Excellency James K Polk
–Criticizing actions in war

RW47v24i44p2c4, June 1, 1847 Later From the Brazos
–Court Marital

RW47v24i44p2c4, June 1, 1847 Inquiry in the case of Col. Bowles

RW47v24i44p2c5, June 1, 1847 Latest from Vera Cruz

RW47v24i44p3c1, June 1, 1847 Latest from Santa Fe

RW47v24i44p4c2, June 1, 1847 Movements of Troops

RW47v24i44p4c2, June 1, 1847 U.S Army Recruiting

RW47v24i45p1c1, June 4, 1847 General Scott's Proclamation
–To Mexican People

RW47v24i45p1c2, June 4, 1847 From the City of Mexico
–Resistance from citizens expected

RW47v24i45p1c2 From Mexico City

RW47v24i45p1c2, June 4, 1847 General La Vega
–Captured and he mistreated American POW's

RW47v24i45p1c4, June 4, 1847 To Richard S Coxe, Esquire
–US claims to Mexico debate

RW47v24i45p1c4, June 4, 1847 US army recruiting service

RW47v24i45p2c1, June 4, 1847 General Taylor and Mr. Clay

RW47v24i45p2c2, June 4, 1847 Treason

RW47v24i45p2c2, June 4, 1847 The Mexican clergy
–See war as an attack on Catholics

RW47v24i45p2c4, June 4, 1847 Address of the Clergy at San Louis to the People

RW47v24i45p2c4, June 4, 1847 From the Brazos

RW47v24i45p2c5, June 4, 1847 Arrival of steamship Palmetto
–From Vera Cruz

RW47v24i45p2c5, June 4, 1847 Election of President of Mexico

RW47v24i45p3c1, June 4, 1847 The News by the Rainbow
–Captured Vera Cruz

RW47v24i45p4c3, June 4, 1847 A letter from General Taylor

RW47v24i45p4c4, June 4, 1847 Later from General Scott's Army

RW47v24i45p4c4, June 4, 1847 From the Army of General Taylor

RW47v24i45p4c5, June 4, 1847 The Train From Vera Cruz
–War munitions

RW47v24i46p1c1, June 8, 1847 The Army
–About men serving only 12 months

RW47v24i46p1c2, June 8, 1847 Washington Letter Writers
–About General Scott's Proclamation

RW47v24i46p1c2, June 8, 1847 Major General Pillow
–Should not have been promoted

RW47v24i46p1c3, June 8, 1847 Ole Rough and Ready
–Speech given to new boys

RW47v24i46p1c4, June 8, 1847 Second Regiment of Tennessee Volunteers

RW47v24i46p1c4, June 8, 1847 To the Public
–About General Pillow

RW47v24i46p2c1, June 8, 1847 British Opinions
–About the war with Mexico

RW47v24i46p2c2, June 8, 1847 Peace or War

RW47v24i46p2c2, June 8, 1847 General Taylor

RW47v24i46p2c3, June 8, 1847 Likeness of Rough and Ready

RW47v24i46p3c1, June 8, 1847 Later from Santa Fe
–Ill health of soldiers

RW47v24i46p4c1, June 8, 1847 War's Ravages
–Disease and deaths due to war

RW47v24i46p4c3, June 8, 1847 From the Army of General Taylor
–Article about no news

RW47v24i46p4c4, June 8, 1847 From Santa Fe
–Heroes from town

RW47v24i46p4c5, June 8, 1847 News from the Steamer Palmetto

RW47v24i47p1c1, June 11, 1847 Colonel Harney
–About his good looks and charm

RW47v24i47p1c2, June 11, 1847 British Opinions
–US doesn't care about them

RW47v24i47p1c2, June 11, 1847 Mexican Territory
–Slavery issues

RW47v24i47p1c3, June 11, 1847 The Mexican Pirates
–US out to capture them

RW47v24i47p1c4, June 11, 1847 Further from Mexico

RW47v24i47p1c4, June 11, 1847 Mexico

RW47v24i47p1c4, June 11, 1847 From the Brazos

RW47v24i47p1c5, June 11, 1847 Texas
–Indians there causing trouble

RW47v24i47p2c1, June 11, 1847 Letter from Santa Anna

RW47v24i47p2c2, June 11, 1847 Conditions of Peace

RW47v24i47p2c6, June 11, 1847 To Arms To Arms

RW47v24i47p4c4, June 11, 1847 Very Late from the City of Mexico
–Elections

RW47v24i47p4c5, June 11, 1847 From the Army of General Taylor

RW47v24i47p4c6, June 11, 1847 Later from Vera Cruz

RW47v24i48p1c1, June 15, 1847 Affairs in Santa Fe

RW47v24i48p1c2, June 15, 1847 Waste of Public Money
–Army's wastefulness

RW47v24i48p1c5, June 15, 1847 Col. Doniphan's Return

RW47v24i48p2c1, June 15, 1847 The Mexican Tariff

RW47v24i48p2c3, June 15, 1847 General Taylor
–Letter From Taylor

RW47v24i48p2c4, June 15, 1847 Later from Mexico
–Arrival of Steamship New Orleans

RW47v24i48p2c5, June 15, 1847 Later from the army of General Taylor

RW47v24i48p4c2, June 15, 1847 Medical Department of the Army
–New Doctors

RW47v24i48p4c3, June 15, 1847 From General Taylor's Army

RW47v24i48p4c5, June 15, 1847 Later from Vera Cruz
–Steamship Fashion arrives

RW47v24i49p1c2, June 18, 1847 The Texas Treaty

RW47v24i49p1c3, June 18, 1847 General Pillow

RW47v24i49p1c3, June 18, 1847 State of the Corps

RW47v24i49p1c3, June 18, 1847 General Taylor

RW47v24i49p4c3, June 18, 1847 Prospect of Peace

RW47v24i49p4c4, June 18, 1847 Further from Mexico

RW47v24i49p4c4, June 18, 1847 American Prisoners

RW47v24i49p4c5, June 18, 1847 General Taylor's Movements

RW47v24i49p4c5, June 18, 1847 From Texas

RW47v24i50p2c1, June 22, 1847 Mexico

RW47v24i50p2c6, June 22, 1847 Army of General Taylor

RW47v24i50p2c7, June 22, 1847 Important from the City of Mexico

RW47v24i50p4c1, June 22, 1847 General Scott and his proclamation

RW47v24i50p4c2, June 22, 1847 The resignation of Santa Anna

RW47v24i50p4c5, June 22, 1847 Important from Mexico

RW47v24i50p1c1, June 22, 1847 Western Boundary of Texas

RW47v24i501c3, June 22, 1847 General Scott and Mr. Trist

RW47v24i50p2c1, June 22, 1847 The Last News

RW47v24i50p2c3, June 22, 1847 From Texas

RW47v24i50p2c5, June 22, 1847 Highly Important from Mexico

RW47v24i50p2c6, June 22, 1847 Later from Mexico

June 22, 1847, RWv24i50p4c3, From Vera Cruz

RW47v24i50p4c1, June 22, 1847 From the Seat of War

RW47v24i50p4c3, June 22, 1847 From Vera Cruz

RW47v24i51p1c2, June 25,1847 French Opinions

RW47v24i51p1c3, June 25,1847 General Taylor and The War

RW47v24i51p2c1, June 25,1847 Col. Dophinian's Expedition

RW47v24i51p2c5, June 25,1847 Later From Vera Cruz

RW47v24i51p4c1, June 25,1847 March to the Rio Grande

RW47v24i51p4c2, June 25,1847 General Taylor Meeting

RW47v24i51p4c5, June 25,1847 From the City of Mexico


January

RW47v24i2p1c3, January 5, 1847, Later from Tampico

The New Orleans Picayune of the 26th ultimo contains further news from Tampico. A private letter says:

“I can hear of nothing of interest from the interior. The general impression is that Herrera will be elected President of Mexico upon the opening of Congress, and that overtures of peace will be immediately made to our Government. This I conceive very probable, as the citizens are disposed for peace; but as soon as Santa Anna hears of such an occurrence his steps will be turned towards the capital, and whoever is elected President will enjoy his functions but for a short time.”

The Picayune has no faith in the opinion above expressed, of the good disposition of the Mexicans, never having met with a trace of such feeling in any of their pepers.

The El Echo de Tampico, of the 12th inst. contains a further correspondence between Gen. Taylor and Santa Anna, only one passage of which is important. General Taylor writes from Saltillo, on the 20th of November, acknowledging the courtesy of Santa Anna in releasing seven American prisoners. He then quotes from the terms of the armistice of Monterey, to justify our Government in putting an end to it– and concludes by expressing the hope that the Mexican Congress will accept the offer of the U. States, and enter into negotiations for the termination of hostilities and the establishment of a permanent peace. Santa Anna replied on the 24th , and concludes his letter as follows:

“I will conclude this note by assuring you that I entertain the hope that the sovereign National Congress, which is immediately to be installed, will act as shall be most conducive to the interests of the Republic; but I believe that I do not deceive myself in assuring you, that neither the Congress, nor any Mexican, will ever be able to listen to overtures of peace unless the national territory be first evacuated by the forces of the United States, and the hostile attitude of their vessels of war be withdrawn. This must be without a doubt the preliminary of whatever negotiation may be opened; and it may be permitted to me to declare to you, that the nation, moved by a sentiment of patriotism, and determined to defend at every hazard and inch by inch its territory, will never cease to qualify as it deserves, and as the world has already qualified it, the conduct of the United States; and it will do whatever it can and ought honorably to deserve the title which it bears of independent and free.”

The Picayune says that no other part of the correspondence is important; but here we have expressed the determination of the Mexican people in the energetic words of their ablest leader.

Com. Conner left Tampico on the 11th ult. for Anton Lizardo. Upon his arrival there an expedition will sail for Laguna, and it is believed to be his intention to occupy Tabasco permanently.
[MPR]


RW47v24i2p1c3, January 5, 1847 Departure of the Troops.

Four companies of the first battalion if Virginia Volunteers left this city yesterday morning for Old Point:

The Richmond Grays, Capt. Robert G. Scott, jr.;
The Richmond Rangers, Capt. E. C. Carrington, jr.;
The Alexandria Volunteers, Capt. J. H. Corse;
The Carolina Volunteers, Capt. Smith P. Bankhead.
The fifth company, the Petersburg Volunteers, commanded by Capt. Fletcher H. Archer, we understand, were to meet their comrades at City Point.
The Staunton Volunteers, Capt. Kenton Harper, we understand, will go down to Old Point on Wednesday.

On Saturday, the Volunteers were addressed, we learn, in an impressive and eloquent manner by the Rev. Dr. Plumer.
[MPR]


RW47v24i2p1c5, January 5, 1847

Richmond, January 2d, 1847.

To the Editors of the Richmond Whig:

Gentlemen– An article (Editorial) in your paper of this morning relative to the Volunteers, is well calculated to produce and has produced an erroneous impression in regard to my company. You speak of it as one of the companies to compose the 2nd Battalion of the Virginia Regiment, if I shall succeed in making out my roll– (I do not quote your language, not having the paper before me.) I have already a sufficient number of men to muster into the service, but they are scattered over the State, and cannot get here for several days. My company has been accepted by the Governor, and will constitute part of the Virginia Regiment.

You will oblige me by correcting the erroneous impression you have created.

Respectfully, &c.
WM. B. ARCHER.

[MPR]


RW47v24i2p1c5, January 5, 1847:

From the Lynchburg Virginian, Dec. 31

A note from Major Jubal A. Early, of the Virginia Regiment, informs us that he has failed to raise a full company in Franklin and the adjoining counties, fifty–five being the highest number enrolled. The great obstacle has been the want of a place of rendezvous, and the means sustaining the Volunteers while the company is filling up– it being as difficult nearly to re–assemble the men as to recruit them in the first instance.

Major Early expects to be in Lynchburg, on Saturday, and to bring with him as many as possible of those whose names have been enrolled in Franklin, Henry & Bedford. He hopes here to be joined by patriotic young men of the Town and surrounding counties, and that a Company, to represent this quarter of the State, may yet be organized, and, should this be impossible, he will conduct all who may meet him to Richmond where they can join some of the Companies whose ranks are not yet full. Major Early asks if Lynchburg will not follow the patriotic example set her by other Towns in the State and provide quarters and sustenance for the Volunteers whilst here. We think we may safely answer in the affirmative for our citizens.

We sincerely hope Major Early may take to Richmond a full Company, in whose Welfare, though not its immediate commander, he would feel a particular interest.
[MPR]


RW47v24i2p1c5, January 5, 1847, Marriage of a Volunteer.

Yesterday afternoon, at East Boston, Henry Carney, one of Capt. Webster’s company, was married to Miss Alvira Bent. Lieut. Kelley, officer of the day, allowed an escort of thirteen men in uniform, with side arms, under Sergeant Stearns, to accompany the bridegroom from the quarters in Pitt Street to East Boston, and witness the wedding. A furlough of forty eight hours was also allowed the bridegroom.

In the forenoon twenty men of this company, in uniform, attended the Rev. Mr. Taylor’s church.

The reverend gentleman availed himself of the circumstances to discourse eloquently upon the duties of patriotism, and at the close of the service he prayed that the young defenders of their country present, and their brethren in arms, might go forth to battle armed with the breast plate of righteousness, and be sustained in the hour of utmost danger by a sure hope in Christ.– Boston Post.
[MPR]


RW47v24i2p1c6, January 5, 1847, Revolution in Campeachy– Revolution in Tabasco.

From the New Orleans Picayune, Dec. 26.

We have received, through a respectable commercial house of this city, accounts from Campeachy to the 9th inst., and from Tabasco to the 18th of November. The documents before us are not complete, but we infer from them there was another pronunciamento made at Campeachy on the 8th of December.

We have an address dated the 8th by Domingo Barret in which he alludes to the formal pronunciamento and yields a reluctant acquiescence the wishes of his fellow citizens, and presents himself as the chief of the glorious revolution which was that day commenced, and swears to discharge his duty with loyalty and purity. We would give the whole of this address, but that these convulsions in Yucatan are of very little moment of themselves, and that the address of Senor Barret does not very clearly point out the wrongs which by the revolution are sought to be redressed.

As the revolution broke out on the 8th and our advices are only to the 9th inst. we are unable to say how far Senor Barret has succeeded.

We come now to the pronunciamento of the garrison of Tabasco. This is dated the 19th of Nov., in the city of San Juan Bautista de Tabasco, so recently blockaded by Com. Perry. The officers assembled at the quarters of the commandant general, Juan Bautista Traconis, allege that full representations had been made to the Supreme Government of the defenceless state of their department, and of the recent invasion of it by the Americans; and that the Government had in substance denied all their prayers for aid. They allege that the Central Government only uses Tabasco for its convenience– drawing a revenue from it and appointing to office therein; but taking no heed to its internal welfare or protection from foreign enemies. They complain that General Salas and his ministers are exclusively occupied in domestic quarrels, and in accruing their own places; that the independence and security of the country are of secondary importance with them. In proof of this the abandonment of Tampico is cited and the indifference manifested towards the protection of Tabasco, threatened by the American squadron. By all these considerations, and others– really “too numerous to mention”– they are induced to declare as follows: First. The State of Tabasco disavows the Government of the Republic, whilst no effort is made to preserve the integrity of the national territory. Second . The same State being compelled by conduct of the said Government to provide for her own security and defence, will regulate her internal administration upon basis more liberal and adequate to the circumstances of the existing war.

These two articles were approved by acclamation, and a third was then adopted, appointing Senor Traconis, named above, as the head of the revolution, in consideration of his heroic defence of the State from the invasion of the American squadron in the month of October. Private letters would lead us to suppose that a design is entertained of uniting with Yucatan in throwing off the Central Government; but the “lights before us” are quite too faint to authorize us to assert this positively. We note that in the document before us there is little of that bitterness evinced towards the United States, when they are mentioned, which we are accustomed to find in all public papers from other parts of the Republic. At the same time, there is nothing in the least conciliatory in the language employed.
[MPR]


RW47v24i2p1c6, January 5, 1847

From the N. O. Picayune, Dec. 26

From Galveston.– The steamship Palmetto, Captain Smith arrived last evening from Galveston, whence she sailed on Tuesday, the 22nd inst.

The Palmetto encountered a heavy gale on her last passage to Galveston. In the midst of it she took fire, and there was for some time the utmost possible alarm among the passengers. The fire was ultimately subdues and found to have proceeded from some spirits of turpentine which was upset in the steward’s pantry, and set on fire by a lamp placed there.

There is a story in the Galveston News, told by a teamster recently from Mexico to the effect that Col. Riley was recently surrounded, at Morelos, by 5000 Mexicans under Gen. Urrea, and that there was no hope of Col. R.’s escape. We do not believe a word of it.

We find a few items of local news in our Texas files of interest. There was some talk that the Indians on the frontiers were making hostile demonstrations, but no actual depredations had been committed.
[MPR]


RW47v24i2p1c6, January 5, 1847, Desertions from the American Army.

A correspondent of the New Orleans Tropic, writing from Monterey, on the 27th ultimo, says:

This morning three Mexicans were arrested on a charge of trying to induce some of our men to desert– One of them is the son of the Alcalde, and I think it will go hard with them. Gen. Taylor was in town, and told them that unless some three or four men, who had been seduced off, were brought back in a given time, he would hang them in the Plaza. This business induced me to make inquiry as to the number of men who had deserted from our ranks, and was told that not less than fifty had gone over to the enemy since the capitulation of Monterey; but I am proud to state that none of them were native–born Americans.”
[MPR]


RW47v24i2p1c6, January 5, 1847, The Mexican General Valencia.

The recent advices from Mexico, mention the arrival in the vicinity of San Luis, of General Valencia, at the head of eight thousand men. This force will be a valuable addition to Santa Anna’s army, inasmuch as a portion of it has been raised in the mining districts of Guanajuato, which are inhabited by a bold and hardy class of men. That Don Gabriel Valencia the commander of these 8000 men, is one of the best generals in Mexico cannot be doubted. Santa Anna has lately appointed him his second in command; and he would not have done this, had he not entertained the highest opinion of Valencia’s abilities.– [N.Y. Courier.
[MPR]


RW47v24i2p2c2, January 5, 1847

Washington, Jan. 3 1847 – midnight.

Col. Baker, of Illinois, left the city for the West this morning, by the Ohio river. He will visit his wife at Springfield, in Illinois, and then proceed to join his regiment in Mexico.

Among the strangers now in town I notice Gen. Waddy Thompson of S. C. who arrived by the Southern boat this evening. Lieut. Potter, who was wounded at Monterey, arrived last night. He is moving about on crutches.

It is said that there will be an explanation tomorrow or next day between Messrs. Davis and Bayly. It is also again said that we are to have a Message on the Lt. Generalship to–morrow from the President.

There is not much news of importance here to–day. Some people expect that Mr. Walker will resign, from the vote of the House yesterday. I do not think he will.

I presume Congress will take hold of business in earnest to–morrow. Is it not time?

The “Colombia Typographical Society” celebrated their Thirty–Second Anniversary, by a supper at Congress Hall, last evening. Among the speakers were Messrs. Ritchis of the Union, and Isaac Hall if New Hampshire. The speeches, toasts, songs, sentiments, &c. were excellent. There were two or three odes, songs, &c. The party did not break up ‘til a late, or rather early, hour.
[MPR]


RW47v24i2p2c3, January 5, 1847, Too Late!

The Rockingham Register of the 2d. inst. informs us that two companies of volunteers are now in the process of formation in that county– (the Tenth Legion.) One company, it says, is nearly full, and expected to proceed to the election of officers last Saturday. The roll of the other, it says, was “filling up,” and with a little extra exertion it was thought it would be ready soon to take the field. We are glad to see that the Tenth Legion has been waked up, even though it be at the eleventh hour. We apprehend, however, that the companies from that quarter will be too late!
[MPR]


RW47v24i2p2c3, January 5, 1847

We regret to learn that one of the members of Capt. Carrington’s company of Volunteers, whose name we could not learn, was accidentally drowned, on Sunday last, after the departure of the battalion from this city. We have not learned minutely the particulars; but understand that in attempting to get into a small boat, it keeled over, precipitating him into the river, from which he could not be rescued until life was extinct.
[MPR]


RW47v24i2p2c4, January 5, 1847, THE WAR. The Last Campaign– Future Operations.

From the N. O. Picayune, Dec. 27.

The annexed criticism upon the operations of the Army in Mexico is from the pen of a gentleman who is every inch a soldier. Its temper is unexceptionable, and its reasoning is deserving of the most serious consideration. Whatever opinions may be entertained respecting the conclusions to which the writer has arrived, it will be conceded that he scrutinizes the past with a military eye and predicts the future with the boldness of a mind convinced of the accuracy of its deductions.

In regard to the advance of Gen. Wool upon Chihuahua, the views of the writer are in accordance with opinions we have time and again expressed. The uselessness or impracticality of that expedition became apparent to Gen. Wool himself, as he abandoned it without accomplishing anything. The consequences of this military mistake are discussed by our correspondent. Whether all the results contended for would have been attained had the disposition suggested by him been made of Gen. Wool’s army, is in some measure a matter of speculation; but he gives good reasons for his opinions, whilst the failure of Gen. Wool to achieve the objects contemplated in the formation of that army shows that its destination was a military error.

It is very probable that the opinions of our correspondent as to the future begin to prevail in high quarters. His views as to what should be done are given with that same distinctness as his observations upon what has already transpired. It is to be hoped that the Government will not be deterred, by fear of the cost, from putting the next campaign upon the most ample basis in regard to all the appointments necessary to its efficiency. Whatever is required in this behalf will be conceded by Congress and the country with alacrity. The carping of those, who “count the cost only” in considering military events, should not be heeded, as they would make the same ado if the war cost fifty cents or fifty millions. In nothing is it so true as in military operations, that parsimony is the worst kind of extravagance.

But enough of introductory. We again invite attention to the subjoined letter, which deserves the more consideration as it is firm and candid in tone without a particle of the complaining irritability which too often imparts to writings upon this subject the character of fault–finding strictures against the Government.

Monterey, Mexico, Dec. 9, 1846.

In writing of the operations of the campaign, I beg that I may not be classed among the “scribblers from the army,” who write only to trumpet forth their own fame and that of their corps– doing justice to none, injustice to many, and blinding the people as to the operations of the Army. Such letters are read with deep regret, for they are disparaging to the reputation and good name of the American soldiery. I suppose the people are, and indeed ought to be satisfied with the achievements of the Army. We have accomplished a great deal under many difficulties and trammels, and having done so much we must claim the privilege of pointing out those difficulties and trammels, of showing cause why they never should have existed, and proving that had they not existed we should be much further advanced in attaining our object– as advantageous peace.

The fundamental principle in war it “to operate, with superior forces, a combined movement on a decisive point,” and no plan of campaign can be promptly successful unless framed on this principle, particularly where it is the intention to act entirely on the offensive. Unfortunately for our Government this principle did not enter as an element in the present plan of campaign, and all operations growing out of it are necessarily directly opposed to it. Had we met an enterprising enemy, this defect in the present plan of campaign would have been rendered much more apparent, and its failure much more signal by defeat in detail. Suppose Gen. Wool, with his force and enormous supply of transportation and subsistence, had been concentrated on Gen. Taylor, would the latter have marched on Monterey with on 6000 men, not having more than enough transportation to carry subsistence for that number, and having to leave behind him his battery train on that account? Gen. Taylor had not sufficient transportation, with a depot as near as Cerralvo in his rear, to transport with his Army of 6000 men a supply to subsist it longer than two days after the 24th, (the day of the capitulation,) and had during the engagement to dispatch his train back to Cerralvo. Had this concentration been effected, Gen. Taylor would have had with his army before Monterey one month’s supplies, when he could have enforced an unconditional surrender of the town and forces, or followed on their rear in retreat and eventually have captured or massacred Ampudia’s entire army.

Had not the Chihuahua expedition been planned, and had the force and supplies of that army been promptly concentrated on Gen. Taylor, we would have been before Monterey eight weeks sooner, when it might have been taken without firing a gun. And why was this Chihuahua expedition a portion of the plan of campaign? Was it not reasonable to suppose that after our victories before Matamoros, our enemy would occupy and hold, as strategic points, Monterey and Saltillo, covering the strongest passes in the Sierra Madre and having San Luis Potosi as a base of operations? San Luis should then have been in the plan of campaign, the objective point, and all of our energies should have been exerted on this line. As it turns out, Gen. Kearney takes New Mexico without firing a gun, and after the battle of Monterey Gen. Wool arrives at Monclova, and reports his advance on Chihuahua as useless, whilst our enemy, whipped at Monterey, abandons Saltillo and concentrates at San Luis, which he never could have done had Gen. Wool’s army been promptly united with Gen. Taylor’s. Owing to this error in the plan of campaign our enemy not only gained time to fortify and fight at Monterey, but as a natural consequence from it, he also gained time to concentrate at San Luis. With the combined material of the two armies the objective point, San Luis, might have been gained, and, by a decisive action with Ampudia’s forces alone, at that point, the campaign might have ended, and probably the war. These are some of the difficulties under which we have labored, and but for which our Army could have done much more for the country. By these Gen. Taylor has been trammelled in his operations, and has not had an opportunity to display to the world what he could have done, had the plan of campaign been framed on military principles.

But let us look a little further into the difficulties growing out of and caused by the present plan of campaign. What is the relative position of our own and the enemy’s forces at this time? Santa Anna has beyond doubt concentrated at San Luis 37,000 men; he holds a central position which, with his force, cannot be approached from this direction even by superior forces, owing to the scarcity of water, which, on a large portion of the route, is held in tanks, and entirely at the disposal of the enemy. He holds himself invincible at that point, relying on the strength of Vera Cruz to resist attack, which must be taken before we can approach him by gaining his rear.

The number of Gen. Taylor’s army is very far overrated, even by the Union, which seems to estimate it at the actual volunteer force sent into the field and the regular force prescribed by law, without any allowance for the diminution of his force from casualties and sickness, which has far exceeded what might have been reasonably anticipated under the most unfavorable circumstances. Whatever may be thought of the strength of our force in Mexico at this date, I assert, and without fear of contradiction, that not more than fourteen thousand effective men could be brought into action to–morrow morning out of the whole army in the field. Now, what disposition of this inferior force necessarily results from the plan of the campaign? San Luis cannot be approached from this direction, and to go at our enemy we must approach him on another line. But the all important passes in the Sierra Madre must be held, to prevent our enemy from gaining our rear; and our forces, although inferior to the enemy in numbers, are necessarily scattered, whilst Santa Anna can operate en masse on any point. Thus we find ourselves compelled to operate on multiple lines, on an extended front, with an inferior force, whilst our enemy holds a single line of operations, and an interior one. This immense advantage to the enemy results entirely from the defective plans of campaign, and the only remedy is to form a new one, by which an increased force of 30,000 men must be concentrated on some decisive point. Vera Cruz and San Juan de Ulloa must be taken; then, and not till then, will Mexican generals and soldiers begin to think that their arms are not invincible, and not till then will the Mexican people mistrust the prowess of their army. The fall of Vera Cruz and San Juan de Ulloa may be a strong inducement to cause them to sue for peace, but I confidently believe that we will even then have to advance and fight the enemy at whatever point he may select. The Mexicans have no idea of making peace– even the private families in this town teach their children to hate Americans, and to lisp the name of Santa Anna as the saviour of their country, who is to whip the Americans whenever he meets them. It is absurd to think of peace unless our Government will take prompt and efficient measure to strike some decisive blow. Our force must be increased, the necessary subordination of military operations to the measure of supplies must be better considered, and the plans of campaign must be in strict accordance with military science. Then will our general in the field show to the world that he is not the man to win a battle and lose its advantages.

Yours truly, N.

[MPR]


RW47v24i2p2c5, January 5, 1847, Latest from the Army.

From the New Orleans Times, Dec. 28.

The U.S. Steamer Fashion, Capt. Fullerton, from Brazos, which place she left on the 24th inst, via. Matagorda Bar and Galveston, arrived here late last night. She brought up a very large mail from the interior of Mexico, and Capt. Yeatman bearer of dispatched from Washington. The letters will not be distributed until this morning. The following items, however, have been kindly communicated to us, bye Col. J.G. Langdon, of New Orleans, who came passenger by the Fashion.

General Wool’s Division.– General Wool was encamped within two miles of the cit of Parras, his force amounting, by the field reports, to 2,900 mean. He is ordered there to establish a depot, and to levy upon all supplies belonging to the Mexican Government. He has already taken large quantities of flour wheat and corn.

The first and second Regiments of Indiana Volunteers were on their march from Camargo to join Gen. Wool.

Gen. Worth was at Saltillo, in command of 1500 men, and the command of Monterey has been assigned to Gen. Butler with 2000 men to garrison it.

Gen. Twiggs and Gen. P.H. Smith, with their respective commands, were at Victoria, and Gen. Quitman with his Brigade, left Monterey for Victoria on the 14th inst.

Gen. Taylor with a squadron of Dragoons, also left for Victoria on the 15th inst.

Gen. Patterson was to have left on the 22nd inst., accompanied by the Tennessee Regiment of Cavalry, for Tampico via Victoria.

The Alabama Regiment of Volunteers, and the 2nd Regiment of U. States Artillery, had arrived there already. The city was in command of Gen. Shields.

Lieut, Col. Henry Clay, with six companies of the 2d Regiment of Kentucky volunteers, was at Ceralvo. Capt. Willis was at Mier with two companies of the same regiment, and Capt. (Gen. M.B. Lamar) with a company, is stationed at Laredo.

The U.S. Steamer Major Brown, Capt, Steerling, was at Laredo, the stage of the river being such that she could not navigate it. Lieut. Tilden is about to remove the obstructions in the river, which, if successful, will enable the steamer Major Brown to go up to Camargo.

Col. Marshall is confined in consequence of injuries received in falling from his horse, but was fast recovering.

An express had reached Gen. Patterson to the effect that Santa Anna was advancing upon San Luis Potosi and Saltillo, for the purpose of cutting off Gen. Worth.

About 450 regulars were to have left Camargo on the 20th for Monterey; among them were Capts. Keer’s and Hunter’s commands of the second regiment of dragoons.

The Mexican Government Recruiting in the Valley of the Rio Grande.– The Mexicans are making great exertions to raise troops in all the small Mexican towns on the Rio Grande, and with some success. About the 15th inst. Capt. Stone, with a detachment of 70 men, proceeded to a rancho up the Rio San Juan, a distance of thirty seven miles, where he found about 200 Mexicans collected, and among them Capt. Cantooa, who was the particular object of his search. Capt. C. was captured, and the muster–roll of his company, and letters of instruction from Gens. Ampudia and Paredes, with a quantity of blankets, 50 stands of arms, ammunition, &c. were secured. Capt. Cantooa was carried to Camargo, and put in prison.

On the evening of the 16th inst. a Mexican was taken by the guards at Camargo, having made an entry into the powder magazine with a design, it is supposed, of blowing it up.

Passengers.– The Fashion has brought hither, form the Brazos, nineteen cabin passengers, among whom is Captain Yeatman, aid–de–camp to General Wool, and it is understood he is bearer of dispatches to Washington. There are also on board, eighty discharged volunteers, together with the remains of young Allison, from Nashville, Tenn. who was shot at Monterey.

John Chistick, one of the Indiana Volunteers, dies at sea, on the 24th inst. thirteen miles north of Brazos Island; and was buried in the mighty deep.
[MPR]


RW47v24i2p2c5, January 5, 1847, Tampico Attacked! ––– Repulse of the Mexicans!

We learn from a passenger just arrived from Tampico, on the schooner H.M. Johnson, and who came up to the city from the South–west Pass, on the steamer Fashion, that on the 16th instantm Tampico had been attacked by 7000 Mexican cavalry, thinking to carry the place by a coup de main: our troops, however, were on the alert, and on their approach, opened on them a brisk fire of artillery, when they broke and fled.
[MPR]


RW47v24i2p2c5, January 5, 1847

[Correspondence of the Picayune.]

Tampico, December 9, 1946.

Gentlemen– This little town has shaken of the lethargy incident to blockade, and already presents a very lively and bustling appearance. We not only have the usual activity attendant upon a military and naval depot, but arrivals of vessels from your port, bringing provisions and dry good for the Mexicans, are daily occurring. Much disappointment has been occasioned to the adventurers, as for the present nothing is needed in the way of provisions except for the immediate consumption of such of the inhabitants of the town as have not been frightened off by the advent of los Americanos.

All communication with the interior has been interdicted by the Mexican authorities, and the country immediately in the neighborhood of Tampico is so thinly inhabited that for the present there exists no demand for the cargoes arriving. The cargo of the schooner Home, from New Orleans, was sold at auction on the 5th inst. Flour, 55 bbls., at $7.50; potatoes, 60 bbls., at $1.50, and other articles in proportion. Another, per schooner Velasco, consisting principally of dry goods, has been placed in store.

The state of things will continue until communication with the interior is opened by the American troops, and should San Luis Potosi be taken possession of, doubtless the business of this place will be of some importance, as the Mexicans are willing and ready enough to trade with us, but are restrained by fear of their own authorities, and without their license have no facilities for transporting goods into the interior. But Tampico, although of immense importance to our government as a naval and military depot, will not possess as great advantages for commerce as Matamoros during the existence of the war.

I find the foreign residents here very much embittered against the Americans, and are greatly annoyed by our possession of the port. We have not only effectually closed their business during the blockade, but now we run in our domestic manufactures at prices that annihilate any competition from their stocks, that have been entered under the exorbitant Mexican tariff. They deny our right to open the port for our exclusive use. This is a question I will leave diplomatists to settle, but I believe it would be policy in our government to establish a custom house here, and admit all foreign vessels and merchandize upon the same terms as if entered at any port in the United States. Then we can claim the same privilege with foreign powers when they get by the ears, which happens more frequently than with ourselves, by which means we will eventually reap more benefits than can accrue to us from the exclusive entrance of all the Mexican seaports.

Tampico, Dec. 12, 1846

Gentlemen– Commodore Conner left yesterday for Anton Lizardo in the Princeton. Upon his arrival there an expedition will sail for Laguna, and I believe it is his intention to occupy Tabasco permanently. At the capture of this place three Mexican gun–boats, among other crafts, fell into the hands of the Americans. These schooners were built by Brown & Bell, in New York, and are the twin sisters of the Reefer, Bonita, and Petrel; so there are now 5 vessels in the Gulf squadron precisely alike, all of them beauties to look at but rather rum tuns to go, their draft of water being too light to make them crack sailors; however, the efficiency of the fleet for the shoal waters of this coast has been enhanced by their acquisition.

The troops here are enjoying the benefit of excellent quarters and a fine climate, and although some cases of intermittent fever were prevalent the general health of the place is good. I hear this town spoken of by the officers as being preferable to any in Mexico where they have yet been. This I can very readily believe– it is sufficiently large to enable one to procure good accommodations and fish, flesh, and fowl abound, and in quality the very best– game of all kinds, with the delicate palm cabbage of the country, and fruit superior to that of Havana should satisfy the fastidiousness of any epicure.

Although there are at present only some 700 regulars stationed here, a considerable additional force could be organized in case of any attack upon the town.
[MPR]


RW47v24i2, January 5, 1847, Government Map of Mexico.

FOURTH EDITION,

Is just published and for sale at the Exchange Bookstore.

A plan of the harbor of Vera Cruz, with the castle of San Juan de Ulloa, &c., have been added to this edition, which now affords a most complete view of the Hest of War. Texas, the Californias, &c., &c.

As this map has been adopted by the Army, the publisher complains that several imitations of it have been issued, and palmed upon the public as original Maps. Among these is one disguised under a Spanish title, which is a copy of the old edition of the Government map, made without the consent of the Publisher, several years ago, and now imposed upon the public as a new map.

C.F. Fisher, Agent,
Under the Exchange Hotel.
[MPR]


RW47v24i2p4c1, January 5, 1847, The Virginia Regiment. The 10th Legion.

As we mentioned yesterday, the first battalion of the Virginia regiment of Volunteers will leave this city next Sunday morning. The second battalion will, we presume, be soon ready for the field– consisting of one company from Caroline, under Capt. Bankhead; one from Montgomery, under Capt. Preston; one from Berkely, under Capt. Alburtis; one from Richmond, under Capt. Wm. B. Archer, (provided its organization be effected in time;) and one from Jefferson county, of the organization of which we were not apprized, until we received the Charlestown Free Press of the 31st ultimo– and which we have not heretofore “failed to notice,” as that paper gratuitously insinuates– with what motives its editor best knows– for the purpose of “disparaging the services” of volunteers from the other side of the Blue Ridge. Whence the editor could have imbibed an impression so ridiculous and improbable, we confess we are at a loss to conjecture. The officers in the Jefferson company are: John W. Rowan, Captain; John Avis, 1st Lieutenant; Lawrence B. Washington, 1st Second Lieutenant; and Wm. McCormick, 2d. Second Lieutenant.

We regret that the companies now forming in Pittsylvania, ander the lead of J. Roy Cabell, and in Franklin and Bedford under the lead of Early, Talisferro and others, as well as those in the course of organization in other sections of the Commonwealth , must necessarily be disappointed.

En passant: The Enquirer of yesterday says, “the Richmond Whig continues its work of defaming the Tenth Legion,” and charges us with “endeavoring to blacken its patriotism in time of war.” How have we “defamed” the Tenth Legion? Will the Enquirer be good enough to tell us in what consists the slander we have uttered? We have said the Tenth Legion has sent no soldiers to the field. Is this not true? We have intimated pretty broadly that she ought to have been more active in sustaining by her services in the field the policy of an Administration which, by her vote, she has contributed to inflict upon this country. Is this defamation? If it be, then her own people have defamed her– for the Rockingham Register, a Locofoco oracle in that region, has, on more than one occasion, declared that the “Old Tenth” ought to send at least one company to the field, to stand by the side in battle of the fine corps furnished by her “federal” sister Augusta! Did we “defame” the Tenth Legion, or “blacken its patriotism,” when, a day or two ago, we admitted that “no Whig county in the State can furnish braver men or better patriots, than that section of the Commonwealth– as we verily believed then, and still believe? This, surely, will not be pretended. In what, then, we ask the Enquirer, does the “defamation” with which it charges us consist? We think that it will puzzle the editors of the paper to say, unless they give to the word a definition very different from its received import.

In answer to the Enquirer’s catechism, we reply, that it is not “a reproach to any county not to have raised a company” for the war– certainly not to any Whig county, upon which rests no peculiar obligation to furnish soldiers fro a war of invasion, brought on, as they believe, without necessity, and by an act of usurpation on the part of the President; and especially while other counties, which assisted by almost an unanimous vote in elevating that President to office, and which, by equal unanimity, it is presumed, still approve of his policy, war and all, stand aloof from the contest, when the bugle calls them, no “To the polls!” but “To arms!” We do think that a peculiar obligation rested upon the counties comprising the district known as the “Tenth Legion,” as well upon the Southwestern tier known as “Little Tennessee,” to furnish at least one company each, in compliance with the requisition of the President. Their failure to do so is unquestionably a fair subject of comment and criticism– even, if you please, for “sneers.” But we have not “defamed,” nor have we “blackened the patriotism” of the “sturdy Democracy” of Shenandoah, Page and Rockingham. We have stated a fact in regard to them. If that is defamation, we have defamed them. We have left this fact to speak for itself. If the “patriotism” of those to whom it refers has been “blackened,” it has not been by any remark of ours, but by the naked fact itself .

We do not doubt, and never have doubter, that in that fine portion of Virginia, which we have never “defamed,” in peace or at war– unless, we repeat, the statement of a fact be defamation– there is as much true courage and ardent patriotism as in any other section of the Commonwealth. We do not attribute its failure to send a corps of volunteers to the field to any deficiency in either of these qualities. But this admission does not in the least conflict with the opinion that the Tenth Legion has, from some cause or other, been strangely derelict in having failed to perform a duty, which, from its past and present relations to the author of the war in which we are engaged, it ought to have eagerly discharged. It ought not certainly to have permitted “federal Augusta, ” lying upon its very borders, to shame, by her zeal in the prosecution of a war entered into by an Administration not at all to her liking, the apathy and indifference of communities which ought to have felt a livelier interest in the triumph of the Administration of their choice.
[MPR]


RW47v24i2p4c1, January 5, 1847, Col. Matthew Mountjoy Payne

During the recent visit of this veteran officer to Goochland, the county of his nativity, he was invited to partake of a public dinner, but his anxiety to rejoin immediately the army in Mexico, the wound received at Palo Alto having sufficiently healed to enable him to resume active service, compelled him to decline the honor. The correspondence will appear to–morrow.

The Augusta Volunteers, on leaving Staunton, were accompanied some distance on the way by a large number of citizens of that town; and when about to bid them a final adieu, Littleton Waddell, Esq. addressed them in a very feeling and appropriate manner, and Capt. Harper briefly responded on behalf of the company.

The County Court of Augusta ordered a Flag, with suitable devices, to be procured for the company, and Judge Briscoe G. Baldwin consented, as the organ of the court, to present it. In his reply to the application, Judge B., after remarking on the feelings which bind him to the county of Augusta, says: “I am proud to be the bearer of her flag on any occasion, and it is with deep emotion that I undertake to place it in hands by which it can never be dishonored.”
[MPR]


RW47v24i2p4c2, January 5, 1847, General Scott.

This officer left New Orleans on the 23d ultimo, in the steamship Alabama, for the seat of war. The correspondent in that city of the Charleston Courier relates the following incident, which occurred prior to his departure.

“Gen. Scott found it necessary to have one in his staff familiar with the Spanish language, and a Mr. Gomes, who was I understand strongly recommended by one or two high government officers, was the one selected. He received yesterday a commission as Lieut. Col. of Dragoons from Gen. Scott, and was formally mustered into the U. States service. Immediately upon this, the strongest representations were made to the General about this man, who is pretty well known as the Editor of a Spanish paper La Patria, which has taken strong ground against our government in the present war, and in which some articles thoroughly Mexican (i.e. almost treasonable,) have appeared and been severely commented on. He was spoken of as a Mexican at heart, and the very last man who should occupy a confidential station about the person of the Commander–in–Chief. These statements, which came from men of both political parties, had their effect, and to–day the commission has been revoked, to the satisfaction of every one.”
[MPR]


RW47v24i2p4c2, January 5, 1847

The following gentlemen are officers in Capt. Bankhead’s company of volunteers: Smith P. Bankhead of Caroline, Captain; Thomas Garnett of Essex, 1 st; Robert F. Coleman of Fredericksburg, 2d,and [ ... ] Mahan of Philadelphia, 3d. Lieutenant.
[MPR]


RW47v24i2p4c2, January 5, 1847

The Berkeley Volunteers yesterday paid their respects to Gov. Smith, and were welcomed by an appropriate speech.
[MPR]


RW47v24i2p4c2, January 5, 1847

Louis G. De Russy, a graduate of West Point, has been chosen Colonel of the new regiment of volunteers from Louisiana, and Frances Degault, Major. The Lieut. Colonel is yet to be appointed.
[MPR]


RW47v24i2p4c3, January 5, 1847, A Singular Fact.

[Communicated.

The Democracy brought the present war upon the country in spite of all the efforts of the Whigs to prevent it. But, after the war was declared, the parties seem to have changed places. The Whigs are for coming to the rescue and fighting it out, whilst the Democracy hang back!

As a proof of this singular state of things, I refer to the very extraordinary fact, that every company of volunteers which have yet been raised in Virginia, was raised in a Whig county or city. Not one has been raised in a Democratic county or city, (unless Montgomery, in which parties are about equally divided, may be so regarded.) Richmond, Petersburg, Norfolk, and Alexandria are all Whig cities. Berkeley, Jefferson, and Augusta are all Whig counties. Where is the company from the Tenth Legion, or Halifax, or Isle of Wight, or Little Tennessee? Echo answers, where? This is a pretty commentary on the President’s Message and the diatribes of his cuckoo of the Union! The Whigs of 1846 are very much like their ancestors of 1776– they go for their country.

A Whig Son of a Whig Father.
[MPR]


RW47v24i2p4c3, January 5, 1847, Col. John F. Hamtramck.

From the Charleston Free Press, Dec. 31.

It will be seen, in another column, that Major John F. Hamtramck, of Sheperdstown, has received the appointment of Colonel of the Virginia Regiment. This is a most distinguished compliment, as we understand there were upwards of fifty applicants for this post of honor, embracing in their number some of the choicest spirits and most gallant souls in the Old Dominion.

This honor is not confined alone to the officer on whom it is conferred, but may justly be considered as one in which Jefferson county has a right to partake.

Col. Hamtramck is an old and experienced officer, being engaged in various capacities during the late war. He served with Gen. Taylor at the time when that officer “fleshed his maiden sword,” and culled the first laurels that entwine his brow.

He served under Gen. Taylor (then Major) as a Sergeant during the war of 1814, in the spring of which year, they were together in an attack on a body of Indians on the North Western frontier. In the spring of 1814, the startling news reached St. Louis, of the capture of Prairie du Chien, (a fort on the upper Mississippi river,) and of the repulse of Capt. Campbell, who had gone up in a boat, with his company of U. States troops, for the relief of the place. This gave the British and Indians command of the upper Mississippi, and fears were entertained for the safety of St. Louis. Fort Madison had been evacuated, Chicago, Green Bay, Prarie du Chien, and the whole of the upper country was in possession of the enemy, and nothing then, apparently, could oppose their descent of the river, and the fall of St. Louis.

But, under the gallant and intrepid Taylor, an attack was made on the foe, and a complete route of the Indians effected which tended to the disbandment of their forces, as was afterwards learned by Col. Hamtramck, many years subsequently, in a conversation with Koecock, the head chief now of the Sauke tribe.

A thrilling incident connected with this service, at which Col. Hamtramck was present may not prove uninteresting. The American forces had landed at a small island a little above River Rock, and lying close to the western side of the Mississippi, and placed sentinels to guard the camp,– the night waned without disturbance or alarm, but just about daylight, as the Corporal of the guard by direction of the Sergeant (now Col. Hamtramck) was looking at his watch, to see if it was not time to relieve the guard, and stooping for that purpose with the watch in his hand, to the light of a small camp fire, the crack of a rifle was heard, and the watch dropped from the Corporal’s hand, and he ran to the boat with his wrist broken.

This is only one of the many narrow escapes, through which Col. H. passed untouched and unhurt; and we trust that the hand of an overruling Providence may again be extended to protect him from those dangers incident to his service, and that he may return to his family, his brow encircled with wreaths of glory, won in defence of the rights of his country.
[MPR]


RW47v24i2p4c3, January 5, 1847

From the Boston Courier, Dec. 28.

A draft of 100 seamen, for the line ship Ohio, arrived at Charlestown navy yard on Saturday from New York. It is said that her complement is now completed, and that she will soon depart for Norfolk, to await there the orders of the government.

We looked in yesterday, says the Newburyport Herald, to see the new boat building for government by Messrs. Picket & Ladd. It is a 24 oared barge, 40 feet long, 12 feet wide, and 4 feet 4 inches deep, and will cost about $500. One hundred of these boats are building, from Baltimore northward, all to be delivered the first of January, and the contracts for none of which were entered into until the first week of December. They are ordered by General Scott, and are intended to be amply sufficient, in case of emergency, to land 20,000 men on any point on the coast of Mexico.
[MPR]


RW47v24i2p4c3, January 5, 1847, How is this?

The Washington correspondent of the U.S. Gazette says:–

You need not be very much astonished should you hear, in the course of a few weeks, that the administration have determined to order our army to fall back and take position on the north side of the Rio Grande, instead of attempting to reach, and dictate a peace in, the Halls of Moctezuma.
[MPR]


RW47v24i2p4c4, January 5, 1847 Army News

The New Orleans papers contain a number of interesting letters from Monterey, the latest being down to the 1st inst. They were received by the steamer McKim. A correspondent of the Picayune, under date of the 25th ult., writes as follows:

“Gen. Taylor arrived at Saltillo day before yesterday, (23 rd instant,) escorted by one squadron of Col. May’s horse, having left one squadron in Saltillo. The general succeeded in capturing one hundred pack mules, with their cargoes, consisting of subsistence stores intended for Santa Anna’s army at San Luis Potosi. The squadron left are said to be in pursuit of four hundred mules, loaded also with the same cargoes.

Col. May had a very severe fall at Saltillo, by his horse tripping on the pavement which inclines towards the centre from each side. He is doing well, and will be ready for duty in a few days.”

A correspondent of the Delta, under date of the 30th , says:

“There is much excitement in the city this morning, arising from a murder committed last night at Armstrong’s Hotel. A party of Tennesseans from the camp came into town to take supper at the hotel, and whilst eating and drinking, a table was turned over, breaking a number of plates and glasses. Armstrong came into the room much excited, ann commenced a tirade of abuse, at the end of which pay was offered him double for all that was destroyed; but, not content with that, he called in the guard, and, after pointing out a very estimable young man, by the name of Forrest, said: “There’s the d–d rascal who broke my dishes;” but before the sergeant of the guard could reach him, Armstrong pulled out a pistol and shot him dead, and escaped before his companions or the guard could put their hands on him. He was, however, subsequently arrested.

“Two Frenchman, in addition to the “big bug” Mexicans, have been arrested on a charge of tampering with out soldiers, and offering them inducements to desert. There will be a pretty hanging match here some of these days. A volunteer Lieut. Colonel dressed himself in a private’s clothes, and was readily accepted as a voluntario, and given an order on a man about 10 leagues distant for the money and horse promised him. The one who gave the order was immediately arrested, and the Colonel started for his reward, but not alone– he took twenty good men with him, and will doubtless return in the course of a day, with several of those who preferred the Mexican to the American service, and also with the individuals who pay out the Mexican dollars.

“The tables have been turned on the Mexicans, and for those who have been assassinated of the volunteers, a double number of the enemy have suffered within a day or two. It is reported this morning, that Gen. Taylor has ordered the 1 st Kentuckians to Cerralvo to prevent this killing.”

The correspondent of the Delta, under the date of the 1st instant, writes a lengthy letter, from which we take the following extracts:

“The war between the Kentuckians and the Mexicans, as it is familiarly termed, has created no little excitement both in town and in the camp. It is thought that not less than 40 Mexicans have been killed within the last five days, fifteen of whom, it is said, were killed in one day, and within the scope of one mile. From this you will see that the boys are determined to have and to take revenge for the assassination of their comrades.

The trial of the alcalde’s son, and others engaged in tampering with our men, is set for to–morrow. I should not exactly say trial, for it will be more in the shape of a court of inquiry at first. I saw this young alcalde this morning in prison. He is a young and very interesting man, and was weighed down to the ground with irons, not that they fear his escape, but to deter others from following in his footsteps. At first, it was though that but few men were engaged in the business; but it is now clearly ascertained that many of the principal men in the place have had a finger in the pie; and since the first arrests, many of the first families of Monterey have left, and the population of the place has decreased in that time nearly 1,000. The 7th regiment has lost many men by desertion, and I have since ascertained that the number I spoke of before– forty– as having departed, may be safely trebled; and all since the 25th September. The regulars have invariably gone to the enemy; but what few of the volunteers that have left us sans ceremonie, have made tracks for a Christmas dinner in the white settlements. The friends of those arrested– particularly of the alcalde– fear the worst; and if they were hung in the plazas as Taylor threatened, they would not be much surprised.”

“The weather is lovely at this time, and forcibly reminds one of the spring time of the year. It is a great climate, and blossoms half–grown, and ripe fruit can be found on the same tree.”
[MPR]


RW47v24i2p4c4, January 5, 1847, Later from the Army. Arrival of the Massachusetts– Later from Tampico– Army Movements, &c. &c.

From the New Orleans Picayune, Dec. 25.

By the arrival of the U.S. auxiliary steamship Massachusetts, Capt. D. Wood, we have received Tampico dates to the 15th and Brazos to the 18th inst. We acknowledge our indebtedness to Capt. W. for his kindness in forwarding the latest information, and also to Mr. A.J. Clifton, late mare of the Neptune, for a list of vessels in the harbor of Tampico.

There had been quite and excitement at Tampico, caused by a report that a large body of Mexican cavalry had been seen in the neighborhood. Of the truth or falsity of the report we have no means of knowing.

The British sloop of war Alarm, Lieut. Mays commanding, had arrived at Tampico from Vera Cruz. Her captain was left sick at the former place.

The U.S. steamer Fashion, with Gen. Jessup on board, arrived at Brazos on the 18th inst.

Gen. Pillow left Matamoros on the 14th inst. He was to go 25 miles, and then wait for Gen. Patterson with the rest of his division and train.

Through Mr. Beard, one of the passengers by the Massachusetts, we learn that Gen Taylor was to leave Monterey on the 10th inst. for Victoria, with Gen. Twigg’s division and a portion of Gen. Smith’s brigade. It is also reported that Gen. Urrea, of whom we have not heard of late was at Victoria with 6000 cavalry. Gen. Wool remained at Parras and Gen. Worth at Saltillo. It was positively reported and believed in camp, that Santa Anna had 28,000 men at San Luis.

The following items we copy from the Matamoros Flag of the 16th instant:

“Mexican Reports.– A Mexican just arrived from Tampico, informs us that Santa Anna is purging his army of all officers whom the remotest suspiscion of cowardice can be attached; and retaining only such as he has the most implicit confidence in their bravery and skill. Gen. Ampudia, Col. Carasco, and several others, he states have been imprisoned, charged with cowardice, and an order has been issued dooming to instant death any officer who shall disgrace his flag by cowardly or unofficer like conduct in battle. Santa Anna he represents as having the unlimited confidence of the soldiery; and to such a pitch has he raised their ardor by eloquent appeals to their passions that is would be impossible to conceive the enthusiasm that prevails among them. A general desire is expressed to be led against the invaders.”

The following paragraph, in relation to the hospital at Matamoros, we copy from the same paper:

“About two hundred sick have been received into the hospital since Sunday. One hundred and thirty arrived from Camargo, and the remainder were left by the 3d and 4th Illinois Regiments in breaking up their encampments to commence the march for Tampico. Dr. Wright has had his hands full for the last four months– the number in hospital averaging from three to six hundred during this period, and it shows him possessed of more than common energy and industry to have managed so successively the complicated duties of his department. Deaths are much less frequent now than during the fall and summer months, and patients are all doing well.”

The editor of the Flag holds the following language in relation to the movement of troops:

“The 3d and the 4th Illinois Regiments broke up their encampments at this place on Monday last, and commenced the march for Tampico. It is the intention we understand, to form an encampment at Moquete, a rancho about six leagues distant, and await the coming supplies, which we hear it stated will take some eight or tem days to send forward. A part of the Tennessee cavalry regiment marched with them and the remainder will follow in due time. The combined strength of the three regiments is not more than 1800 mean– the two Ilinois regiments furnishing little over half of the number, sickness and death having reduced them one–third their original strength. Gen. Patterson still has his quarters in the city, and we cannot venture a statement as to any fixed day for his departure, such information not being easily come at– the best way to state it is, to say that he will be off when he gets ready. It is given out that the expedition proceeds first to Victoria, which will lengthen the march to Tampico one–fourth and make it a journey of near five hundred miles. But we shall see what we shall see. We cannot conceive what every body is to be sent to Tampico for. “What do they in the south when they should be”– somewhere else.”

Murders continue to be committed in the interior of the country. The Flag of the 10th inst. says:

“Within the last week three persons are reported to us as having been killed on the road between Camargo and Monterey, but the name of only on we have ascertained– Mr. Wm. J. Downing, clerk for Mr. Mann, butler at Monterey. Mr. Downing left Monterey in company with Mr. Mann, Col. L.P. Cook, and others, for Camargo, and with a Mexican servant of Mr. Mann, was riding some distance in the rear of the party, when he was attacked by Mexicans or Indians and killed, and the servant either killed or made prisoner and carried off. Mr. D. was personally known to us, as also to a large number of the citizens of this city, who will receive the news of his death with the deepest sorrow. He was native of Baltimore, Md. But has resided in Texas for a number of years– Corpus Christi being his home for the last four years, where he was universally known and esteemed.” [MPR]


RW47v24i3p1c2, January 8, 1847, Honor to the Volunteers.

The Petersburg Republican contains an interesting account, for the whole of which we regret that we have not room, of the presentations on Saturday evening last, by Judge Gholson, as the […] to the ladies of that town, of a beautiful Flag to the Petersburg Volunteers. Mr. Wm. Robertson, as the organ of the members of the Bar, also presented a splendid Sword Belt and Sash to Capt. Archer; and Mr. J.W. Syme, on behalf of Messrs. R.B. Belling, B Jones, Robert Leslie, Jos. Bragg, J.V. Wilcox, John Rowlett, A.G. McIlwaine, W.E. Hinton, David Dunlop, D.W. Bragg, J. Branch, Goodman Davis, B.H. May, John L. Mertens & Co., James Orr, Moses Paul and A.L. Smith, presented to Lieutenants Pegram, Weisiger and Paterson, each, a beautiful Sword Belt, Sash and Epaulettes.

In Lynchburg, a public meeting was held Thursday evening last, to make arrangements for the reception and accommodation of the Montgomery, Bedford and Franklin volunteers, on their way to Richmond. Judge Wilson presided and eloquent speeches were delivered by that gentleman, and by Messrs. Wm. M. Blackford, James Garland and John M. Speed.
[MPR]


RW47v24i3p1c2, January 8, 1847, Arrival of the Volunteers.

A company of volunteers from Jefferson county, under command of Capt. Rowan, reached the city in the cars yesterday. We have not seen a finer looking body of men– generally young, healthy and athletic.
[MPR]


RW47v24i3p2c1, January 8, 1847, Massachusetts Volunteers.

Eight companies of the Massachusetts regiment of Volunteers have been mustered into service.
[MPR]


RW47v24i3p2c2, January 8, 1847, Presentation of a Flag.

In the midst of a heavy rain yesterday afternoon, the Augusta Volunteers marched to the Powhatan House to receive the elegant Flag, painted by Mrs. Brown, of this city, from the hand of Judge B.G. Baldwin, as the organ of the county court of Augusta, by whose order it has been prepared. In performing the duty assigned to him, Judge B. delivered a truly impressive and affecting address to the volunteers, exhorting them to sustain the honor of their beautiful flag in the perils of the battle, and to return it unsullied to its donors. Capt. Kenton Harper replied, briefly but most eloquently– pledging himself, on behalf of his company, that the flag entrusted to their charge should never be dishonored in their hands. We hope to be able to procure copies of both addresses for publication. [MPR]


RW47v24i3p2c2, January 8, 1847, Reception of the Volunteers.

We omitted to mention yesterday that the Jefferson County Volunteers, on reaching the City, paid their respects to the Chief Magistrate, to whom they were introduced, in an appropriate speech, by John S. Gallagher, Esq. the Senator from that District. The Governor responded, we are told, (for we were not present,) in an impressive manner. The company then repaired to the quarters provided for them. The officers of this company are Capt. John W. Rowan, and Lieuts. John Alvis, jr. Lawrence B. Washington, and ––––– McCormick, and Orderly Sergeant Fairfax. Lt. Washington is a descendant of the father of his country, and we are told by the Enquirer, wears the sword of his great ancestor. Orderly Fairfax, the Times says, is a lineal descendant of Lord Fairfax.

Yesterday, the second company from Petersburg, commanded by Capt. Wm. M Robinson, on its arrival, proceeded to the mansion of the Governor, to whom they were introduced by Mr. Drinkard of the Petersburg Republican. The Governor addressed them in an eloquent and appropriate manner; and they then marched to their quarters at the Union Hotel.
[MPR]


RW47v24i3p2c2, January 8, 1847

Lieut. Colonel T.B. Randolph, of the Virginia regiment of Volunteers, has reached the city.
[MPR]


RW47v24i3p2c3, January 8, 1847, The Virginia Volunteers.

In addition to the five companies, constituting the first battalion of Virginia Volunteers, now at Old Point, we understand that there are now six companies in this city or expected soon to arrive, which have been received by the Executive, to wit:

The Staunton company, Capt. Harper;
The Berkeley company, Capt. Alburtis;
The (3d) Richmond company, Capt. Archer;
The Jefferson company, Capt. Rowan;
The Portsmouth company, Capt. Young; and
The (2d) Petersburg company, Capt. Robinson,

which reached the city yesterday morning– and seems to be composed of fine materials.

We had understood that the Montgomery volunteers, under Capt. Preston had also been received by the Governor; but if it has been determined to muster the forgoing companies into service, it would seem that the Virginia regiment will be already more than full without them– that is to say, it will consist of one more company than the requisition of the General Government called for. We hope, however, should this be the fact, that the Secretary of War may be induced at least to receive such of the fully organized corps, as, under the belief that they would be received, may reach the rendezvous in time to proceed to the seat of war.

We understand that eighteen companies have tendered their services to the Executive; and we regret that several of them, after having gone to the trouble and expense of organizing– and more especially those from the Tenth Legion, within the limits of which, we are glad to learn, two companies have been enrolled– must be disappointed.
[MPR]


RW47v24i3p2c2, January 8, 1847

The Enquirer calls our attention to the fact, that two of the three field officers of the Virginia Regiment of Volunteers are Whigs. We were aware of this circumstance; and we take this occasion to say that it is highly honorable to the board of appointment– the majority of whom are attached to the Administration party. We presume, however, that Col. Hamtramck and Major Early were not appointed because they were Whigs, but because the board believed, the among the number of distinguished applicants, they were peculiarly qualified for the performance of the duties of their respective stations. All of them, we feel assured, will show, by their conduct in the field, that their fitness for the stations has not been overrated.
[MPR]


RW47v24i3p4c1, January 8, 1847, Santa Anna’s Return.

A writer in the National Intelligencer has found a parallel case– and but one– to the kind of “aid and comfort” afforded to the Mexicans, by President Polk, in the instructions given to the commander of the Gulf Squadron no to obstruct the passage of Santa Anna to Vera Cruz. He says:

“In a naval fight between the English and the Dutch the Englishman suddenly stopped firing, yet kept his flag flying and his men all standing to their guns. The Dutchman, seeing this, and not wishing to waste his fire upon a non–resisting adversary, also ceased firing, and hailed his foe, “why he did not either fight or strike?” The Englishman answered that, as to striking the flag– never, as long as there remained a plank beneath his feet; as to firing his guns, he would cheerfully do so if his adversary would have the generosity to supply him with powder, his own magazine being exhausted; that if he would not comply with his request, the fight must go on, and be determined hand to hand by boarding, which would lead to a great loss of life on both sides. The Dutchman, being a man of feeling as well as valor, and believing that “in any event it was certain that no change whatever in the circumstances of the English ship which would deprive her commander of the excuse of boarding could be for the worse, so far as the Dutchman was concerned, while it was highly probable that any change must be for the better,” agreed to comply with the request of his gallant foe, provided he would pay him for a fair consideration for the article garnished. The sum being agreed upon at something less, than two million of dollars, I think, the Dutchman directed his own boats to place the powder safely on board the enemy’s ship. Thus provided with means to renew the fight, The Englishman soon taught the Dutchman that he had been guilty of the folly of furnishing his adversary with a club to beat his own brains out.”

Mr. Linder, a member of the Illinois Legislature, seems to have a taken a somewhat similar view of this enigmatical affair. We say enigmatical– for, we confess, the President’s message has rather excited than gratified our curiosity, touching the extent and nature of the information possessed by him, and the source through which it was obtained, first, in regard to Santa Anna’s intention to return to Mexico at all; and secondly, in reference to his mediated designs, should he effect a landing, and be able to overpower the Paredes Administration and to banish Paredes himself. On the 21 st ultimo, Mr. Linder submitted to the House of Representatives of that State, amidst a general laugh, the following resolutions, which, under the guise of playfulness, give some home thrusts to the President:

Whereas, as appears from the message of President Polk to the Congress of the United States, that Santa Anna has been guilty of the most black–hearted treachery, in failing to perform and make good certain prmises made to President Polk, (the consideration of said promise being a passport to Mexico,) one of which was that, on his arrival at Mexico he would get up a fight with Paredes and thereby bring the war between the United States and Mexico to a close; therefore–

Resolved by the House of Representatives of the State of Illinois, the Senate concurring herein, That we deeply sympathise with President Polk, inasmuch as his reasonable expectations have not been realized in consequence of the treachery of the aforesaid Santa Anna.

And be it further resolved, That Santa Anna is unworthy the further confidence of President Polk, and that we most respectfully recommend to the President to place no further reliance upon the promises of Santa Anna to bring the war to a close.

And be it further resolved, That inasmuch as Santa Anna had heretofore on all occasions, been governed by a strict regard to truth, fidelity, and honor in his conduct, that President Polk had good reason to believe that he would hold sacred his word, thus solemnly pledged, and which we still believe he would have done had he received the two millions of dollars as per contract with the President.
[MPR]


RW47v24i3p4c3, January 8, 1847

To the Senate and
House of Representatives of the United States:

In order to prosecute the war against Mexico with vigor and success, it is necessary that authority should be promptly given to Congress to increase the regular army, and to remedy existing defects in its organization. With this view, your favorable attention is invited to the annual report of the Secretary of War, which accompanied my message of the 8th inst, in which he recommends that ten additional regiments of regular troops shall be raised to serve during the war.

Of additional regiments of volunteers which have been called for from several of the States, some have been promptly raised; but this has not been the case in regards to all. This existing law requiring that they should be organized by the independent action of the State governments, has, in some instances, occasioned considerable delay; and it is yet uncertain when the troops requiired can be ready for service in the field.

It is our settled policy to maintain in time of peace as small a regular army as the exigencies of the public service will permit. In a state of war, notwithstanding the great advantage with which our volunteer citizen soldiers can be brought into the field, this small regular army must be increased in its numbers in order to render the whole force more efficient.

Additional officers as well as men, then, become indispensable. Under the circumstances of our service a peculiar propriety exists for increasing the officers, especially in the higher grades. The number of such officers who, from age and other causes, are rendered incapable of active service in the field, has seriously impaired the efficiency of the army.

From the report of the Secretary of War, it appears that about two–thirds of the while number of regimental field officers are either permanently disabled or are necessarily detached from their commands on other duties. The long enjoyment of peace has prevented us from experiencing much embarrassment from this cause; but now in a state of was conducted in a foreign country, it has produced a serious injury to the public service.

An efficient organization of the army composed of regulars and volunteers, whilst prosecuting the war in it is believed would require the appointment of a general officer to take command of all our military forces in the field.

Upon conclusion of the war, the services of such an officer would no longer be necessary, and should be dispensed with upon the reduction of the army to a peace establishment.

I recommend that provision be made by law for the appointment of such s general officer to serve during the war.

It is respectfully recommended that early action should be had by Congress upon suggestions submitted for their consideration, as necessary to insure active and efficient service in prosecuting the war before present favorable season for military operations in the enemy’s country shall have passed away.

JAMES K. POLK.

[MPR]


RW47v24i3p4c4, January 8, 1847, Public Opinion.

We published, last Friday, a “letter from the country,” permitting the intelligent writer to convey, in his own language, as he had a right to do, his impressions in reference to the Mexican war. We did not intend, as the Enquirer supposes, to endorse every word and phrase used by the writer, some of which we would not have chosen, though there is doubtless a general concurrence of views in the subject between our correspondent and ourselves. Our purpose in publishing it was to show what was thought and said, in the country, in reference to the War, which, however zealously the great body of the people may sustain its vigorous prosecution, is any thing but popular, in its origin or conduct, even among the party which elected Mr. Polk to the Presidency. We annex, in corroboration of this opinion, the following

Extract of a Letter from Georgia

“The War is exceedingly unpopular among the ‘Democracy’ of this section of the country. The excuse rendered, is Mr. Polk’s want of foresight, in not perceiving the results to which his acts would lead. A War he never apprehended– measuring Mexican ‘chivalry’ by his own standard.”
[MPR]


RW47v24i3p4c4, January 8, 1847, Portsmouth and Norfolk Volunteers.

The following are officers of the Portsmouth Volunteers: John P. Young, Captain; John K. Cook, 1 st E.T. Blamire, 1st 2d, and Wm. M. Leavy 2d 2d Lieutenant; Jas. W. Butt, 1st Sergeant, John Lappin 2d, A.G. Tabb 3d, N.G. Rogers, 4th, R.T. Montague 1st Corporal, H.K. Edwards 2d, E.D. Connel 3d, and F.W. Parker 4th .

A company of volunteers has also been organized in Norfolk– but we fear they will be too late. Of this company O.S. Edward has been elected Captain, Thos. Corprew 1 st Lieutenant, Jacob S. Levis 1 st 2d do; John H. Salles, 2d 2d do; Thomas Portlock, 1st Sergeant.
[MPR]


RW47v24i3p4c4, January 8, 1847, Arrival of Major Early.

Major […] A. Early, of the Virginia Regiment of Volunteers, reached this City yesterday afternoon, in the packing–boat from Lynchburg. We presume that he will soon be en route for the seat of war.
[MPR]


RW47v24i3p4c4, January 8, 1847

Extraordinary Movements– The following article is from the St. Louis Republican of Monday the 28th. The settlement will excite surprise, but the writer speaks in a tone which appears to indicate a strong consciousness that he is not speaking at random:

It seems to be very well understood here, that one of the objects of the express from Washington city to Santa Fe, which left here a few days ago, in charge of Major Fitzpatrick and Mr S F Sublette, is in part if not entirely, to recall Gen Kearney from California, and dispatch the Gen and all the troops under his command, which may be spared from the occupation of Santa Fe and other points, to join Gen Taylor and co–operate with him. If this be the purpose of the dispatches, a considerable period must be chose before the orders can be carried into effect, probably not until sometime in May or June next.
[MPR]


RW47v24i3p4c4, January 8, 1847

Santa Fe– A letter written at Santa Fe on the 19th of November states that Col Prick’s Regiment is stationed at that place for the winter, and that great sickness prevailed among the troops. There had been as many as seven deaths a day.
[MPR]


RW47v24i3p4c4, January 8, 1847

A letter dated Parris, Mexico, Dec. 9 says–

Col. Yell, Lieut. Col. Roane, and Maj. Boland are under arrest for positive disobedience of orders. The “old war horse” [Gen. Wool] has ordered a court martial.
[MPR]


RW47v24i3p4c6, January 8, 1847

(Correspondence of the New Orleans Bee.)

Head–Quarters U.S. Army,
Monterey, Dec. 4, 1846.

Gentlemen:– The mail came in yesterday from Saltillo, and with it an unusual number of rumors as to Santa Anna’s movements. The Mexicans to–day report that lie is eight days on the march to Saltillo, with 27,000 men, and that he assures them that he will be here before Christmas. They seem to think that he will fulfill his promise, but our people attach no more importance whatever to his vauntings. If he wants to come, they say let him come, and we’ll give him as good a reception as we can get up. The American soldiers are of opinion situated as the army is at this moment, all Mexico cannot recapture this place. You have no idea how high the boys hold their heads here. Having met the enemy three times, and whipped him against great odds each time, they think the word defeat, so far as applicable to the American army, out of the question, and I begin to believe with the Mexicans, that to whip us they have to kill us all off.

A half an hour’s conversation with an intelligent private in the 7th Infantry, a few evenings since, put me in possession of many facts relative to the cause of desertion, the character of the men, &c. He says that for the last two or three years, 4–5ths of the recruits for the regular army have been made up from the foreigners who hang about the large cities of the Union, some of whom have no affinity of feeling with America or any other nation. That immediately after the cessation of hostilities, emissaries from the enemy’s camp, began tampering with them and they became lax in their duty; some would go off immediately, others get drunk and fear to return to their quarters after an absence of a few days, and to avoid the punishment consequent on such absence, take “French leave” altogether. He still raises on the number of deserters from his regiment, and says that they will not fall short of seventy–five since the 24th Sept. and this, too, in a regiment embracing only seven companies. I remarked that I presumed two–thirds of them were Foreigners, when he answered quickly and which much feeling, “yes, sir, three–thirds, for although Americans do occasionally desert the service at home and in time of peace, whilst in an enemy’s country the most worthless will stick by his colors.” He does not think that all who desert go into the enemy’s ranks, but that an affinity of religious feeling with the enemy operates so strongly upon them, that they leave us to evade a conflict with the enemy. An English physician who is now in towns peaks of meeting a couple of sons of Erin between Saltillo and San Louis Potosi, one with his belts and gun, ant the other with nothing but his uniform, The doctor who is a considerable wag, and who had some hand in whipping the Mexicans out of Texas, stopped them in the road and asked their reasons for desertion. The man with the musket told him that he had fought too much against his religion already, and that he wouldn’t fight for the U.S. again until she “got into a war with England,” when he “would go for a volunteer.” The other one had thrown away his musket, and would never pick up another one whilst he lived. They had both passports from the Mexican commander, and an order for 25 cts per day until they could get to some port, where they could take shipping to the old country, or could get employment in the country. A horse, $25 in money and an order from $25 more on San Louis Potosi is the inducements held out there.

Monterey, Dec. 5th.

In my letter yesterday I forgot to mention to you the death of Lieut. Desment, of the Macon company, in the Georgia volunteers. He dies of a fever, something on the bilious order, first beginning with the chills and fever. Many soldiers are prostrated with disease now, and from all regiments that expect to remove in a short time, the debiliated are being discharged.

I find something worthy of a man, to record in the conduct of Santa Anna. The first deserters from the American ranks arrived in San Louis whilst these Americans were there. They presented their several orders for money to Santa Anna, when he informed them that he had not enough funds to feed his own soldiers. They were worn down by travel, hungry and without the means of getting a living, so they concluded as a last resort they would join his army. When they applied to him for permission to go into the ranks, he replied that they would leave him should he get into a tight place. They affirmed to the contrary, when Santa Anna plainly told them that any man that would desert one army would desert another, and he wanted nothing to do with such men. And so they left him– men who had been seduced off under the bright promises of command and money, denied even the privilege of earning their bread in the ranks of the enemy. The beauty of it is, that neither the French nor English residents will give them work or food, and they would no doubt give their right hands to be back into Uncle Sam’s ranks. No less than 46 were met on the road from San Luis to Saltillo. Nothing new about Monterey to–day.
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RW47v24i3p4c7, January 8, 1847, Mexican Items.

From the N.O. Picayune, Dec. 20.

We yesterday saw and conversed with Mr. Phillip Honch, brother of the well–known Santa Fe trader, who left the city of Orizava late in November. From Mr. H. we have learned many particulars in relation to the state of feeling of the Mexicans, in different part of the country, which may be uninteresting to our readers.

At Orizava, which is a city of considerable size to the southward of Jalapa, there were 1000 volunteers already recruited for the Mexican army– miserable wretches collected by promises, force and threats– and to arm this force they have only 300 parts of old, worn out muskets. They all talk right valiantly, however, exceeding great bravery and prowess, and of the perfect ease with which they are to drive los Americanos from the sacred soil of Mexico.

Our informant further assures us that there is really a feeling of deep vengeance aroused in the interior of the country against the United States, and that the farther we advance the greater will be the hostility against us. The few Americans in the country entertain fears that the Mexicans from their superior knowledge of the mountain passes, will lay ambuscades and cut off the advanced detachments of our army in the operations that are to ensue. From his position Santa Anna can at any time throw a heavy force upon almost any point of our extended line of operations, and by taking advantages of ground annoy Gens. Taylor or Scott excessively.

As late as the 27th of November there were no regular troops stationed at the city of Mexico, a few civics– untrained militia– being the entire force to defend it. Arista was there, living in retirement. It is said that Santa Anna was anxious that he should accompany him to San Luis, and offered him an important command; but Arista said he had been arrested for his conduct to Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, and until he had had a full trial would not return to the army.

All kinds of business were dull in Mexico, while a general stagnation of trade pervaded every portion of the country. The only artisans or mechanics who had any work were the gunsmith– they were busy, night and day, in every town and city. Old machetes– short, straight swords with which the Indians under Hidalgo fought the Spaniards during the revolution– were being sharpened, and every old musket was undergoing repairs.

American deserters are scattered through the country and are represented as in most deplorable condition. No less than twenty–five had reached the city of Mexico in most wretched plight, were begging from door to door, and were received and treated with contempt by all. Eight had reached as far south as Orizava and a little work had been given them at a factory to keep them from actual starvation.

Of the Mexican Congress we can learn nothing. Another arrival will give us the particulars of its organization, and for this we are looking with anxiety.
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RW47v24i3p4c7, January 8, 1847, Tampico– Martial Law.

By arrival here yesterday of the schr. Henry M. Johnson, Capt. Hardy, from Tampico, which port she left on the 18th inst., we learn that Col. Gates, commanding at that place, declared martial law on the 15th inst, when all the American citizens in the city and in shipboard were put under arms. On the 16th, a search was made in the city, when about 600 stands of arms, and a quantity of ammunition were discovered; about 300 of the guns were found to be loaded. The whole force of troops at Tampico on the 16th amounted to nearly 900 men.

The steam propeller Virginia arrived at Tampico on the 17th from Brazos Santiago, with 300 men, belonging to the Alabama regiment. The steam propeller Tennessee and Jas. Cage with troops and horses from Brazos, were going up the river when the schr. H.M. Johnson was coming out.– N.O. Times.
[MPR]


RW47v24i3p4c7, January 8, 1847

Tampico– The schooner Henry M. Johnson came up to town yesterday from Tampico, having sailed the 18th inst. The captain reports that there was great excitement in the town, arising from the supposed proximity of a large body of Mexicans. All the Americans in the place were under arms, and the description of the feeling which prevailed reminds us of the situation in with Point Isabel was placed prior to the succor of it by Gen. Taylor’s march thither early in May. But we do not understand that there is any such occasion for alarm in regard to Tampico as was rightly felt for Fort Polk at one time.– Picayune.
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RW47v24i4p1c1, January 12, 1847, The Slavery Question.

One of the fearful consequences of the War of Conquest in which we are engaged– for it is in vain to deny that the acquisition of territory, if not the instigating motive, was anticipated as an inevitable incidental result of the contest– is beginning already to manifest itself. While yet we are in the midst of the war, our statesmen, instead of devoting all their energies to its speedy and honorable termination, are wrangling over the disposition to be made of the anticipated “spoils of victory.” The North, through its accredited organs on the floor of Congress, is in imagination defining the metes and bounds of new non–slaveholding States to be formed of the Mexican provinces over which the stars and stripes wave, or which may hereafter be wrested from that Republic. Already they claim that from all the conquered territory which may, at the close of the war, fall into our possession, regardless of its geographical position, whether on the borders of Texas, in the Valley of the Rio Grande, or on the Pacific, the “foul plague–spot” of Slavery, which is so offensive to them, must be unconditionally excluded. Nor is this position assumed by the insignificant handful of Abolitionists alone, or confided to either of the two great political parties to the North. It is the unanimous voice of the representatives of the entire non–slaveholding region, with perhaps the exception of two or three individuals, who, it is naturally presumed, in dissenting from the remainder, misrepresent the feelings and sentiments of the constituent body. The remarks of Preston King, of New York, deliberately written out before they were read in the House, in which the inflexible determination of the non–slaveholding States require, as a preliminary condition to the extension of our boundaries, that Slavery shall not be tolerated within the limits of the territory that may be acquired, wear more the appearance of a Manifesto of the North, especially when the prominence of that member and the nature of his political conexions are considered, than of any ordinary speech, for which the individual alone, who delivered it, is to be held responsible. Hence, the importance attached to it in the House– as evinced by the fact, that, almost abandoning, since that remarkable document was read, the discussion of the origin and conduct of the Mexican war, as well as of the means proposed for prosecuting it with more efficiency than heretofore, the debate has degenerated into an angry controversy between the North and the South, upon the vital question of slavery, to which our anticipated Mexican conquests has imparted momentous importance. Better far would it have been, had Mr. Polk, following the example of his “illustrious predecessors,” Jackson and Van Buren, consented to keep the sword still unsheathed, however numerous and aggravated the causes of war with Mexico, until every avenue of hope had been closed to a peaceful and honorable termination of the various points in dispute between the two governments, rather than to have precipitated, as he has done, a War, which, if it is not to be terminated, as we are told it shall not be, until Mexico pays to the last farthing in territory, what we know she can pay in no other mode, will, in the final disposition of our conquests, lead to violent dissensions among ourselves, and possibly to a dissolution of the Union! Mr. Dargin, of Alabama, who participated in the debate last Thursday, in a speech characterized equally by ability and good temper, gave utterance to what will hereafter become a general sentiment, at least in the South, when he said that “we regretted that the Army of the United States had ever crossed the Rio Grande, after the battles of the 8th and 9th;” since in doing so, the war, whatever may have been original intention of its authors, has been converted, ex necessitate, into one of conquest– and since that conquest must inevitably bring into discussion the great question of the “BALANCE OF POWER” between the North and South, which, rather than hostility to the “sin of slavery,” lies at the bottom of this premature agitation of that topic– this bold attempt to adjust the terms and conditions of the contemplated “ANNEXATION,” even while the war, with all its attendant uncertainties, is in progress, and without the slightest probability, so far as the uninitiated can discern, of its early termination!

We annex a fuller sketch of the Thursday’s debate than we had room for in Saturday’s paper:

Mr. DARGIN said, in regard to the Missouri Compromise, he held it as most sacred, and would abide by it. But would the North– would Northern men– upon this floor say they were ready to abide by this Compromise?– Not one of them.

Mr. VINTON of Ohio asked the gentleman to allow him to explain. He denied that the North had violated the Missouri compromise. There had been no free territory made South of the 36 30, since the Missouri Compromise, and much of the territory beyond was not now in the Union. Moreover, the Missouri Compromise applied to the country then in the Union, and not to the country which had been acquired from foreign countries.

Mr. DARGIN went on and said the country did not understand the Compromise, and he repeated that the Northern men were ready to abandon it. Even more than this.– They would violate this compromise which had now been preserved for twenty–seven years, and never violated by the South. And there was not one Southern man who would violate it or suffer it to be violated.

Mr. DOUGLAS– I am not willing to be misunderstood by my silence. I am willing to abide by the Missouri Compromise. I recognized it in the Texas resolutions. I recognize it now, and shall always recognize it.

Several voices of Southern members. “Good. That’s good.”

Mr. DOUGLAS thought also that there were many others who would agree with him, and Mr. Dargin hoped there were.

Mr. DARGIN, coming to the war question, said that he regretted that the army had ever crossed the Rio Grande after the battles of the 8th and 9th . If his hand could have controlled the action of other men, they should never have crossed. And having crossed, he did not think it necessary that the army should go to the Halls of the Moctezumas. He would rather mark out a line and defend it, and […] show to the world that we had gone to war for the sake of securing peace.

By this remark he did not mean to censure the Administration, but only to express his own opinion. And now he would ask, shall we take any territory from Mexico if the north will not divide it with us? Shall our sons from Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and elsewhere fight battles to make free states?

I desire, said Mr. D. to see this question settled here, and that we may now know for what we fight, and whether for the North and South or for the North alone. Give us the territory south of 36 30 for a Slave country. This he said to Northern men. If they refuse to do this, this Union at once must sink. There could be no doubt of this whatever. The Union was instituted for our good and our common good. If the Missouri compromise was to be violated, from the day it was done we might date the downfall of the American Union.

Take this as the admonition of a man who may not address you again or represent his constituents hereafter upon this floor. His honest conviction was that the Union could not last one day after the Compromise was violated. He, therefore, beseeched all men to act up to this compromise, and to preserve the Union. But there were real dangers hanging over the country at this time, and it was time for men, without regard to party, to rally as one man to remove the difficulties.

Mr. SEDDON, of Va. Continued the debate, and thanked the member for the cool, temperate and timely remarks he had made. He concurred in all that had been said. For himself he was a Southern man in birth, in feeling and in education, and when he heard some of the remarks which had been made upon this floor, he found it difficult to restrain himself.

His first impulse upon a previous occasion had been to rise and demand a hearing, but when he saw older and abler men remaining silent, he could not venture to speak. Mr. S. then went on to speak of the Slave questions as a momentous woe, and as one which the North had no right to interfere with.

The North had no right to say all this territory shall be free, and the country could not carry on a war upon this aspect of the question.

Mr. GROVER, of N.Y. continued the debate in a speech in reply to the two which had gone before. He thought there was no danger in dissolving the Union, and he believed the Union would last– that even these Southern men would rally under it and enjoy it for ages to come. Mr. G. argued this question with such earnestness and independence as to call up

Mr. BOYD of Ky., Mr. CHAPMAN of Ala. and Mr. SEDDON of Va. All of whom were disposed to put most pointed questions to him, but all of which were answered by declaring that he was in favor of the war– in favor of the acquisition of territory, but that he would demand as he believed the whole Democracy of the North would, that all territory hereafter annexed shold be free territory.

He would vote to put Slavery upon no soil where it did not now exist. The Compromise did not require that foreign country, now free, should be converted into Slave territory, and it was selfish to ask it. He had voted for the admission of Texas with Slavery, because the Institution already existed there; but there was no Slavery in Mexico, barbarous as that Nation was.
[MPR]


RW47v24i4p1c2, January 12, 1847, Petersburg Volunteers.

The Petersburg Republican furnishes us with the adjoined list of the officers of the “Petersburg Union Volunteers,” the second company organized in that patriotic town:

William Murray Robinson, Captain.
James Laurenson Bryan, 1st Lieutenant.
Aurelius Rives Shands, 2d do. (1)
William Johnston McGowan, 2d do. (2)
Benjamin Wyche Collier, 1st Sergeant.
Benjamin Franklin Winfield, 2d do.
James Washington Baldwin, 3d do.
James William Rivers, 4th do.
Nathaniel Pedworth, 1st Corporal.
William Francis Rives, 2d do.
Harmon Thomas Burns, 3d do.
John William Fisher, 4th do.

[MPR]


RW47v24i4p1c2, January 12, 1847

Robert Greenhow, Esq. of Washington, has presented a copy of his History of Oregon and California to each of the Field Officers and to the Adjutant of the Virginia regiment of volunteers.
[MPR]


RW47v24i4p1c2, January 12, 1847

The citizens of Philadelphia have determined to present to Lieut. James Lawrence Parker a handsome Naval Sword, a pair of Epaulettes and a full suit Uniform, for his daring exploit in burning the Mexican brig Creole, while moored to the Castle of San Juan de Ulloa, and for his noble conduct in refusing to leave the unfortunate brig Somers, until she had sunk into the depths of the ocean.
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RW47v24i4p1c2, January 12, 1847

The New York Express states that Capt. Walker, of the Texas Rangers, had procured in that city 1000 Revolving Pistols for the new regiment of Mounted Riflemen.
[MPR]


RW47v24i4p1c2, January 12, 1847, Important from the Army.

The intelligence from the Army is calculated to excite serious apprehensions for the fate of the small detachment in garrison at Saltillo, under command of the intrepid Worth. If it be true, as reported, and is certainly not at all improbable, that Santa Anna was advancing upon that city with an overwhelming force, it is presumed almost too much even upon the tried courage of our soldiers to suppose that they would be able successfully to resist the mediated attack. We await further intelligence with deep anxiety.
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RW47v24i4p1c3, January 12, 1847, Volunteers.

A detachment of Volunteers from Franklin and Bedford counties reached the city on Saturday afternoon, about 20 in number, and attached themselves to Capt. Wm. B. Archer’s company.

Captain Preston’s company, from Montgomery, is expected to leave Lynchburg to–day, and will arrive in Richmond probably on Wednesday or Thursday next.

The Governor was compelled to decline the services of the Norfolk company, commanded by Capt. O.E. Edwards, the regiment being already full to the overflowing. The company has consequently instructed its commander to tender its services to the Executive of North Carolina.
[MPR]


RW47v24i4p1c3, January 12, 1847, Important from Mexico.

A letter from Tampico, to the New Orleans Picayune, dated December 17, states that advices from Vera Cruz had been received there of the action of the Mexican Congress. “They declare that they will not think or treat of peace until every hostile foot has cleared the Mexican soil, and every vessel that lines their coast is withdrawn.” The writer adds, “I consider the war now commenced in real earnest.”
[MPR]


RW47v24i4p1c3, January 12, 1847

The death of Gen. Thomas L. Hamer has created a universal feeling of regret in Ohio, of which State he was one of the ablest and most distinguished citizens. The Legislature, now in session, has taken measures for the removal of his remains, at the expense of the State, to the soil of Ohio.
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RW47v24i4p1c3, January 12, 1847

Gen. Leslie Combs has lately received a letter announcing that O’Blenis, who murdered his son two years ago, has at length met his deserts, having been shot by some Mexicans at Matamoros, where he had settled himself as a trader. Just before his death, he had murdered a gentleman of the name Townsend, who had a claim against him.
[MPR]


RW47v24i4p1c5, January 12, 1847, From the Seat of the War. Later from Tampico– Important from Gen. Worth– Concentration of Troops at Monterey– Saltillo Threatened by Santa Anna.

From the New Orleans Picayune, Jan. 2.

The steamer Virginia, Capt. Smith, arrived last evening from Tampico, via Brazos Santiago, having left the Brazos on the 27th inst. The brig Empressario, Capt. Collins, which sailed from Tampico on the 26th , also arrived last night. By these vessels we have received letters from Mr. Lumsden, at Tampico, some of which we give below. They contain all the intelligence brought from Tampico, and clear up some points in the accounts previously received which appeared obscure.

We have conversed with a gentleman who came passenger in the Virginia from Brazos, and who is direct from Monterey. He has kindly furnished us with the following information, which is highly important, if there be no error in the accounts. They were fully credited at eh Brazos, and are confirmed by Capt. Brower, of the schooner Robert Mills, who arrived last evening from that port.

An express from Gen. Worth at Saltillo, arrived at Monterey on Wednesday, the 16th of Dec. It brought the news that Gen. Worth had learned through his spies that Santa Anna was within three days march of Saltillo, at the head of an army of twenty or thirty thousand men. The express bore a call upon Gen. Taylor for reinforcements. General Taylor and his staff had left Monterey on the 15th ult.– the day before the express arrived– fro Victoria, to join his command, which was two days march in advance of him.

Gen. Butler, in command at Monterey, immediately sent of dispatches to Gen. Marshall, at Camargo, and to Gen. Patterson, at Matamoros, to send forward without delay all the troops they could spare from their commands.

Gen. Patterson had left Matamoros only the day before the news reached that place. It was at once forwarded to him, and upon learning its purport our informant states that he immediately started on his return with the view to proceed to Monterey.

It was reported at Tampico on the 25th, as will be seen from the postscript to Mr. Lumsden’s last letter, that a portion of Gen. Patterson’s command had entered Victoria, but it is not mentioned that the General himself had arrived, so that we cannot judge how far the news from the two sources may conflict.

The express reported at Matamoros that the road from Moterey to Camargo was lined with troops– regulars and volunteers– on their march to Monterey, having been previously ordered up. Our informant says there were four regiments upon the road. The route from Monterey is infested by predatory bands of rancheros, by which the traveling is rendered insecure. Our train had been attacked a few days before our informant passed over the road, as had also several small parties, and some few men had been killed and wounded.

We need not say that this news possesses the highest interest. As we write we have only verbal reports in regard to it, but hope to receive this morning our correspondence from the army. There is no intrinsic improbability in the news of Santa Anna’s movements, and if he possesses the energy and skill claimed for him, nothing appears more likely than that he should fall like a thunderbolt upon some point in our extended line and hope to crush us. But we have every confidence in the vigilance of General Worth, and his ability to hold the enemy in check until Gen. Wool and Gen. Taylor arrive to his support. We await further intelligence with the utmost interest.

[Editorial Correspondence of the Picayune.]

Tampico, December 19, 1847.

Gen. Shields takes formal command here to–day. He is energetic, thoughtful, and intelligent, and is in every respect fitted for his station. One of the last acts of Col. Gates, previously in command of this post, was to remove a fellow named Labruere from his office as auctioneer, for refusing to take up arms and turn out with the citizens the other day when they had the alarm of which I informed you yesterday “Served him right.”

Lieut. R.P. Hammond, 3d Artillery, aide–de–camp to Gen. Shields, is appointed Acting Assistant Adjutant General of the Command at Tampico.

In obedience to instructions from Maj. Gen. Patterson, Capt. Hunt, 4th Artillery, with his company now here, is ordered to Camargo to relieve the garrison there.

We have various rumors of the movements of the Mexicans in the interior, but nothing of apparent correctness enough to tell you of.

Tampico, December 23, 1846.

The British mail steamer Dee, Capt. Griffith, which has been some days off the entrance to this place, sailed yesterday morning for Vera Cruz. I learned she carried a considerable amount of specie. The officers of the Dee, with one or two of whom I became acquainted here, are very polite and pleasing, free, frank and gentlemanly in their bearing.

The brig Hallowell arrived here three nights ago from Brazos Santiago, with all the remaining Alabama troops but one company. These are the only volunteer troops here. They are, for the most part, a hardy set of men, orderly and quiet in their deportment, and will, no doubt, if an opportunity occurs, show that they are made of good metal.

Except the Ewing, the vessels belong to the U.S. Squadron, mentioned in my last as being here, have not yet sailed, but they will soon be off. What is to be their point of destination I do not certainly know; but I have gathered enough to assure me that Tuspan is to be looked in upon. The steamer Spitfire, […] Tattnall, is certainly to run in by way of a reconnaissance, if nothing more. The officers are all most anxious for something to turn up, giving them a fair chance to do something, and I sincerely wish they may have a chance.

Tampico is a fine little place. I am becoming more and more pleased with it. It is being Americanized very rapidly. At present there are but few of the better classes of the former citizens here; but those few are becoming, apparently, quite satisfied with the new regime . The police regulations are excellent, and every thing goes on quiet. But of this more anon.

I visited , a day or two since, the line of works building by our forces, under the superintendence of Capt. Barnard, of the U.S. Engineers, and I must say it is most beautiful, so far as it is progressed. More substantial defensive works I have seldom seen. They are superlatively grand, in comparison with those constructed by the Mexicans heretofore, and most indubitably must they command all the approaches to the city by land, however large the number of troops advancing. The greatest scientific skill appears to have been displayed in the strength and construction, as well as proper locations of these works. In a word, they will, when completed, be impregnable– at least to Santa Anna’s whole army!

Hart has taken a very nice house here, which he is fixing up as a theatre. In the meantime he gives a series of concerts, Mrs. H., Miss Christian and others appearing in songs, and Wells executing dances, &c. The idea of an American theatre in Tampico is rather novel, but nevertheless we are to have one, and I almost venture to prophecy its success.

I could write you pages about Mrs. Chase, the excellent lady of our worthy consul here; but you have been furnished with the details of her unshrinking, noble and daring conduct, as well as in defending herself and home while her husband was in exile, as in furnishing the most important information to our squadron in the Gulf– information which saved Tampico and made it an American possession! I need, therefore, say no more than this– which I must say– that Ann Chase is a great woman! I have had the honor of being presented to the lady, and confess that I lack words to express my admiration of those attributes in her which make woman great, and render her the heroine of a glorious incident in the history of America!

I have nothing to add, but shall keep you informed by every opportunity of what may be interesting.

Yours, &c. F. A. L.

Tampico, Dec. 25, 1846.

I wish you all a merry Christmas. There is every appearance of there being a merry one here– such as Tampico never saw before. Eggs are very plenty and very cheap, and lots of egg nog to be drunk, The “boys” are bound to do it.

The vessels of the squadron mentioned in my last are still here. The prize schooner “Belle,” under command of Acting Master Perry, (of the Cumberland,) will sail tomorrow for Anton Lizardo. The steamer Spitfire, schrs. Reefer and Nonato (prize) will remain here until the forces are reinforced– then look out for something in the shape of a fight at Tuspan. I have a little information– authentic– about Tuspan, which I will give you. Gen. Cos, commander of the place, has refused to obey the order of Santa Anna to evacuate the town. He has a force under him of from four to five hundred troops of the line, and a large body of Indians whom he has called in from the mountains of Mazantla and Papantle– two or three thousand in number– but indifferently armed. At Tuspan there are three conical hills– the town lying in the valley. These heights are all fortified with six pieces of artillery each, besides having a strong picketing formed of heavy chijal posts. There is no defence at the Mouth of the river, but about half way from the bar to the town– six miles– there is a battery of 24–pounders. The water in the bar is now about five feet only. Some of the guns are the Truxton’s, captured by the unfortunate loss of that vessel under Captain Carpender.

It is thought here by the most intelligent persons, that the only way to successfully attack Tuspan would be by troops, as the town is so situated that a vessel in the river can only bring her guns to bear on two different points, while the guns on the heights not only command the town entirely, but the river also. The most feasible way to attack the place would be to send a force to be landed at the south of the bar [Tuspan being on the north,] abreast of the town, and distant about twelve miles, and proceed to bombard the place at once, when no doubt the third or fourth shell falling in their midst would cause the Mexicans to display a white flag in a very short time.

Now a little but about Tula, or Tamaulipas. The garrison of this place, [Tampico,] when it evacuated the city, went to Tula. This garrison consisted of the battalion of Tampico, 12th Regiment of Infanrty, Permanentes de Tampico, Veteranos de Tampico, a small company of artillery, the remnant of the 6th Regiment, left from the memorable actions of Palo Alto and Resaca, and a small force of cavalry. At present there are in Tula, distant about 180 miles from this place, on the route to San Luis Potosi, some three or four thousand men of various arms, under Gens. Valencia, Carvajal and a half dozen others, who are fortifying the place against an apprehended attack from the American forces at this place.

Private letters from the city of Mexico are in this city, stating that it is expected there will soon be a revolution there against the ministers, who the people say have proved themselves incompetent to manage the affairs of the nation in a proper manner. In fact it is said that everything is in confusion– no money, no credit, and plenty of dissatisfaction.

The people here in Tampico– except those who formerly held office– look upon us as their deliverers, not as enemies. It is well known that the Governor of this State [Tamaulipas] is ready, on the first approach of the United States forces towards Vic

toria its capital, to surrender, in the name of its Congress, the whole territory to us.

The police regulations here are most excellent. By the following orders you will see that certain classes of people needn’t come here:

Headquarters Tampico Troops,
Orders No. 3.,
Tampcio, Mexico, Dec. 22.

I. All persons occupying houses in Tampico or in its vicinity are hereby strictly prohibited from allowing any species of public gambling within the same.

II. All houses or other places kept for the purpose of public gambling will be closed, the persons found gambling in them arrested, those attached to the Army punished, and those who are not, banished.

III. All personal property found in any house or place kept for gambling, and all money or property employed in gambling will be confiscated, and the proceeds thereof appropriated as a hospital fund for the relief of the poor and indigent in Tampico .

IV. Major N. Williams, 4th Artillery, is specially assigned to the superintendence of the police and good order of the town. He will charge himself particularly with carrying the provisions of this order into immediate execution, and with the prevention and suppression of any species of riot, disturbance and disorder whatsoever. And the better to effect this, he is authorized to call upon the commander of the troops in town for any assistance which may be necessary. By order of Brig. Gen. Shields:

R.P. Hammond, A.A. Adj’t Gen.

This is about all I have for you at the present writing.

Yours, &c. F.A.L.

P.S. I have just heard that a portion of the troops under Gen. Patterson have reached Victoria, and there was no fighting.
F.A.L.

[MPR]


RW47v24i4p1c6, January 12, 1847, Further News from New Mexico. Rumored Defeat of the Dragoons.

We copy the following from the St. Louis Republican of Wednesday, 30th ult.:

A gentleman of this city, connected with the army, has furnished us with the following extract of a letter received from Ft. Leavenworth, by the last mail. It true, the news is painfully important. The letter says:

“WE have dates from Santa Fe to November 15. Capt. Burgwin, with the dragoons, and also three companies of Col. Doniphan’s regiment, have gone below to the assistance of the traders. There is a rumor that sixty dragoons have been defeated by the Navajo Indians. Lieut. Noble, of the dragoons, writes that ‘he fears and believes the rumor is true.’”
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RW47v24i4p2c1, January 12, 1847, General Taylor.

Mr. Fricklin, a member of the House of Representatives from Illinois, took occasion on Saturday last, to assail this gallant officer in the most virulent and acrimonious manner– attributing to his want of skill and energy the escape of the Mexican forces after the glorious battles of the 8th and 9th of May, and complaining of the tardiness of his movements since that event. It is scarcely worth while to say that, after the battles of the 8th and 9th , the glorious result of which electrified the whole country, General Taylor’s shattered little army was not in a condition to pursue the retreating foe ; and that even when, five months afterwards, he reached Monterey, he was but inadequately provided with the material necessary for a successful attack upon a fortified town, from which nevertheless, against fearful odds, he succeeded in expelling the enemy. The annals of war, we venture to say, do not furnish a parallel to the extraordinary triumphs of our armies, on the several occasions referred to, under circumstances so unpropitious and discouraging. Why, then, this assault, by one of the leading champions of the Administration, upon the gallant General, who has thus far triumphed over a superior force, with such inadequate means? Is the disgrace of the intrepid old hero deemed essential to a vindication of the Executive? If this be the motive of the member from Illinois, he ought to perceive that he will not accomplish his object by such a line of defence. If it be true, as he asserts, Gen. Taylor failed to meet responsibilities of his position with the sagacity and energy which the country had a right to expect, does he not see that the Administration is not less to blame than if, in his movements, he has obeyed implicitly instructions from Washington? Why, if he has thus betrayed his signal incompetancy, has he been retained at the head of the army? For, why if he has exhibited the want of judgment or the criminal sloth now imputed to him, was he not long ago recalled, and the command–in–chief given to a better soldier? The Administration, it is obvious, cannot make Gen. Taylor the scapegoat of its flagrant errors. Yet we can see no other motive for this cruel assault upon the gallant General, by the sagacious military critic from the wilds of Illinois, who has been quietly sitting by his fireside, while the man he slanders has been patiently enduring the hardships of the camp, and fearlessly encountering the perils of the battle–field– unless, indeed, it be that he hopes by blighting his well–earned laurels, to remove him from the field of competition for the next Presidency– or perhaps to secure the appointment of “Lieutenant General” Benton, or some other court favorite, to supersede the veterans who have heretofore surmounted the most formidable obstacles and achieved a series of the most splendid triumphs.

We are not surprised at this attack upon Gen. Taylor; nor, so far as he is concerned, do we regret it– since it may have the effect of eliciting, in his defence, facts, yet unknown to the country, which, when they shall be divulged, will show that, while the seeming tardiness of his movements is ascribable exclusively to the inadequacy of his means, consequent upon the imbecility of the authorities at Washington, (and probably to so nothing worse than the imbecility of some of their agents,) his defeat of the Mexicans, under the circumstances, entitles him to rank with the first military commanders of the age. It is not our purpose, however, to anticipate that defence, which this attack upon him, bye a friend of the Administration, in Congress,– and we fear speaking its sentiments,– may render expedient. When it shall be made, we predict that it will fall with a crushing effect upon his assailants, open and concealed.
[MPR]


RW47v24i4p2c1, January 12, 1847, Military Appropriations.

The Committee of Ways and Means last Saturday reported to the House of Representatives bills making the following appropriations– from which some faint idea may be formed of the amount of expenditure contemplated:

Army proper$ 6,813,73 25
Volunteers 22,725,31 00
Navy 8,920,04 49
Indians 1,179,24 00
$39,638,32 74

[MPR]


RW47v24i4p2c1, January 12, 1847  Saltillo.

The Southern mail failed yesterday and the day before– and we have no later news from the army than we published yesterday. The tenor of the last advices from the seat of war naturally creates some anxiety in regard to the probability of the successful defence of Saltillo by Gen. Worth, should an attack be made upon it by Santa Anna. A letter from Saltillo, dated on the 20th of November, anticipating the possibility of an attack upon Gen. Worth, says in that event, “we must fall back upon the Pass de los Muertos, or as far as Monterey. Saltillo we cannot retain with less than 5 or 6000 men and plenty of artillery, as we shold have to fortify several heights which overlook the town, and which, if in possession of an enemy, we could be driven out in an hour’s firing. The place itself is not defensible, being surrounded by eminences on all sides. The Muertos (or Death’s Passage,) we could defend with our present force for a season against a host in arms; and Monterey with a much smaller force then we could Saltillo, and much more effectually.” * * * “If he (Santa Anna) advances upon us, we must fall back, even if reinforced by Gen. Wool, unless we get on some heavy guns, of which we are destitute here. Could we have some 18’s or […], we might make a stand. With our present means, it would be the height of folly to remain, in the face of certain starvation, capture or destruction.”
[MPR]


RW47v24i4p2c1, January 12, 1847, The Tenth Legion.

We have done all in our power to goad the Tenth Legion into action; but our kind offices have been looked upon with suspicion and repelled with some of asperity. Nevertheless we were gratified when we announced the fact, to which our attention was especially called by the Enquirer, that, although too late for service, two companies of volunteers had been organized in Rockingham, (one of the tier of counties upon which the appellation of Caesar’s invincible cohorts have been conferred, for the Mexican war. But we are now informed by the Harrisonburg Republican, that no such companies were raised. It is true (says that paper) that some 30 men had volunteered on Mr. Kenney’s muster–roll, but they had despaired of raising even a single company and disbanded– and […] of their numbers only, William Smith and Calvin Smith, both Whigs, determined to join Capt. Wm. B. Archer’s company in Richmond. SO that, in truth, the Tenth Legion will contribute but two men to the Virginia regiment; and both of them are Whigs! We state the fact without comment. If the Tenth Legion is “defamed by it, surely it is not our fault!

The Republican informs us that the citizens of Harrisonburg gave a dinner to the two gallant Whig volunteers, and presented to each of them a six–barrel revolver. To each of them a Bowie knife was also given– one by Mr. Isaac Aiken, and the other by Mr. Jos. S. Effinger.
[MPR]


RW47v24i4p2c2, January 12, 1847

Gen. Charles Sterret Ridgely, the father of Capt. Randolph Ridgely, who so highly distinguished himself in the Mexican campaign, and who was subsequently killed by a fall from his horse, died at Elk Ridge, Maryland on the 5th inst. in the 65th year of his age.
[MPR]


RW47v24i4p2c2, January 12, 1847

The Anti–Slavery movements in the House of Representatives, in connection with the Mexican War, are virtually admitted, by the N.Y. Evening Post, an organ of Northern Democracy, to have special reference to the next Presidential election, and are designed to aid Silas Wright, whose immediate representative, Preston King, threw the firebrand into the House. What think the Southern Locos of their “natural allies”?
[MPR]


RW47v24i4p2c2, January 12, 1847

Lieut. Thomas P. August, of the Richmond Rangers, has been appointed Adjutant of the Virginia regiment of Volunteers.
[MPR]


RW47v24i4p2c2, January 12, 1847, Letter from Washington.

Correspondence of the Whig.
Washington, Jan. 9th, 1847.

What does the Locofoco press say to the last news from Mexico, received this evening? Gen. Santa Anna, to whom Mr. Polk took care to give a free pass through our blockade, was on his march to Saltillo, to meet Gen. Worth and Gen. Taylor in open battle. This Lieutenant General of Polk’s choice, who was sent to Mexico to assume the command of the army of our enemies, to slaughter our brave troops, and, if possible, annihilate our army– what have they to say of him? They are “as dumb as oysters” about that! If the Whigs had sent him there it would have been wrong– but Mr. Polk sent him there, and it is right! Verily, in these days of modern “Democracy,” whatever the Executive may do is right, while it would not be right for one of the people to do the same. Had Mr. Webster, or any other Whig, sent a friend to Mexico on any business, and had that friend put himself at the head of the Mexican army, we would never have heard the end of it! Mr. Polk sends a man to Mexico, and takes the trouble to order Commodore Conner to let him pass the blockade. If Mr. Polk had put himself at the head of the army of Mexico, we could have easily beaten him, for he does not love the smell of powder! but he sends the treacherous and bloody Tyrant, Santa Anna, to Mexico. Everything Santa Anna does there, Mr. Polk does. Quod facit per alium, facit per se – what a man does through another it the same as if he had done it himself. It almost amounts to a moral certainty that Santa Anna could not have passed our blockade, without Mr. Polk’s order to that effect. Indeed, if Mr. Polk did not suppose it impossible for him to pass our blockade, why did he take the trouble to order Commodore Conner to pass him? Mr. Polk chose to intrigue with Santa Anna. He was exiled by his own people. Mr. Polk chooses him as his instrument in an intrigue, to come the “green game” over the Mexicans, and he is as much responsible for Santa Anna’s doings there, as he is for John Slidell’s. This tool of Mr. Polk, or rather the crafty Tyrant who made Mr. Polk his tool, is now leading a large army to the field to slaughter our men and to squander our money, and ten new regiments are required not to fight against this very chosen friend of Mr. Polk! yet where is the talk of “aid and comfort” of this? These flatterers of power, who cry lustily “The King can do no wrong,” as “silent as oysters” on this affair. It is “Democratic” to praise the Executive for what would be treason in any of the people!

“Aid and comfort,” cry these sycophants, if any one breathes a word against the President! The President is carrying on the war, and if you insinuate any thing about his ability to conduct it, you “aid and comfort” the enemy. No sirs. It is not the President who is conducting the war. It is Gen. Taylor and Gen. Scott, to both of whom the President has entrusted the conduct of the war. Yet here we have, to–day, two Locofocos, one of them looked upon as the especial mouth–piece of the President, who abuse old Gen. Taylor and Gen. Scott; charging them with incompetency! Is not this the worst kind of “aid and comfort” to Mexico, to say to the world and to Mexico, that the men to whom we have entrusted the conduct of the war, are incompetent to discharge their duty! Mr. Ficklin of Illinois, to–day, blamed Gen. Taylor for not following the Mexicans across the Rio Grande, after the battle of Resaca de la Palma, when he must have known, if he knew anything, that Gen. Taylor had not been supplied with any means for crossing rivers. This Mr. Ficklin scolded the brave American army for not plunging into the river, after they had been fighting for about 36 hours. He said they should have eaten before the battle commenced! Yes; there are men at a distance to blame Gen. Taylor for not crossing the river, who would never have crossed it themselves, unless an enemy was behind them! And Jacob Thompson of Mississippi thought fit to ridicule Gen. Taylor, as knowing how to “mark time,” but not fit to conduct a campaign as a chief. Nor was Gen. Scott capable of conducting the campaign, if we take his Florida campaign as a specimen. Now, these slurs cast upon our brave Generals, are the very worst kind of “aid and comfort” to Mexico. Of course these men will escape unscathed in the Locofoco papers. It is wrong only for Whigs to claim the freedom of speech!

The bill before the House to–day, was amended in several particulars; then a substitute offered by Mr. Rathbun, was adopted, by a majority of 8, and immediately afterwards rejected by a majority of one! The question for Monday morning will be the passage of the original bill, which gives the President the disposal of about 400 offices with which he could purchase the votes of men enough of his own party in Congress to carry any measure almost eh might choose. And this is what he wants the bill passed for. Mr. Rathbun’s amendment, leaving the choice of officers with the men themselves, was rejected to give the President political power. If not they would have taken Mr. Rathbun’s amendment.

If the bill pass in its original form, it will create ten additional regiments of a standing army, which will not be disbanded at the close of war, whilst the regiments now in the field are not full by as many men as will compose these ten new regiments.

It will create a great array of office holders, colonels, &c, who will have to be fed forever at the public crib.

It will be a direct insult to the volunteers, whose patriotism and efficiency are doubted and libelled by Mr. Polk and his Locofoco advisers. It will be a direct and cruel insult to the men who may enlist, inasmuch as they may not have the proper privilege of choosing the officer under whom they have to fight and fall.

For these and other reasons, I presume the Whigs will generally vote against it in the House. I think it will be defeated in the Senate. There will be an attempt, on Monday morning, to reconsider the vote rejecting Mr. Rathbun’s substitute– on of the New York delegation has consented to move to reconsider– but I presume that it will be lost and the original bill will pass; all amendments being cut off by the previous question.

You will see that the House have taken a decided stand against the Lt. General, (120 to 90.) Will they be whipped into the traces hereafter? Wait and see.

Mr. Webster arrived here this evening, from the North, with his lady. Mr. Robert Tyler also arrived this evening from the South. Mr. Lover, the celebrated Irish novelist and poet, is expected here to–morrow.

Mr. Cabell of Florida, who has been here for several days, receiving the congratulations of his numerous friends, returns to Richmond this evening.

BRUTUS.

[MPR]


RW47v24i4p2c2, January 12, 1847, Lieutenant General.

Although the House of Representatives refused, on Saturday, by a vote of 90 to 120, to amend Mr. Rathbun’s substitute, by the insertion of a clause authorizing the appointment of a Lieut. General, yet the House, in committee of the whole, had previously, by a vote of 84 to 67, incorporated a provision to that effect in the bill for which Mr. Rathbun’s was a substitute, and which we presume passed the body yesterday. In that event, the appointment of a Lieutenant General will have been authorized by the House, notwithstanding it is clearly in opposition to the opinion of a majority of the members, upon a fuller vote. It is to be hoped, however, that the Senate will strike out this feature of the bill.

Should it pass both Houses, however, Senator Benton cannot receive the appointment– a provision having been inserted, declaring that “it shall not be lawful to appoint to any of the offices authorized by this act any member of the present Congress.” Rumor says that Caleb Cushing is to be the man!!!

Of the Virginia Delegation, Messrs. Brown, Johnson, Leake, McDoqell and Tredway, voted for the creation of the office of Lieutenant General, and Messrs. Atkinson, Bayly, Bedinger, Chapman, Hopkins, Hubard, Hunter, Pendleton and Seddon, against it.
[MPR]


RW47v24i4p4c3, January 12, 1847, Address of Judge Baldwin, and Reply of Capt. Harper.

We briefly noticed yesterday the interesting ceremony of the previous afternoon– the presentation of Judge B.G. Baldwin, at the request of the County Court of Augusta, of a Flag to the fine company of Volunteers which she has given to the service of her country.

Every spectator was struck with the beauty of the Flag, both the design and the execution of which attest the genius and skill of the artist. One one side is our national emblem, the Eagle, with the words, “E Pluribus Unum”;– on the other the Virginia coat of arms, with its appropriate and glorious motto: “Sic simper Tyrannis!

Notwithstanding the inclemency of the weather, quite a crowd assembled to witness the interesting ceremony.

We have the pleasure of laying before our readers this morning the admirable address of Judge Baldwin and the not less felicitous reply of Capt. Harper.

Judge Baldwin’s Address.

Volunteers of Augusta!– At the call of your country, you have left the comforts of civil life and the endearments of domestic ties, to devote your whole energies to her service, and peril your lives in her cause. You have witnessed the deep feeling occasioned by this movement in the community from which you come. You have observed the generous sympathy in your behalf which pervaded the county of Augusta, during your brief preparations for an enterprize of such thrilling interest. You could not mistake the manifestations of kind regard, which attended your departure. You cannot forget the affecting evidences of anxiety for your welfare, exhibited by the associates and fellow–citizens from whom you have separated.

I speak of no casual and transient excitement– no sudden and momentary burst of emotion. The best wishes, the anxious care of Augusta, follow you still. Since you left us, the public sentiment has been concentrated by the constituted authorities, who have resolved that you shall bear with you a mark of her attachment, best suited to the occasion, and most grateful to the hearts of our citizen–soldiers.

Behold, then, the gift of Augusta to her sons!– who go forth to sustain her ancient honor and renown– to meet the enemies of our country, and do battle in her cause! It is intended as a memorial of affectionate regard– of intense solicitude– of abiding trust. It is intended as an emblem of what she expects, and of what you have resolved. It is intended to stimulate you in times of difficulty, and cheer you in moments of gloom. It is intended as a bond of inseparable union between your hearts and your home. It is intended to remind you, at every step of your advance, of your duty to yourselves, your country, and your friends.

I have no commission to urge you to courage in the field– to deeds of daring in the assault– to unyielding firmness in defence. No! Soldiers of Augusta, no! We leave such topics to your own thoughts– we hold them needless and unprofitable in speech, to the descendants of the sturdy and dauntless settlers of our land, the pioneers of the wilderness, the conquerors of the merciless savage foe– to the grandsons of the men who fought at Guilford, at King’s Mountain, at the Cowpens, at York– to the sons of the men who drew back from no duty in our last conflict with a mighty foe– to the men who were lately represented at Palo Alto, at Resaca de la Palma, on the heights and steeps of bloody Monterey. We address no excitement of words to the spirit which swells in the bosoms, and burns in the veins, of our bold and hardy mountaineers!

Let me turn from what we know, to what we hope and believe– that this banner will never be degraded by those over whom it is to wave, by any stain of cruelty, of disorder, of rapine, of devastation– that you will return it to its donor, however stained with blood, however torn in battle, unsullied by any crime0 to be received with joyful acclamations, and placed amongst the archives of your country, as a proud monument of your worth, as a precious legacy to future generations. And here you will not deem it presumptuous in an early friend of your fathers, one who has known them long and well, who has been honored by their confidence, who retains a grateful recollection of their kindness and encouragement, that he should suggest to you a few hints for your guidance, amidst the difficulties and dangers of the new career upon which you are about to enter.

Learn, then, what you cannot fully know without experience, that the first duty of a soldier is perfect subordination: a cheerful obedience to the commands of his superiors; a faithful observance of the martial law. Without this subjection, there can be no safety, no honor, no glory. Let not your pride be hurt but this inevitable necessity– deem it no degradation– consider it no hardship: it is the common lot of all who leave the mild and gentle pursuits of civic life for the stern and rigid profession of arms. A military authority is essentially despotic, whatever may be the form of government from which it springs. Its sway is indispensable for the citizens of a Republic as for the subjects of a Prince. Nay more; the armies of the freest nations that ever existed have been most distinguished for a rigid discipline; and it is the very subjection of a proud and independent spirit to the uncompromising authority of military command, which has covered them with glory and immortalized their fame.

But bear in mind that though your duties as soldiers are stern, and arduous, and rigid, they are not to divest you of the virtues which adorn the civic life. Far from it. On the contrary, they often call forth the noblest feelings of the heart, and give scope to the highest qualities of the soul. But, I can only glance at this fruitful theme. A single example must suffice. The enemy is to be subdued, not to be torn to pieces, or trampled in the dust. So soon as resistance ceases, forbearance and mercy should resume their sway. At that moment the fierceness of the Christian soldier is disarmed– he binds up the wounds of his prostrate foe, extends to him a helping hand, relieves his distress, contributes to his wants, consoles him in his grief and shame.

To the non–combatant of the hostile nation all unnecessary violence is a crime; and what goes unpunished amidst the din of arms, as appeal still lies to a high and mighty Judge. And what shall I say, if that violence be offered to the weaker sex? Oh, deep disgrace! Oh, burning shame! Oh, damning thought! Is there a man amongst you, who deserves the name, that could be tempted to such a deed? None, not one! If he could, one cry for mercy, one shriek of despair, would send back his thoughts to his native land, and summon his memory to the mother who bore and nursed him– to the sister who loved and cheered him.

But the topics of admonition and counsel spring up around me as I progress, and warn me not to advance too far. I must compress what I may yet venture to say into a few brief words.

Look again upon your flag! Does it sir, as it waves, your inmost hearts– does it fan the fire of your veins– does it swell your soul with thoughts of gallant deeds? I tell you it is nothing– worse than nothing– if it only moves your passions, and subjects your reason to their sway. Know, that the first victory you have to gain is over yourselves– that you must acquire self–control– that you must temper enthusiasm with discretion– that you must seek the guidance of a calm and sober judgment. Learn that you have much to learn. Bear in mind that you have to gain the art of war– the discipline of the soldier– the dexterous use of arms– the wakeful vigilance of the veteran, his care of his supplies, his capacity to bear fatigues, his sagacious forecast of his wants. And remember, never to forget that the same industry and prudence, sobriety and frugality, patience and skill, that crown with success the pursuits of civil life, are quite as essential– nay, still more essential– to encounter and overcome the far greater difficulties of a career in arms.

A few more words and I have done. Non–commissioned officers and soldiers of the company: You are volunteers, not enlisted soldiers. You enter the army not as a matter of necessity, but choice. You aspire to usefulness: you thirst for fame; you cherish the thought of returning to your friends and your homes, with established reputations, to resume the pursuits of civic life, with energies increased, with knowledge enlarged, with hopes encouraged. You have associated as a band of volunteers: I trust you will prove a band of brothers: with mutual confidence and esteem, respect and good will; inspired with a generous emulation; discarding all petty jealousies and distrusts. You have chosen your own officers; yield them a cheerful and respectful obedience; guard their reputations as you would your own; sustain them by your confidence and zeal.

Subaltern officers of the company: You have been called to duties of much responsibility and trust; you have the capacity and inclination to perform them: lead no temptations lead you astray from the path of usefulness and honor; scorn all vulgar arts and sordid aims; aspire to high distinction; gain it by the cultivation of your talents, and the application of all your energies to the faithful and enthusiastic discharge of all your duties. Let none be nearer your hearts than a parental care over the health, the safety, the good repute, the comforts of your men. Aid them by your friendly counsel, instruct them by your good example.

Kenton Harper, commandant of this corps: To you it would not become me to utter a single word upon the subject of your trust. No one understands it better than yourself. Augusta commits her sons to you with confidence, unbounded confidence.

Volunteers of Augusta: Receive this gift of the mother to her sons. Farewell— fare–you–well!

To this address, Capt. Harper responded, as follows:

Sir– It is with feelings which no language can adequately express, that I receive, at your hands, this proud testimonial of the confidence of old Augusta that her sons will do their duty, in the perilous service upon which they are about to enter, in a far distant land. Much as I knew we shared of her sympathy– anxiously I believed we should be followed by her prayers– yet I was not prepared to see the honor of the county thus formally committed to our keeping. To you, sir, you know me well, I need not say, how much I am overwhelmed by this act of generous confidence. Still I have a trust, and abiding trust, in the stout hearts and strong arms of the gallant men with whom I am associated, and that they will honorably sustain every just expectation of their friends and the country.

Augusta Volunteers! Behold your Banner, presented to you by your county! Can you ever allow it to be dishonored in your service? What say you?

[No, no,– Never, never;– was responded from all parts of the line.]

Sir– You have our answer! Bear it back, I pray you, to our fellow citizens. Say to them, that, with hearts glowing with affection for our firesides and our friends, we still go forward, cheerfully and confidently, to the discharge of our duty. And may the God of Battles arm us for the fight!

The Addresses elicited loud bursts of applause– and at their conclusion, the Company, with its flag borne in front, returned to its quarters. It left Richmond yesterday morning, for Old Point, whither, as our readers are aware, it had been already proceeded by five companies of the Virginia regiment. It is expected that the first battalion will embark for the seat of war in about ten days.
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RW47v24i4p4c4, January 12, 1847, What does this mean?

Independent,” the well–informed Washington Correspondent of the Philadelphia North American hints at some important revelations, hereafter to be made, in connection with the origin and progress of the Mexican war. “Give us but light.” Let the “secrets of the prison house” be brought forth. He says:

“A large portion of the written history of the war– of the correspondence between Gen. Taylor and the War Department, and of the other matters connected with secret negotiations just before the war opened, which Mr. Polk and Mr. Marcy will understand, have never been disclosed to the public. There is now ever reason why they should be, and I intend to contribute an humble part in bringing it about.

“I now say, there are facts in the archives of the Government, connected with the advance of the army from Corpus Christi to the Rio Grande that disgrace the Administration, and that place this whole war question in an attitude which it has never before assumed. In due season I will present the details, and a Resolution in either House can test their accuracy.”
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RW47v24i4p4c4, January 12, 1847, Appointments by the President.

By and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

Samuel H Montgomery, of Pennsylvania, to be Assistant Quartermaster, with the rank of Captain.
Benjamin S. Muhlenberg, of Pennsylvania, to be Surgeon.
George Dock, of Pennsylvania, to be Assistant Surgeon.
Samuel McGowan, of South Carolina, to be Assistant Quartermaster, with the rank of Captain.
James D. Blaiding, of South Carolina, to be Assistant Commissary, with the rank of Captain.
James Davis, of South Carolina, to be Surgeon.
Elbert Bland, of South Carolina, to be Assistant Surgeon.

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RW47v24i5p1c1, January 15, 1847, Massachusetts– The War.

Mr. Caleb Cushing has introduced a resolution to the Legislature of Massachusetts now in session, proposing an appropriation of $20,000, to aid in providing for the expense incurred in the support and equipment of the Massachusetts regiment of Volunteers, prior to its being mustered into the service of the General Government. To this resolution we regret to see decided symptoms of hostility. The grounds on which it is opposed are, first, that the government, in raising troops to carry on the war, ought to have made ample provision for their sustenance from the moment that they enrolled their names; secondly, that to the war in which we are now engaged a large majority of the people of that State are opposed, as unnecessary in its commencement, and as being prosecuted not for the purpose of redressing national injuries and wrongs, but exclusively with a view of territorial aggrandizement; and thirdly, that the General Government is still largely indebted to Massachusetts for money advanced during the war of 1812, and which, heretofore, although the justice of her claim has been repeatedly recognized, it has failed to reimburse.

The first and third of these grounds of objection are unquestionably not without force; but we nevertheless hope that Massachusetts, recollecting her ancient fame, will disdain to be influenced by such consideration– and above all, that she will not lose sight of the obligation which rests upon every State, as well upon every citizen, to sustain the country, while it is engaged in a foreign war, whatever may be the opinion entertained, either of the criminality of those by whose rashness or folly it has been precipitated, or of the object which its authors designed to accomplish, but which, fortunately, it will not be in their power to effect without the concurrence of the Legislative Department of the Government. That object, we have no doubt, was the acquisition of a large portion of Mexican territory. But recent indications of the determination of the members of Congress from the non–slaveholding States to exclude slavery from all the territory that may be so acquired, has already exhorted the declaration from Southern friends of the Administration in that body, that, with this unfair restriction, they are opposed to any further extension of the “area of freedom.” And as it is perfectly apparent that this restriction will be insisted upon, and with the numerical ascendancy of the North in Congress, will be enforced, it is not at all unlikely that the very men who have been most eager to reach the halls of Moctezumas, and who, with the extension of out boundaries mainly in view, have brought about this war, will be quite easily induced to compromise with Mexico for the Rio Grande, as the boundary, a few miles beyond its mouth, leaving to her the undisturbed possession of the territory at and near its source, in New Mexico and Chihuahua, which all our statutes, as well since as before the annexation of Texas, have recognized as Mexican soil.

We rejoiced to hear that Massachusetts had contributed her quota of soldiers to the service of the country– that she was not behind her sister States in this practical proof of her patriotism. We sincerely hope that she may not now discredit her Revolutionary renown, by refusing to follow the example of other States in appropriating a small amount of money to meet exigencies for which the General Government has strangely failed to provide, as it was its duty to have done.
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RW47v24i5p1c2, January 15, 1847, The Southern Mail.

We received no papers by the Southern Mail, which is indeed becoming to be almost and every day occurrence. Since Saturday morning last, we have but once received papers as far South as Raleigh– on Tuesday morning– the mail having failed on Sunday, Monday and Wednesday mornings. There is “a screw loose somewhere?”
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RW47v24i5pqc2, January 15, 1847, The Norfolk Volunteers.

The Norfolk Herald, t seems, was misinformed as to the determination of Gov. Smith, to decline accepting the services of the Norfolk Volunteers. Capt. Edwards, the commander of the company, was informed by the Governor that he could not determine certainly whether their services would be accepted or not; but authorized him to keep his company enrolled and ready for further orders, the expense of their subsistence, &c. in the interim, being paid by the State. The Herald expresses the opinion that they will be accepted.
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RW47v24i5p1c2, January 15, 1847

We are glad to hear that North Carolina, thought somewhat slow in her movements, Rip Van Winkle like, will soon be in the field with a full regiment of volunteers.
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RW47v24i5p1c2, January 15, 1847

The Washington Union is preparing for an assault upon Gen. Taylor, should our army unfortunately meet with a disaster, as it did before the battles of the 8th and 9th of May were fought, by hinting in advance, that his arrangements are defective. It says:– “We cannot suppose it possible that General Taylor would have advanced to Saltillo and scattered his troops so far from each other– with Gen’l Worth at Saltillo, with Gen. Wool at Parras, with Gen. Butler at Monterey, and the forces under himself and Gen. Patterson, so as to incur any serious danger from a concentrated attack by Santa Anna upon any of his divisions.” But let General Taylor achieve another splendid victory– and then the Union will extol the Administration for the wisdom of its plans, and the efficiency of its arrangements, precisely as it did after the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma. If disaster and defeat ensue, General Taylor will have to bear the brunt– if victory, then the Administration will appropriate to itself the glory of the achievement!
[MPR]


RW47v24i5p1c2, January 15, 1847, The Marshall Guards.

The 3rd company of Volunteers organized in this City, (though many of its members came from other parts of the Sate,) has been organized by the appointment of

Wm. B. Archer, of Richmond, as Captain.
L.M. Shumaker, of Franklin, 1st Lieutenant.
R.H. Keeling, of Richmond, 1st 2d do.
Jas. M. Blakely, Jr. do. 2d 2d do.

The non–commissioned officers are not yet appointed.

The Marshall Guard yesterday paid their respects to the Governor, and were received with the usual ceremonies.
[MPR]


RW47v24i5p1c3, January 15, 1847

The Legislature of Pennsylvania has adopted, by a unanimous vote, resolutions of thanks to Gen. Taylor, and the officers and men of the U.S. army in Mexico, volunteers and regulars, for their gallantry and good conduct since the commencement of the war. Those astute military critics, Orlando Ficklin of Illinois, and Jacob Thompson of Mississippi, think that censure, instead of thanks, as the hero’s appropriate reward– especially if that hero be a Whig General!
[MPR]


RW47v24i5p1c3, January 15, 1847, The Army.

From the N.O. Bulletin, Jan. 4.

We believe that an unnecessary anxiety is at present felt as to the position of the advanced corps of the army under General Worth, at Saltillo. The arrival of the United States steamer Edith on Saturday, it is true, confirms the previous rumors of the advance of Santa Anna in great force from San Luis upon Saltillo; but still these are but rumors, and there appears to have been no authentic advices as to his actual movements or intentions. General Worth, as was his duty to do, in order to be prepared to meet any contingency of the kind, had acted on these rumors, and had sent information by express to Monterey, and reinforcements were moving forward to Saltillo from Camargo and Monterey. It was also expected that he would be joined by General Wool, who was only distant 25 to 30 leagues; and even if he is attacked, we feel well assured he will be bale to hold his position against any force that Santa Anna can bring against him.
[MPR]


RW47v24i5p2c1, January 15, 1847, To Correspondents.

Several communications have been received, the publication of which we are compelled to defer. They shall appear as soon as possible.

Scottsville, Jr, ” must excuse us. We have already declined two or three articles on the same subject, to which we have already devoted more room than we could well spare.
[MPR]


RW47v24i5p2c1, January 15, 1847, The Virginia Regiment.

We understand that it is expected that the Virginia Regiment of Volunteers will embark at Old Point, for the seat of war, on the 20th inst.
[MPR]


RW47v24i5p2c2, January 15, 1847, News from the South.

Our readers will be gratified to learn, by the intelligence received yesterday morning, from the Seat of War, that the previous advices, exciting our apprehensions for the fate of Gen. Worth’s division of the army, were although not wholly groundless, greatly exaggerated.

A letter from Matamoros to the New Orleans Picayune, expresses the opinion that Gen. Taylor will return home as soon as Gen. Scott takes command of the army.
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RW47v24i5p2c2, January 15, 1847

To the Editors of the Whig:

Gentlemen– I noticed in your paper, a few days since, a slight mistake which I have not seen corrected; and as it is a matter of some interest to me, you will pardon me for calling your attention to it. The mistake was this: In mentioning the names of the officers of Capt. Bankhead’s company, you had it Thomas Garnett, of Essex, 1st Lieutenant. It should have been, Thomas Stuart Garnett of Westmoreland. It is more necessary that this correction should be made, because there is a Lieut. Garnett now in Mexico from Essex. It may not be improper to add, that Lieut. Thomas S. Garnett is a son of H.T. Garnett of Westmoreland. If you will make this correction, you will greatly oblige your humble servant.

Jan. 11th, 1847. WESTMORELAND.
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RW47v24i5p2c5, January 15, 1847, Late and Important Intelligence from the Seat of War! Report of Santa Anna’s advance contradicted. Return of Gen’l Taylor toward Victoria. Junction of Forces under Generals Worth and Wool, &c. &c.

From the New Orleans Times, Jan. 7.

By the arrival here yesterday of the U.S. Transport Steamer Alabama, Capt. Windle, which left Brasos on the 3d instant, we have received intelligence from the several divisions of the army up to a late date.

It appears that the reports which have been in circulation regarding the advance of Santa Anna on Saltillo have been entirely premature, and the statement that was published of his being, at the date of our last advices from that place, within three days’ march of it, is entirely without foundation. There was, however, some cause for the rumor, of which the following are the particulars:

General Worth on the 16th ultimo received information from two scouts that the Mexican General–in0chief had left San Luis Potosi, at the head of a body of 15,000 cavalry, with the intention to fall on the American division at Saltillo, which he imagined he could easily crush. After this, he proposed attacking General Wool, and if similar success attended him, to repair to Monterey and capture or destroy the magazines and public stores which lay there. General Worth, without attaching more importance to the report than it seemed to merit, forthwith dispatched expresses to Generals Taylor, Wool and Butler, acquainting them with what he had heard, leaving it entirely to them to act in the premises. The express overtook Gen’l Taylor a short distance from Monterey, on the rout to Victoria. He immediately returned to his old encamping ground near Monterey, with the whole of his division, and then awaited further advices. After remaining three days, during which he received information of the improbability of the report of Santa Anna’s advance on Saltillo, he again took up the line of march, and proceeded onward to Victoria. Meanwhile, General Wool, who had been informed of the rumor current at Saltillo, called in all his detached commands, and and at the head of his division, 3000 strong, quitted Parras on the 18th ultimo, and by arrangements previously made, was to enter Saltillo on the 23d at farthest, pushing forward with all practicable speed. General Butler had previously reached Saltillo from Monterey. During this time the intelligence of the reported advance of Santa Anna had reached other more distant points of the line of occupation; and troops, already under orders to march toward Monterey, hastened their progress onward.

It appears that Generals Taylor and Worth, on mature reflection, readily discovered the improbability of the report of Santa Anna’s advance on, and near proximity to, Saltillo, from the following facts: 1st . The distance between San Louis de Potosi and Saltillo was too great to admit of the possibility of the march of so large a body as 15,000 men, without timely notice being afforded to the American General to prepare for his reception. 2dly. The ground between the two cities is extremely bare of verdure or other means of sustenance for man and beast– 90 miles of which, as is well known, being an arid desert, divest of fountain, running stream, or any other source of water, besides affording not the least chance of getting food or fodder, being almost uninhabited, throughout its wide extent. The report of the Mexican scouts, however, is said to have been corroborated, by information received at Saltillo, in a letter from an English merchant at San Louis de Potosi, who stated that Santa Anna had positively left that city, at the head of a numerous body of cavalry. Even now, in those parts of Mexico, occupied by our troops, it is admitted that Santa Anna is out with a considerable mounted force, but with objects far different from those attributed to him, by scouts. It was stated in the letter above alluded to, that the Mexicans’ intention were to hurry forward, and occupy the only practicable pass in the mountains lying between the divisions of Generals Worth and Wool, thus intercepting their communications. After realizing his anticipated success against them, by cutting them up in detail, he was then to advance on Monterey, &c. These announcement are now proved to be premature, and things are proceeding in their former train, accelerated a little by the alarm which has just subsided.

For much of the above information we are indebted to Major Butler, [a passenger by the Alabama,] Paymaster U.S. Army, attached to the division of Gen. Wool, who visits this city on business, which will detain him here about a week, when he returns to head quarters. Major Butler left Parras on the 17th ultimo, where General Wool’s division then lay. He states that the troops were in excellent health and spirits, no casualty of moment having occurred for some time. The inhabitants of the country which the troops had traversed from San Antonio, had manifested the greatest good feeling towards the Americans; not a symptom of that hostility which the population of the valley of the Rio Grande had so frequently exhibited, had been observed.

Brasos.– We are under many obligations to Gen. Jessup for his politeness in communicating some interesting particulars regarding the feelings observable amongst the Mexican population, at different points on the Rio Grande. It seems that a species of moral barometer exists there, if we take the trouble to study their character. On the eve of any great event, (the battle of Monterey, for example,) a considerable falling off in the numbers of Mexicans seeking employment takes place. At each new success of the American arms, the applications for service redouble. With the denunciation of the Mexican government staring them in the face, they are afraid to work for the invaders; but as time rolls on, and our conquests seem to be consolidated, their confidence returns, and they are anxious to join us heart and hand.

Monterey.– Major Butler was in Monterey on the 23d ult, at the time Gen Taylor was encamped there. Col Harney was in that city, on his way to Saltillo. Everything seemed satisfactory, regarding the conduct of the inhabitants, as to peace and tranquility. One regiment, it is presumed, will be sufficient to form its garrison.

March of Troops, &c– On his way from Monterey to Camargo, Maj Butler met the Kentucky mounted riflemen, with Gen Marshall at their head, and on of the Ohio regiments– both corps on their way to the former place.

General Scott– On the 1st inst, on his way down the Rio Grande, a days’ distance from Camargo, Gen Scott was met proceeding upward, on the steamboat Corvette.

At Matamoros, Point Isabell and Brazos, things were in statu quo.

The remains of the following officers were brought over on the Alabama:

Col. Watson, Baltimore Regiment.
Capt. Isaac Holmes, Georgia Regiment.
Capt. Ridgely, Flying Artillery.
Capt. Gillespie, Texas Regiment.
Lieut. Graham, Infantry.
Mr. Thomas, Texas Rangers.
Mr. Pierson, Texas Rangers.

Passengers– General Jessup, Quarter Master General and suite; Majors Butler, Boyd and Comstock; Captains Long, Hoyle; Lieut Armstrong; Messrs H McQueen, Mills, Clark and Robinson, and 240 sick and discharged soldiers. Messrs Mills and Robinson are the committee from Baltimore to conduct thither the remains of Col Watson, Capt Ridgely, and Lieut Graham. Lieut Boyle, of the Baltimore battalion, died on the morning of the 6th inst, on board the Alabama, while coming up the river.

Tampico– Who are very much indebted to the gentleman who has so kindly placed at our disposal the following items of intelligence from Tampico. In a letter dated Tampico, the 26th ult., the writer states that a report was current that a body of 500 American troops had taken quiet possession of Victoria, the capital of the department. Indeed the whole of the inhabitants of Tamaulipas are prepared to throw off the yoke of the central Government, provided the United States will guarantee them permanent protection. A letter has been received there, dated San Luis de Potosi, the 23d November, which stated Santa Anna’s force at that time did not exceed 7,000 men– this was from a most reliable source, but the date of the letter is rather distant. Col. Riley, and Gens. Quitman and Pillow, were rapidly advancing on Victoria. The 500 men above alluded to, are no doubt part of the force of Col. Riley.

Saltillo– Major Butler passed through Saltillo on his way hither. Here he found Genereal Butler, whose severe wound in the leg was slowly healing. It will be a satisfaction to his numerous friends to learn that he is again able to mount his horse, and in a very short time, will be, in all respects, “himself again.” The two Generals, Butler and Worth, were of opinion that Santa Anna was too astute to risk himself in a field fight; he would patiently await the unfolding chapter of accidents, behind the fortifications of San Luis de Potosi, confessedly, even by our own topographical engineer officers, the strongest place in Mexico, after San Juan de Ulloa.
[MPR]


RW47v24i5p2c5, January 15, 1847, Further from Mexico.

From the New Orleans Picayune, Jan. 6.

Since our last we have received files of papers from Vera Cruz from the latter part of November up to the 17th of December. We have reviewed the reports in the papers of the proceedings of the Mexican Congress and do not find a word to add to the statement which we gave yesterday. NO direct action appears to have been had upon the subject of the war with the United States. We cannot find the overtures for peace so frequently made by our Government, adverted to in the proceedings of the Mexican Congress at all; nor do we find anything touching directly upon their plans of campaign. Their own papers would convey the impression that San Luis Potosi is to be the great battle ground of the war.

We have at last the official Mexican accounts of the events which have occurred at Los Angeles, which have been magnified into a massacre of 150 Americans. The facts are in substance thus stated in a dispatch signed by Col. J.M. Segura, addressed to the Governor of Sonora.

On the 23d of September the citizens of Los Angeles and the vicinity determined to throw off the rule of the Americans. They met accordingly, proclaimed their liberty, and placed Capt. Flores at their head. After some days of impending strife, an action is said to have occurred on the 26th and 27th of September in the rancho of Chino, on the immediate vicinity of Los Angeles, where the Americans are said to have been routed entirely, twenty–seven of them made prisoner and three wounded. One Mexican was killed but no American. The conquerors then laid siege to the city of Los Angeles, and on the 30th September the town capitulated. The terms of the surrender were drawn up with as much deliberation as those of Monterey.

The Locomotor gives a vivid account of the loss of the Somers, and of the exertions of the boats of the different nations to save the drowning sailors. It does not, however, add much to the information which we had previously received. The seven sailors who drifted ashore and were saved, were treated, it says, with great kindness and humanity in Vera Cruz. As they floated ashore, they were so near to the castle of San Juan that they could distinctly hear the beating of the drums within the walls. A correspondent, whose attentions we cannot adequately acknowledge, has furnished us with the names of the men saved, who are now held as prisoners of war in Vera Cruz. They are as follows– Wm. W. Cardy, Wm. W. Powers, John Boyce, Lewis Johnson, James Fennel, Matthias Gravel and Dennis Kelly.

We have already mentioned that the Commodore has supplied them with clothes and money. Our correspondent tells us they are treated with kindness, but yet as close prisoners.

We hear from Santa Anna in another communication. On the 4th of December, he addressed a letter to the Secretary of State, which was published to allay the apprehension excited by rumors in circulation that the General had quarreled with the acting government and was about to return to the cit of Mexico and enter into negotiations for peace with the United States. He attributes the reports in circulation, injurious to his character, to certain papers in the United States. His appeals to Gen. Salas and Gen. Almonte as witnesses in his behalf, both of whom he says made the campaign of 1835 with him in Texas, in the endeavor to prevent the dismemberment of that portion of the national territory. He touches upon other events, in the lives of Salas and himself, in which they were associates in misfortune; he expresses his reluctance thus to appear before his country in his own justification. He would rather have trusted to his past services and his wounds for his defence, and concludes with a flourish, which we may faintly render thus: “But I had another reply in reserve, which my cannon and musketry should make upon the invading hosts in the day of national vengeance.”

We do not recognise in the tone of this letter any marks of earnest sincerity, nor do we find anything in the papers to throw light upon the military designs of Santa Anna. A letter written by him as feedback as the 21 st of November, to justify his abandonment of Tampico, contains one paragraph saying that he had anticipated any operations which Gen. Taylor might mediate by the way of Saltillo, and taken the proper measure to repel an invasion from that quarter.

The papers of the city of Mexico have been much occupied with reports touching Santa Anna’s designs upon the government. The official journal denounces every whisper of an ambitious purpose as slanderous and traitorous. It is evidently deemed most important to keep the public free from all expectations on this score.
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RW47v24i5p2c6, January 15, 1847, Latest from Tampico.

From the Picayune, Jan. 6.

By the arrival this morning at 3 o’clock, of the schr. Arispe, Capt. Gates, from Tampico, in five days, we have news as late as the 30th ult., which will be fond detailed below:

The Arispe sailed from Tampico on Wednesday last. There was but little news of public interest. The U.S. steamer Spitfire, Com’r Tatnall; schrs. Reefer, Lieut. Commanding Sterrett, and Nonata, Lieut. Com’g Rowan, sailed on the 28th ult. for Anton Lizardo, but returned to the bar on the following day, owing to contrary winds and the prospect of bad weather. The two former got under way again on the 30th, and when the Arispe left, at 3 P.M., were three or four miles to the eastward– the schr. in tow of the steamer. The Nonata was inside the bar, and probably did not sail for a day or two.

The sloop of war St. Mary’s arrived off Tampico bar on the evening of the 28th ult., but sailed again the following day. Her destination was not known. A grand flag–staff, ninety–five feet high, was raised on the morning of the 30th ult. in the principal plaza, directly in the centre of an extensive marble pedestal originally designed for the base of a monument to Santa Anna.

Mr. Chase, our former consul, is appointed collector of the customs at Tampico– a post he eminently deserves.

Occasional rumors reach the city of an intended attack upon it by the Mexicans; but they are only viewed as Mexican tales. A man may eat every Mexican that will attack Tampico while our troops are there for supper, and still follow Dr. Franklin’s recipe for a good appetite for breakfast.

The city remains perfectly quiet and orderly, being under the best possible police regulations. There is no fighting, rowdyism or disturbance of any kind, and it is not possible that the people of Tampico– the former inhabitants– ever saw so still and peaceable a place before.
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RW47v24i5p4c1, January 15, 1847, From the Seat of War.

The intelligence, in another column, from the seat of war, confirms the previous rumor of the advance of a large Mexican force towards Saltillo, and rectifies our previous information in reference to the position of Gen. Taylor, who, it seems, when he heard of this new and important movement, had left Monterey but a few hours, and immediately retraced his steps, for the purpose of proceeding as rapidly as possible, and with as large reinforcements as he could command, to the aid of Gen. Worth.

Some doubt is expressed by the New Orleans papers whether Santa Anna was in command of the Mexican army. A Mexican, who arrived at Saltillo on the 12th of December, from San Luis Potosi, (says a letter from the former place to the editors of the New Orleans Picayune, ) reported that Santa Anna had gone to the city of Mexico; and a similar statement is made in a letter from one of the officers of the squadron, writing from Anton Lizardo. From the silence of the Mexican papers in regard to Santa Anna’s movements, recently received at New Orleans, (a summary of the most important contents of which may be found in another column,) a like inference is drawn. But, without regarding it as of much importance whether Santa Anna is in command of the advancing Mexican army, or not, since we take it for granted that it is under the command of a capable chief, it is our impression that he is at its head, and that the statement of the Mexican at Saltillo was intended to mislead Gen. Worth; while the silence of the Mexican papers, in regard to the military movements in progress or contemplated, furnish to our minds the strongest reason for believing that a sudden and decisive blow was about to be struck by that cunning commander, the first intimation of which, to our own forces should be, if possible, the roar of his artillery. Fortunately, however, his approach towards Saltillo, unexpected as it seems to have been– for we have not yet learned, we apprehend, to correct the fatal error of our underrating the resources and the prowess of our enemy– was ascertained in time to make preparations for his warm reception. But the comparatively small force at the disposable of Gen. Taylor, after garrisoning the captured cities, and leaving in his rear a sufficient number of men to guard his depots and to keep open the line of communication between his supplies and the advanced posts, justifies, with all our strong confidence in the skill and courage of our officers and in the firmness and intrepidity of our soldiers, the apprehension that they maynot be able to maintain the positions hitherto wrested from the enemy. Their splendid achievements heretofore– partaking of they do almost of the miraculous, when the superior numbers of the foe and the great advantages of his position are considered– are, we admit, well calculated to inspire unusual confidence in their ability to re–enact the prodigies of valor which have already signalized their triumphal march into the heart of the Mexican Republic. And most devoutly do we hope that the next arrival from the scene of conflict may bring the tidings of the retreat of the enemy, or of another brilliant victory over his powerful force– the more devoutly, because, should our army sustain any serious discomfiture, the immediate consequences may be most disastrous, by producing a general insurrectionary movement in the valley of the Rio Grande, where, we are told, a feverish excitement already prevails, consequent upon the withdrawal of the main body of our forces from Matamoros, Camargo and their vicinities, which will manifest itself in open and deadly hostility should our army unfortunately be too weak to maintain its present position.

The most intense solicitude prevails to hear the result of the conflict, which is supposed to have occurred about the 25th of December. In the meanwhile, we know that our gallant army has done all that men could do to sustain the honor of their country’s flag, and to win for themselves an additional claim to her gratitude and admiration.
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RW47v24i5p4c1, January 15, 1847

We understand that a bearer of dispatches, from the Army, passed through this city yesterday morning oh his way to Washington.
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RW47v24i5p4c1, January 15, 1847, Generals Scott and Taylor.

We adverted yesterday to the first open manifestation of hostility to Gen. Taylor, on the part of leading friends of the Administration in Congress. Cotemporaneously with the disclosure of this feeling, by Mr. Ficklin of Illinois, who had been preceded, by the avowal of similar sentiment in rather more guarded language, by Mr. Thompson of Mississippi, who also assailed Gen. Scott, we received the New Orleans Times, containing a letter from Washington, in which we find this paragraph– “It is said that Mr. Polk has no confidence in Genl. Taylor, and is constantly complaining of him, and that he is loth to commit the command of all the forces and the chief conduct of the war to Gen. Scott. Hence, his desire, which has become strong, to have the office of Lieut. General created, and to fill it by the appointment of Mr. Benton.”

If it be true, that Mr. Polk– differing, as we unhesitatingly assert that he does, with almost the entire country, and what is of more importance far, with the army– believes Gen. Taylor to be incompetent to the discharge of the highly important duties resulting from the position in which Mr. Polk placed him, he ought, as the “Commander–in–Chief of the armies of the U.S.,” to have superseded him; and, if he is “loth” to trust Gen. Scott, he ought not to have sent him to assume the “chief conduct of the war. But if the true reason be here assigned for the power asked of Congress by the President, to appoint a “General Officer,” to supersede both Gen. Scott and Gen. Taylor, why, we ask, did not the President himself have the candor and the courage to say so in his Message, recommending the creation of this new office? Why did he not say that Gen. Taylor had displayed too little skill in his combinations, or too little energy in his movements, and that he was reluctant to trust Gen. Scott, if such was in truth the reason upon which that application was based? It was, indeed, a fair inference, from the omission of Gen. Taylor’s name in his Annual Message, that the brilliant victories achieved by the forces under his command had excited rather the envy than the admiration of the President. But we could not suppose that, responsible as Mr. Polk is for the energetic prosecution of the war into which he has plunged the country, and naturally desirous to make some atonement for the rashness of that act by the splendor of its results, he would permit it to be inefficiently conducted by an incompetent commander, while he held in his own hands the power of displacing him from the responsible and arduous position. Besides, if, as is now asserted by the President’s friends on the floor of Congress, Gen. Taylor failed from want of nerve or want of energy, in reaping the legitimate fruits of the victories of the 8th and 9th of May, by permitting the Mexican army to escape, why did Mr. Polk, as a token of his satisfaction with the conduct of the commanding officer on that occasion, ask the Senate to promote his from brevet Brigadier to a full Major General? Either the alleged delinquencies of Gen. Taylor on that occasion had then escaped the observation of the Executive, or this tribute to his conduct in those battles was an act of hypocritical homage to public sentiment, which the President dared not brook, in order to gratify his personal resentments.

The only reason which the President gives, in support of his application for the creation of the new office of “Lieutenant General, ” for the obvious purpose of placing over the head of Generals Scott and Taylor some favorite of the court, who has yet to show his capacity to discharge the duties of that post, is, in substance, that the army consisting of both regulars and volunteers, it is important that the commander–in–chief should, in the language of the Washington Union, “be acquainted with the qualities of both species of force, and calculated to give the combination the greatest degree of efficiency.” A most ridiculous reason truly! Who, of all the persons named in connection with the high office, can be better, or half as well acquainted with the qualities of either the regulars, or the volunteers, as men who have grown grey in the camp and in the field, in association with both descriptions of force? Where is the evidence that Benton or any other court favorite possesses this […] qualification in an extraordinary degree, or indeed that he is competent to command even a regiment? The accompaniment of the recommendation with […] so flimsy upon its face, shows conclusively there was another motive which the President was afraid to avow. That motive is made manifest by the recent malignant attacks upon Scott and Taylor, to get rid of whom, for reasons which the people will instinctively understand, was the sole object of the suggestion.

Yet what would be the result, were Congress to give its consent to the proposed innovation, and, removing men of tried skill and courage, place at the head of the army a man who never led a squadron into fight, and who is to make his maiden effort, not as a subaltern, but as the leader of our forces? What confidence could the army repose in such a commander? Would they follow him to the “imminent deadly breach” with the same reliance upon his knowledge of the art of war, and with the same confidence in his firmness as well in his sagacity, which they would evince if led by a veteran, whose fame had been established in other fields, and who, they would feel assured, would neither lead them heedlessly into danger, nor be unable, in a sudden emergency, to extricate them from a perilous position? We do not hesitate to express the belief, that, if Taylor especially were superseded by a civilian, even if the outrage did not induce most of the officers to throw up their commissions in disgust, as, in the face of an enemy, they might not do, the army would be from the moment half disbanded, and the spirit by which it has been animated would at once be extinguished. Fortunate for the country– fortunate for the President himself– will it be, if Congress shall continue to turn a deaf ear to a suggestion, the offspring of a weak and envious mind, and which, were it adopted, would paralyze the army at the very moment when it most requires to be encouraged and invigorated. Next, indeed, to the permission given to Santa Anna to return to Mexico, we can imagine no more certain or efficient mode than this of giving “aid and comfort” to the enemy.
[MPR]


RW47v24i5p4c2, January 15, 1847, Lieut. Maynard.

We publish the following proceedings of the City Council with unfeigned pleasure. It is a worthy tribute, worthily conferred:

As a meeting of the City Council, on the 11th inst., the following preamble and resolution were submitted by Dr. Chamberlayne, and unanimously adopted–

The Council of the City of Richmond have regarded with high admiration, the heroic valor and disinterested humanity displayed by their townsman, Lieut. Fayette Maynard of the U.S. Navy, on the late melancholy occasion of the shipwreck of the Steamer Atlantic, on the Long Island Sound; and being desirous that so noble an example of self–devotion, fortitude and courage shall be held up for future imitation;

Resolved, That the President of the Council be and he is hereby instructed, in the name, and on behalf of the City of Richmond, to present to Lieut. Maynard a sword with appropriate devices and inscriptions, as commemorative of the exalted estimate in which his native city holds his generous and intrepid conduct, on the occasion referred to.
[MPR]


RW47v24i5p4c2, January 15, 1847

The Enquirer states that it has been “credibly informed that a majority of the men comprising the regiment of Virginia Volunteers are Democrats.” Has the regiment been polled? If so, who took the vote? If not, by what means have the political affinities of the men been ascertained? For our own part, we have never doubted that one party is as just as patriotic and just as brave, in the mass as the other. Yet we shall take the liberty of expressing the opinion that the Enquirer’s informant may be mistaken, until he informs us by what means he has arrived at his knowledge upon the subject.
[MPR]


RW47v24i5p4c3, January 15, 1847

The rumor that Col. James Gadsden of South Carolina, has been appointed Brigadier General of the Volunteers, and that he would command the Virginia, South Carolina and North Carolina regiments, turns out to be unfounded. A writer in the Enquirer of yesterday, strongly urges the claims of Virginia to this honor. While we are not aware that there is any thing peculiar in those claims, we shall be highly gratified if the suggestion of that paper shall secure this result– and especially if it shall lead to the appointment of a citizen of this place, whose name has been mentioned in connection with it, and whose qualifications are surpassed by those of no other individual.
[MPR]


RW47v24i5p4c3, January 15, 1847, Rumors!

There was a rumor in New Orleans, on the 4th instant, that the American forces at Saltillo had been cut to pieces. There was no foundation, however, for the report, though it created for awhile a great sensation.
[MPR]


RW47v24i5p4c3, January 15, 1847

The Massachusetts Regiment of Volunteers is complete.
[MPR]


RW47v24i5p4c3, January 15, 1847, The Army Bill.

The bill authorising ten additional regiments of regular troops, passed the House of Representatives Monday, as reported by the Committee, by a vote of 165 to 45. Subsequently, on motion of Mr. Boyd of Ky., the vote by which it passed was reconsidered, and two or three amendments made to it, when it again passed but the more decisive vote of 176 to 34– every member of the Virginia delegation voting for it.
[MPR]


RW47v24i5p4c5, January 15, 1847

From Santa Fe.– The St. Louis Republican of the 31st ult. says–

At a late hour last night we received a budget of letters form several correspondents in New Mexico. Those from Santa Fe bear date as late as the 15th of November, and give us in detail all the events of interest which had transpired in that quarter for several weeks previous.

In no part of our correspondence have we been able to find any allusion to the reported defeat of the sixty dragoons, mention of which was made in our paper of yesterday.

A letter from Moro, dated on the 21st of November, announces the arrival there of Mr. N. Colburn, in advance of the wagons belonging to the last company of the traders which left Independence. On the 17th the experienced a sever storm of snow, which killed many of the oxen, but they were able to supply themselves at Moro, and would get safely into Santa Fe. The United States trains could not, it is said, move a wagon on account of snow and the loss of animals, and they were then buying oxen to get the wagon along.

A wealthy Mexican citizen, seeing the embarrassments of the Government’s agent for the want of money, had generously proffered to loan Major Walker, paymaster, one hundred thousand dollars at an interest of only three per cent a month.
[MPR]


RW47v24i5p4c6, January 15, 1847, Highly Important News!! Advance of Santa Anna upon Saltillo confirmed– Probability of a Battle having been Fought– Despatch of Troops to Saltillo and Monterey– Anticipated Attack upon Camargo and Matamoros.

From the N.O. Picayune, Jan. 3.

By the arrival at a late hour last night of the U.S. steamer Edith, Capt. Couillard, we have three days’ later dates from Brazos Santiago. She left Brazos on the 30th ult and brings confirmation of the reported advance of Santa Anna with a large force upon Saltillo. It was reported that the Mexican army was nearly 30,000 strong.

When Gen. Worth’s express reached Monterey, General Taylor had only gone six or eight miles on his march to Victoria, and the troops under Generals Twiggs and Quitman were but 12 miles in advance. Orders were immediately issued to this division to retrace its steps and proceed to Saltillo.

Gen. Butler, who was left in command of Monterey, had already marched with all the troops he could collect to join Gen. Worth at Saltillo.

Before the express reached Camargo Gen. Lane had started fro Saltillo with his command– this was the 20th– Gen. Marshall set out next morning, taking with him the remainder of the forces, with the exception of Capts. Hunter and Swartwout’s commands which were left to protect that point. The troops from Camargo were on a forced march, to reach Saltillo in time for a battle, reports having prevailed for several days before positive advices were received of the movements of Santa Anna.

Gen. Wool was ninety miles from Saltillo at the last advices from him, and it was supposed he would join Gen. Worth in season to assist in repelling the enemy.

There was a rumor that Santa Anna had thrown a body 17,000 men between Gen. Worth and Gen. Taylor, to prevent a junction of the American forces. This report was not credited, nor does it seem probable that it is true, as the main road to Monterey passes through Saltillo. There is a circuitous mountain road which avoids Saltillo, but it is not favorable to the march of an army, and is impracticable for orduance.

It was the impression of gentlemen who came passengers in the Edith, and with whom we have conversed, that a battle was fought about the 25 ult. It was thought, however, that Gen. Taylor had reached Saltillo before that time, and also Gen. Twigg’s, Gen. Quitman’s, Gen. Butler’s and Gen. Wool’s commands. It was likewise hoped that the troops from Camargo would also arrive at Saltillo in good season. If these expectations were realized, Gen. Taylor had about 7000 men to oppose Santa Anna. Our informants think Santa Anna’s army was overrated; but no positive knowledge was had of his exact numbers.

The whole valley of the Rio Grande was in a state of great ferment. Apprehensions of an attack were entertained at Camargo, Matamoros and other points, from the rancheros under Canales. The withdrawal of so many troops from the river left the valley exposed to danger. At Matamoros, Col. Clark had called upon the citizens to enroll themselves for service, and at the Brazos Gen. Jessup had done the same thing. Both these points were sadly deficient in both men and arms. It was thought Canales had 2000 men under him, and that the large supply of goods at Matamoros, and the exposed condition of that city, might quicken his courage.

Gen. Scott arrived at the Brazos in the 28th ult. The following day he preceded to the mouth of the Rio Grande and was yet at the point when the Edith left, waiting the arrival of the horses belonging to the regiment of mounted riflemen, when it was understood he would proceed immediately up the river to Camargo.

Capt. Wayne has been transferred from the staff of Maj. Gen. Jessup to that of Gen. Scott, and was to accompany him on his tour of observation.

The news leaves a painful anxiety to learn the progress of events. The impression amongst the passengers that a battle had been fought was so strong that we have almost imbibed the belief.
[MPR]


RW47v24i5p4c6, January 15, 1847, p4c6 The News from Saltillo.

From the Picayune, Jan. 5.

More of Santa Anna’s Movements.– The following letter, which came to hand after our edition of Sunday was printed, put to rest all doubt at to the fact that advices were expressed from Gen. Worth, at Saltillo announcing the march of a large Mexican force towards that place. With what intentions Santa Anna has thrown forward men in this direction time only can solve, but if the force has not been over–estimated it may be his plan to cut up our army in detail.

Camargo, Mexico, Dec. 19,– 12 at night.

By and express last night from Gen. Worth, which arrived at half–past 1 o’clock, we learn that Santa Anna is advancing upon Saltillo and Monterey, as is said, with thirty thousand men; and all the available force from this place and vicinity is ordered up to those points with the least possible delay. At the same time a requisition has been received for a large supply of ammunition to be forwarded immediately. The express from Saltillo arrived at Monterey on the evening of the day Gen. Taylor left that place for Monte Morales, on his way to Victoria. He had probably made 40 miles from Monterey with his army intended for the occupation of Victoria, but this intelligence will no doubt cause a counter movement to sustain Monterey and Saltillo.

I do not speak certain, but think Gen. Taylor can meet Santa Anna with 6,000, and not more, as a portion of his force, under Generals Patterson and Pillow, has been withdrawn from her to hold Tampico. I know nothing of the defences at Saltillo, but Worth is there, and what any man can do he can and will.

It strikes me that if Santa Anna has the force which is reported, that it would not be policy to bring on a decisive action not at Monterey, but by surrounding the place cutting off supplies and communication, and detaching a portion of his force to attack the depots and connecting links with the Gulf– which must be left weak by the drawing off of supports for Monterey and Saltillo– that such would be his best chance for success. This depot, for instance, which is one from which Gen. Taylor’s army draws its supplies, is with out defences, and I am told it to be left with one company of artillery, one company of dragoons (not mounted,) and one regiment of Indiana volunteers; and there are “sinews of war” enough here to make “the game worth the candle.”

From last reports Gen. Wool had not yet formed a junction with Gen. Worth; and it is thought by some problematical whether he would be able to form one, in consequence of the advance of the enemy placing themselves in a position between the two forces. I am not advised of the route Gen. Wool’s column will take from Parras, and therefore can give no opinion as to the accuracy of this reasoning; but one thing is certain– we are on the even of important events, and I think by the next arrival I shall chronicle to you matters of stirring interest. We will see what we will see. Yours truly, &c.
[MPR]


RW47v24i5p4c6, January 15, 1847, Later from Mexico. Movements of the Navy– Loss of the U.S. prize schooner Union– Proceedings of the Mexican Congress, &c.

From the New Orleans Picayune, Jan. 5.

By the arrival of the U.S. frigate Potomac at Pensacola from Vera Cruz, we have received letters and papers from that city nearly three weeks later than our advices by way of Havana. The brig Oneco arrived at this port yesterday, having left Anton Lizardo on the 21st December. The Potomac sailed on the 23d. Among the passengers on the Oneco was Lieut. Bowers, of the Navy.

Com. Perry had gone on an expedition, the ultimate destination of which was Laguna. Com. Conner is said to contemplate another expedition against Alvarado, or at least a reconnoizance of that port. The steamer Princeton was maintaining that blockade of Vera Cruz at last accounts.

Through the kindness of our correspondent we have copies of El Locomotor of Vera Cruz of the 13th, 14th, 15th , 16th and 17th of December. Unfortunately, they are much less prolific of intelligence than usual. One of the first items we noticed in them was the loss of the U.S. gunboat Union. She was wrecked on the night of the 16th ult, in endeavoring the reach the anchorage at Anton Lizardo, by running on the reef near Green Island. The officers and crew were all saved by the assistance of the John Adams, which was near at hand. The Union was one of the gun boats taken at Tampico, and was in charge of Lt. Winslow at the time of her misfortune. A violent norther is said to have occasioned the calamity. The day after, the Mexicans sent off to the wreck and burnt her. The party engaged in this latter operation passed the night on Green Island.

Gen. La Vega arrived at Vera Cruz on the 14th ult. on the English steamer Dee. The Locomotor announces the fact in a warm tribute to the character and services of the General.

The afternoon of the 13th ult. one of our frigates entered the harbor of Vera Cruz under a flag of truce. The purpose of the visit was to supply some of our shipwrecked sailors, who are now prisoners, with money and clothing. The case of Passed Midshipman Rogers, too, was probably the subject of discussion, for we learn that he is now treated as a prisoner of war instead of a spy. In making the reconnaissance in where he was captured, it was proved that he was in the undress uniform of his rank.

In regard to the action of the Mexican Congress, the accounts which the papers give us are not complete, but they do not confirm what has been generally said and believed of the rejection of our overtures for peace. They do not, however, contradict our former reports. The belief in the squadron appears to have been that Congress had not settled upon the subject at all. Preparatory sessions of the members elected were held as far back as the 30th of November, but we have a dispatch of Senor Lafragua, the Secretary of State, stating that Congress was duly installed at half–past 11, P..M., of the 5th of December. The proceedings of the 11th ult. are the latest we find in the papers.

We have before us, copied from the Monitor Republicano of the 8th December, the constitution of the committee of the Chamber of Deputies. These appointments are important to those who are familiar with the politics of the leading men of Mexico. The committee on Puntos Constitucionales, on the formation of a new constitution for the country, Senors Rejon, Gomez Farias and Otero. The first is the lately dismissed Secretary of State, who has quarreled with Salas and Santa Anna. The second is the leader of the pure republicans and the friend of Rejon. Senor Otero, if we recollect aright, was a former proprietor of El Siglo XX, since become El Monitor Republicano, a liberal journal conducted with ability. Otero was the gentleman so grossly affronted by the Baron Alleye de Cyprey in the theatre.

The Committee on Gobernacion, or Government, consists of ex–President Herrera, Godoy, and Riva Palacio– all well–known names. That on Foreign Relations consists of Rejon, Ceballo and Otero. The second of these gentlemen we are unable to recall to mind.

Gomez Farias is chairman of the committee on Finance, and Herrera of that on War and the Navy. We have given enough of the names to indicate that the liberal statesmen appear to be in the ascendant in the new Congress. The other committees are given, but as they are upon subjects of less importance, so the names of the members are less known to fame.

The appointment of committees appears to have been the work of the 7th of December. On the 8th a report was made from the Secretary of the Treasury, with a project for the conversion of the foreign debt. Two resolutions were submitted, are referred to committees, which were important as laying out the work for the session. The first was for declaring the Constitution of 1824 in force, with such amendments as Congress should see fit to make. The second proposition was for the appointment of a committee which should embody the principles entertained by the Congress and which will be the foundation of its action in the present war. This is the only thing in the proceedings of the Congress which touches upon the war.

We have a paper of a later date that that which contains the above, but in it we see no further congressional news. We have given the above– not for their intrinsic interest, though they are not destitute of significance– but principally to show negatively that Congress had not acted upon our overtures for peace up to the last accounts. Had they done so, it would in all probability have been known in the squadron or noted in the papers. Lieut. Bowers informs us that he had heard nothing of it up to the 21 st , when he had an interview with some English officers, who are usually well informed as to the course of events in Mexico.

The Locomotor of the 14th ult. announces the arrival of the two American commodores on the station, and at once throws out the hint that every thing indicates that some extraordinary attempt is contemplated, and it follows up this with an express caution to the authorities of Alvarado and the city of Vera Cruz to “look out for squalls,” as we should say in the States.

The late revolutionary attempt in Tabasco is mentioned almost in terms of disgust, and Traconis is denounced as a poor, weak fool, but we have not room to enter upon this topic to–day.

From Chihuahua we have some later news. A dispatch is published from Governor Angel Trias, dated the 20th of November, in which he announces that on the day previous, a body of 480 troops, part infantry and part cavalry, with four light pieces of artillery, left Chihuahua for El Paso del Norte under the command of Lieut. Col. Cuilty; with provision, &c. for one month. These forces were to join at El Paso 600 men, previously raised, and the whole were to proceed and make an attempt to surprise Gen. Kearney, who was then with a small force at Cobra, nearly two hundred miles north of that point. All classes of the citizens took part in celebrating the departure of these troops, and Governor Trias issued a proclamation on the occasion, for which we will endeavor to find room on another occasion.
[MPR]


RW47v24i5p4c7, January 15, 1847

From the N.O. Evening Mercury, Jan. 4.

Interesting from Campeachy.– An arrival this morning puts us in possession of accounts to the 22d. ult. A letter of that date states that Campeachy has positively dispatched a force of 2500 men, which was joined by five hundred on the road, with 12 pieces artillery, all well equipped, with a view to compel the government of Merida to succumb to the pronunciamento of Campeachy of 8th December.

The object of the pronunciamento and of this movement, is declared to be to maintain the neutrality of the peninsula as between the United States and Mexico, and put down the government, which they say has wed the country to Santa Anna.

The people of Campeachy have elected Don Domingo Barret Provisional Governor. He addressed, on the 11th ult., a long communication to the government of Merida, setting forth the causes of the insurrection in Campeachy. We received this document at too late an hour to examine it to–day.
[MPR]


RW47v24i6p1c1, January 19, 1847, Extension of Area.

A letter from Tampico to the editors of the New Orleans Picayune, written, as that paper informs us, by “a foreigner of the highest respectability,” after glancing at the transformation already effected at Tampico since its occupation by the American forces, which, in his opinion, has had the effect of opening the eyes of the Mexican population to the misgovernment of which they have so long been the victims, and of inducing them to desire to be “annexed” to the United States, proceeds to make the following suggestions and remarks:

“This the Government at Washington should do at once: declare that the territory occupied by the American troops belongs to the American nation, and implant inasmuch as it can safely be done for the present, the laws and institutions of the United States, and so prepare the Mexican population to become American citizens. Is it not in the human destiny that at some future period Mexico will be invaded by the Anglo–Saxon race? Why, then, since a proper conjecture offers, not avail ourselves of it, and anticipate the work of posterity, sparing further bloodshed and heavy expenditures, to attain an object which is just at the point of their bayonets? Now that the war has been pushed so far, the Sierra Madre should be the limits of the two Republics– Tampico, in the Gulf of Mexico, Mazatlan, on the Pacific, must be the bulwarks of American dominion. Let the rest of the country belong to Mexico. Let its government be ever so obstinate, let it be ever so vain or boasting, it must call for peace, deprived of its richest provinces and of all pecuniary resource; but let it be at once curtailed of the northern part of the country, as far as the line we have just described, and let that part be from this very moment and integral one of the American Union. I have gone far from my previous object; any intention was solely to speak of Tamaulipas, and more particularly of the city of Tampico.

“This State of Tamaulipas, bordering upon Texas, is, of all the Mexican territory, that which most deserves the attention of the American statesman. Its possession will complete that of Texas, and to say the truth, Tamaulipas cannot exist unless annexed to the United States. Its greater extent is on the sea shore, or little in the interior; its ground is […], and easy to cultivate. At both of its extremities is a beautiful river, the River Bravo and the Panuco, which American industry would render navigable to a great distance. It might, perhaps, contain two millions of inhabitants, although in our days it is reduced to fifty or sixty thousand. The different produce that might be cultivated in its fertile soil– such as tobacco, cotton, sugar cane, coffee, &c.– would render it one of the richest States of the Confederation, and under all circumstances it is a possession worthy of envy.

“Tampico is its principal port and principal city. This is where all foreign goods consumed in the interior of the country must arrive, and with a liberal law of customs this place would in a few years count ten times the number of its present inhabitants. Its population is mostly foreign, and of all Mexican cities this is the most ready to receive American institutions. It would be desirable that from this very moment the United States should not be satisfied with its military possession; doubtless there is an anomaly in the existence of two such different powers– hostile, we may say, one to the other. Authority, under all its shapes, should be American– municipal and judicial, as well as military– and it is only then that the benefits of the invasion will be felt by all parties. All this bears a wonderful interest. Tampico, during the war, is destined by its position to be the depot and general quarters of aggression; in peace, let its solution be what it may, it is a key to Mexico, and a security which it might be imprudent to give away– it is, or might become, the Gibraltar of the Gulf of Mexico! Let the people and the Government of the United States reflect over this.

While the question of the annexation of Texas was pending, its opponents urged, as not the least important objective […] measure, that, so far from “rounding off our frontier” in that direction, and constituting an impregnable barrier to foreign assault, it would only give an uncontrollable impulse to the spirit of territorial aggrandizement, which would, sooner or later, result in a war with Mexico, ostensibly to avenge injuries and insults, but in truth to extend still farther the boundaries of our Republic. The events of the last twelve months have fully vindicated the sagacity of those who assumed this position. It remains for the future to disclose the consequences, immediate and remote, of this ambitious and grasping policy.

Forbearing, at this time, all discussion of the popular, but in our opinion, erroneous assumption, that the peculiar character of our form of government admits of the indefinite expansion of our territorial limits, without danger to the unity of the Republic of to the efficient administration of its laws, we have already afforded, in the character of the debates now in progress in the House of Representatives, a striking illustration of the present danger to be apprehended from that policy, in the addition of new and fearful elements of discord to those which have heretofore agitated our public councils and shaken the Union itself to its foundation. The acquisition of additional territory carries with it another question of transcendent importance, as we have already seen, at the last session of Congress, by the introduction of the Wilmot proviso, interdicting slaver in our new possessions, even before they had been secured b conquest, much less by treaty, and at the present session by the strenuous persistence of the members from the non–slaveholding States, without regard to party divisions, in the same untenable and insulting condition of any further “extension of the area of freedom.” On almost every question which now arrives in Congress, this great issue, like the ghost of Banquo, stares us in the face. And Southern men are forced to enquire, whether if it be the fixed determination of the Northern majority to require, as a condition precedent, the exclusion of slavery from ALL territory hereafter annexed– as well that, which, from its proximity to the slaveholding States and the character of its productions, belongs, by geographical position and by natural alliances, to the slaveholding region, as that lying in a colder latitude– it does not behoove them to set their as a […] against the extension of our boundaries in any direction, and more especially in that portion of Mexico, now in possession of our army, which lies contiguous to the Mississippi valley, and which, if this rule of apportioning the spoils be inflexibly adhered to, must result in the establishment of “a cordon of non–slaveholding States” on our Southwestern frontier? The question cannot be linked or evaded. There is but one mode of meeting it, unless we abandon all idea of future annexation, to which the South can give its assent; and that mode is indicated by the principle embodied in the Missouri Compromise. To this mode, however, the Northern men, so far as we may infer their views from the well considered manifesto of Preston King, and the speeches of Messrs. Grover, […] and others, are almost unanimously hostile. They go for “the whole, or none.” They demand that the territory conquered, […] conquered it shall be, by the efforts mainly of Southern men– for much the larger portion of the forces in Mexico are from the Southern States– shall be erected into non–slaveholding States exclusively, not from philanthropic motives so much as from a determination to secure forever to the North the political ascendancy in the federal government, which she now wields. To this proposition, which, though prematurely urged, we are glad to see brought forward before the question of annexation has been decided, the South has but one answer to give the North– and that is: If you demand “the whole, ” you shall, without consent, have “none.” The question of indemnity from Mexico for spoliations upon our commerce, magnified as those spoliations have been for other purposes, sinks into utter insignificance, when compared with the grave question which the ultimate disposition of the conquered Province brings up with it. It may, indeed, well be doubted whether the acquisition of Mexican territory could, in any fair sense of the word, be regarded as “indemnity” at all for the unliquidated claims of our citizens upon the Mexican government, and for the expenses of the President’s war. That would depend upon the fact whether the soil thus acquired is owned exclusively by the individuals, or whether Mexico has “public lands,” from the sale of which, as in the United States, an annual revenue may be drawn. But, even if the acquisition of such of her Provinces as we most covet, for their imagined wealth or for facilities which it is supposed they would give to the extension of our commercial enterprise, would realize all the dreams of avarice and ambition; still, if the South is to be denied an equal participation in the benefits in the acquisition, to effect which she is called upon to pay at least her equal share of the cost of the struggle, while her sons with as much alacrity as those of the North, peril their lives upon the battle field, she can, we re–assert, give but one answer to the North– and that will be, “we will have none of it!”
[MPR]


RW47v24i6p1c2, January 19, 1847, Duration of the War.

Friday evening’s Washington Union contains a brief synopsis of the proceedings of the Mexican Congress, received through Havana papers, brought b Com. Perry. Gen. Santa Anna had been elected President of the Republic, and Gomez Farias, Vice President. “The Message of Gen. Salas, the acting President, to Congress, expatiated upon the war with the United States, and professes a stern determination to carry it on with vigor, and declared that it was only just begun, and might be expected to continue for twenty years! ” If Mr. Polk had only foreseen this when he determined to bring on the war, he would have hesitated long before he took that step. What, we ask, should it be so long protracted, will be the amount of the National Debt at its termination? Will the whole of Mexico indemnify us for the cost of the contest, even if the whole of it should be subjugated by our arms?
[MPR]


RW47v24i6p1c2, January 19, 1847

Col. Hamtramck, the commandant of the Virginia Regiment of Volunteers, visited Petersburg on Wednesday last, accompanied by Maj. Gwynn, Mr. Thompson, one of the delegates from Jefferson, and Mr. Syme, the delegate from Petersburg. Mr. S. introduced the Colonel to Thos. S. Gholson, Esq. the representative of the Common Council, who tendered to Col. H. the hospitalities of the town. The guests were then conducted to the Bolingbrook Hotel, where, in company with a few citizens, they partook of a splendid dinner– at which addresses were delivered by Col. Hamtramck, Mr. Thompson and Mr. Syme, and others. Capt. Robinson’s fine company was reviewed in the afternoon; after which they were conducted to the hospitable mansion of Geo. W. Bolling, esq. who entertained them in his usual soldierly–like and handsome style. At 9 o’clock, a large company sat down to a Supper; and during the evening addresses were elicited from Col. Hamtramck, Gen. Butts, Col. Swan, Col. Bolling, Maj. Rosser, Mr. Thompson, Mr. Syme and others.
[MPR]


RW47v24i6p1c2, January 19, 1847

We observe, in several papers, rumors of the probable appointment of Major Walter Gwynn, of this City, to the office of Brigadier General, to command the Volunteers from Virginia, South Carolina and North Carolina. Believing that no better selection can be made, we hope that these rumors may be true, though we shall regret the loss of the services of Major G. in the office which he now so ably fills, as President of the James River and Kanawha Company.
[MPR]


RW47v24i6p1c2, January 19, 1847

The last New York papers contain accounts of “another revolution,” in Yucatan– the city of Campeachy having declared in favor of the United States, and Merida in favor of Mexico. It is said there had been some fighting, and that several lives had been lost.
[MPR]


RW47v24i6p1c6, January 19, 1847, From the Gulf Squadron.

From the N.O. Picayune, Jan. 9.

By the arrival of the prize schooner Amalio, taken off Alvarado on the 27th ult. by the U.S. steamer Mississippi, our neighbors of the Mercury yesterday received later news from the squadron and an account of the taking of Laguna by Com. Perry.

It seems that Com. P. arrived off that place on the 20th ult. with the steamers Mississippi, Petrel, Vixen and Bonita, and the same day took possession of the place without opposition. Fifteen cannon were destroyed, some 900 lbs of powder taken, and fifty soldiers disarmed, although the latter affected to be favorably disposed to the cause of the Campeachians. The latter had declared themselves entirely independent of Mexico, and had sent their commissioners on the schooner Sisainto to Com. Conner, at Anton Lizardo, to request him to desist from any hostile measures against Yucatan, until commissioners could be sent to the Government of the United States to obtain the recognition of the independence of the State. These commissioners left Anton Lizardo on the 20th , to return, but the result of their conference with Com. Conner is not known. We happen to be among those who do not altogether believe in the sincerity of these Yucatanes. A double game has been played on that coast all summer and the inhabitants require the closest kind of watching.

Our readers may recollect that we mentioned, a few days since, that a boat from the John Adams had made a thorough night examination of the Castle of San Juan de Ulloa. The officer who had charge of the boat, as we learn from the Mercury, was Passed Midshipman Fitzgerald. He had eight men in his boat, with muffled oars, and in the darkness of the night rowed round and round the castle, went under the drawbridge, entered the water battery, and made a thorough reconnaissance of every part. This gallant exploit has proved that men may be landed from boats at night, and that the water batteries may easily be taken.

Com. Perry, on his return to Anton Lizardo from Laguna, looked in at Alvarado and Tabasco, and found that the fortifications of both places have been repaired and much strengthened since they were attacked by the squadron. At Tabasco there were about 3000 troops, and at Alvarado about 4000. Notwithstanding these formidable preparations, the general impression is the Com. Conner will soon attack these places.

On the arrival of Gen. La Vega at Vera Cruz on the 15th , all the prisoners from the squadron in the hands of the enemy were released. It is now ascertained that but eleven of the crew of the Somers drifted to the main land when she was wrecked, and not sixteen, as was first stated. Midshipman Rogers was at Vera Cruz. He had been tried by the civil and military tribunals as a spy, and had been acquitted by the former, but found guilty by the latter. It was believed, however, that the more favorable verdict would prevail, and that he would be liberated.

A Mexican Proclamation!

The following gasconading proclamation of the Governor of Chihuahua, the passant Senor General Don Angel Trias, is the same of which we made mention two or three days since, but for which, until now, we could not find room. This fellow Trias, however much he pretend to burn, and however eager his zeal to encounter the “iniquitous invaders” of his sacred soil, is one of the greatest braggarts in all Mexico, a country that produces rare specimens. Gregg, who wrote that interesting work the “Commerce of the Prairies,” had an adventure with him, in 1839, at his own hacienda, and with a force not one–tenth as large as that of his illustrious excellency frighted him entirely out of the little wit that has been vouchsafed him. It may be looked upon as a little singular that all these Mexican generals start out burning and boiling over to meet barbarian invaders, yet never get within even cannon shot of them; we can only account for it on the plea that they fire up so strongly that their zeal burns out entirely before they get in harm’s way. The very last man in all Mexico that cares about seeing Gen. Kearney is Senor General Don Angel Trias, however much desire he may manifest, on paper, to come to bullets when afar off. We give his proclamation entire– not for any importance it may possess, but as an admirable illustration of Mexican character generally, and of that of the Governor of Chihuahua in particular:

The Governor of Chihuahua to the Vanguard which is marching to the Frontier of the North of the State:

Soldiers– The iniquitous invaders of Mexico are approaching the town of El Paso, an important portion of this State, where the enemy designs to establish his quarters for the winter, or till such time as may best subserve his ulterior designs. It is necessary that you should go forward, defenders of the glories of Mexico, to give a lesson to these pirates.

The State had relied with confidence upon the valiant and hardy inhabitants about El Paso; but treason has succeeded in diffusing distrust among them, and the patriotic peasantry, dismayed by a contemptible revolt, threw down their arms when they were within thirty leagues of the enemy, who were in small force, and thus, beyond all question, the opportunity was lost of compelling Gen. Kearny to surrender at discretion. Subordination and discipline were alone wanting to our troops.

It is for you to advance and re–establish confidence among these Mexicans, and to chastise the enemy if he should have the audacity to set foot upon the soil of this State, ennobled as it is by the blood of the fathers of our independence. I confide in your valor, and I have only to impress upon you the necessity of obedience to your officers and the most perfect discipline.

All the people of Chihuahua burn with eager desire to accompany you, because they are all good Mexicans and are animated by the highest enthusiasm and the purest patriotism. Like you, they are eager to march at the first signal. Should the circumstances of the war demand it be assured that you will be supported, at whatever cost, by great reinforcements. For the people of Chihuahua no sacrifice is felt as costly when demanded by the honor of the Republic.

The enthusiasm with which you march and the sanctity of our noble cause are the sure presages of victory. Yes! under the guidance of the God of battles, your arms shall be crowned with success. Thus hopes your friend and companion. ANGEL TRIAS.

Chihuahua, Nov. 19, 1846.
[MPR]


RW47v24i6p1c7, January 19, 1847

From the Washington Union, Friday night.

We have obtained the various Mexican papers at too late an hour to–day to furnish extracts.

The subjoined paragraph would seem to authorities to authorize an apprehension that the reported advance of Santa Anna with a large army towards Saltillo was in reality a movement towards Tampico, were it not that we have ourselves received letters from Tampico of as late date as the 23d of December, when everything was quiet; which could hardly have been the case had the movement of the body of 5,000 men been in the direction stated in the following paragraph:

From the Vera Cruz Locomotor of the 14th.

“We learn by the express of last night that a division, consisting of 5,000 men of all arms, moved from San Luis in the direction of Tula, with a view to intercept the passage of the enemy who will march their forces by his route in order to place themselves in communication with Tampico.”

A file of the “Diaro” of Mexico from the 1st to the 25th of December, inclusive, has been placed in our hands too late to enable our translator to furnish us with any extracts for this evening’s paper.

In the address of Gen. Salas at the opening of the Congress on the 6th of December, he refers to the proceedings of Santa Anna at San Luis Potosi, where, in a few weeks, he says he had assembled and organized an army of more than 22,000 men, a part of whom had already advanced to meet the enemy, so that the armies of the two nations would soon encounter each other; but whatever the result may be, “never shall there be a final or decisive action.” He states the reason why he had refused to listen to any overtures of peace; he says that the war is not one of an ordinary character; that it is a war of races, that the causes of it exist in the nature of things; and that the invasion would have occurred as well under the auspices of peace as during war. The president of the congress, in his reply, does not allude directly to war, but says “Mexico shall not be less than France, who was able to conquer principles and establish a constitution at the very time when she was invaded by the legions of all Europe.”

The vice president Gomez Farias, took the oath of office before Congress, on the 24th of December, and delivered an address, in the course of which he says “the war which the republic finds itself compelled to sustain against the North American republic, shall be prosecuted with courage and constancy, until the justice of our cause is acknowledged and our territory evacuated.”

On the second day of the session of the Congress, the Secretary of the Treasury (Almonte) presented an exhibit of the lamentable state of the treasury, to which the president replied, that the Congress would provide the means “to enable the executive to carry on a war in which the dignity and honor of the nation are concerned.”

Later from Mexico.

We learn from a gentleman who has recently arrived in this city from Havana in the steamer Mississippi, that the British mail steamer had reached that port a few days before the Mississippi left. Santa Anna has been elected President of the Mexican republic. His majority is said to have been very small– only one or two votes.

He reports that the first business transacted by the Mexican Congress was to lay on the table the American overture for peace. They then passed a resolution declaring their determination to prosecute the war to the last extremities– in the words of our informant, to make it a war to the hilt. An act was also passed to raise half a million of dollars a month, as required by the Executive estimates for the support of the army– though how the money was to be raised does not yet appear.

There is little doubt, we think, that in the capital and its vicinity a very exasperated state of feeling prevails among the Mexican population. In the remoter provinces all accounts would indicate that there is greater apathy.
[MPR]


RW47v24i6p2c1, January 19, 1847, Mexican Views.

The Washington Union of Saturday night contains a number of interesting translations from Mexican papers recently received at the State Department. We regret that we have not room to copy them at length. The subjoined extract from the address of the Acting President Salas, on the opening of the Mexican Congress, is too important, however, to be omitted. It breathes a temper such as the authors of the war believed the Mexican people incapable of exhibiting, and shows that there is too much reason to apprehend, as Mr. Sevier, the chairman of the committee on foreign relations in the Senate remarked a few days since, that “the war has just begun.” We confess that we do not see any prospect of its speedy termination. The difficulty of conquering a nation, the population of which amounts to eight millions, scattered over a territory of such vast extent, and animated by a spirit of intense hatred towards their invaders, in whom they recognize not only aggressors upon their soil, but a people of a different race and religion, from whose success they fear not only the subversion of their social and civil institutions, but of the altars at which they and their fathers have worshipped, cannot be over–estimated, though they have been heretofore strangely overlooked. They begin now to force themselves upon the serious attention even of those who provoked the war, under the impression, which very generally prevailed, that the conquest of Mexico could be achieved in a single brief campaign, and with a comparatively insignificant force. It is apparent, that, unless our Government is prepared to recede from the position to which it unfortunately stands publicly pledged, by the official declarations of the Executive, the war must be indefinitely protracted. If we are to compel Mexico to indemnify us, by the cession of one–half or two–thirds of her territory, for the expenses of the war, as well as for the long–adjusted spoliations upon our commerce, her obligations to pay which she has herself admitted, the “thirty years war” of Europe will be re–enacted upon this continent. But does it not behoove us, of the South, to enquire, especially in the new domestic aspect of this subject of territorial indemnity, whether the price to be paid will not be worth infinitely more than the territory to be acquired? Shall the South expend its treasure and spill its blood to ass new provinces to our already overgrown Republic, for the purpose of establishing on the slaveholding frontier of the southwest a cordon of non–slaveholding States, such as environ us now in ever other section of the Union in which slavery exists? Shall we acquire additional territory at such a cost, for the purpose of more rapidly diminishing our already waning influence in the national councils, and thus dooming the South to perpetual inferiority in the national councils, if not of unending vassalage to Northern policy and politicians? For one, we should prefer forgiving Mexico the debt, rather than to seek such “indemnity,” by such means, for such objects. It is, at the same time, apparent, however, that we cannot now withdraw our forces from Mexico without dishonor. Involved in the contest by the most bungling statesmanship, and by the most criminal disregard of the prohibitions of the constitution, the national honor is nevertheless concerned in its triumphant termination. It must be prosecuted energetically– but at the same time, we should at once declare, that, whatever may have been the original designs of Mr. Polk, we no longer wage it as a war of conquest, and that we are prepared to put an end to the struggle whenever Mexico herself shall be willing to meet us in a spirit of conciliation and equity. Such, we are sure, will be the universal voice of the South at least, in view of the scenes now enacting in Washington.

But we are detaining our readers too long from Gen. Salas address:

Extract from the address of General Salas on the opening of the Mexican Congress, December […].

“During the short interval which has elapsed since August, when, overcoming my natural repugnance to the exercise of power, I found myself at the head of the nation, my first obligation has been to sustain with energy the war in which we are engaged, and upon the result of which depends nothing less than the very independence of the nation. The army which, in union with the people, rose for the purpose of overthrowing the domination of those who outraged their sovereignty, and who were threatening us with the establishment of a foreign throne, as soon as the national movement was concluded, marched to the place where danger called it, and is now […] of the enemy, under the command of the illustrious soldier whom the republic summoned to the defence of its nationality. A considerable body of the troops was immediately sent to reinforce the remains of the old army of the north, and awaited the invading troops in the city of Monterey. The Congress is informed of the fatal result of that encounter, in which American blood flowed in abundance. When the generals who then commanded our troops are brought to trial, the nation will be satisfied, and it is not my part to forestall now the decision of the judicial power.

“The result, however, of this unfortunate affair was to place under foreign power one of the capitals of our States and a vast extent of territory, and transport the theatre of war into the interior of the republic. The […] General Santa Anna, by a trait in his life which will do him lasting honor, refused the reins of power, and marched to San Luis, where, in a few weeks, he has assembled and organized an army of more than 22,000 men, some bodies of which have already been advanced to meet the enemy. The government of the United States, on its part, compelled, as it is, to hasten the operations of the war in order to bring it to a close, has ordered General Taylor to advance. Thus, a meeting must soon take place between the armies of the two nations. From the number and valor of our troops, the enthusiasm and skill of their chief, and the justice of our cause, we have a right to expect a favorable result. Nevertheless, this shall never be a final or decisive action. Invaded and occupied as is not the only territory in question, but a large portion of what never belonged to Texas, entire States in which the sovereignty of Mexico has never been disputed, involved in a war of races, and aggrieved in the most unjust and atrocious manner that can be conceived, our honor and the future condition of our children– that sacred interest which nations cannot be unmindful of– requires us to sustain a prolonged and obstinate strife, until, respected for our valor and constancy, we can raise a barrier against the immortal ambition of our neighbors, and secure the fortune of our race upon this continent, the greatest portion of which is peopled by it, and which, at some not distant day, will be illustrated by the civilization of the ardent and generous sons of the south.

“If this strife exacts great sacrifices, it would be dishonorable to lose every thing, for the sake of the deceitful advantages of a temporary and illusive peace: in a great crisis, nations should exhibit proofs of great energy and virtue. Our fathers combated eleven years for independence, in a struggle constantly attended with disadvantages, prodigal of their blood at every moment, and never disheartened; thanks to that energy, they raised us from an humble country to the rank of an independent nation. To preserve that task it will be sufficient, without placing ourselves on an equality with them, not to be unworthy of their name. If Mexico combats with constancy and intrepidity, hers will be the triumph, and the respect which she will acquire among the other nations of the earth, deserved.

“On these grounds the government was unwilling to listen to any proposition for peace: the question of the war is submitted to your decision, and the government only recommend is to the Congress the urgent necessity of assisting the army with the necessary supplies for the campaign. The people of Mexico, who know and feel the magnitude of the interests at stake in the war, cannot raise the necessary resources for it.

“This struggle is not one of those wars which pride is every day giving rise to. It is simply a phenomenon attending a fact still more important and transcendent, whose causes exist in the very nature of things, and whose consequences it is difficult to calculate in their whole extent. The northern race is developing itself on our continent with a celebrity and force, of which, until now, there has been no example in any age; and in its progress it threatens to spread over our whole territory, extinguishing in it our race, and establishing the predominance of its own. This invasion takes place as well under the auspices of peace, as in time of war; and therefore, in order to permanently secure our race, we need institutions which will give it our solid increase and prosperity. This truth, which the man of foresight easily discovered long since, has now been trite by danger, and you, gentlemen deputies, are about to solve the difficult problem in giving institutions to the people.”
[MPR]


RW47v24i6p2c1, January 19, 1847

The Rockingham Register warns us that a day of reckoning is coming, when the people of the Tenth Legion will “at the ballot box,” wreak their revenge upon the “Whig scribblers,” who have endeavored to arouse them to the duty of taking some part in the war, the existence of which is in some measure attributable to their votes. We think such threats are in very bad taste just now. However, de gustibus, &c.
[MPR]


RW47v24i6p2c2, January 19, 1847

The New York Herald suggests that Mr. Polk shall send Orlando Ficklin, of Illinois, and Jacob Thompson, of Mississippi, to head our army in Mexico, in place of “old Rough and Ready” and Gen. Scott! The general impression is that these accomplished military critics would be much more active than either of the “Whig Generals,” whose conduct they so harshly criticize– but the fear is that it would be in making retrograde rather than advance movements.
[MPR]


RW47v24i6p2c2, January 19, 1847:

We assure the Rockingham Register that we have a very high respect for the “sterling integrity and sturdy virtues which characterize the excellent population” of the Tenth Legion, and doubt neither their patriotism nor their courage– but then it must confess that, though prompt enough on election days, they are entirely too slow for warriors! Indeed, we have heard a very good story of the editor of the Register himself, who was under a pledge to exchange the pen for the sword, if Capt. Harper, the Whig editor of the Staunton Spectator, who is now on his way to the seat of war, would set him the example– and his failure to redeem which pledge has earned for him no very enviable reputation in the Valley– as the following paragraphs, (the first from a Locofoco paper,) will show:

The Martinsburg Gazette suggests that the editor of the Rockingham Register be appointed Lieut. General of Volunteers– and the editor of the Sentinel of the Valley the Professor and Unraveller of Enigmas. Good suggestion. We second the motion, and hope their claims will not be overlooked– Augusta Democrat .

The office of Lieut. General not yet being created, we would respectfully suggest that out friend of the Register be appointed Brig–adier General of the Polk–berry stained heroes of the “Tenth Legion.”– Staunton Spectator.
[MPR]


RW47v24i6p2c2, January 19, 1847

Caleb Cushing has been elected Colonel of the Massachusetts regiment of volunteers; Isaac H. Wright, Lieutenant Colonel; and J.A. Abbott, Major. Mr. C. has not yet determined to accept.
[MPR]


RW47v24i6p2c5, January 19, 1847 The Latest and Interesting.

From Saturday Night’s Union.

Extract of a letter to a member of Congress, dated

“U.S. Frigate Raritan, Dec. 29, 1846.

“I have no doubt you are looking, with great interest at Washington, for the action of the Mexican Congress on our proposition for a renewal of negotiations. You will, of course, be surprised that, after two or three weeks session, the subject has not yet been brought up, and there is not the slightest indication that it will receive any favorable consideration. The Congress has hitherto been engrossed in the business of organizing, appointing committees, determining upon the made of electing President and Vice President, and lastly the vote for these officers, which took place on the 22d instant, and resulted in the election of Santa Anna for President, and Gomez Farias for Vice President. It is supposed that Santa Anna will continue at the head of the army, and will not commit himself by giving any advice on the subject of peace or war. He will be merely the soldier of the republic, and the servant of the people, and will leave all questions of war or peace to Congress. Farias will probably be left in Mexico, to administer the government. Santa Anna has been writing to the government, that arms and munitions of war are indispensable for his troops at San Luis Potosi. He will doubtless continue to make similar demands upon the administration, which can only be partially complied with. In the event of the loss of battle, the whole blame will be thrown upon the government in Mexico. I think one may hazard the conjecture that Santa Anna may, at some future time, march on Mexico, and overturn his own administration.

“Some of the reports of the ministers are already published. The subject of a loan for the special purpose of purchasing arms, is already discussed. It is represented that of the corps of the national guard of Mexico, not one–third armed; and a sad picture is drawn of the necessities of the country.

“Some of the journals are down on Mr. Poinsett, and ascribe all the misfortunes all the misfortunes of the country to his intrigues! They say our government sent him to Mexico to commence the work of subjugating the country, bye creating secret societies, &c., &c.!

“The officers of the foreign men–of–war believe that Vera Cruz can be taken with a force of five thousand men. From the best information I have received, there are not more than 2,000 regulars in the city. There is, of course, a body of militia besides, but they are badly armed, and would probably be found to have but little efficiency. From an actual reconnaissance, I can say that the approaches to Vera Cruz are not at present very well guarded.
[MPR]


RW47v24i6p2c5, January 19, 1847, From Honduras– The Revolution in Yucatan.– We have a file of the Honduras Gazette to Dec. 19, brought by the brig Mensurado, Capt. Grey, which left Belize Dec. 22d.

The last paper mentions that recent gales had caused great destruction of property, and it was feared of life also, to the Southward of that place. The rivers had been unusually high. At sites the river rose thirty feet, covering the plantations and drowning cattle.

Houses, trees, &c., were swept away by the torrent. So sudden was the rise of the water that many persons had difficulty in escaping to high lands.

The intelligence from Yucatan, though not so late is confirmatory of the advices received by way of New Orleans, and comprises some details not heretofore published:

Revolution in Yucatan.

We have received letters from Bacalar under date of Dec. 3d, from an attentive friend there, furnishing us with the following interesting intelligence:– A war has broken out between Merida and Campeachy, in consequence of the former proclaiming n favor of Mexico, and the latter for the United States. The people of Campeachy wish to depose the Governor of Merida and establish the seat of government in their own city. Active hostilities have commenced in the vicinity of Sisal and several lives lost, but the particulars have not yet reached here. Campeachy had raised 2000 men and the army is daily increasing; 800 soldiers are marching to join them, from Peto, (an Indian village thirty leagues from Bacalar,) under the command of Gen. Benito Pacheco, a most desperate man, and outlaw. The towns of Tisimin, Valladolid, Tyesuco and Peto have also proclaimed in favor of the U.S.; and Tiscobl, Txeas, Paduke and Saban in favor of Mexico.

Bacalar remains neutral at present, but the people are making great preparations, mounting cannon on the old fort, enrolling volunteers, &c. Having made no demonstration as yet, they will in all probability join whichever appears to be the strongest party.
[MPR]


RW47v24i6p2c6, January 19, 1847, The War– New Plan of Operations– Extraordinary Revelations.

From the Washington Fountain.

We read in the La Patria of the 31st ult. a Spanish paper published in New Orleans, by Aleman & Gomez, the following extraordinary revelation of the new plan of operations in the war with Mexico:

“The government appears to confide much in Gen. Scott, who has just gone to the field of operations, and from whose diplomatic and military tactics, it hopes to gain great advantages. The plan of operations, we learn, is as follows:

General Taylor, instead of moving upon San Luis Potosi, will repair to Saltillo, where he will remain for a short period. Gen. Scott, after having made some arrangements on the Rio Grande, will hasten to Tampico, where he will assume the command of the 7000 volunteers recently called out and ordered to assemble at that point. From Tampico Gen. Scott will march towards Vera Cruz, and Gen. Taylor will make a simultaneous movement towards Tampico with all the troops he can muster, after leaving sufficient force to garrison Saltillo, Monterey, Victoria, &c. and in union with Gen. Worth’s division, will join Gen. Scott, who will have at his command the new military are of rocketeers and howitzers.

At the proper moment, fifteen or sixteen vessels of the American squadron, with a force of from 230 to 300 guns of all sizes and calibres, will appear off San Juan de Ulloa, and begin the attack upon the castle. According to the new plan of operations the land forces will rendezvous at the mouth of the river at Antigua, which empties into the Gulf a short distance to the North of Vera Cruz, and ascend the same to where the main road to Jalapa crosses it. If this plan be speedily put into execution, there can be no doubt but that Vera Cruz and the Castle will as speedily fall into the power of the American forces; but if any faith be put in Santa Anna’s declaration, it is plain he will be able to cut off the advance of Gen. Taylor from Saltillo.”

Mr. Gomez, the editor of La Patria, and the author of the above, is the same person who was appointed b Gen. Scott, while tarrying in New Orleans, to be one of his staff, and whose commission was afterwards revoked by the General on the grounds that he was not a friend of the American cause. Did Gomez obtain the above information while he was General Scott’s aid?
[MPR]


RW47v24i6p4c1, January 19, 1847, Secret History of the War.

It may be remembered that we copied, some days ago, a brief extract from a letter of the Washington Correspondent of the Philadelphia North American in which it was stated that an important part of the history of the Mexican War, though written, is et to be revealed. We do not know whether the subjoined curious letter written by our former Consul at Matamoros, to Gen. Taylor, while the General was posted at Corpus Christi, and soon afterwards communicated to Secretary Buchanan, constitutes a part of that unrevealed history:

(Copy.)

Village of China on the River San Juan,
Sept. 23d, 1845.

To Gen. Z. Taylor,
Commanding the U. States troops,
At Corpus Christi, (Texas):

Sir– I have the honor to inform you, that I have had several conferences at Monterey with Gen. Mariano Arista, Commander–in–Chief of the Mexican forces on the frontier of the Rio Grande, in relation to the differences at present existing, between the United States and Mexico, and I am pleased to state to you that from the opinions and views he made known to me, the Cabinet of Mexico is disposed to enter into an amicable arrangement with the United States, in relation to the boundary and all other questions. Although I was not clothed with any official authority, I took upon myself as a citizen of the United States, desiring to see the two countries in harmony of friendship, to say, that is has ever been and it is the policy and sincere wish of the government and people of the United States to cultivate the good will and friendship of the sister republics of the American continent, and most especially Mexico, and that I was confident the United States would make a liberal settlement with Mexico relative to the boundary question.

As General Arista was under the impression that I was a secret agent of the United States, though I declared to him quite contrary, and that I was only acting as a private individual, endeavoring to avoid a recourse to arms between the two countries, he nevertheless thought it advisable to send a minute of our conferences to his government, and assured me that there will be not declaration of war on the part of Mexico, until I can proceed on to Washington and lay before the President the views of Mexico, of which I am possessed.

General Arista pledged his honor to me that no large body of Mexican troops should cross the left bank of the Rio Grande; that only small parties not to exceed 200 men should be permitted to go as far as the Arroya Colorado (20 leagues from the Rio Grande) and that they would be strictly ordered only to prevent Indian depredations and illicit trade. I then had no hesitation in assuring him that you would not commit any aggressive act against Mexico or her citizens, and that you would solely maintain the position you at present occupy at or near the Nueces River. I trust in having made this assurance to him, though, I again repeat I did it as a private citizen of the United States, it will meet with you approbation and be adhered to, as in great measure peace depends on your prudent movements in this particular. General Arista spoke also of Indian incursions on the frontier of the Rio Grande, and is under the impression that they could be prevented by the troops under our command, as the Indians always come from the Nueces River. I expressed my profound regret at the frequent atrocious acts of the Indians, and said that you would no doubt in the future use all endeavors to prevent them, as the United States was bound by the treaty of April, 1831, to prevent them as far as possible. He suggested that if you would station a body of cavalry at the pass of San Salas (headquarters of the Nueces) through which mountain pass they invariably proceed to the Rio Grande, it would effectually check them.

I shall leave this village to–morrow for Matamoros, at which port I shall arrive in three days, from thence I will embark in the first vessel for the U.S., proceeding immediately on to Washington, to lay before the President the information and views of Mexico, which I am possessed of. In the meantime, should you deem this note of sufficient importance, I trust that you will transmit a copy of it by express to the Government, as by timely information much good may result therefrom.

I beg to congratulate you that the door is opened to an amicable adjustment of the vexatious questions between the U.S. and Mexico, and feel happy in having been instrumental in this great and good object.

I am, with great respect, Sir,
Your ob’t. servant,
(Signed) Isaac D. Marks.

(Copy.)

New Orleans, Oct. 29th, 1845.
To the Hon. James Buchanan,
Secretary of State:

Sir,– I have the honor to transmit here with “Copy” of a letter I addressed to Gen. Z. Taylor at Corpus Christi, from the village of China, (Mexico.) I dispatched it by special courier to him, but was subsequently informed that the express was detained at the town of Camargo, (on the Rio Grande,) up to the 7th instant, by reason of the continual and heavy rains. I beg leave to add that I arrived in this city yesterday from Matamoros, and will leave to–morrow for Washington.

I am, with great respect, &c.,
(Signed) I.D. Marks.

The foregoing letters disclose nothing of which we were not before thoroughly satisfied. They confirm, however, what was before only surmised– and that is that the Mexican government, as far as Gen. Arista, the commander of its forces on that frontier, had been informed of its wishes, entertained a strong and sincere desire for the preservation of peace between the two Republics, and for the satisfactory adjustment of all pending questions of controversy, including that of boundary. Had General Taylor been permitted to remain at Corpus Christi, there cannot be any upon the mind of any man who will examine for himself the documentary history of the events that transpired upon that frontier from the day that his army encamped upon the banks of the Nueces, until, in pursuance of orders from Washington, it took up the line of march for the Rio Grande, that the then existing pacific relations between the two countries would have been undisturbed, and that if we were not now in possession of the lower valley of the Rio Grande, negotiations looking to its speedy transfer in perpetuity to the United States would have been in progress, in connection with all other points of difference, and at a cost comparatively insignificant– and when we say comparatively insignificant, we have reference of course to the immense expenditure which must necessarily result from the war into which the country has been so recklessly precipitated by the President. We repeat, that no man, whose mind is free from the influence of preconceived opinion, can read the documentary history of the period referred to, without coming to the conclusion that the war in which we are engaged could have been, and therefore ought to have been avoided, not only without any sacrifice of national rights or honor, but with a certainty that we should by negotiation have secured from the Mexican government both indemnity for the past and security for the future.

But if any doubt previously existed, this foregoing letter of our Consul at Matamoros to Gen. Taylor, (or rather, to Mr. Buchanan,) must dispel it, and induce us the more deeply to regret, that, misled by a paltry ambition to signalize his Administration by a brief and brilliant campaign, resulting in territorial acquisitions vaster in extent than those which we could rightfully claim, in the adjustment of the boundary question, or hope to obtain by way of recompense for the unadjusted claims of our citizens upon the Mexican government, the President disdaining even to consult Congress, the war–making power, though it was in session, ordered Gen. Taylor to make an aggressive movement, which, at the time the order was given, he knew would lead to war.

What, we ask, was the avowed and exclusive object of posting Gen. Taylor at Corpus Christi in the summer of 1845? It was to protect the frontier of Texas, then just admitted into the Union, from an apprehended invasion. But for that apprehension, the troops of the United States would not have been withdrawn from the various posts and garrisons which they had previously occupied on the Atlantic Seaboard and on the borders of the territory occupied by the Indian tribes, and concentrated on the banks of the Nueces. The instructions given to General Taylor are conclusive upon this point. And we see, by the subjoined letter, that our Consul at Matamoros assured the Secretary of State that the commander of the Mexican forces upon the Rio Grande had pledged his honor that no large body of Mexican troops should cross that river– the Consul, relying upon the supposed pacific intentions of our Government and the known pacific sentiments of our people, assuring the Mexican commander in reply, that no aggressive movement would be made by Gen. Taylor, who, while the Mexicans remained quiet, would not advance beyond the position then occupied by him at or near the Nueces. It is evident, by the unofficial and of course unauthorised arrangement between out Consul and Gen. Arista, that the Mexicans were not disposed to resent the occupation of “the Texas” which had succeeded in throwing off the Mexican yoke, and in establishing its independence, and which subsequently became annexed to the American Confederacy– “the Texas” which formed one of the “Departments” of the Mexican Republic, and which had no more right to extend her boundaries beyond the limits defined by the law of her existence as a member of that Republic, than Virginia, which formerly embraced an immense region beyond her present limits, were she now to secede from the American Union, would have to assert, in the organic law of her new political organization, a right to all that magnificent country which she had solemnly relinquished after the formation of that Union, and out of which other states have since been formed, as Coahuila was in part formed of the ancient Texas. We repeat, that it is evident from the letter of Mr. Marks, the American Consul at Matamoros, that, while Gen. Taylor’s troops remained in the frontier of “the Texas” which had thrown off the Mexican yoke and taken shelter under the wings of the American Eagle,– the only Texas which, by the terms of the resolution of annexation, our Government had a right to occupy with an armed force– the Mexican Government, though dissatisfied with the annexation of her former Province to the Union, had indicated no purpose of resenting it by acts of hostility– none whatever. Not only was this the fact, but our Executive knew it to be the fact, as well from unofficial, but credible sources, such as Mr. Marks, as from the official letters of its own officers and agents. The President and his Cabinet knew more than this. They knew not only that “the Texas” we had acquired did not extend to the Rio Grande, and that no part of that valley, “from its source to its mouth,” had ever acknowledged allegiance to the Department or the Republic of Texas, or submitted to the jurisdiction of its laws, or been occupied by its armies; by they knew that its occupation by our troops would be deemed an act of war, and that, at all hazards, the attempt would be resisted by force of arms. Knowing this, as they did, with what face can they now affect surprise that Mexico should have been incensed at the invasion of territory not only “claimed” by her, in virtue of a line defined by the framers of the constitution, but which had been occupied by her citizens, and governed by her laws and officers, without an hour’s interruption, from the first settlement of the country until the flight of those citizens at the approach of the American Army? With what truth can they assert that a war thus brought on by the seizure of territory which, although in debate, unquestionably belonged to Mexico, “exists by the act of Mexico” who had “shed American blood upon American soil?” The President and his defenders may succeed possibly, by the skillful perversion of facts with which so many thousands of our countrymen must needs be unfamiliar, and by the false glosses which they skillfully put upon other more notorious, in deceiving the American people– and, so potent is the influence of all appeals to the patriotic feeling of the country, which, “right or wrong,” when war breaks out, every one feels instinctively eager to defend, that they may for awhile be no less successful in covering with odium those who feel it up to their duty to expose the iniquity of the motive in which the war originated, and the unconstitutionality of the act by which , without the consent of the war–making power, it has been commenced. But they cannot deceive themselves. They know, and the Message of the President as well as the line of argument adopted by his friends satisfy us of it, that they are guilty “before God and their country,” of a willful aggression upon a weak neighbor, in order to effect which they have been guilty of a still more criminal usurpation of power, not only granted to them by the constitution, but expressly denied to them but that desecrated instrument.

But we have extended these remarks to a length wholly unexpected when we took up the pen for the purpose of introducing to out readers the foregoing letters, written, as their dates show, long since, but now for the first time published by the Charleston Mercury.
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RW47v24i6p4c2, January 19, 1847, Presentation of a Sword.

We publish with pleasure the subjoined correspondence between Hugh W. Sheffey, Esq. and Capt. Kenton Harper– the former acting as the organ of the citizens of Staunton, by whom a sword had been directed to be presented to the commander of the company of Volunteers from the patriotic county of Augusta. The sword, which is said to be a very handsome one, bears upon its guard this appropriate inscription– “Presented by the citizens of Staunton, Va., to Kenton Harper, Captain of the Augusta Volunteers, as a testimonial of their respect and affection for him as a Soldier and a Gentleman.”

Correspondence.

Sir– You have been summoned by the gallant corps of Augusta Volunteers to command them during the existing War with Mexico. You sought not the position; yet you shunned not its perils and its sacrifices, when called to assume it. Inspired by a chivalric feeling, a high […] sense of duty, and a generous love of country,– fully appreciated by those, and those only, who know you– you have abandoned the peaceful pursuits of civil life, the comforts of our highly favored Valley, the affectionate intercourse of long cherished friends, and all the tender endearments of domestic life, to bear “the flag of Augusta” to the battle–fields of Mexico.

Augusta has already confided that flag to your care. Her eyes will watch it glittering folds in whatever clime unfurled,– in whatever storm of conflict it may wave. Around it she knows her gallant sons will rally in solid ranks, to roll back the threatening tide of war, and bear it aloft amid the shocks of battle. Augusta expects you, sir, to bring back that banner– to return it to her, untouched by the hand of a Mexican in arms, unsullied by a spot that might cause her a blush of shame.

That you may be armed to fulfill this sacred trust and “as a testimonial of their respect and affection for you as a soldier and gentleman,” your friends in Augusta have requested me to present to you the Sword which accompanies this note. It is the weapon which Brothers place in your hands, to defend the honor of a Mother– to guard the flag of “old Augusta.” That it will leap from its scabbard only in a righteous strife– that no stain but that of a foeman’s blood, shed in an honorable war, will ever mar its lustre– that it will be sheathed at the cry of mercy or the voice of peace, with more pleasure than it will be drawn upon the battle–field, they are well assured. Gird it on, then, Sir, and as its belt encircles your form, remember that a thousand prayers for your safety, breathed from warm and anxious hearts in Augusta, will encompany you amid all your perils. May God ever bless you!

Your friend,
Hugh W. Sheffy

Capt. Kenton Harper,
Augusta Volunteers.

Richmond, January 13, 1847.

Sir– The Sword, which you have been made the medium of presentation to me, in the name of the Citizens of Staunton, has been received, in the midst of active preparations for immediate embarkation with my command, for Mexico.

While I can but regard the compliments as the prompting of personal friendship, you will believe me, Sir, when I say, it is not the less grateful to me on that account. As the soldier’s meed for deeds of valor already done, make no claim to it; yet I am proud to possess it, as the evidence of a generous confidence on the part of my fellow citizens, and a pleasing remembrance of those to whom I am so strongly attached, and whose friendship I so highly value.

I thank you, Sir, for the flattering manner in which you have executed your commission, and devoutly pray that God may enable me to meet all the expectations of my generous friends.

Yours, truly,
Kenton Harper.

H.W. Sheffey, Esq.
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RW47v24i6p4c2, January 19, 1847, More Volunteers.

We learn from the Abingdon Virginian that a full company of volunteers has been organized in that county, by the appointment of the following officers: Arthur […] Cummings, Captain; James T. Preston, 1st Lieutenant; Jacob Lynch, jr. 2d do; Robert C. Boyd, 3d do. The Virginian states that 7 of the 12 commissioned and non–commissioned officers and a majority of the privates are Whigs– a fact which we mention only because, in Little Tennessee, as our readers are aware, the Whigs are outnumbered my their opponents, at the polls, about 5 to 1.

This company, we apprehend, however, will be too late, as well as the company in Pittsylvania, which we learn is also nearly full. The Danville Herald, by the way, informs us that an effort was made to procure a few recruits at last Halifax court, for the purpose of completing the muster–roll of the Pittsylvania company; but, notwithstanding the strong preponderance of Locofocoism in that county, particularly South of Dan, only five recruits could be obtained!

The fact is, the Locofoco counties have been so much accustomed to have the tocsin sounding “To arms! To arms!” on the even of an election, that it is possible they may be under the impression, after all, that the present appeal to them only means that they shall be ready to go to the polls next April– where we have no doubt they will be, as heretofore, overflowing with patriotism!
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RW47v24i6p4c3, January 19, 1847, Letter from Washington.

Correspondence of the Whig.

Washington, Jan’y 14, 1846.

Commodore Perry arrived here to–day, on the steamboat Osceola, from Norfolk. He came by the steamship Mississippi to Norfolk, from the Gulf. He brings later news from the city of Mexico. John L. O’Sullivan, formerly editor of the “Democratic Review,” arrived here also to–day, bringing, I believe, by another route, the same news. I have not learned the exact amount of the information they bring. But, as I presume, they have dispatched from the Government, the Union will probably contain an abstract to–morrow. I learn, however, that Santa Anna has been elected President by Congress, by a majority of one or two votes, and that Almonte has been left out of the Cabinet. As Santa Anna, however, was not in the city of Mexico, I don’t see how he could have called around him his advisers, or how it was known that Almonte was not to be in the Government.

I believe Com. Perry also bring word that a proposition was made to the Mexican Congress to negotiate for a peace, and that it was promptly laid on the table. Supplies have been voted, and efforts are being made to negotiate a loan. Thus, both Governments are urging on the war spirit; both are squandering money and blood, and both are trying to borrow money to carry on the war. Both Governments intend to make the other pay the expenses of this war, while neither car very easily raise the money to prosecute it on their own account. Both nations will probably go for their “Country, right or wrong;” for a sentiment like that works as well in Mexico as in this country– while neither is fairly in the right– and so it will go on for some time, ‘till both get tired of spilling blood, and then negotiation must come– which might have done the business at first, without the aid of war.

The ten Regiments bill was taken up and discussed to–day in the Senate, several amendments were proposed, and the bill was finally laid over for further discussion.

The Senate then took up the bill for the creation of a “Vice King,” or, as it is sometimes called, a “Lieutenant General.” Mr. Dix, of New York, made a long speech in favor of this measure, after which, Mr. Badger of N.C., obtained the floor, and the Senate adjourned. Mr. Badger has a great reputation as an able and eloquent man, and there will be a large audience present to hear his maiden effort. I dare hardly predict what will be done in this case. If the Whigs had a majority, the public could tell pretty nearly what would be done; but the Locofocos change so quick on what they call principles, that it is difficult to tell exactly what they may do. They are in the situation of the Pennsylvanian Locofoco who said he did not know for whom he was going, as the man that usually told him how to vote, had not been round yet! So with Locofoco Legislators: Mr. Walker and Mr. Polk’s Whitehouse agents have not had time yet to go through both Houses, and flatter or threaten the members. As things now stand, the opinion prevails that the measure will not pass the Senate. It is also supposed that if it does pass the Senate, it will likewise pass the House, notwithstanding the majority of 30 against it on Saturday last.

The action of the House on this measure is very characteristic of Locofocoism. The very next day after it was proposed to the House, they laid it on the table. It had so few friends that they could not muster courage to call for the yeas and nays. That vote, through deference to the Executive, was reconsidered. The Military Committee was opposed to it by a majority of eight–ninths. When the yeas and nays were called upon it in Saturday last, it was voted down by a vote of 120 to 90, and now we are told that if it passes the Senate, it will pass the House. I do hope, independently, altogether, of my own opinions on the measure, that this House, which has shown itself capable of descending to the lowest depths of servility to Executive dictation, may not give the world an illustration of what Milton mentions as a lower deep opening in the lowest depth. If the Legislative branch of our Government is but a mere instrument in the hands of the Executive, we pay too dearly for keeping it in session, and it might as well be abolished altogether.

Mr. Dix, while he gave several reasons for the creation of such an office bestowed full praise on Gen. Scott and Gen. Taylor. Then why make the office?

In the House to–day the Oregon Territory bill was taken up and discussed. The debate was limited, by a vote of the House, to 3 o’clock. Mr. Burt of S.C., and other spoke upon the measure, generally on the question of excluding slavery from the territory.

Mr. Pettit, a Locofoco member from Indiana, delivered himself of a long lecture on matters and things in general, particularly on slavery. His remarks gave great offence to the South. He spoke till 3 o’clock, and then there was a movement made to prolong the time, so as to give some one an opportunity of replying. In the midst of the confusion created by this the Committee rose and the House adjourned.

There were several communications laid before the House to–day from the several Departments. Among them was one from Mr. Walker, in reply to an inquiry from the House, why the Monthly Financial statement was not published for December. His reply was that, he was waiting for some returns to make it more complete. The real design was to make it appear different from what it really was.

Mr. Seaman of New York, introduced a bill to–day, to prevent the landing of paupers and criminals from foreign countries, into the United States. The bill provides that U.S. Consuls, Vice Consuls, &c., shall examine on oath concerning emigrants bound to the United States, from the ports whence they emigrate. If satisfied that these emigrants are or were not paupers or criminals, each emigrant shall receive a certificate under the Consular Seal. If it appears that any one is a criminal or a pauper the certificate is to be refused. A duplicate of this certificate is to be sent to the authorities of the city to which the ship is bound with the emigrants. The captains or owners of vessels to be held responsible, under a penalty of $250, in each case, to transport back every emigrant who is found without such certificate.

Mr. Davis finished his speech to–day before the Supreme Court, in favor of the Massachusetts License Law. Mr. Webster replied in a very able constitutional argument against the law. Mr. Davis contended for the constitutionality of the law as a police law, regulating the internal affairs of State, over which Congress has no authority. Mr. Webster contended that it was an infringement of the Revenue laws, over which Congress alone has power. A similar case from Rhode Island also comes up under the same head. Mr. Ames, of Providence, opened against the Law. Mr. Hazzard, of the same city, replies in favor of the Law, and Mr. Whipple, also of the same city, replies to him against the law. It will then be submitted to the Bench for decision. It is supposed the decision will be made by only about on majority either way. It is of great importance to several of the Northern States, which have passed these laws. Mr. Choate was engaged in the case two years ago, but will not speak now. It is merely a rehearing of the case which the Bench declined to decide till all vacancies were filled.

I understand that Commodore Perry tells Government that they cannot expect any Peace measures from Mexico. I understand that his representations to Government have made a deep sensation on the Cabinet. He has shown them how difficult it is to conquer Mexico. That our men die under the influence of the climate, and that even the food which can be obtained in Mexico kills our troops. There is one thing certain, that this Administration have not the nerve to get us out of the difficulties into which they so heedlessly plunged us.

Santa Anna is a lucky fellow. He has the good will of both governments. James K. Polk and Locofocoism have appointed him commander–in–chief of the Mexican Army, and the Mexican Congress have made him President of the Republic! It is difficult to tell whether Locofocoism or the Mexicans treat him with the greater consideration. Now that he is advanced he ought to appoint Mr. Polk to the office which the latter so generously conferred on him.

And now a word in reply to the Enquirer, and I have done for to–night. The reply is easy and may be brief. I ask any fair minded man to look at the article, published in the Enquirer on Thursday last, and let him say whether the impression left, in reading it, is not that the Hagerstown News is a Whig paper? I happened to know that it is not a Whig paper, and so stated in my letter of Saturday last. “Brutus” does not “want to make” any thing of it. He simply appeals to that high sense of fairness so characteristic of the Virginia people, to say whether it is fair to found an attack upon the Whig party upon a paragraph from a paper which is not, and never was Whig? If your readers, of either party, say that it is, I give in. The Enquirer says: “Many of the Whig press and politicians denounce it (the war) as ‘unjust, unnecessary, atrocious, damnable.’” Let me call upon the Enquirer for proof of this assertion. What are the names of two or three presses, not to say “many,” known as Whig presses, which have used the language the Enquirer puts in quotation marks? The strongest language I have yet heard used against this war, was that used by John C. Calhoun, when, in his place in the Senate, he said that rather than vote for the bill, recognizing this war, hw would have a dagger thrust in his heart. Is John C. Calhoun a Whig politician? The Enquirer’s article conveyed the impression that the News is a Whig paper. I denied the charge. The Enquirer will hear from me again about the politics of the News .

Mr. Lover, who is now in your city, gives an entertainment here on Monday evening next. BRUTUS
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RW47v24i6p4c4, January 19, 1847, Santa Anna.

By the Mississippi we learn the important intelligence that Santa Anna has been declared by the Congress to be the duly elected President of the Mexican Republic. As it is to be presumed that a good understanding exists between Santa Anna and our President, the further presumption follows, that the official announcement of this event will be followed, in due time, by preliminaries of peace– all indications to the contrary, notwithstanding. If we are disappointed in this– we shall weep for our country.
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RW47v24i6p4c4, January 19, 1847

Correspondence of the New Orleans Picayune.

Tampico, Dec. 26, 1846.

I am beginning to think that Tampico is not so very bad a place after all. It is true the climate is rather tropical just now for comfort, and we have no ice; but the city is picturesque, clean, and regularly laid out in streets, while its location affords rich and beautiful country from every point. The soil of the adjacent country is more productive– vegetables of all kinds abounding in profusion. Sugar cane, such as I never saw in Louisiana– large, tall and juicy– grow all around the city. Plantains, bananas, pine–apples, oranges, tomatoes, &c. &c., flood the market every morning. Game of all kinds– deer, turkies, duck and snipe– is plenty. The most delicious fish are taken in great quantities from the river, lakes and bayous, and the best of all is, these things sell at very cheap prices; a fine grouper or snapper, weighing from eight to five pounds, may be bought for three Picayunes, and turkeys, chickens, eggs, &c., equally cheap. The teal duck– the blue–winged teal– is to be found here in astonishing quantities; it is certainly sweeter and more delicate, from some peculiar cause, than our teal at home, and they have been sold in the market for twelve and a half cents a dozen! This I have on the best authority, and I know that half a dozen may be bought any morning for twenty–five cents. You may take my word for it this is “a great country.” But more anon.
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RW47v24i7p1c2, January 22, 1847

The Enquirer of yesterday, commenting upon a paragraph in the Whig of Tuesday, says:

“Without stopping to answer its unjust flings at the causes of the Mexican was, we would remind the Whig, that, throughout, the President has shown the most cordial desire to negotiate with Mexico “in a spirit of conciliation and equity.” Minister after minister has been despatched, overtures of peace have been liberally offered; but have invariably been repulsed. What more could the President have done to bring about a pacific settlement? He is now and always has been ready to negotiate “whenever Mexico herself shall be willing to meet us in a spirit of conciliation and equity.” He has made no “war of conquest”– but, as in duty bound, has passed the Mexican frontier, to punish her aggression and secure a compensation for the wrongs done to us. Such, we are sure, is the view of the country, “of the South at least.”

If Mr. Polk ordered our troops on the Rio Grande to pass the Mexican frontier in no spirit of conquest, but merely to punish an “aggression” (which he designedly, in our opinion, provoked, in order that he might have a pretext for dismembering the Republic of Mexico, and extending the “area of freedom,”) why did he organize that famous California regiment of hybrids– half–soldiers and half–settlers, with the sword in one hand an the plough–share in the other,– and send them on a voyage of circumnavigation around the globe? Is it not obvious that he intended, from the start, not only to conquer but to hold California, at all hazards? And what is that but a war of conquest?

It is our misfortune, too, to differ with the Enquirer in regard to the cordial desire exhibited by the President to negotiate with Mexico “in a spirit of conciliation and equity.” Had he been really desirous of preserving peace, he would have sent a Commissioner to Mexico, such as she had agreed to receive, to adjust the single question of boundary,– and not have insisted upon sending a Minister Plenipotentiary, whom she had at no time consented to receive, for the purpose of setting all the questions in dispute between the two Governments. And in regard to the overtures of peace since made, we are constrained to say that the very fact that one of the conditions has uniformly been that the war was to go on even while the Ministers of the two countries were deliberating upon the terms of peace, evinced any thing but a spirit of “conciliation and equity,” and was, in our estimation, calculated to exasperate rather than to soothe the already chafed temper of a weak but haughty people. The proposition to smite one cheek with the sword, while we imprinted on the other the kiss of peace, could only have been tendered to a nation for which we felt profound contempt, and was well calculated, however intended, to gall their pride. It evinces, to our mind, a spirit of offensive dictation, rather than of “conciliation and equity;” and it could not have been made with any hope of its acceptance, unless Mr. Polk thinks as meanly of the spirit if the Mexican Government as he did of the courage and obstinacy of the Mexican troops, when he provoked the war under the delusive idea that in six months our victorious flag would float over the Capitol of Mexico, and our brave troops would be reveling in the Halls of Montezuma.
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RW47v24i7p1c2, January 22, 1847

We are told by the New York Courier & Enquirer that the London Times copies Mr. Webster’s speech, delivered some weeks ago at Boston, and comments upon it at some length. The Times, offended at Mr. Webster’s hostility to the tariff of 1846, so favorable to the interests of British capitalists and laborers, sneers at him as another Rip Van Winkle, who, having been asleep some fifty years, is unconscious of the change that has been wrought in public opinion while he slumbered. It calls him an arrant “political huckster,” and congratulates itself that the American people will be too wise to listen to his counsel, by re–enacting those laws, by which, from the foundation of the government, American labor has been protected. The Times advises Brother Johnathan to listen to English wisdom [for the benefit of the English manufacturers!] instead of giving heed to that “British Whig, ” Daniel Webster– and ridicules the idea, [which shows that it has been no inattentive observer of Locofoco “progress.”] that the American Constitution should be a rallying point of any party!

Will the Washington Union copy this article from the Times– as it has heretofore done similar compliments to the free trade party, from the same quarter?
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RW47v24i7p1c2, January 22, 1847

The Washington correspondent of the New York Herald gives the following as the outline of the resolutions, which, it is rumored, Mr. Calhoun will soon submit to the Senate:

1. We want peace.

2. We can acquire it by withdrawing our forces, military and naval, from the lands and waters of Mexico.

3. We can gain nothing by the continued prosecution of the war.

4. The question of slave or free territory puts a ban to any acquisitions of land south of the Rio Bravo.

5. And Mexico has no money, and the longer the war is continued, the poorer she will become.

6. We have therefore nothing to gain from the prosecution of the war but peace, which we may as easily obtain at once by the withdrawal of our forces.

It is stated that Mr. Owen of Indiana, a prominent Locofoco, will offer similar resolutions in the House. The Union protests vehemently against such a purpose, if it be entertained, which it says it will not believe! This is the best evidence we have seen that the rumor is not without foundation.
[MPR]


RW47v24i7p1c3, January 22, 1847, The Virginia Regiment.

We copied yesterday from the Enquirer a list of the Captains in this regiment, with the dates of their respective commissions, agreed upon by the Governor and the Council; but we inadvertently omitted to accompany it, as we intended, with a commentary on the apparent injustice of their decision. This we find done in yesterday’s Times– whose article we copy and adopt:

“What rule the Governor and Council prescribed to themselves in fixing the rank of the Captains, we do not pretend to comprehend. Seniority of commissions or election is the general standard; but this has, manifestly, not been observed; for some officers who were elected and mustered into service before others had half formed their companies, are yet placed lower in the list. Nor does it seem that qualification or previous military education, has been the test of preference. Propriety would seem to demand that those who have shewn most energy, most alacrity, most enthusiasm, in answering the call of Government, should be entitled to be placed at the right of the regiment, in the position where they would be most likely to encounter danger and reap honorable laurels. But the Governor and Council have been influenced by no such considerations.

“Capt. Carrington, who formed the first and largest company under the requisition of last spring, and who came forward at the first moment after the last call upon the Governor, to reorganize that company, and was the first Capt. elected in Virginia under that call, is assigned the tenth rank in the list. We deem it our duty, where, under other circumstances, we should say much more, simply to call public attention to the measure, as one of the most extraordinary and the harshest injustice.”
[MPR]


RW47v24i7p1c3, January 22, 1847

Deserters.– By the last news from Monterey, the Louisville Courier has information that a man named Robert Hawley, and another named Smith, both belonging to the Montgomery Guards, of that city, deserted, but were persued, Smith was caught about one hundred miles distant on the road to Camargo. The court martial was trying him and one John Cassaday, of the Washington Blues, for the same offence. It was thought both would be ordered to be shot.
[MPR]


RW47v24i7p2c1, January 22, 1847, North Carolina Regiment.

Though tardy in her movements, the Old North State has at length completed her regiment of Volunteers for the Mexican service. Gov. Graham has appointed the following field officers: Robert T. Payne, of […] County, Colonel; John Fagg of Buncombe county, Lieutenant Colonel; and Sydney Stokes of Wilkes county, Major.
[MPR]


RW47v24i7p2c1, January 22, 1847, Rumors.

The Washington Fountain says– with how much truth we know not– that our government is in possession of the ultimate conditions on which Mexico will consent to make peace– and that Mr. Polk has determined to accede to them, if Congress will enable him to meet the views of Mexico. This rumor is rendered […] by the introduction into both Houses of Congress of bill placing three millions of dollars at the disposal of the President.

The same paper gives circulation to a rumor that the Government has recalled Gen. Taylor from the command of the army in Mexico, and ordered him to repair to the city of Washington. We doubt it.
[MPR]


RW47v24i7p2c2, January 22, 1847, A Feat by the Mexicans.

The Mobile Tribune has received a letter from which we make the following extract;–

U.S. Steamship Princeton, Dec. 20, 1846.

The Mexicans have at last performed one feat to challenge surprise and praise. They have cut out and burnt our prize schr. “Confederatione,” ashore on Green Island. On the night of the 18th a party approached the schooner in boats, and as there was nobody on board to resist, they fired her and escaped back to Vera Cruz without […]. The John Adams was anchored at the time about one and a half or two miles distant, and the first notice received of a hostile attempt, was the blaze of the burning vessel.

On the 19th ult the prize schooner Charles Morris arrived from Tabasco. She brought intelligence that in one hour after Commodore Perry had left the place, the Tabasquinos had drawn the spikes from their guns and planted them in a defensive state. They say they are quite ready for another fight from the Commodore, and will give him a more military reception than he received before.
[MPR]


RW47v24i7p2c6, January 22, 1847, Latest from Gen. Taylor.

Despatches have been received from General Taylor, dated the 22d of December, near Monterey, representing that he had left that place on the 15th, for Victoria, having previously put in motion the troops destined for that point. At Montemorelos a junction was effected on the 17th with the 2d infantry and the 2d Tennessee regiment of foot from Camargo; and it was intended, with the whole force (3,500 men) to march, on the 19th , for Victoria. But, on the evening of his arrival at Montemorelos, a dispatch arrived from Gen. Worth, commanding at Saltillo, with the intelligence that Santa Anna designed to take advantage of the division of force towards Victoria, and, by a rapid movement to strike a heavy blow at Saltillo; and, if successful, then at Gen, Wool’s force at Parras. Under these circumstances, and with no means of judging how far this information might be well founded, the General returned to Monterey with the regular force in order to be in a position to reinforce Saltillo if necessary. The volunteers under Gen. Quitman, reinforced by a field battery, were ordered to continue their march and effect a junction with Gen. Patterson at Victoria, while Gen. Taylor returned to Monterey with Gen. Twigg’s division, now increased by the 2nd infantry.

In the meantime General Butler and General Wool, being advised by Gen. Worth of a probable attack upon his position, moved rapidly to join him with all the available force at Parras and Monterey, while orders were despatched by General Butler, to hasten up troops from the rear. The latter General proceeded in person to Saltillo, and assumed the command, agreeably to instructions which had been given by General Taylor before his departure, to meet a case like this.

Gen. Taylor had proceeded beyond Monterey on his way to Saltillo, when he was met on the 20th by e despatch from the post, announcing the early arrival of Gen. Wool’s column, and also that the expected concentration and movement of the Mexican troops upon that position had not taken place– indeed that their advanced posts had rather been withdrawn. Deeming the force there and soon to be at Saltillo quite sufficient to repel any demonstration at this season from San Luis Potosi, Gen. Taylor did not think it worth while to throw forward Gen. Twigg’s division to that place, and after resting it a day, designed putting it again in march for Victoria, to which point he was to proceed himself.

Gen. Patterson was supposed to be then well on his march from Matamoros to Victoria, when his division except the Alabama rangers (in garrison at Tampico) will be brought together. With a force holding in observation the passes from Tula, the garrison at Tampico may be reduced with advantage to the service.– Union.
[MPR]


RW47v24i7p4c1, January 22, 1847

The new Mississippi Regiment of Volunteers nearly 1000 strong, has been mustered into the United States service. Reuben Davis, Esq. formerly a member of Congress from that State, has been elected Colonel commander.
[MPR]


RW47v24i7p4c1, January 22, 1847, Mexican Affairs.

The New Orleans Picayune of the 12th inst. contains later accounts from the Gulf squadron and from Mexico. The John Adams was blockading Vera Cruz, and the rest of the squadron were to the leeward on a cruise. From Mexico the news is unimportant. The election of Santa Anna to the Presidency, and of Gomez Farias to the Vice Presidency of the Republic, is confirmed. The Mexican Congress is endeavoring to make provisions for foreign loan.

The Picayune has also a long letter in reference to the affairs of Yucatan– the writer of which represents the Yucatanese as at heart with Mexico in the pending struggle, but as affecting to be friendly to the U. States in consequence of the exposed situation of their seaport to […], and the great advantage to them, in a commercial point of view, of maintaining, as far as practicable, a position of neutrality. The writer thinks the U. States can well afford to let Yucatan alone.
[MPR]


RW47v24i7p4c1, January 22, 1847

Alexander E. Birchett, a private in the Petersburg Volunteers, Capt. Archer, died at Fortress Monroe on the 15th inst., of Congestive Fever, after a few days illness. The Petersburg Republican believes that Mr. B., who was little more than 21 years of age, was a native of Prince George county. His remains were carried to Petersburg for internment.
[MPR]


RW47v24i7p4c1, January 22, 1847

The Pennsylvania Volunteers continue to be very turbulent in New Orleans. Twenty of the most disorderly were marched to the watch–house on the 13th with a request from the Colonel that the evil power would take charge of them. They were put in prison. One the same day one of them was dangerously shot in the head by a bar keeper, from whom he demanded liquor, refusing at the same time to pay for it.
[MPR]


RW47v24i7p4c1, January 22, 1847, Appointments.

The President and Senate have made the following appointments: Henry P. Robinson, Isaac N. Brown, R. Delancey Izard, Napoleon Collins and John L. Warden, to be Lieutenants in the Navy, to supply vacancies occasioned by deaths and resignations. Randolph F. Mason, of Va. and Joshua Huntington are appointed Assistant Surgeons, and Robert Woodworth, Surgeon in the Navy; Edward D. Reynolds of Illinois and Levi D. […] of New York to be Pursers.
[MPR]


RW47v24i7p4c2, January 22, 1847

Rumors are in circulation that Mr. Calhoun will in a few days bring forward resolutions having for their object the restoration of peace with Mexico.
[MPR]


RW47v24i7p4c2, January 22, 1847, Interesting.

From the Washington Union, of Jan. 18.

Of all the accounts which have been received by the Mississippi steamer, the following extracts of a letter addressed to a gentleman in this city by an intelligent observer at the Havana are among the most interesting. We hasten to lay it before our readers:

Havana, Jan. 7, 1847.

“Sir– I had the honor to address you on the 6th inst, acquainting you with the arrival of the steamer Mississippi from off Vera Cruz, and that Santa Anna had been elected by Congress, with only two majority; that Campeachy had again declared her neutrality, and was marching on the capital (Merida) with six thousand troops, in order to bring her into measure; and that Guatemala had claimed the State of Tabasco, and, in fact, up to the isthumus of Darien, and was supporting her claim with four thousand troops, under General Carrera.

The British steamer is just in, bringing us dates from Vera Cruz to the 2d instant, and from the city of Mexico to the 31st ultimo; and from sources that can be relied on, I have gathered the following information: That General Santa Anna was at San Luis on the 25th ultimo, with, report said, twenty thousand troops, but in fact only about fifteen thousand, and that he talked of marching on to Saltillo; that the Congress was made up of anything but the better part of the community, and, in fact, were composed of what is called in Mexico sans culottes, who had nothing to lose; and of course they were for war; that Congress had agreed to a loan of one million dollars. The clergy were opposed to it, and it was thought even that amount could not be obtained. If they succeed in obtaining this loan, it was to last the war for 6 months. Almonte had retired from the war chair, and Canalizo had taken his seat, who was thought to be pacific. The wealthy citizens of Mexico, and those who have means of living, are for peace, but, for the moment, are compelled to close their lips. Nevertheless they, by voting for Herrera, showed their feelings on the subject. The stepping aside of Almonte at this moment means something that we have yet to learn.

“The troops in Vera Cruz are badly paid and worse fee, numbering three thousand five hundred, and the castle about eleven hundred, with provisions only for a month at a time.

“The information from Tampico, received at Vera Cruz by the last packet, in relation to the conduct of our troops, had calmed the feelings before felt towards the volunteers by the Vera Cruzanos, and they speak in the highest terms of the American General for the measures he took to secure private property and persons, and that the excitement against the Americans at Vera Cruz was daily subsiding. Vera Cruz was indignant against Santa Anna and his government, which was manifested by their late unanimous vote for Herrera.

“All the extra defence that has been made about the walls of Vera Cruz are, that holes have been dug near together along the wall, and pikes put into them and covered over with prickly pears, so that in marching up out troops would fall into them; but we could soon lay plank over them.”
[MPR]


RW47v24i9p1c2, January 29, 1847

The Enquirer makes a strange assertion, when it says that “when Gen. Taylor marched his army to the Rio Grande, not a murmur of disapprobation was heard.” It was the President that ordered the army to march to the Rio Grande, and there were murmurs of disapprobation heard. I know of no Whig press that did not denounce it. But I have already taken up too much time in replying to this article at present. BRUTUS.
[MPR]


RW47v24i9p1c2, January 29, 1847, Gen. Taylor.

After a delay of some days, the Washington Union publishes Gen. Taylor’s Letter, the authenticity of which, it says, it was at first disposed to doubt. The Union prefaces the letter with these paragraphs:

“In justice to General Taylor, we will not suppose that this letter was ever intended for publication, because its effect will be to place Santa Anna in possession of information which cannot fail to prove most injurious to us and advantageous to the enemy. Santa Anna will thus be encouraged, by the high and authoritative source from which it proceeds, to direct portions of the large force collected at San Luis Potosi to other points where it is clearly indicated by the letter that a blow may be expected, and in this manner it may seriously endanger the success of our arms. We make these remarks on the supposition that the letter truly represents the plan of the campaign, of which, however, we are entirely ignorant.

“It is only in view of the public mischief resulting, we regret that this letter has ever been written or published. We have no fears but that the administration, whose course towards General Taylor is known to the world, will be able to show that there is no just foundation for the complaints made against them in this publication.”

As the Washington correspondent of the N.Y.Journal of Commerce, (a quasi Administration paper) well remarks: “Gen. Taylor stands now on impregnable ground. Without efficient supplies, and with a small force, he has gained victories the fame of which will endure as long as the waters of the Rio Grande flow into the Gulf. His movement to Monterey was made with so little of requisite means that, had he failed in the enterprize, as he remarks in his letter, he would have incurred a reprimand, or something worse. He did it, he says, ‘to serve the Administration.’ They have met the service with a poor requital.”

In Mexico they punish Generals for sustaining defeats: Arista is now in durance, and Ampudia on trial. But in the United States, the Administration and its friends are incensed against their General, and slander and persecute him because he has gained a series of splendid victories!
[MPR]


RW47v24i9p1c6, January 29, 1847, Later from Mexico.

From the N.O. Picayune, Jan. 20.

The British steamer Dee arrived at Havana on the 6th inst. and brings us files of Vera Cruz papers to the 31st December– four days later than we received by the Pensacola. The Dee brought over $171,000 in specie.

Quite the most important intelligence by this arrival touches the action of the Mexican Congress. It is now certain that up to the last accounts they had not acted upon the propositions for peace proffered by the United States, and laid before Congress early in the session by the Government of Gen. Salas.

Gomez Farias was sworn into office on the 24th of December, and that day assumed the functions of the chief executive in the absence of Santa Anna, the President. He pronounced a short discourse on the occasion, in which he pledged himself that he would prosecute the war with valor and constancy “until the justice of our cause shall be acknowledged and our territory evacuated.”

Gen. Canazalo was at once appointed Minister of War and took the necessary oaths; Senor Zubieta has accepted the Ministry of Finance, and Senor Ramirez that of Foreign Affairs. Senor Ortiz, a young churchman of Guadalajara, has been invited to accept the portfolio of Justice and Public Instruction.

On the 24th ult., Congress approved a law of the self–denying order, by which it is provided that no member shall accept office under the Government during his term of office and one year thereafter. This law passed by a vote of 73 to 2, and is plainly designed to secure the independence of that body against executive influence.

A Vera Cruz paper on the 31st ult. announces that in response to the urgent call from that city, the Governor of Puebla had engaged to remit them $25,000 very shortly. The troops at Vera Cruz are sadly […] for supplies.

The monthly expenses of the army at San Luis Potosi exceed $377,000.

Gen. La Vega arrived at Puebla on the 22d ult. and at the capital on the 25th. He is called the “illustrious prisoner of La Resaca,” and is hailed almost as a conqueror. This is honorable. The general’s representations as to the United States were greedily swallowed. He spoke of the very burdensome nature of the war to the United States and encouraged hopes of peace on this ground. He advocated the policy of remaining steady upon the defensive, and thus prolonging the embarrassments of the United States. If we may judge from the Mexican papers, they will find this a very difficult game to play. All accounts agree that so far from paying their troops, the Mexicans have infinite difficulty in procuring for them their daily supplies of provisions.

A court martial has been ordered upon Gen. Parrodi for his abandonment of the city of Tampico, and Ampudia and other officers who served at Monterey were undergoing their trials at San Luis Potosi at last accounts.

We are often asked who is Senor Elorriaga, who disputed the residency with Santa Anna. At the time of the late revolution, which commenced at Jalisco, he was Governor of Durango. His enemies charge him with being opposed to the late revolution, and his friends reply that he was equally opposed to the prior revolution effected by Paredes. He has been in his Government the steady friend of law and order, and he is suspected of being in favor of making prompt peace with the United States.

The Mexicans have their eyes now turned to the State of Durango, which they look upon as the point most seriously menaced by our arms. The Governor has sent to Santa Anna for reinforcements, but declares his determination to make a desperate resistance whatever may be his means.

The intelligence previously received here that Gen. Carrera, President of Central America, is advancing upon the State of Chiapas, is fully confirmed. Gen. Cardona was making preparations to repel the invasion.

A division of 5000 troops, of all arms, had been detached from the main body of the enemy to occupy the pass of Tula. The movement is announced in a paper of Guanajuato as early as the 15th ult. and the composition of the force is given particularly. There is little room to doubt the movement, therefore. It betrays apprehension lest the American General should seek to penetrate immediately to San Luis.

[Correspondence of the Picayune.]

Havana, Jan. 9, 1847.

Everything relative to Santa Anna is, as usual, shrouded in mystery. Rumor even is silent; her voice does not reach this place, and his intentions are not to be guessed at, He won’t disband his army, and if Congress don’t find means, he will become “the Congress,” and do as he pleases. Loperana, in London, has been named as agent to raise a loan of $20,000,000.

I am told that the garrison at San Juan de Ulloa has been several times on the point of “pronouncing” for want of provisions. There are about 1500 mouths in the castle, and of these about 1000 are soldiers. In Vera Cruz the garrison, about 1200, are often on short commons.
[MPR]


RW47v24i9p2c2, January 29, 1847, Southern Brigade of Volunteers.

Messrs. Editors:– Among the names of those who have been mentioned as suitable persons to take the command of the Virginia and North and South Carolina Volunteers, permit me, through your paper, to commend to the favorable notice of the Executive at Washington, Col. Robert Taylor Preston Montgomery. The commandant of the 75th regiment of Virginia Militia– the son of an illustrious patriot and hero, the late Gov. Preston– constitutionally a soldier,– in the prime and vigor of manhood,– he is a man of genius, highly cultivated, of noble and elevated sentiments, and in every way qualified to make an able and efficient officer. Viriginia.

[We beg leave to say to the author of the foregoing article that his previous communication was not published, as we stated at the time, in a notice to correspondents, which he must have overlooked, because the appointment of the Colonel of the Virginia regiment had been made before we received it.– Eds .]
[MPR]


RW47v24i9p2c2, January 29, 1847

The company of Volunteers from Orange County, North Carolina, carry with them (says the Raleigh Register, ) a sacred relic, which it says, will never be dishonored while in their keeping. It is their stand of colors, being the identical flag borne by the American forces at the memorable battle of Guilford, during our Revolutionary struggle.
[MPR]


RW47v24i9p2c2, January 29, 1847

Messrs. Barnard and Jewell, of New Orleans, are about to establish a paper, to be called the Sentinel, at Tampico.
[MPR]


RW47v24i9p2c2, January 29, 1847

The Jacksonville (Illinois) Journal says that Wm. B. Warren, of that place, had been appointed Governor of Coahuila! By whom?
[MPR]


RW47v24i9p2c6, January 29, 1847

More “Aid and Comfort.”– A resolution was offered in the Missouri Senate on the 8th instant for firing twenty–nine guns in honor of the victories of Palo Alto, Resaca de la Palma and Monterey– and rejected by the unanimous vote of the Locofocos! Will Mr. Polk have these negative voters tried under the second section?
[MPR]


RW47v24i9p4c1, January 29, 1847, From the Army

We make copious selections from the New Orleans Picayune of the latest intelligence from the army, which, though not destitute of interest, is not very important.

In the New Orleans Bee we find the Diary of its correspondent at Monterey, which we wish we had room to copy at length. From it we learn the manner in which Gen. Worth was induced to apprehend an attack upon Saltillo. One of his scouting parties had captured a Mexican courier, with despatches, among which was a paper informing the authorities at Saltillo that Santa Anna would leave San Luis on a certain day, which had then passed eight days. It is probably that the courier fell intentionally into the way of the scouting party, for the purpose of deceiving Gen. Worth, and of masking some other movement.

The writer speaks in high terms of the energy and activity of Gen. Taylor. Writing on the […] of December, while on his way from Monterey to Victoria, (whence he returned, however, on the receipt of General Worth’s dispatches by express,) he says:

“About 6 o’clock, the sound of a bugle admonished us that a company of dragoons were approaching, and when they hove in sight, we could easily distinguish the figure of Gen. Taylor at their head. He left Monterey on Tuesdaym and had overtaken during the day the provision train of Capt. Sibly, which also came up with him.

“17th. The brigade was in motion long before sun up, and early as it was, Gen. Taylor had crossed the river, and was out of sight on the road.”

On the 20th , he says: “Gen. Taylor stayed ahead of us at Monte–Morelos and reached Monterey about noon on the 19th . His stay was very brief, and before 4 o’clock P.M. he was on the road to Saltillo.”

And again on the 21 st: “Capt. May left Saltillo on Saturday and met Gen. Taylor Sunday.” […] “General Taylor returned to town this morning about 10 o’clock from Santa Catarino. The heavy riding he has done for the last week, shows upon him, and I thought this morning he had better go to his tent and leave others to attend to the business he was superintending.”
[MPR]


RW47v24i9p4c1, January 29, 1847 Departure of Troops.

The New Orleans Picayune of the 17th states that the Louisiana regiment of volunteers, under the command of Col. De Russy, and the 1st and 2d Pennsylvania and the Mississippi regiments were to follow in a few days. The South Carolina regiment is to sail from Mobile. Pennsylvania regiment under Col. Wynkoop, sailed the day before for Mexico.

The N.O. Atlas infers that some important movement is on foot, from the fact that the volunteers sailed with ninety days provisions, and under sealed orders.
[MPR]


RW47v24i9p4c2, January 29, 1847, Mails for Mexico.

Capt. Wm. Claiborne, more familiarly known as the “Old Commodore,” has requested us, in behalf of Capt. Kenton Harper, to ascertain whether any arrangement had been made for forwarding letters and papers to the officers and soldiers of the Virginia Regiment, while in Mexico. We have made enquiry of our Postmaster, who informs us that in all cases it will be necessary that the postage be paid in advance,– which, being done, letters and papers will be transmitted by the regular mail to New Orleans, and thence to their ultimate destination. Great care should of course be taken, in the direction of letters, &c. to state the regiment and company to which the individual written to is attached.
[MPR]


RW47v24i9p4c2, January 29, 1847, The Virginia Regiment

Captains Scott’s, Archer’s and Bankhead’s companies embarked, on Saturday morning last, at Old Point, for the seat of war. Captain Harper’s, Corse’s and Carrington’s were expected to embark yesterday.

Capt. Preston’s company reached Old Point in Sunday evening.

About 20 or 30 men formerly attached to the company of Capt. Edwards, of Norfolk, organized too late to be received, have determined to attach themselves to the flanking company under Capt. Rowan’s command.

The U.S. Howitzer company, under Capt. Talcott, is to leave Old Point, for Mexico, this week.
[MPR]


RW47v24i9p4c2, January 29, 1847, Late from the Army

From the N.O. Picayune, Jan. […].

By the U.S. steamer Eudora, Capt. Wilcox, which arrived in Sunday night, we have dates from Brazos Santiago to the 12th inst., her day of sailing. Gen. Scott was at Brazos Santiago, and it was said had dispatched an express to Gen. Taylor announcing his intention of departing in a few days to join him either at Tampico or Victoria.

A report had been brought to Mier, by a Mexican, as we learn from the Matamoros Flag, in a correspondence from Camargo to that paper, dated the 3d inst., that Gen. Quitman, with 2000 volunteers, had given battle the preceeding day to 1300 Mexicans under Gen. Urrea, two leagues north of Victoria. The report was not credited by the officers of the army at Camargo. The letter also states that Gen. Taylor is about six days march in the rear of Gen. Q., with 3000 regulars. Gen. Worth was still at Saltillo, and had been reinforced by three regiments of Ohio, Kentucky and Indiana volunteers. Gen. Wool was in camp fifteen miles from Saltillo on the San Luis road, with 1500 Mexican lancers hovering around in his immediate vicinity.

Our own correspondence, which will be found below, furnishes the latest intelligence from Saltillo.

Gen. Patterson and his division had arrived at San Fernando on his way to Victoria. The Flag’s correspondent writes that the ayuntamiento came out from the town to meet and welcome him. The 1st Indiana Regiment, Col. Drake, had arrived at Matamoros from Camargo to relieve the 3d Ohio Regiment, Col. Curtis, who were awaiting orders from Gen. Scott.

The U.S. steamer Giraffe was wrecked anout forty miles south of the mouth of the Rio Grande, on the 7th inst., and four lives lost.

Correspondence of the Picayune.)
Saltillo, Mexico, Dec. 20, 1846.

Since I wrote to you last the aspect of things has taken a different course, and now there is but little doubt in the mind of every one connected with the army, that before another month has passed, another terrible battle will be fought in the neighborhood of this place.

An express was sent last Tuesday to Monterey, and another to Gen. Wool, for reinforcements. Three companies of Col. Marshall’s Kentucky Mounted riflemen arrived here by a forced march from Monterey on Thursday night last, and yesterday evening the Kentucky and Ohio regiments came in and encamped below town. An express which came in from Parris yesterday evening reports that Gen. Wool, with his command, may be expected in the neighborhood to–morrow evening.

Of the orders which have been issued since the excitement commenced one is, that three days’ cooked provisions shall be kept on hand. A drummer is to be attached to the different guards, ready to beat the long roll and give the alarm; that the accoutrements and arms of the sick shall all be taken to the hospital, and that every man shall hold himself in readiness to be called out at a moment’s warning. Gen. Butler came up with the Ohio and Kentucky troops.

A mail from this place, containing important documents of the future movements of the Mexican army and plans for the recapture of this place, was captured on its way to San Luis by a scouting party of dragoons a few days since. A large body of lancers are known to be scouting the country between here an San Luis, and not far from us at that, and they are almost known to be the advance guard of the main army of the enemy. Of the various accounts of the troops at she disposal of Santa Anna at San Luis, none fall short of 32000 men.

Our officers and men are in fine spirits, and eager to meet the self–styled Napoleon, to administer to him the same kind of dose they have given his predecessors. A portion of our forces, probably Gen. Wool’s command, is to take immediate possession of the Linares pass, which is about 35 miles from here. The three companies of Kentucky mounted men here are to leave early to–morrow morning on a scouting expedition. I pity any Mexican force that crosses their path, for they appear to be a second edition of the Texas Rangers, and any one of them is good for three Mexicans. They have not smelt gunpowder yet, but this only renders them more anxious for a chance to show what the Kentucky boys are made of.

Gen. Worth, who has been sick for the last two weeks, is out again today. The weather is a little too cold here to be pleasant, and the night before last we had ice half and inch thick. I forgot to mention that Webster’s battery [two 24–pound howitzers] is here.

Yours, &c., ALTO.

[MPR]


RW47v24i9p4c4, January 29, 1847, Later from Mexico

From the N.O. Picayune, Jan. 19.

By the arrival of the U.S. store–ship Relief at Pensacola, in 14 days from Anton Lizardo, we have advices from Mexico, only a little later, but full of interest and importance.

Passed Midshipman Rogers was still a prisoner at Vera Cruz.

Correspondence of the Picayune.

U.S. Squadron, Anton Lizardo,
Dec. 30th, 1846.

My Dear Sir– I send you herewith an abstract of the vote of the Mexican Congress for the President and Vice President of the Republic, which took place on the 23d inst., and was received at Vera Cruz by the mail of to–day. The vote was taken by States or Departments (deputaciones, ) each State having one vote, determined by the majority of its deputies. The only candidates who received the vote of a State were Santa Anna and Francisco Elorriaga. Seventy States voted including the district of Mexico and two territories. Santa Anna received the votes of eight States and the district of Mexico and two territories, being eleven in all. His opponent was the choice of nine States. Of course the election fell in Santa Anna for President. Ninety–nine deputies voted, fifty for Santa Anna, forty for Eliorriaga and nine for other candidates. Gomez Farias was elected Vice President, having the vote of eight States and two territories. Melchor Ocampo received the vote of eight states. Durango cast its vote for Eliorriaga. Of the votes of the deputies 94 in number, Farias had 35, Ocampo 44, Anaya 10, all others 5. It thus appears that Santa Anna is elected by a majority of one of the Representatives, and that Farias has a majority of 9. The election does not appear to have been satisfactory. Neither the Departments of Mexico nor Vera Cruz cast their votes for Santa Anna.

The want of arms is complained of from ever quarter of Mexico. Santa Anna calls the attention of the Government to his destitution of arms and munitions of war. The corps of the National Guard are not half supplied. It appears that arms cannot be obtained from any quarter if the money could be procured, wherewith to purchase them. A proposition has been submitted to Congress to raise a fund for this purpose. It is calculated that 125,000 men may be armed out of the 300,000 fighting men of Mexico, and that from one to two millions of dollars will be ample for this purpose. It is proposed to introduce the arms from sea–ward, by land from Yucatan, and finally to establish foundries and armories.

The day before the election of President the various ministers of State threw up their portfolios.
[MPR]


February

RW47v24i10p1c2, February 2, 1847, Gen. Kearny’s Proclamation.

In another column the reader will find the Proclamation of Gen. Kearny, upon which we briefly commented yesterday, declaring, “by virtue of the authority conferred upon him by the Government of the United States,” that the […] Mexican province of New Mexico is now, without the consent, or even the action of Congress, “the territory of New Mexico, in the United States of America,” and organizing a permanent government, such as Congress, in which body it has been understood this power exclusively resides, has heretofore done, whenever a new territory has been created, and as it is now attempting to do for Oregon. This extraordinary document carries upon its face a more forcible commentary than we can write. If it shall however, fall, as we fear it may, still–born on the public […], stunned as it has been by so many violations both of the spirit and letter of the Constitution as to be no longer capable of being excited by any shock, however rude we shall not be surprised. Indeed, we expect to see these most extraordinary proceedings defended, if need be, by the champions of the Resolutions of ’98–’99, and the exclusive guardians of State Rights– by those who have for so many years affected to dread the “Gulph of Consolidation, ” but who, by long standing upon its verge, can now gaze into the dark profound with steady nerves and with unblanched cheeks. Else, why are those warders upon the watch–towers silent now? Have they been all “bought up,” that we hear no note of alarm from those who once scented danger in the tainted gate? Alas for :modern degeneracy”– when, in the midst of the most dangerous innovations, even the most distant allusion to that green era0 “’98 and ‘99”– which once fell so trippingly from their tongues, is carefully avoided, or uttered with bated breath!

Let the reader turn to Gen. Kearny’s proclamation– which, by the way, we have not seen re–published in any Administration paper, doubtless from a consciousness of its indefensibility– and ask himself how it is that this flagrant usurpation has been perpetrated in the very infancy of our free government? If it is to pass unrebuked by the representatives of the people– and by the people themselves– all we have to say is, that a written Constitution is the most flimsy defence by which a free people has ever yet hoped to limit the powers of their Rulers, or to protect their own liberties. It is a delusion, a mockery and a cheat, of which we had just as well at once make a bonfire.
[MPR]


RW47v24i10p1c5, February 2, 1847

Gen. La Vega– This officer passed several days in Vera Cruz on his return, and when he left for the capital he published a short address to the people of that city. He shows himself extremely well satisfied with his own bearing under calamity, and professes a very honorable patriotism and an eager desire to resume his position in the army. In the course of the address he takes occasion to say that while in the United States he enjoyed every hospitality; that nothing was wanting to him; and that in no instance did the fact that he was a Mexican subject him to insult or injury. N.O. Picayune.
[MPR]


RW47v24i10p1c7, February 2, 1847, Later from the Army. Important from Tampico– Arrival of Col. Kinney a that place– Later news from Genl. Taylor– Engagement of Col. May with the Mexicans– Disposition of the American forces along the line of operations, &c. &c.

[From the N.O. Picayune, Jan’y 24.]

The bring Georgiana, Captain Crispin, arrived yesterday morning, having left Tampico on the 14th inst. The verbal news she brought was alarming, it being to the effect that Santa Anna had placed himself between Gen. Taylor and Gen. Worth with 35,000 men, and that a general action was immediately expected. All this is an exaggeration. We believe the authentic facts to be as follows:

Col. Kinney arrived at Tampico on the 12th inst. direct from Victoria. He entered that town with Gen. Quitman on the evening of the 9th inst., and not on the 7th, as we said in an extra sent off yesterday. Gen. Quitman drove the enemy before him for the last 30 or 40 miles before getting to Victoria. The Mexicans were reluctant to give up the place. As Gen. Quitman entered the town the Mexicans were going out on the other side. Gen. Q. had no cavalry and could not pursue them. Col. K. speaks in the warmest terms of the prompt and soldierly conduct of the officer.

Col. Kinney parted from Gen. Taylor at Monte Morales and pushed on with Gen. Quitman to Victoria. From thence he made his way, almost alone, to Tampico, taking Soto la Marina in his route, accomplishing a distance of nearly 250 miles in three days, and narrowly escaping from the advanced parties of the Mexicans on several occasions. He spent a part of a night at the old rancho of Croix, where Sanchez was stationed with twenty dragoons; yet in the morning he contrived to give him the slip. He also succeeded in evading Romano Falcon, the man who is reputed to have killed Col. Cross. At Soto la Marina he found a company of sixty rancheros. He rode at once to the alcade, boldly told him that Gen. Taylor had sent him on a few hours in advance to prepare supplies, and by this ruse made out to come off safely– the rancheros at once dispersing.

We have no reason to suppose that Generals Butler and Worth have moved from Saltillo, as was reported in town yesterday morning. We believe them, together with Gen. Wool, to have been still there or in the vicinity as late as the 1 st inst., with at least 6000 troops, and we farther believe that a division of the Mexican army was not far off, watching our movements and ready to take advantage of any favorable opportunity which circumstances may afford. It may be, and this opinion is entertained by officers of the army high in rank, that the Mexican soldiers seen in the neighborhood of Saltillo are advanced parties of a force of some 1500 to 2000 men, kept in position on this side if the desert, between Saltillo and San Luis, to destroy the water tanks in case the American army should move in force in the direction of the latter city. This view of the case precludes the idea of a serious attack upon General Worth or Gen. Wool, the object of the Mexicans only being to keep a watch upon the American forces, to retreat before any advance, and cut off the supplies of water as far south as the operations of our army may make it advisable to do so. That the troops spoken of as threatening Saltillo are scouting parties of this corps of observation is confidently believed by officers of experience and discretion– though others, whose opinions are perhaps equally entitled to respect, regard the movement of the enemy in a more serious light. The report brought by Col. Kinney to Tampico, to the effect that 15,000 Mexicans were to attack Saltillo on the 27th ult., is but the same rumor which has already reached here b way of Matamoros. Col. K. heard the rumor at Monte Morales, probably, and had no opportunity to learn the sequel of the anticipated attack.

There is little doubt, as we learn from private letters, that there was a large Mexican force, probably mostly cavalry, at Tula at last dates, all under command of Gen. Valencia. Gens. Urrea, Romero, Fernandez and others are also reported to be in the vicinity. It may be recollected that our last accounts from the city of Mexico represented Valencia as on his march to Tula.

From a correspondent at Tampico we learn that on the 1st of January General Taylor sent forward Col. May, of the dragoons, to examine the mountain pass between Monte Morales and Labradores. On his return from Labradores he took another pass leading to […] and was attacked by a large body of the enemy and his rear guard cut off. This was effected by rolling stones into the pass, which was scarcely wide enough for a single horseman. May managed to get through with the main body and reached a spot where he was enabled to dismount and return to the succor of the rear guard, but it was too late, as the enemy had retreated with their prize. At one time during the passage of the gorge the dragoons would have charged their pieces without any accuracy, for the position they occupied was directly over the heads of our troops. We cannot ascertain Col. May’s loss, or whether he had any men killed or not.

At the present time, there can be no doubt Gens. Taylor, Twiggs, Patterson and Pillow are at Victoria, and with a large force. Had Gen. Taylor but a party of 500 Texan rangers with him, their services, with the enemy’s cavalry hanging about him in almost every direction, would be invaluable.

Special Correspondence of the Picayune.
Tampico, Jan. 11, 1847.

I wrote you yesterday that an expedition would leave that day for Tuspan, but I was very confidently misled. The rumor for the past few days was allowed to spread, that the force was destined for that place, and the Mexicans despatched couriers carrying the intelligence. Reinforcements were called in from the surrounding country, and we hear now that there are 2000 men on the qui […] for an attack. The Government steamers commenced firing up yesterday at noon, and every preparation appeared to be making to cross over to Pueblo Viejo, en route for Tuspan, when the commanding officer at the lines received orders to march his men towards Altamira. It was a perfect surprise to every one, and whether any good results from it or not, Gen. Shields deserves credit for the ruse.

I am assured from headquarters that the object is to open a communication with Gen. Taylor at Victoria, and it is deemed expedient to send the present force to meet this advance. From 2000 to 3000 Mexican troops are known to be between here and there, and very possibly General Shields will have an opportunity to cope with them. But few of the regulars posted here have yet been in action in this war, and all are desirous of sharing the honors of their companions in arms who have heretofore been more fortunate.

Tampico, Jan. 12, 1847– Afternoon.

Gentlemen– Orders and counterorders. Col. Kinney, of Corpus Christi, arrived this morning with despatches from Gen. Taylor– he left Victoria on the evening of the 19th inst, having ridden over 200 miles in 3 days. He was attended a portion of the way by four dragoons, and came through with only two attendants. Gen. Shields receives orders from Gen. Taylor to suspend operations for the present.

The news from both armies, brought by Col. K., is of great interest. He says that the Mexican force at San Luis Potosi amounts to 20,000 men– he estimates their entire force in the field at 50,000.

The capture of Tampico, according to Col. K. has created the greatest excitement throughout the country. Gen. Butler, with Gens. Worth and Wool and 8000 men– considered the flower of the army– were at Saltillo. A Mexican force of 15,000 was reported on its way to attack them, and our men had taken position outside in anticipation, as the town was incapable of fortification. The engagement should have taken place on the 27th ult., and Col. Kinney spoke confidently of our success. The war seems to be commencing in earnest. You may rely upon the accuracy of Col. K.’s opinion of the strength of the enemy. He is perfectly informed, by Mexicans throughout the country in his pay, and I believe is better acquainted with them than any other person in the country. His account of his ride from Victoria is rich in hair breadth escapes and masterly stratagems. He says that he knows the Mexicans better than they know themselves, and I think has given proof of it.

Gens. Taylor and Patterson are at Victoria with 6000 men awaiting orders from Gen. Scott. It is not supposed that any movement will be made against San Luis Potosi. It is pronounced the strongest fortified post in all Mexico, and Santa Anna has said that the man that takes it is welcome to the capital. I believe that a change of warfare will take place on Gen. Scott’s assuming the command. The mountains will be retained and Vera Cruz subjected by a land attack– then ho! for Mexico! But you are doubtless better informed of the plans of our Government than ourselves. At all events there yet remains every thing to be done.

I have given you Col. Kinney’s ideas of the state of the war and force of the enemy; your readers know the man and I have the information from him direct. 50,000 men looks like a large number, but it is not asserted that they are all regular troops. An army of such a nature as theirs is quickly raised upon its own soil, and frequently as quickly falls to pieces, but it is very evident that the utmost energy of which the nation is capable is aroused to the necessity of checking our advance.

I believe I have not growled about the mail for 24 hours, the fact is that we are becoming resigned to our fate. In haste yours. B.M.

We have received letters from Tampico to the 13th inst., one day later than above, but they contain no later intelligence of importance.
[MPR]


RW47v24i10p1c7, February 2, 1847, Official

General Orders, War Department,
Adjutant General’s Office,
No. 3 Washington, Jan. 28, 1847.

The following regulation has been received from the War Department:

War Department
Washington, Jan. 28, 1847.

The President of the United States directs that paragraph 650 of the General Regulations for the Army established on the 1st of March, 1825, and not included among those published January 25, 184x, be now republished and that its observance as a part of the general regulations be strictly enjoined upon the army.

By order of the President.
Wm. L. Marcy,
Secretary of War.

The following is a paragraph of the General Regulations for the army established on the 1st of March, 1825, referred to above:

“650. Private letters or reports, relative to military marches and operations, are frequently mischieveous in design, and always disgraceful to the army. They are, therefore, strictly forbidden; and any officer found guilty of making such reports for publication, without special permission, or of placing the writing beyond his control, so that it finds its way to the press, within one month after the termination of the campaign to which it relates, shall be dismissed from the service.” By order:

W.G. Freeman,
Assistant Adjutant General.

[MPR]


RW47v24i10p2c2, February 2, 1847, Santa Anna’s Plans.

La Patria, the Spanish paper published at N. Orleans, and which is generally well posted up in Mexican intelligence, states, on authority of a letter from a well informed source in the city of Mexico, that Santa Anna will not leave San Luis de Potosi, but will retain there constantly about 25,000 men. His plan is “to take all the means and precautions to fortify well a single point (San Luis,) with all the reinforcements and appliances necessary, within a radius small but well defined; distracting as much as possible the enemy, and dividing his attention by insignificant movements.” It is calculated (says the New Orleans Atlas,) that by this means he will cause loss of time and vast expense to the American army, will scatter their forces, and put off any decisive operation until the hot weather has decimated our ranks, when “los valientes” will pounce upon us in every direction, from “the point in the small radius,” as spiders from the centre of a web upon unsuspecting flies, and utterly destroy our army. This the Atlas thinks a capital plan– original and Mexican. It is not impossible, however, that this fortified point may be passed altogether, and that a blow will be struck in another quarter while Santa Anna is amusing himself with the idea of catching our army in his net. The last accounts from the seat of war, showing that small detachments of the Mexican army are scattered in various directions, seem to confirm the idea, however, that the plans of the Mexican leader are accurately set forth in the letter from Mexico.
[MPR]


RW47v24i10p2c2, February 2, 1847

The town of Victoria, the capital of Tamaulipas, is not laid down on any map of Mexico which we have seen. In a letter to the St. Louis Union it is thus described: “Victoria is situated about 22deg. 50 min. north latitude, 63 miles south of Santander or Ximines, 250 from Matamoros, lying at the base of the mountains that form the high table lands of Mexico. The river runs near the town.” This location, (says the New Orleans Mercury) will place it about where Llesa is marked on the maps.
[MPR]


RW47v24i10p2c2, February 2, 1847

We hope the Shenandoah Sentinel will report what success the recruiting officer at Woodstock has met with in obtaining soldiers for war. We are anxious to vindicate the patriotism of the Tenth Legion, which is now somewhat under a cloud. Let us hear from you, Mr. Sentinel, at your earliest convenience.
[MPR]


RW47v24i10p2c2, February 2, 1847

The New York Herald states that Captain Voorhees, of the Navy, who was suspended some years since, has been restored to his former rank.
[MPR]


RW47v24i10p2c2, February 2, 1847

The Washington Union correspondent of the Baltimore American writes, on the 31st ult. that it was rumored that Gen. Gaines has written to the War Department, avowing himself to be the friend to whom Gen. Taylor addressed his letter, and by whom it was published. He gives his reasons for so doing.
[MPR]


RW47v24i10p2c2, February 2, 1847

The ships Indiana and Alabama sailed from New York on the 30th ult. with the U.S. troops for Brazos Santiago.
[MPR]


RW47v24i10p2c2, February 2, 1847, Volunteers for Mexico.

From the Norfolk Herald, Jan. 30.

The following officers, with their respective commands have sailed from Fort Monroe, for Mexico

On Board Barque Mayflower.

Lt Col Randolph, Commanding Detachment.
Capt. Scott,
1st Lt. Garnett,
2d Lt. Fry,
2d do Coleman,
2d 2d Donnan,
2d 2d do Mahan,
Capt. Archer,
Capt. Harper,
1st Lt. Pegram,
1st Lt. Kenney,
2d do Weisiger, Act Commissary,
2d 2d do Peterson,
2d Lt Geiger,
Capt Bankhead,
2d 2d do Harman.

On Board Barque Victory.

Capt Corse, Commanding Detachment.
1st Lt. Ashby,
Capt. Carrington,
2d Lt. Waters,
1st Lt. Potterfield,
2d Lt. Douglass,
2d Lt. Munford, Act. Commissary,
2d do Williamson.

[MPR]


RW47v24i10p4c2, February 2, 1847, General Kearney Again.

The late Missouri papers furnish us with another proclamation of the Commander of the U.S. forces in Santa Fe, which we regret to say is well calculated to discredit the affirmation of the President of the U. States, in his recent Special Message to Congress, in which he disclaimed all responsibility for certain measures adopted by that officer, by which the province of New Mexico was absolutely and unconditionally annexed to the U. States, and a territorial government, fully organized therein! This last proclamation of Gen. Kearney, (for which we have not room this morning,) proceeds to declare by what officers, Legislative, Executive and Judicial, the territory shall be governed– defines their powers, the tenure of office, &c. &c.– lays off the new territory into election districts– declares that each “free male citizen” (it would not do there, we suppose, to insert the word “white, ”) shall be entitled to the right of suffrage– in one word, establishes the entire machinery of a regular and permanent government, and declares that New Mexico is, not a conquered Mexican province, held temporarily by the conqueror, under the laws of nations, subject to the contingencies of war, but “a territory of the United States,” to the government of which its ignorant and motley population owe allegiance and duty! And Gen. Kearney declares that all this is done, not upon his individual responsibility, but by virtue of express authority conferred upon him by the Government (meaning, of course, the President) of the United States!

In the special message, above referred to, Mr. Polk assured Congress that the instructions given to Gen. Kearney did not authorize him to annex the province of New Mexico to the American Union, or to establish therein a permanent government. Yet Gen. Kearney has unquestionably exercised these sovereign powers; and he affirms that he has done so in exact conformity to his instructions. It follows either that the General has strangely misconstrued these instructions, or that the President, discovering too late his error, and that he has exercised a high power not delegated to him by the Constitution, now seeks to escape from the fearful responsibility of that act by throwing it upon his subaltern.

For our own part, however painful it may be to call into question the candor of the Chief Magistrate, we are constrained to believe, especially when we see that in California the course of proceeding by Com. Stockton is so similar to that of Gen. Kearney in New Mexico, that the instructions under which the latter officer has acted are fairly susceptible of the interpretation that he has given to them. We cannot believe that Gen. Kearney would have proceeded to annex, by formal proclamation, a foreign territory to the Union– a power, which, according to Mr. Jefferson, the Constitution has not conferred upon the Government itself, by the concurrent action of all its branches– unless he had believed that he was authorized to exercise this kingly attribute, by our Chief Magistrate– who seems to imagine that a state of war releases him from all constitutional and legal restraints, and clothes him with unlimited and despotic authority.

We take it for granted that this new development will lead to farther action on the part of Congress– unless, indeed, that body shall be deterred from the discharge of its duty by the cowardly apprehension that every attempt to preserve the Constitution from the Executive encroachment, is to be frowned down as a species of “moral treason” against “our Sovereign Lord, the King!”
[MPR]


RW47v24i10p4c2, February 2, 1847, North Carolina Volunteers.

The regiment of Volunteers, from North Carolina, has been mustered into the service of the United States, and consists of the following companies:

Company A,Capt. Richard W. Long, Rowan.
“ B,“ Louis D. Wilson, Edgecombe.
“ C,“ Henry Roberts, Wayne.
“ E,“ Tilmon Blalock, Yancy.
“ F,“ W.E. Kirkpatrick, Cumberland.
“ G,“ G.W. Caldwell, Mecklenburg.
“ H,“ Wm. S. Duggan, Edgecombe.
“ I,“ John Cameron, Orange.
“ K,“ George Williamson, Caswell.

Edgecombe, which furnishes two companies, is one of the strongest Locofoco counties in the old North State, and it affords is pleasure to see that its people are as willing to fight as to vote. The Tenth Legion, in this State, as well as some other counties, will we hope profit by the example, should another requisition be made upon Virginia.

Besides the foregoing, a full company has been organized in Rockingham, Stokes and Guilford, of which Patrick M. Henry is Captain, and another, nearly full, in Wilmington, and a third, also nearly full, in Salisbury.
[MPR]


RW47v24i10p4c2, February 2, 1847, Gen. Taylor.

The Washington correspondent of the Baltimore American, writing on the 28th inst. says:– “The rumor has come to be a very current one that Gen. Taylor will be recalled. The partisans of the Administration wish it, and may succeed in mustering courage equal to the purpose designed. It cannot have escaped your notice that there is a systematic attack made and to be made upon old ‘Rough and Ready.’”

Why should Gen. Taylor be recalled? Is it because, under his command, (in the language of the Washington Union, on the 14th inst.) “the success of our arms, viewed in comparison with the extent of means employed, IS ALMOST WITHOUT PARALLEL IN MILITARY HISTORY?” If this be true, who but the commanding General deserves the credit for results so brilliant? And is he be recalled for his extraordinary triumphs, the people will be apt to suspect the envious motive which prompts the act, and will sustain the victim of a petty and malignant jealousy against the President and all the train–bands of Power.
[MPR]


RW47v24i10p4c5, February 2, 1847, General Wool’s Division.

Extract of a letter from an officer of General Wool’s command.

Camp at Agua Nueva, (Mexico,) Dec. 27, 1846.

Sir: Since my hasty note to you from Parras, we have all been in the midst tummult and excitement, caused by intelligence from Gen. Worth that Santa Anna was on the march to attack him with an overwhelming force. This caused our division to move by forced marches– our infantry marching in one day nearly forty miles to this place– when the rumor was found to be premature. It is believed, however, that the enemy mediated an attack upon our forces in detail, but was deterred from striking the blow by the rapid concentration of our troops– Gen. Butler having, in the mean time, moved up from Monterey, making our army full four thousand strong at this point and its vicinity.

“When our column left Parras I was absent on a reconnaissance towards San Luis, Zacatecas and Durango, with an escort of 38 men, and came very near being cut off by 600 Mexican cavalry. The enemy is making immense preparations on our whole front, from San Luis and Durango to St. Rosalio. By the next mail I will write you more in detail.

“My whole party has been so constantly and laboriously occupied since we left Monclova, that while we have collected a good deal of data, we cannot, as yet, give you any additional results. This, however, we shall proceed to do as fast as possible, when we are settled for a short time. I see that our column is to remain in camp, which will enable us to work to great advantage.

“Gen. Wool is an able officer. His command is in excellent order, and well provided; which last was a great convenience to our friends when we joined them. I had a table of latitudes and longitudes, which will do something to a better knowledge of the geography of this country.” [Wash. Union.
[MPR]


RW47v24i10p1c3, February 5, 1847, The Morals of War

While we would not say a word in disparagement of the Volunteers to Mexican as a whole, it is impossible to shut our eyes to the fact that the conduct of a large portion of them, as well before they reach the seat of war as afterwards, has been most disgraceful to themselves and dishonoring to the character of the nation; and, for one, we heartily rejoice that a majority of Congress has determined to augment the Regular army rather than to make another call for Volunteers, among whom the elements of insubordination are always rife, ready to be called into action upon the slightest pretexts. A rare instance of this tendency has just occurred in North Carolina. The company from Rowan county, which was the first to report itself and be received, has disbanded, and cannot be again brought together– and another, composed it seems altogether of Locofocos, from Mecklenburg, has unanimously refused to be mustered into service, because, of the three field officers appointed by the Governor, two of them are Whigs; and it has indignantly sent back to the Governor of the State its portion of the fund voted by the Legislature for their equipment and subsistence until mustered into the U.S. service, because the preamble to the resolution asserted the historical fact that the war was brought on by the President’s order to march our forces from Corpus Christi to the Rio Grande! Such men may make good soldiers– but it is evident that they will always be an unsafe reliance, unless the Government and its commanding officers shall have every thing in “apple–pie order,” according to their own notions. The officers must be all to their own taste, and they must be especially careful to adapt their phrases to the political creed of these sensitive gentlemen!

The last New Orleans Courier brings us the following account of flagrant outrages perpetrated by some of the volunteers now in that city:

“On Friday evening one of the volunteers fired a pistol–ball at the conductor of the Mexican Railcars, which came near giving him a fatal wound. Some of the volunteers had taken possession, according to their custom, of two or three of the cars, answering the demand for payment with a pistol–ball, as we have stated.

“On Saturday, a more dismal affair took place. About 6 o’clock, in the evening of that day, several volunteers went to the cabaret and grocery of Mr. Claude Martin, within the parish of St. Bernard, near the line of that of New Orleans. Martin, who is upwards of 50 years of age, was behind his counter, and asked if they wanted any thing. On their saying no, he commenced passing into an adjacent room, where his wife lay sick; but he was struck with a pistol–ball and fell to the ground, shot through the heart. There were three or four negroes present, who declare that the man who fired the shot instantly fled.”

But, outrageous as these scenes are, they are thrown into the shade by these described in the following letter from the Correspondent of the New Orleans Picayune, writing from the camp at Cerralvo, in Mexico, on the 4th of January:

“I must devote one paragraph to a subject that I have too long neglected to allude to, and one that has given me great pain during my whole stay in Mexico; I mean the disreputable conduct of some of the volunteer troops. Below Mier, we met the 2d Regiment of Indiana troops, commanded, I believe, by Col. Drake. They encamped near our camp, and a portion of them were exceedingly irregular in their behaviour, firing away their cartridges, and persecuting the Mexican families at a rancho near by. They were on their return from near Monterey, where they had gone contrary to order, and where they had received positive orders to go back to the mouth of the Rio Grande. A large portion of their officers were behind, and the men were left to do pretty much as they pleased. On arriving at Mier, we heard from indisputable authority that this same regiment had committed, the day before, outrages against the citizens, of the most disgraceful character;– stealing, or rather, robbing, insulting the women, breaking into houses, and other feats of similar character! We have heard of them at almost every rancho, up to this place. At Cerralvo, are two Companies of an Ohio regiment, (Col. Morgan’s regiment) to garrison the place. Gen. Taylor has issued proclamations, assuring the inhabitants of the towns in the conquered territory that they should be protected and well treated by our troops. Since this place has been garrisoned by volunteers the families have been subjected to all kinds of outrages. At Punta Aguda it has been the same; and most of those who could go, have left their houses. Some have fallen into the hands of the Camanches, whilst flying from the persecutions of our volunteer troops. Recently the people here have received treatment from men stationed here, (I do not know who “commands” them,) that negroes in a state of insurrection would hardly be guilty of. The women have been repeatedly violated– (almost an every–day affair,) houses broken open and insults of every kind have been offered to those whom we are bound, by honor, to protect. This is nothing more than a statement of facts. I have no time to make comments, but I desire to have this published, and I have written it under the approval of Capt. Thorton, Maj. Dixon, Capt. De Hart, Col. Bohlen, Lt. Thorn, Mr. Blanchard and my own sense of duty, and I am determined, hereafter, to notice every serious offence of the above mentioned nature. The American arms shall not be disgraced without the stigma falling on the guilty parties, if I can be instrumental in exposing them. It would be criminal in me to overlook these outrages, and, for the sake of our national honor, as well as for that of the U.S. Army, I shall not do so.”

No American can read these statements, of the truth of which there can be no doubt, without an emotion of mingled shame and indignation. But such are “the morals of war,” and not the least, certainly, of its calamitous effects.
[MPR]


RW47v24i11p1c2, February 5, 1847

Death of Lieut. Botts.– We regret to learn that Lieut. Archibald […] Botts, of the 4th Infantry, son of the Hon. John M. Botts of Virginia, died on the 1st of January, at Camargo, of a fever.– N.O. Picayune, Jan. 27.
[MPR]


RW47v24i11p1c5, February 5, 1847, From Mexico.

From the New Orleans Picayune, Jan’y 26.

Later from Gens. Worth and Wool– By the arrival of the U.S. steamship Edith, Capt. Crouilard, from the Brazos, we have later accounts from the Rio Grande, and also from Saltillo. Our latest dates from the latter place is to the 3d instant, as may be seen from the letter of our correspondent below.

We learn that Gen. Scott was at the Brazos when the Edith sailed, and it was thought would shortly leave Tampico.

Among the passengers on the E. was Mr. J.W. Weed, who has been for some time living at the city of Durango– the only American in the place save one. He says that after Gen. Wool had taken Parras, which is on the immediate frontier of the State of Durango, it became impossible for him to live longer in the place, so great was the excitement against the Americans. On returning from the theatre he was stoned by some of the lower orders, and the next day some Mexican gentlemen advised him to leave the place at once, fearing acts of greater violence. The authorities would not give him a passport to proceed to Parras, but gave him one to Zacatecas; with this he made a forced ride, and arrived in safety at Gen. Wool’s camp at Parras.

Mr. W. says that at Durango there were about 1000 militia when he left, and they were talking right valiantly of driving the iniquitous and usurping invaders of their soil completely out of their country. Don Francisco Eliorriago, who recently made so close a run for the Presidency against Santa Anna, resides at Durango, is inspector of the troops, and is described as a man of great probity of character and friendly towards Americans. He was Governor of Durango during the administration of Paredes, but was dropped by Salas when that general was driven from power.

Gen. Wool’s column was at Agua Nueva, nineteen miles from Saltillo, when Mr. W. left– officers and men in good health. He says that the best discipline prevails in this column of the army, among volunteers as well as regulars, and farther that all are anxious to signalize themselves.

The weather continued cold at Saltillo at last dates, yet the troops were in good health. At Monterey it was much warmer.

In a letter from Camargo, dated on the 8th inst., we have an account of Col. May’s affair with the Mexicans in the pass between Monte Morales and Linares, but it is no fuller than the statement we received by way of Tampico, nor than that given by the correspondent of the Delta. Our Camargo letter confirms that report that May’s rear guard was either killed or captured, that the pack mules were also driven off, but the writer thinks the Mexicans got but little plunder, as May only had a squadron with him. It is also thought the enemy had a large force at the time. The names of the lieutenant and sergeant with the rear guard at the time, and who escaped, are not given, but that they were arrested is confirmed. Our next news from Mexico will probably give full particulars of this singular affair.

It was reported at Camargo at last dates that Gen. Taylor was to proceed to Tula with the intention of attacking Valencia; but this was only given as a rumor, and is not entitled to credit.

The news by this arrival is extremely barren of interest. The following letter from our correspondent at Saltillo is the latest we have seen:

Saltillo, Jan. 3, 1847.

The 1st Regiment Ohio and the 1st Regiment Kentucky volunteers have returned to Monterey. Gen. Butler is still here, but I presume will return to that city before many days.

We have no further rumors of the movements of the enemy. A fortification is being erected on a hill north of this city, completely commanding the town and country around, particularly the San Luis road. We are now ready for anything that comes along.

Gen. Wool’s column came within four miles of this city. It is now in position some 15 or 18 miles distant on the San Luis road, with the exception of the Arkansas regiment, which I understand has returned to Parras.

You shall hear from me whenever anything of interest transpires.ALTO.
[MPR]


RW47v24i11p1c5, February 5, 1847, Appointments by the President.

By and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

First Regiment of Artillery.

First Lieut. John B Magruder, to be captain, June 18, 1846, vice Irwin, assistant quartermaster, who, under the 7th section of the act of June 18 ,1846, elects to vacate his regimental commission.

Second Lieut. Samuel K. Dawson, to be first lieutenant, June 18, 1846, vice Magruder promoted.

Brevet Second Lieut. Henry Coppee, of the second regiment of artillery, to tbe second lieutenant, June 18, 1846, vice Dawsom, promoted.

Adjutant General’s Department.

First Lieut. Wm. W. Mackall, of the first regiment of artillery, to be assistant adjutant general, with the brevet rank of captain, December 29th, 1846, vice Prentiss, assistant adjutant general, who vacates his staff commission.

First Lieut. George Deas, of the fifth regiment of infantry, to be assistant adjutant general, with the brevet rank of capt., December 29, 1846, vice Ridgely, deceased.

Appointments in accordance with the provisions of “an act supplemental to an act entitled ‘an act providing for the prosecution of the existing war between the United States and the republic of Mexico, and for other purposes,’” approved June 18, 1846, agreeably to their nominations respectively, viz:

William S. Kemper, of Va., to be assistant quartermaster, with the rank of captain.

Henry Erakin, of Va., to be assistant commissary, with the rank captain.

John Miller Bell, of Va., to be assistant surgeon.
[MPR]


RW47v24i11p1c6, February 5, 1847, Later from Campeachy.

From the N.O. Picayune, Jan. 27.

The Yucatan schr. Campeacheana, Capt. Puente, arrived yesterday morning from Campeachy, whence she sailed on the 10th inst.

A commissioner, named Jose Robira, came passenger on this schooner, on his way to Washington, to negotiate with our Government for an acknowledgement of the independence of the peninsula, or a portion of it. He will leave in a day or two for the Capital.

We have a paper from Campeachy of the date of the 5th inst. In it we find as official report of the capture of the city of Texas by the forces of Campeachy. The city was summoned in the most formal manner, and the invading hosts drawn up in the most formidable array to await the answer. Upon receiving the refusal to surrender, the signal to lay on was given, and straightaway a tremendous onslaught was commenced. We have not time to describe it, but it was altogether successful. As we read the details, we trembled at approaching the lists of the slain, but they proved less terrific than we had apprehended. Of the attacking party two were killed and three wounded, including one drummer. The defenders of the town fled like frightened sheep, unable to resist the impetuosity of the assailants. No doubt was entertained on the part of the commander of the Campeachy troops that the slaughter among their adversaries was great. Many are reported to have gone halting off. This action occurred on the 29th of December. An Havana paper received yesterday gives the report of this action made by the opposite aide, from which you would infer that the days of Leonidas had returned– with this difference, that rather a large number survived the assault of Tekax than returned to tell of the deeds enacted in the straits of Thermopyle. It is ludicrous to compare the two accounts, which we presume to be about equally veracious.

Hostilities have spread over the peninsula, the different cities taking different sides in the contest going on. We judge that the advocates of an entire separation from Mexico are in […] upon the profession of the inhabitants of Yucatan, of whatever party– more especially when they act under the immediate pressure of the presence of the U. States squadron.
[MPR]


RW47v24i11p2c1, February 5, 1847, Santa Anna– The $3,000,000 Bill.

While the resolution calling on the President for such […] of General Taylor’s correspondence as he may think proper to lay before the country, was pending in the House of Representatives, Mr. Ashmun submitted the following resolutions, as an amendment– which were, however, rejected, by a party vote:

Resolved, That the President of the United States be requested to inform this House if any officer or agent of the United States was sent by him, or by his direction to Havana, to advise, procure, or in any way to promote the return of Santa Anna to Mexico; or whether any person visited Washington city, and conferred with the President or any officer of the Government upon the subject of said return of Santa Anna; and, if so, who was the officer or agent, what were his instructions, and when was he sent on such a mission; or who was the person that visited Washington city, and thus conferred with the President or any officer of the Government, and what was decided upon at such conference. Also, that he inform the House by what means and through what channel Santa Anna was informed that an order was issued to the commander of our naval forces in the Gulf of Mexico, directing said commander not to obstruct Santa Anna’s return to Mexico; and that he also transmit to this House copies of any letters, communications, or papers of any kind in the Executive Department of the Government in any way relating to the subject of Santa Anna’s return to Mexico.

Resolved, That the President of the United States be requested to inform this House whether the United States have any diplomatic agent to the Government of Mexico; if not, when they ceased to have such an agent; and if the United States have such an agent, who he is, what duties he has performed since the war with Mexico, what compensation he has received, and what is his present rate of compensation.

The slight manner in which the President, in his annual message, referred to an event in itself so extraordinary as the order given to the commander of our blockading squadron, to permit Santa Anna and his suite to return to Mexico, satisfied us that there were circumstances connected with it, which he was anxious to conceal from Congress and the country. This impression, fortified as it has been by the reluctance with which the presses friendly to the Administration, and enjoying its confidence, have always evinced to speak of the great stroke of policy by which Mr. Polk gave a commander to the Mexican army and a President to the Republic, has been confirmed by the rejection of the foregoing resolutions by the Administration party in the House. Why is information withheld from the country, in regard to an act, which, if it had been done by the commander of our squadron, without express orders from the President, would have subjected him, if not to the pains and the penalties of the “second section,” to the imputation of having “given aid and comfort to the enemy” in the most tangible and efficient form? Why is the President excused and justified, in the absence of this information, upon the ridiculous pretence that Santa Anna might have evaded the blockading squadron, had the permission to return to Mexico been withheld from him– a pretence so shallow and absurd, that if it had been urged by the commander of the squadron in his own defence, had he permitted Santa Anna’s return to Vera Cruz, without orders, it would have subjected him to inexpressible scorn for a weakness scarcely less worthy of punishment than the act it is designed to extenuate.

But the remarks of Mr. Sevier, the Chairman of the Committee of Foreign Relations, in the Senate, last Tuesday, in opening the discussion upon the bill proposing to place in the hands of the President three millions of dollars, for the purpose of enabling him to negotiate (buy?) a peace with Mexico, throws new light on the subject and satisfies us that Santa Anna returned to Mexico, in pursuance of a arrangement with Mr. Polk, by which, for a stipulated sum– then two millions of dollars, but now three, which leads us to suppose that the Mexican President has raised his price– peace shall be restored, and certain provinces of Mexico shall be ceded to the U. States, as an indemnity for the spoliations upon our commerce, and for the expenses of the war. Mr. Sevier, for example, stated that the President was of opinion, from communications he had received from Mexico, that peace could be had,” (that is to say, bought, ) “and he was willing to assent to it, provided that Mexico would cede to us New Mexico and Upper California.” This remark, in connection with all the antecedent circumstances, has whetted our curiosity to ascertain the precise characteristics of the negotiations between the President of the U. States and the Mexican President, during the exile of the latter at Havana. Was the sum of two millions then the price of Santa Anna’s treachery to his own country– and does he now, in consideration of the greater advantages of his present position, require the addition of another million, to induce him to consummate his Havana arrangement? But the country will not be permitted to know any thing on this subject at this time. The “secrets of the prison–house” are too valuable, doubtless, to be disclosed to the constituent body. We must, therefore, be satisfied with the results now– and bide our time for the future development of the curious means by which they may be effected.

We alluded, a few days since, to a letter from a high source in Mexico, published in the New York Journal of Commerce, in which a declaration, heretofore made by Santa Anna in his correspondence with Gen. Taylor– to wit, that Mexico would never consent to resume negotiations for peace while a hostile foot was upon her soil or an American ship of war was seen upon her coast– was emphatically reiterated. And the writer declared that from this position Mexico would never recede, unless it should be through the agency of some “Benedict Arnold.” Is it not probable that he had some suspicion of the secret treaty by which Santa Anna was so generously permitted to return to Mexico, by the President of the nation with which Mexico was at war– and that he was already denouncing in advance an arrangement, which, if it shall be consummated by placing in the President’s hands the three millions of dollars for which he asks, we believe will prove futile in the end? Suppose Santa Anna shall negotiate a treaty of peace with the United States, for the pricey little douceur of three millions– what guarantee have we that the people of Mexico will ratify an arrangement by which that Republic is to be dismembered of two of its Departments? Have we yet to learn the facility with which Governments are overturned in that country? the ease with which its Presidents are deposed and banished? and the consequent probability that a peace purchased of Santa Anna would be rendered void by his own immediate overthrow, and the transfer of the powers of the State to one less inclined than he to barter away a portion of the national soil? A peace thus obtained must be necessarily precarious– and the probability is that the ink upon the treaty would scarcely be dry before we should be again compelled to take up arms in defence of our newly acquired territory.

Even if, however, despairing at last of “conquering a peace,” we resort to the humiliating alternative of buying it, and succeed– how are we to dispose of the territory thus acquired? Is there to be a condition precedent that in all such territory the existence of slavery shall be absolutely interdicted? Or is it to be obtained without the previous condition, but with an understanding that that restriction is hereafter to be enforced? If this be the fact, the outrage and insult to the South will be far greater than those wrongs and indignities, which, even if Mr. Polk’s dark catalogue is to be regarded as a fair and unexaggerated exposition of them, we had so long and so meekly submitted to from Mexico herself. And are we of the South to consent to take, as an indemnity for the past offences of Mexico, and for the expenses of the war waged as it is said to avenge them, large bodies of territory, which, so far from ensuring to our benefit, are to be made the means of our sectional humiliation– which are to be used for the political aggrandizement of the Northern section of the Confederacy, by augmenting its already preponderating and overshadowing influence in the national councils? For one, we beg leave to say that we vastly prefer circumscribing the “area of freedom”– and such, we imagine, will be the united voice of the South– if its enlargement is to lead to a result so prejudicial to Southern rights– so wantonly insulting to Southern feelings. On this subject, however, we desire not be misunderstood. We do not ask, not does the South, that, in the event of the future acquisition of territory from Mexico, it shall be subjected to slave labor. All we ask is that slavery shall not be absolutely interdicted, and that it may be left as all other sections of the country prior to the Missouri Compromise, were left, to decide this question for itself. If it be adapted to slave labor, leave it to its natural destiny; if otherwise, no restriction will be necessary. But this question is too grave and important to be thus incidentally discussed– and it is only now alluded to for the purpose of showing that even a purchased peace may prove too dear a bargain for the Southern States– and indeed that a peace without territorial indemnity, and which can be more easily obtained or course than one based upon the dismemberment of Mexico, will be to us far preferable to one which should annex half or two–thirds of the soil of Mexico to the Union, with this insulting prohibition attached to it.
[MPR]


RW47v24i11p2c2, February 5, 1847, Official Despatches.

The Union publishes an abstract of official despatches from the Army, which adds, however, nothing to the information previously published. The American force at Victoria is about 5000 men, under command of Genl. Taylor, who would remain there until he should hear from General Scott, and determine upon his future movements. It appears that ten men, belonging to Col. May’s rear guard, were recently cut off. No blame is attached to Col. May; but the officer and sergeant, who had command of the rear guard, and escaped, have been put under arrest.

The Union states that newspapers have been received from the city of Mexico to the 19th of December, at which time the Mexican Congress had taken no action in regard to the war.

A letter from Tampico states that a Mexican force, amounting to about 8000 men, is at Tula, between which and Victoria there is almost an impassable range of mountains, under the command of Generals Valencia, Urrea, Fernandez, Romero, Lorbarre and Monte Negro.
[MPR]


RW47v24i11p2c2, February 5, 1847, General Taylor’s Letters.

From the New York Express, in which the letter of Gen. Taylor, so much commented on, first appeared, we make the following extract:

“The few Whig presses which have spoken of the publication of the only letter of Gen. Taylor now likely to see the light, as indiscreet little know of the machinations and intrigues which have been going on in Washington. That letter drew their fire, and was, therefore, a necessary publication– just as Ridgey found it necessary to draw the fire of Gen. La Vega’s artillery, before the gallant May dashed in upon it with his troop of cavalry. These intrigues were crippling, not only Gen. Taylor, but all the army operations upon the Rio Grande. The war, got up especially and solely to give glory to Mr. Polk & Co., was all redounding to the glory of Gen. Taylor– ‘a Whig General’– as Mr. Ficklin called him– and to his brave army. To get rid of him, and of this, as we have before stated, Gen. Scott was sent out to prepare to supersede Gen. Taylor, by Lieutenant General Benton, while a fire in the rear of Gen. Taylor was to be kept up by all the partizans of the administration. The carpe knights in Washington were lavish of their abuse, in all the social circles, of Gen. Taylor, the main charge being, that (without magazines, without artillery, without pontoon trains, or any field equipments, nay, without authority from his Government,) he did not, on the instant, cross the Rio Grande, and that subsequently he let the force of Gen. Ampudia escape at Monterey. The reasons why he did not cross the Rio Grande, he unfolds in letters which the gag law suppresses.”
[MPR]


RW47v24i11p2c4, February 5, 1847, Tom Benton and Tom Moore.– Old Bullion growing poetic from preferment, has furnished Yankee Doodle with the following amended copy of Moore’s best songs:

The Legacy.

[As sung by the Hon. Thos. H. Benton, in the dress of a Lieutenant General Commanding in Mexico.]

When in the “halls” I shall calmly dine,
Oh bear this word to President Jim:
Tell him, though spoken o’er walnuts and wine,
Tis full of the soundest advice for him.
Bid him not trouble his head in this vile age,
To plant the school house and the ballot–box here,
But leave me alone to gather my mile–age
From Mier to Mazatlan, from Maine to Mier.

Take this barrel of salt from Campeachy,
Which oft I’ve said should be duty free,
And tell, oh tell Calhoun, I beseech ye,
To have it admitted now from me!
From me who here in my sovereign humor,
Won’t envy his rival hopes again,
Content in the Halls of Montezuma,
Whoever may now in the White House reign.

To General Cass I bequeath my great measure
For leaguing the whole squatter vote of the west,
The Oregon “do” having left him full leisure
For studying his cardinal principle best.
If he works it well from Rio del Norte
Up to Superior’s copper edged brim,
He will find it better than fifty four forty
To raise the political wind for him.

Take this goblet, ‘tis now o’erflowing
With mint drops fresh from Potosi’s mine,
And tell the people (who ar’n’t too knowing)
Such under the Mississippi shine;
And should you meet one who e’er has grumbled
Because they will not to the surface swim,
Tell him the ball on which hither I tumbled
Was just the ball to roll over him.

[MPR]


RW47v24i11p4c2, February 5, 1847, Proposition for Peace.

The Baltimore Sun of yesterday publishes a letter from Saltillo, dated on the 21st December, stating that the Mexican Congress has agreed to accept a Minister from the United States, to treat for peace. The writer adds:– “Gen. Worth yesterday received, through a runner from Gen. Santa Anna, a letter, which is said to be of a very pacific character. An individual is in Saltillo, who says he has seen the bill passed by the Mexican Congress, authorizing the appointment of a Commissioner to meet on from us to treat for peace, an that he saw it printed in the form of a handbill, and posted up in the streets of Mexico and at San Luis de Potosi. From the confidence with which some of my Mexican friends speak of the matter, I am disposed to believe it true.”

The Washington correspondent of the Baltimore American, adverting to this subject, writes as follows:

Washington, Feb.1.

The city is rife with rumors of propositions of Peace from Mexico, but I can trace them to no more reliable source than a reported Express arrival from Mexico. It would seem, too, from certain givings out in high places, that the Executive may consent to play the Oregon game over again, and while claiming “fifty–four forty,” content himself with a sort of forty–nine compromise. This intent has been charged upon him from the first by some of the fifty–four forty men in Congress, but the design may grow out of a weariness with this war, or what is likely to be true, the state of the Slavery question upon the banks of the Rio Grande.

The Washington correspondent of the Baltimore Sun, writing on the same day, says:

“The rumors that the Mexican Congress has sent a message to Gen. Taylor, that they will receive a minister from the United States, and that a distinct proposition for peace has been made, seems to be correct; but I doubt whether in the present state of affairs it will lead to anything. At all events, the friends of the administration treat the proposal with great disdain, and the partizans of the Liuet. General have a perfect contempt for it. They believe that nothing but action can secure peace, and that the Mexican government only seeks to gain time, now that they perceive that earnest preparations are making for investing Vera Cruz.”

The Washington Union of Monday night, speaking of these rumors, says:

“We are not advised of any such report having been officially seen at Washington. If it had come to General Worth from San Luis de Potosi, it would most probably have reached Gen. Taylor at Victoria. But despatches are received from him as late as the 7th of January from Victoria. He is not only silent about any such report, but states that the last account from Mexico had taken no action in regard to the war. In fact, our previous advices from Mexico are later than those which he had received.”
[MPR]


RW47v24i11p4c2, February 5, 1847

The Petersburg Union Volunteers, commanded by Capt. William M. Robinson, took their departure last Friday for Old Point. They were escorted by the volunteer companies of the town to the City Point Depot. On the evening previous a beautiful Flag was presented to the company by Wm. R. Drinkard, Esq. as the organ of the Ladies of Petersburg– and Swords were presented to the Captain and three Lieutenants, Bryan, Shands and McGowan.
[MPR]


RW47v24i11p4c2, February 5, 1847

The New Orleans papers speak in terms of just indignation of the sufferings of the Mississippi Volunteers, encamped on the Battle Ground, near that city– the ground being submerged, and the men up to their knees in mud and water. The consequence has been an unusual number of causes of sickness and death. The offices of the government are vehemently denounced for failing to provide the volunteers with comfortable and healthy quarters during their sojourn in the city. Perhaps if the Government would pay some little attention to these details, instead of making war upon General Taylor, the men who have so promptly obeyed its call would not be subjected to privations and sufferings compared with which the perils of the battle field are trifling.
[MPR]


RW47v24i11p4c2, February 5, 1847

The Union of Monday night contradicts the rumor that Santa Anna had thrown a force of 35,000 men between Generals Taylor and Worth, on the authority of a letter from Gen. Jesup.
[MPR]


RW47v24i11p4c5, February 5, 1847, Letters from the Army.

Correspondence of the N.O. Bee.

Head Quarters of the U.S. Army of Invasion,
Victoria, Mexico, Jan. 5, 1847.

Gentlemen,– I wrote you a hasty note from Monterey, on the evening of the 22d ult., and intended to have written again the next day, as an express came in the evening from Saltillo, but the hurry of preparation for the march down here prevented me, and I put it off with the view of sending it from Monte Morales, at which place, unfortunately, General Taylor sent off his express before I got in.

Gen. Taylor and all his officers feeling perfect confidence in the ability of Gen. Butler to maintain his position at Saltillo against any force, and judging that the Black Fort at Monterey would keep all safe in that quarter, the bugle was sounded early on the morning of the 23d, to take up the line of march again for this place, and between 7 and 8 o’clock the columns were in motion, all being assured that nothing but the defeat of our forces would again cause them to retrace their steps. The rest, on Monday and Tuesday, was of great advantage both to men and horses, but the effect of the forced march from Morales was quite apparent.

Col. Harney, of the dragoons, did not start with us. He was ordered on the morning of the march to proceed to Saltillo, and take command of all the mounted men, including dragoons and Arkansas and Kentucky cavalry.

After a 12 days’ march over a lovely and picturesque country, and to the right of the Sierra Madre mountains, and within a few miles of them, we reached Victoria yesterday, losing a large number of mules and horses on the road, from disease and over–work.

At Monte Morales, we overtook the supply train of Capt. Sibleig, and a train of wagons just from Camargo, with provisions. From this place Col. May, with a topographical engineer and two companies of dragoons, left us on the road, proceeded along the foot of the mountains to ascertain of there were any passes that were not advised of. A pass was found between Linares and Morales, and with great difficulty the command got through it, by leading their horses, as it is reported so narrow, that but a single horse could make any head way. Some of those who were with the expedition represent the scenery as being the most magnificent that was ever beheld. On one side of the pass there is said to be a perpendicular ascent of 600 or 700 feet, with a rock jutting out a foot or more all the way up, and the opposite side of it runs up to the same height, though with a gradual slope. The scenery all around looked wild in the extremest sense of the term, and to use the language of one of the dragoons, some of the peaks of the mountain looked so high, that the Mexican eagle has no the courage to build its nest there. After examining the pass and the nature of the country beyond it, the command began to retrace their steps, and the main body by pursuing the same course they did at first, got safely back on this side of the mountains. The rear guard however, were not so fortunate, and none but the Lieut. and Sergeant got through. What misfortune befell them, and how it happened, had best be given publicity to over the signature of Capt. May, as he has promised to hand it to me before closing my letter. He has placed the Lieutenant under arrest, and is very much mortified at the loss of his men.

At Linares we found out the government of Mexico had $3800 in funds there, and it was demanded from the Alcalde by General Taylor. That functionary stated that the money had been taken away by a government officer, but he was still ordered to produce, and he complied by paying $1000 himself, and matching the merchants of the town out of the residue. We had paid very near $1000 to the people for forage, mules and horses, and little et ceteras, most of which I presume came back in the $3800. Every night of the march, immediately opposite our encampment, a fire was lighted in the mountains, and I have no doubt at all but that they were intended as signals to show our whereabouts on the road.

Victoria is, altogether, a very pretty place, and larger than any town I have seen except Monterey. General Quitman’s command have been here since the 29th, and were the first Americans to enter the town. The Baltimore battalion were in advance, and their flag, which was christened in Monterey, now waves from a two–story house in the plaza. The Mexican cavalry were moving before Gen. Quitman for two days before he got in. They were at the hacienda of Sanlen Gracia in the morning, and our troops there in the evening. It was the same way at the Caballero rancho. There were about two hundred here in all, and some of them left the town on the evening of the 28th , and the remainder the next morning, but they were seen on the mountains by our men after they had encamped, and all the little “tackies” were saddled up to pursue them, but night came on, and it was of no avail. They knew very well that there was no cavalry along, and hence their daring in showing themselves.

The rear of Gen. Twigg’s division had not got out of town yesterday, en route to the river, before the advance guard of Gen. Patterson had entered the plaza. He left twenty miles this side of Matamoros on the 24th , and must have marched very near as fast as we did to get in so soon. He was not aware that the place was occupied by our troops, and desired to plant the first American standard in Victoria. His command consists of the Tennessee cavalry, the 3d and 4th Illinois infantry, two companies of artillery, and one of sappers and miners. The division was accompanied by a supply train, which with the company wagons made near three hundred.

The simultaneous arrival of the two divisions made quite a show, and everything around wore a martial appearance. The people of the town, loss reserved, or less timid than usual, came into the streets, and to their windows, in great numbers, and looked as though they thought the thing was up with Mexico, as our columns marched through the square. Neither division knew the whereabouts of the other, and their arrival at the same time was not anticipated.

To feed all the horses and men that are now here, it will require untiring exertions on the part of the Quartermasters, and their assistants. The greatest difficulty will be in providing for the horses, although up to this time we have had no difficulty in obtaining forage from the enemy, for which we now pay them one price– 60 cts for corn, and at a proportionate rate for fodder. This is the price we paid on the rout from Monterey, and thus far we have continued it here. But the demand will soon swallow up what is in the vicinity, and then we will have to look for it from some of the depots on the Gulf. Should we remain here for any considerable length of time, it would be advisable to land supplies at Soto La Marina, a port at the mouth of the river of the same name, 65 or 70 miles from this place. But it is not probable that we shall remain here, for the Mexicans will not come to us, and if we are not going after them just now, convenience as well as economy demands that we should be nearer the sea board.

Gen. Scott has signified to Gen. Taylor his intention of taking command of this wing of the army, and I think he will move on to Tampico, when he gets ready, and from there, the only prominent place presented in “my mind’s eye” is Vera Cruz. It has been talked of very much by Gen. Taylor lately, and some of his officers say he dreams of it. I believe I told you before, that he said to the General Government, that if they would send him 6000 troops to Tampico, he would march to that place with 4000 of those now in the field, and would, after adding them together move on to and attack the city of Vera Cruz. If our troops do not go there, where will they go beyond the Sienne Madre? The movement down here argues forcibly enough to me that a march to San Luis Potosi, by the way of Saltillo, has been abandoned; and we have recently learned that it is almost, if not quite impossible to approach that place with wagons and artillery from this quarter. In fact, here, San Luis Potosi is not talked of at all, and every person is of opinion that the contemplated expedition to that place has been entirely abandoned. We have been advised here that the Mexicans, in fortifying Vera Cruz, have dug a large number of ditches in the town, and the one at the outer edge is represented as being 15 feet deep, with the same width. If I understand Gen’l Taylor’s idea of attacking the town, and I have heard a number of officers speak of it, it is to be done entirely by storm, taking with him the means of crossing the ditches. As he is willing to stake the laurels he won in May and September last on the result, I have confidence enough in the man to wish him to undertake it, alone, or as the right or left bower with Gen. Scott.

Gen. Scott’s arrival in this country does not give, by any manner of means, general satisfaction, not that the man is unpopular with the army, but that a desire prevails to see the man who commenced the war and who has fortunately carried it on thus far, make a finish of it. I should have been pleased to have seen him at the head of affairs at the start, for I believe he would have had the army better appointed than it was, but since it has succeeded so admirably, with all the inconveniences attendant, I am willing now to trust it to the end under the same guidance. In the first place, Gen. Scott would have demanded and received more men before leaving the Rio Grande, well provisioned and equipped in every particular. He would have made the government furnish such things as were necessary, nor would he have moved until he received the. General Taylor, on the other hand, knowing that his troops could not be whipped, and not wishing to get at loggerheads with the powers at Washington, preferred the use of leaden to the paper bullets, moved on when time arrived, to do the best he could. Gen. Scott would have been less obedient to the dictates of the soothing and conciliatory system pointed out by President Polk, and would have taken the responsibility of discriminating. Having the means he would have followed up his victories, and following them up, would have caused the enemy to cry quarter long ere this. I would not for the world be understood as saying or hinting anything prejudicial to Gen. Taylor by the comparison, for he has not only whipped the enemy wherever he found them, but has attempted to do a far more difficult task– that of carrying out the views of the Administration, and I only think Gen. Scott would have done better because I believe he would have acted as his own ideas of policy dictated.

January 6th , 1847.

As I failed to obtain from Capt. May the account of his adventure he had signified his intention of furnishing me, I am forced to the necessity of giving it as I heard it from the officers and his men. After he had retraced his steps through the pass with the main body and proceeded several hundred yards, he heard a rumbling sound behind him as if large stones were being rolled down the mountain. He immediately went back in the direction, and shortly met the Lieut. and Sergeant of the rear guard of whom he demanded “where is your guard?” the Lieutenant answered that they were near, but on turning to look for them none but the Sergeant was to be found. The whole command then proceeded towards the pass again, and came up to it without finding anything of the men; but they found a large number of loose stones that they say had been hurled down from the perpendicular side of the mountain, and traces of blood in several places. They then went through the pass, and travelled several miles, but could not discover any traces of the men, although they heard that a party of Americans had gone through a little village, but it was not said whether as prisoners or not. A few shots were fired from their carbines at persons on the mountains, but they did not reach. Capt. May seems undecided whether these men have been carried off or not.

Two mails will leave here to–morrow, and Heaven knows when another one will start. One will go by the way of Monterey, and the other to Tampico. The latter will be only and express mail if– I can get my letters in I will.

I feel very certain to–day that Vera Cruz is the aim of the commanding General, and I should not be surprised if we were to march to Tampico in a few days. In counting up the number of horses to–day, for which forage is required the number was 3528, and it takes to feed them daily 882 bushels of corn besides fodder, and this of itself will be of great inducement to get nearer shipping, ad we will soon eat out every thing in this vicinity.

The Corporal.

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RW47v24i12p1c2, February 9, 1847, Mr. Calhoun.

The future course of this gentleman in the Mexican War question continues to be a subject of speculation. The Washington correspondent of the Baltimore Sun says that he will define his position in a few days on the Three Million Bill; and the correspondent of the New York Courier states that he does not hesitate to avow his intention to introduce some measure before the close of the session for the purpose of bringing the war to a close, which he says can be done with honor to both Republics, and without the farther effusion of blood. “He so expressed himself last night (says the writer, on the 2d instant,) and only refused to explain his plan because the details were not fully matured.” Unless he has recently modified his views, the writer thinks he will propose to establish our boundary at the Rio Grande, and to negotiate for so much of California as may be required for our future commerce in the East, and to keep up a chain of communication with our possessions in Oregon.
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RW47v24i12p1c2, February 9, 1847

The last New Orleans papers contain numerous accounts of the flagrant outrages perpetrated in that city by the volunteers. On the night of the 30th, the whole city was in a state of alarm– people armed themselves, and turned out in vast numbers, and the troops were called out and mustered as if the place were beleagured by a foreign force! It turned out, however, to be a false alarm. On that night, however, most of the volunteers were embarked, and had sailed for Mexico; and universal joy was expressed that they were off. The Picayune says: “We hope when we next hear of them that they will have done such valorous things as will purge the memories of the past of their bitterness.”
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RW47v24i12p1c2, February 9, 1847

The Alexandria Gazette informs us that “curses not loud but deep,” are muttered against Mr. Calhoun and Mr. Butler, his colleague, in Washington, in consequence of their course on the resolution of thanks to Gen. Taylor.
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RW47v24i12p1c5, February 9, 1847, From Tampico.

The New Orleans Picayune of the 30th ult. has a letter from Tampico of the 16th. All was quiet. The corps of engineers are busily engaged in extending the lines of fortifications from the high ground upon which the city stands to the water’s edge. When these are completed, (the writer says,) the place, with a garrison of 2000 Americans, may be considered impregnable to any army the Mexicans could send against it. Gen. Scott, it was said, had gone to Camargo for the purpose of having a personal interview with Gen. Taylor, who is to join him there. Numerous rumors were afloat of movements in contemplation, but nothing certain was known.
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RW47v24i12p2c1, February 9, 1847, Gen. Waddy Thompson’s Letter– Mr. Berrien’s Speech.

We lay before our readers this morning a highly interesting letter on the Mexican War, addressed by General Waddy Thompson, late Minister to Mexico, to the Editors of the National Intelligencer. Whatever may have been originally the temper of the public mind in regard to the conquest and permanent retention of a portion of the States of Mexico, for the purpose (to use one of the cent phrases of the day, by which the public mind has been so corrupted and misled,) of “extending the area of freedom,” or under the equally deceptive pretence of procuring from Mexico “indemnity” for past insults and injuries,– we say, whatever may have been the temper of the public mind, in the beginning of this unfortunate contest, it cannot be doubted that a decided reaction has taken place, and is new in progress, in the South at least, in regard to the policy of enlarging our territorial limits, by the sword. The unanticipated difficulties and obstacles in the career of conquest, which the authors of the war had flattered themselves with the belief would be both brief and brilliant, have not been without their effect in producing this salutary change in public opinion. Men are beginning to count the cost, both in blood and treasure, of a conflict to which they can see no end; and they naturally ask themselves whether, if we even secure New Mexico and California, on the restoration of peace, we shall not in expenditure alone, pay too dearly for the whistle. The enquiry, too, is heard on all sides, will not the addition of Mexican territory– particularly that portion of it in the upper Valley of the Rio Grande, and on the western side of that river, prove to be a curse rather than a benefit and a source of additional expense instead of an “indemnity”– and whether it will not introduce into our limits a population unfit for free government, and which we cannot admit to the rights, as they are incapable of performing the duties of citizenship, in a representative government? This view of the question, and others not less imposing, are powerfully presented by Mr. Berrien, the distinguished Senator from Georgia, in his admirable speech on the Three Million Bill– a speech distinguished alike by its profound ability and elevated patriotism. We beg attention to the considerations embodied in the subjoined extract:

“Sir, if there be any one thing of national interest to be preserved at the expense of national honor, I know not; but looking to this question solely as one of interest, I ask you, is it consistent with the national interest to acquire such territory? Consider it as already acquired, either by the use of the money which it is proposed to appropriate by this bill, or by the force of our arms; consider that territory as acquired, and I hope senators are now ready to answer the question, how will dispose of this territory? When you get these provinces what will you do with them? Will you remove the existing population and settle the west, which will have been left by emigrants from the United States? That may not be. You cannot do it without violating every principle of the law of nation– every principle which has been recognised by your own courts of peace. Whether these territories be acquired by conquest or purchase, the moment they pass under your domination their inhabitants become the object of, and are entitled to, your protection. What next, then? If you must protect this people and the territory which they inhabit, will you govern them as provinces? Will you send your governors of provinces to superintend and protect them? On what principles will you govern them? What next? If you may not depopulate them– if you ma not govern them as provinces– will you exercise no power given you under the constitution, and obviously given while the view of the framers of it was confined within the territorial limits of the United States! Will you exercise the power of governing them as territories, and, of course, entitle them to the privilege of being incorporated as States of the Union, when they shall have attained the requisite number of inhabitants? Are you willing to put your birthright in the keeping of the mongrel races who inhabit these territories by incorporating them into the federal Union? For myself, I am free to declare non […] in fadera, and I believe that declaration will be responded to from the remotest extremities of this widely extended Union. Then, what is it for which we are contending? What is the position to which this lust for the acquisition of territory is about to lead us? When we shall have acquired these territories, how are we to surmount the difficulties which will necessarily attend their possession? We cannot, consistently with the constitution, govern it as an independent province. We cannot, consistently with what we owe to ourselves, put it into a condition to be incorporated with the American Union. But, suppose you could. Do not you bring with it that question which more than any other menaces the duration and permanence of this Union? Do you believe that any treaty which may be negotiated with Mexico can receive the constitutional sanction of this body leaving the question of slavery open? Do you believe it can receive the constitutional sanction of this body excluding slavery? Do you believe it can receive the constitutional sanction of this body permitting– grant that I am wrong in the opinion which would seem to be indicated by the President– that it would be practicable to obtain the constitutional majority of this Senate which would leave open the question of slavery? And I ask American senators whether they would not slumber upon their posts if their assent were given to a treaty leaving that question open? I ask American senators if it is not their imperative duty to the States which they represent when any acquisition shall be made by treaty to take care that the domestic institutions and interests of the States which they represent are protected by the express stipulations of that treaty? Suppose those overlooked– suppose American senators, under the influence of whatever motive, should acquiescence in the acquisition of territory without such a stipulation as would protect their interests, what follows? Inevitably, with the certainty of fate, the exclusion of their constituents from their constitutional right to a participation in the benefits of the territory acquired by common effort. Sir, the process is easy– it is simple– it is obvious– it is undeniable. On the question of the admission of this territory– if you were to govern it as a territory, with a view to its subsequent admission, when the number of its population would satisfy that proceedure– on the question of its admission as a State, the numerical superiority of the free States would hold us in chains. We may not hope to secure to our constituents any right to participate in the benefits of such an acquisition unless we agree to surrender, in advance, that portion of our property over which we have the guarantee of the constitution. I say, then, it especially behooves southern senators to oppose themselves to the acquisition of territory in any form, because as it is quite certain that no territory will be acquired by treaty in which the right to exercise their domestic institution will be stipulated, and inasmuch as the territory acquired by a treaty which would leave that an open question, will inevitably result in their exclusion– I say, in my humble judgment, and speaking as a southern senator representing a southern State, that the duty of the south– the interests of the south– the safety of the south– demand that we should oppose ourselves to any and to every acquisition of territory. But the appeal is not merely to southern senators, but to American senators from whatever quarter of this Union they may come. The appeal is to them to exclude from the national councils this direful question. The acquisition of territory must bring before us, with accumulated force, a question which now menaces the permanence of this Union. It cannot be that southern men can silently acquiesce in the denial to them of a common right insured in the constitution of the United States. If we have a right to the acquisition of territory– if that acquisition is made by the common effort of all the States, then all the States are alike entitled to participate in the benefits which result from such as acquisition. But if the inevitable tendency of such an acquisition be as I have described it, then we must be excluded from such a participation in the benefits of the acquisition. In that case, one of two things remains– to assert, at whatever hazard, our rights, and the rights of our constituents, or to give a renewed unexampled manifestation of our devotion to the bond of our federal Union, by submitting to this inequality of distribution in the acquisitions of our common government. I do most anxiously desire that the fearful crisis may not be brought about. It menaces us now, even in the existing state of things; but, in all human probability it may, and I confidently trust it will be averted by the intelligence and by the patriotism of the American people. But if you are to introduce into this Union the vast territories which you contemplate to acquire by occasion from Mexico, it will be a trial of the disinterestedness and patriotism of the south, if they shall be called upon to decide that they are willing to acquiesce in their utter exclusion from all participation in this rich and boundless territory.”

These views address themselves with irresistible force to the people in every section of the Union, but more especially to people of the South, who, under existing circumstances, cannot but perceive, that, if the acquisition of the territory from Mexico, as the condition of peace, may be, in every just sense of that term, regarded as “indemnity” at all, it can be no indemnity to them; but rather a source of sectional humiliation and injury, to which, unless they are utterly insensible to their rights, and recreant to their duty, they never can and never will submit.

We rejoice to see leading Southern men– such men as Waddy Thompson, John Macpherson Berrien and Reverdy Johnson– assuming, at this crisis, the attitude which its importance demands, and with a boldness equal to this emergency. We hope to see other distinguished Southern Statesmen, even of the opposite party, and indeed from all sections of the Union, uniting with them in their patriotic effort to avert danger, to which no considerate mind can look forward without the most serious apprehensions, that must inevitably result from the ultimate disposition of this new territory, if it shall be acquired.

But it is probable, even if the obstinacy of the foe shall not ultimately foil us in the effort to dismember the Mexican Republic, that the cost of our acquisition will be out of all proportion to its value, though it were gemmed with mines of gold and silver, and precious stones, as rich as those of Golconda and Peru. Gen. Thompson’s letter is well calculated to enlighten the public mind on a subject, to a universal ignorance of which, in a great degree, the war is attributable. And now that the prospect of an easy march to Mexico, and a series of brilliant triumphs, almost without charge upon the treasury, and without a serious loss of life, has given place to the stern reality of truth, it is not unreasonable to expect that public opinion will be brought effectively to bear upon this vital question; and that the Executive will learn, from its manifestation at the polls, that the people are opposed to a war of conquest, which must result either in a dismemberment of the Union, or in its preservation by the submission of the South to the most humiliating and injurious conditions.

We invoke the calm reflection of the Southern people– and especially of the people of Virginia, who will soon be called upon to express their sentiments at the polls– to the great issue, the final decision of which may be determined by their action, next Spring.

But it may be asked what does Mr. Berrien propose to do, in vindication and support of national honor, now so seriously involved in the success of our arms, in the contest into which we have been so heedlessly plunged? He answers this question frankly and clearly– and points, in our judgment, to the course, which honor and interest, patriotism and justice all counsel. He says:

“I may be asked, with the views I have presented and the amendment I have proposed, what is, then, my purpose? Do I desire that the government should surrender the advantages which it has acquired, and terminate the war without obtaining any of the ends which were sought? Sir, that is not my purpose. I have said distinctly that I am willing to unite with senators in strengthening the Executive arm for the prosecution of this war. I have said that we are entitled to obtain a proper security for the payment of the just claims of our citizens upon the government of Mexico, although I confess I do not think that the forbearance to press these claims to the extent of dipping Mexican bonds in Mexican blood would have been any violation to our national honor. But I am prepared to say that we are entitled to demand from Mexico, on the termination of the war, such a security as would be satisfactory to ourselves for the payment of these bonds. I am prepared to prosecute this war until Mexico shall be disposed to make the terms of the resolutions of annexation of Texas a just and liberal settlement of the boundaries of that State, and willing to make her an adequate compensation for any portion of territory which she may imagine she has a title to and which she would have surrendered by that treaty. I am prepared to do this. I am not prepared to wrest from her any portion of her territory beyond that which she may be disposed to yield without corruption of money, or the application of force. I am willing, if Mexico is disposed to cede it, to acquire, for the purposes of our commerce, a port on the Pacific ocean, and to maker her ample compensation for it; putting us in connexion with the territory which we already possess on that vast ocean, and without the necessity of dismembering her government by extending the line of our territory. I am willing to give the money for such a purpose. I would say take that money, but take it with the knowledge of Mexico, and all the world, that you do not mean to dismember her territory– that you are willing to negotiate this matter upon principles consistent with her rights and with your rights, with her honor and with your honor; take it with the disavowal of the intention, communicated on the part of the President of the United States, by the distinct enunciation of your own views and intentions as the Congress of this great republic. I have not proposed to you to withdraw your troops from the territory of Mexico. I have not proposed to you a renewal of negotiations. I have not proposed to you the abandonment of any of your just claims upon Mexico. I have not proposed to you that you should for a instant relax your efforts to conquer that peace which is desirable to us all. But I ask of you to relieve yourselves from the imputation of prosecuting this war against a feeble and neighboring republic, with a superiority of force which you may command, for the purposes not required b national honor, and merely for the gratification of your lust for acquisition of territory; I ask you to put yourselves right before the people of Mexico and the world; I ask you to take from them the courage of despair which is the feeling and the motive which now actuates and animates them; I ask you to exhibit yourselves in that attitude in which a nation, strong and powerful as we are, ought to be presented to the nations of this world; and then, if Mexico, maddened by whatever cause, under the influence of whatever infatuation, shall refuse to accept the proffered pledge of the national legislature of the Union– if she shall madly rush to her doom– then strike for peace– strike for peace with all the force which you can command. Ay, and every American will unite in the exclamation– “God defend the right!” But I desire that you should place yourselves in this attitude, that the national character may be relieved from the imputation of pursuing this war solely for the purpose of acquiring territory– of affecting to vindicate national honor, and calling upon the victims of our superior force to indemnify us for the expense of this vindication!”
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RW47v24i12p2c2, February 9, 1847

The seeming inconsistency of demanding of Mexico as indemnity to us, the cession of two of her provinces as a condition of peace, and paying her at the same time three millions of dollars as indemnity to her, is attracting attention. Why shall we pay her three millions of dollars to induce her to give us New Mexico and California, which have been already annexed by Kearney and Stockton “in virtue of authority” from the President of the U. States? This plan of carrying a sword in one hand to cut the throats of the Mexicans, and in the other a bag of gold to buy their good will, is as original and ridiculous as anything Mr. Polk has yet attempted of effected, not excepting the order to permit Santa Anna to return to Mexico, to take command of the enemy’s army!
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RW47v24i12p2c3, February 9, 1847, A Brilliant Exploit.

The Washington Union of Saturday night last contains a long account of the bombardment of Guaymas, (on the Pacific coast,) and the cutting of the Mexican brig Condor, from under the artillery and musketry of the enemy, by the U.S. sloop–of–war Cyane, Commander S.F. DuPont, on the 7th of October last. There were several hundred troops in the town, to the commander of which Capt. DuPont sent a message, demanding the surrender of the Mexican gun–boats in the harbor, with their equipments. This the Mexican commander refused, and it was determined at once to cut them out. The Mexicans then set fire to the gun–boats, which were consumed before the attempt to capture them could be made. The Captain of the Cyane then determined to cut out the Mexican brig Condor, which was anchored within pistol–shot of the town and within short musket range of the troops, concentrated behind a hill. A launch, with a 12 pound cannonade, and a third cutter, under command of Lt. G.W. Harrison, with Lieut. Ed Higgins, Midshipmen H.N. Crabb and R.F.R. Lean, started on the enterprize. The ship at once opened a fire upon the town, with round and shell shot concentrating the fire upon the government buildings which unfortunately formed a space between the hill, behind which the military lay, and the spot where the Condor was lying. The troops were compelled to withdraw a little for better security, the shot and shells doing fearful execution. AS the boats approached the Condor, they were received with a hot fire of musketry– but the gallant crew succeeded in cutting the iron cable of the ship and towing her off, amid a shower of balls– and, what seems extraordinary, without a man being killed or wounded. The writer says, “I believe you ma search naval records in vain for a better planned or a more completely executed expedition.” A captain of a neutral vessel informed the officers of the Cyane that one of the Paixham shells had exploded inside a house, and turned it inside out, and that so great was the force of the 32 pound shot, that one has gone through five house walls and buried itself in the sixth. As far as the captain could ascertain, six Mexicans were wounded, but none killed– though some neutral sailors reported that a number had been killed. On the morning of the 9th, the Cyane left, without any demonstration on the part of the enemy.
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RW47v24i12p2c4, February 9, 1847, The Mexican War

To the Editors of the National Intelligencer:

In the debate, a few days since, in the Senate, upon the bill to appropriate three millions of dollars to be used by the President of the United States in negotiating a peace with Mexico, Mr. Sevier, the chairman of the committee on Foreign Relations, said, in substance, that the people of this country would never consent to a peace without the cession by Mexico of the departments of California and New Mexico. This declaration is all the more important from the close personal and political relations of the distinguished speaker with the President of the United States, and his position at the head of the committee of Foreign Relations; which justify the inference that he knows and expresses the opinion of the Executive department of our Government.

The President, in his Message at the commencement of the Session, declared that the acquisition of Mexican territory by conquest was not our object. There is certainly some difficulty in reconciling this declaration with that made by Mr. Sevier in the Senate. The only mode of doing so is to suppose that the purposes of the Executive have changed since the time when his message was written. If the purpose was not acquisition two months since, what is there that has since occurred to change it? Is it that the war has been protracted two months longer, although without active operation on either side? If this gives us a right to demand so large a portion of the territory of Mexico, to how much more shall we be entitled at the end of the year? Certainly the extreme southern boundary of Mexico will not satisfy this just and more reasonable demand of ours.

The alleged ground of war at the time of its commencement, and the only ground upon which the war was waged, was our right to the country between the Nueces and the Rio Grande. All that has since been said about Mexican spoliations upon the property of American citizens is an after–thought; and, if this latter case was a just one for the war, the right so to decide rested with the Congress of the United States, not the President. That body had for years refused to declare war against Mexico on this account, when Mexico refused to recognise the justice of the claims of our citizens, or even to promise indemnity. Treaties have since been made for the settlement of those claims, and the payments had been punctually made until Mexico was thrown into a state of disorder and temporary insolvency by one of those almost periodical revolutions which have so much afflicted and impoverished that country. Would it not have been harsh justice, (to say the least of it,) under such circumstances, and for this delay of a few months, resulting from absolute inability, to have resorted to war to enforce payment? If other motives had not existed, will it be pretended by any one that Congress would have resorted to war on account of the claims of our citizens alone? If the purpose of our Government be that which was stated by Mr. Sevier, it is difficult to see any necessity for the appropriation asked for. If we have a perfect right to California and New Mexico, why should we pay for it? If we have no such right, shall we continue the war to force Mexico to sell those departments? The assertion of such a principle as that a war for such a purpose would be legitimate or justifiable, would certainly be an interpolation in the code of international law/ Is this the century or is our the nation in which and by which such a principle is for the first time to be asserted?

If we are to disregard all higher and more honorable considerations, it becomes us to calculate at least the cost of such a conquest– its cost in money and in blood, as well as all the other consequences which will result from it. We have no right to suppose that this will be the last was in which we shall be engaged; and, if ever involved in another, there is much reason to fear that it will be with more than one of the most powerful nations of the earth. In such an event, would it not be well for us to have a conterminous Republic both powerful and friendly to us? It has been truly said that, as our sole enemy, Mexico is not formidable. But, as an ally of a powerful European nation, the case would be very different. She would furnish a border of great extent from which to invade the weakest and most sparsely populated of our States– soldiers to any extent, and supplies to a very great extent. It is not Mexico alone, however, which will be alienated from us by a protracted war of spoliation and dismemberment, but all the South American States. They are all peopled by the same race. They all offer to our cupidity the same broad and fertile plains and rich mines, and the same great temptation of inability to defend them. They will all think, and certainly not without reason, that the only boon which will be offered to them will be that of the giant– that of being the last devoured.

But what will the World say of this now openly–confessed war of conquest– a war to force a feeble Sister Republic to sell us a portion of her territory, or to dismember that Republic on the ground of indemnity for the expenses of that war? Surely no such right will be conceded to us unless we are clearly in the right and Mexico as clearly in the wrong in the origination of the war.

Is such the opinion of the world? I do not believe that out of the United States that opinion is held by a single enlightened and impartial man. Many such in our own country, I know, think the war a just war; but such is not the opinion of the world; and we cannot hope to change that opinion by a hundred battles and a hundred victories. On the contrary, the more signal those victories, the stronger and more general will be the sympathy for our more feeble adversaries. Let it not be said that we are indifferent to the undivided opinion of all Christendom. It is true of nations, as of individuals, that the most priceless jewel “Is spotless reputation. It is no empty bauble, but is in itself power.”

If we disregard all considerations of this character, is it really practicable to humble Mexico to such an extent as to bring her to these terms? I confess that I do not think so. I am quite sure that it cannot be done but at a cost in money infinitely transcending the value of the acquisition; to say nothing of the sacrifice of human life, of thousands and tens of thousands of American lives, and the making of an equal number of widows and orphans; to say nothing of the horrible consequences of such a war to our enemies; for, to be successful, it must be conducted in a manner and carried to extremities at which the heart sickens and humanity recoils. Let us at least calmly and dispassionately ask ourselves, first of all, Is it just, is it right, is it honorable? What, after all, is the right of conquest, if any such right exists, but the right of the strongest? It is the right of the bandit. He is stronger and better armed than the traveller, and he takes his purse and keeps it.

Is there any instance in all history of a nation, and a nation thoroughly united as Mexico, with a population of eight millions, and abundantly supplied with all the munitions of war, having been conquered? Why should we expect such a result? Is our enemy the least warlike of nations? Are her people less proud, less pertinacious, less revengeful than others? No; but precisely the reverse– the descendents of the heroes of Saguntum, Numantia, and Saragossa. It is remarked by Napier, in his history of the Peninsular War, that “no country in Europe is so easy to overrun as Spain– none so difficult to retain.” The ultimate fate of the legions of Bonaparte confirms this truth. Where else, in history, do we find a war to have continued for eight hundred years, as did that between the Goths and the Moors? Let us not forget that it is the Spanish race, brave, proud, ardent, melancholy, which is thus to be subdued to our purposes– to be forced to surrender to another race a country discovered and conquered by their arms, and which contains a thousand memorials of their heroic valor and constancy. The constitution of Mexico contains a clause which forbids, under any pretext whatever, the alienation of any portion of the national domain. Not satisfied with this, the same thing forms a part of the oath of office. This difficulty would of itself seem insuperable. But there is another even stronger in the undivided public opinion of Mexico. What Administration of that Government will dare to defy this public opinion, or could successfully combat it?

Is it not known to all that they are not few nor undistinguished amongst ourselves who think the war not only inexpedient, but unjust, yet have not hitherto ventured to breast the torrent of public opinion which they suppose to exist in favor of the war? I do not believe that such is the public opinion of this country. Yet that is the impression which has gone forth, and it has contracted the action of more than one of our public men. Will this influence be less in Mexico, where the opinion is universal that the war is flagrantly and criminally unjust on our part? What ground, then, have we to hope for a speedy peace? None, certainly, unless from the extremity of defencelessness and suffering to which we shall reduce our enemy. How is this to be accomplished? The answer usually of men is, “By a vigorous prosecution of the war.” If any thing is meant by this, it is by advancing to the city of Mexico. We have already penetrated far into the interior of the Mexican Republic. What evil have we thereby inflicted upon her, to say nothing of that extremity of suffering which is to reduce her to sue for peace? The inhabitants of the towns which we have taken are just as secure in their persons and property– as free from molestation in all pursuits and occupations– as they were before the war commenced; and the profits of their occupations greatly increased by the presence of a large additional population, ready and able to pay for all their products, and doing so at extraordinary prices. Will it be otherwise when we advance to the city of Mexico? That is only one of their cities– the principal one, it is true, but not the only one. Are we to march to the city of Mexico, and then march back? How long must our army remain there? It is very clear that to abandon the place as soon as taken would accomplish nothing, but, on the contrary, would protract the war. How long must our army remain there, and how long will it be possible for us– yes, I say possible– to provision the army? To do so for a month will involve a cost little dreamed of by most persons. Of what number must that army consist? Garrisons must be left at Tampico, at Vera Cruz, Jalapa, and Perote, of two thousand men at each place. How many at Puebla– a city of ninety thousand inhabitants, and in the centre of the most dense and warlike population of Mexico– in the neighborhood of the renowned and warlike Tlascalans? I should say that the garrison at Puebla should not be less that six or eight thousand men. The garrisons at Tampico and Vera Cruz will have to be reinforced, or rather renewed, every three months, from the ravage of more than one pestilential disease in those modern Golgothas. If any resistance is offered to the progress of our army, who can say how many men we shall lose in the thousand natural and artificial defiles which the route presents, with more than one walled town to be stormed, and, added to these, the ravages of pestilence. If this enterprise is attempted with fifty thousand men, with a reasonable estimate of loss of life from disease and battles, and the necessary garrisons left on the line of march, we shall be fortunate if we have thirty thousand to enter the city of Mexico. To collect these troops, concentrate them at Vera Cruz, march to the city of Mexico, and remain there long enough to produce any result, will require at least one year. How much money and how many lives will that year’s operation cost us? Certainly not less than one hundred millions of dollars and twenty thousand lives. Are we certain that the benefits which will result will be a compensation for what it will cost? Are we certain that we shall, in truth, have accomplished any thing? If, as I believe the result will demonstrate, the “planting our stars and stripes on the palace of the Montezumas” has really no potency or charm but in stale and ridiculous theoretical flourishes, the Mexicans will have seen how impotent for evil to them is this long–vaunted advance to their capital; and it will have only added to the vindictive revenge which they already cherish towards us to quite a sufficient degree.

I do not believe that, when all the charges of the war, up to this time, come to be settled, in the shape of bounty, land, pensions, losses of property, and the thousand after–claps of a war, that it will be found to be short of sixty or seventy millions. The late Florida war cost us forty–two millions, with never more than one–fifth of the Army now in Mexico, nor one–tenth of that which it is proposed to send there; and supplied, too, at so much less cost. Could not this money be better spent? It would cobweb our whole country with railroads. But, where shall we get this money? Not much longer by the spendthrift expedient of giving our notes, for in that is summed our financial resources up to this time. This certainly cannot last always. It must stop, if not before, when we fail to pay interest except by the issuance of new notes. When our debt is increased to one hundred and fifty or two hundred millions, no increase of the tariff can meet the exigency; for all must see that nay considerable increase of duties on most of the articles will diminish revenue by rendering their importation a losing business. The only possible alternative will be direct taxation. To “that complexion it must come at last.”

But, if all these difficulties are surmounted, the end is not yet. Mexico is not yet humbled– not even crippled. Thus far the war has, in every aspect, benefited her. It has nationalized her people, elevated her military character, and caused the expenditure of a large amount of foreign capital in her borders.

I could extend this article, already too long, by many proofs of the power of the Mexicans to submit to privations, and their readiness to do so. Let one suffice: A most terrific civil war has for many years been raging in Sonora– a State bordering on the Pacific ocean. Houses burnt to ashes, flocks exterminated, and one–third of their men butchered. You will scarcely go five miles without seeing human carcasses hanging from the limbs of trees, for “no quarter” has been the law of that war. Yet it never entered into the minds of these fierce and unappeasable combatants to make peace until this war with us commenced. Can we reduce all Mexico to such an extremity as this? Would we do so if we could? Have we any reason to expect peace from any thing short of it? We may destroy her commerce, it is true. But she has very little of it, and that little not indispensable. Besides all the grains, Mexico supplies itself with salt, sugar, coffee cotton– in short, with every thing that is necessary to man, and then there is the frontier with Guatemala, through which she may supply herself, at very little greater cost, and in spite of us. We may also cut off the revenues from her custom houses. But of those revenues all is hypothecated but about ten percent for the payment of the interest of her public debt. The payment of that interest is now suspended, which relieves the Government much more than the deprivation of ten percent of those customs embarrasses it. Besides this, less than one–twentieth of the income of Mexico is derived from foreign commerce; and, therefore, the same income which would pay for foreign merchandise, and duties upon it, is still in the country, and subject to other and not less efficacious forms of taxation.

Santa Anna is now at San Luis Potosi with not less than twenty five thousand men. If we leave garrisons of not more then 5,000 men at Vera Cruz and Tampico, he can march his whole force upon either of them in two weeks. In the summer, when our army is weakened by the ravages of disease, dejected and broken–spirited by hourly burials of their comrades, who will say with certainty that events will not occur which will shroud our whole land in mourning?

I have thrown together these suggestions, which are the results of much reflection and some personal knowledge of the facts upon which they are based. No evil, certainly, can result from a fair presentation of the difficulties which lie before us. It is better that those difficulties should even be exaggerated that that they should be over looked or underrated.

Am I asked, is the war then interminable? I confess, with such demands on our part as have been indicated, I can see little prospect of its conclusion. With wise and firm men at the head of affairs in Mexico, it seems to me clear that she may protract it until we shall not be able to prosecute it further. Of such men such a crisis as is the present in Mexico has, in all times and countries, been prolific. Sooner or later, we shall be forced to cease active operations. We can never do so more gracefully or advantageously than now. The country between the Nueces and the Rio Grande was the professed object of war. We have undisputed possession of that; and justice and policy both dictate that we should press a gallant but feeble and beaten enemy no further. Let us say how much of the territory now in our possession we intend to retain, and let us be generous and forbearing in fixing the time: and I confess that, if we could even get it for nothing, as a matter of national honor I would prefer to pay for all of it which we have no better title than the right of conquest. If Mexico would then not make peace– as probably for a time she would not– active operations would cease, even to the extent of border forays, if we kept up a line of posts on the frontier: and, if peace was not restored, all the expense of the war would thus be avoided, and all the waste of human life and the unnumbered and indescribable calamities which always follow in its train.

Such is the advice of the gallant and good Taylor, as wise in council and as humane and merciful after victory, as he is skillful and heroic in the conflict on battle. T.
[MPR]


RW47v24i12p2c6, February 9, 1847, From the Army.

[From the Charleston Mercury, Feb’y 6]

Dr. Holland, of the Army, bearer of despatches from the seat of war in Mexico to the General Government, left in the steamer yesterday afternoon for Washington.

We are indebted to his very polite attention for the following items of intelligence.

Dr. H. left Gen. Wool’s camp on the 8th ult. The camp is situated nine miles beyond Saltillo in a mountain pass called Encantrata. Col. Harney is posted with his dragoons, eleven miles beyond, on another mountain pass on the St. Louis road called Augua Nueva. Col. Yell of Arkansas, with his mounted men stationed at Pathos, in order to keep open the channel of communication with Parras, which is the great granary of Mexico.

Previous to the departure of our Infantry, arrangements had been made for a six months supply of grain for the forces.

The report of Santa Anna’s advance was contradicted at the time of his departure.

Gen. Wool’s army had never been beset by straggling parties of Mexicans, as had been reported, though there had been several false alarms.

Enough was known to justify the belief that the Mexican Congress were strongly disposed to peace.
[MPR]


RW47v24i12p4c1, February 9, 1847, The Prospect of Peace.

Mr. Sevier, the Chairman of the Committee of Foreign Relations in the Senate, expresses confidently the opinion, founded upon the correspondence between the President and certain persons in Mexico, exhibited to him by the former, that peace may be speedily concluded between Mexico and the United States, if Congress shall place in the hands of the Executive the sum of three millions of dollars, for which it asks. Yet, in the midst of these pacific indications from the official organ of communication between the President and the Senate, the most clamorous appeals are made, by the “Union,” to Congress, to supply the President with men and money, in order to ensure a vigorous prosecution of the war! What is the need of this “fork–tongued talk,” as the Indians would call it? Why amuse the country with the hope of a speedy peace, if no such hope can be seriously indulged? And if there be good reason to anticipate its speedy restoration, where is the need of such expensive and costly military and naval armaments? For one, we place no reliance on the opinion, founded upon a correspondence with Mexicans, who are evidently traitors to their own country, and cannot be expected to be faithful to their present employers, that peace can be bought for three millions of dollars, coupled with the cession to the United States of New Mexico and Upper California. And in this want of confidence we are justified, by the contents of a letter which we have recently seen from Genl. Scott, written to a friend– and which we may, we presume, without impropriety, be permitted to say, holds out no reason to hope for the return of peace before, at least, another decisive blow, the echo of which we may soon hear, shall have been struck.
[MPR]


RW47v24i12p4c1, February 9, 1847, What is Democracy?

Mr. Wentworth of Illinois and Mr. Johnson of Tennessee– heretofore regarded as wheel–horses in the Democratic team– declare their unalterable purpose to oppose a duty upon tea and coffee, which they say has always been deemed undemocratic since Mr. Clay recommended it in 1841. Mr. Polk and Secretary Walker, they declare, were especially opposed to this tax, and they therefore rather accuse those two gentlemen of deserting the democratic ranks by raking up a Whig “measure, ” in order to carry out a Democratic “principle ”– a circumstance, by the way, of no rare occurrence. On the other hand, Mr. Wick of Indiana, who boldly affirms that he knows of but one standard of Democracy, (so far as measures are concerned,) and that is obedience to “Executive recommendations,” (Wick is honest, at least,) goes for the tea and coffee tax, and thinks Mr. Wentworth but “leetle better than a Whig” for daring to be consistent with himself, in opposing it instead of yielding, as Wick thinks all true Democrats ought to do, to Executive dictation. The Union goes a step further. It thinks that although it may be federalism to levy a tax on tea and coffee in time of peace, it is genuine democracy to do so in time of war– and regards those, who, like Messrs. Wentworth and Johnson, cannot see the distinction, as rather more of a “demagogue” than a “statesman.” In this state of most admired disorder, we shall be very much obliged to the gentleman who are about to unfurl the flag in Virginia, if they will tell us what is Democracy?
[MPR]


RW47v24i13p1c1,February 12, 1847, Peace with Mexico.

The New Orleans Bulletin of the 4th inst. says: “We have seen letters of the 7th of January, from the city of Mexico, and from parties having access to high sources of information, which express, in decided terms, a belief that the difference between the two nations will very speedily be amicably and honorably settled.” So mote it be!
[MPR]


RW47v24i13p1c3, February 12, 1847, Mr. Calhoun.

The gentleman has defined his position on the Mexican War– and it will be seen that he fully endorses Gen. Taylor’s views– that he is conservative and anti–Administration. Indeed, in the present aspect of the question, what Southern man can occupy any other ground?

We were anxious to see what the Washington Union would say of this speech; but out copy of that paper did not come to hand.
[MPR]


RW47v24i13p1c5, February 12, 1847, Army News.

[From the New Orleans Mercury.]

We have received the following letter from our correspondent.

Brazos Santiago, Jan. 29.

Great activity prevails here night and day, in sending off supplies for the Army above, as also in loading and preparing transports for the operations below.

Gen. Worth, with his Division, arrived at the mouth of the river on the 23d, from Saltillo. The nest day, he removed his encampment up to the field of Palo Alto, where they will remain until they embark for below. He rode over, accompanied by his suite, to the Island to pay his respects to Gen. Scott, shortly after his arrival.

We have had a succession of fresh gales here for the last ten days past, preventing the lighters and boats from being employed to as great an advantage as the wants of the service required. The elements favor the Mexicans greatly, inasmuch as it is found utterly impossible to throw forward supplies and operate with the dispatch that would otherwise be done.

A large party of Mexicans followed up the rear of Gen. Worth’s command, doubtless to observe his movements. Several persons have been murdered recently on the road leading from Camargo to Monterey. Gen. Scott is here arranging and organizing an expedition, the result of which will bring additional laurels to his already honorable fame.

Col. Harney is again in limbo. It appears he was ordered to proceed to Monterey with four companies, whilst Maj. Torrens of the regiment was ordered to take command of the remaining six companies and march for the mouth of the river to join Worth’s division. Col. Harney said he was not to be disagreed, though they might arrest him, and, he accordingly marched with the largest portion of his regiment.

A Court Martial is ordered to convene for the trial of Col. Harney, on the 30th inst. It is probable that a few other officers will be brought before it.

It is generally believed that Col. Harney will plead guilty of the charge, and leave it with the court to decide the offence. None has more character and standing to test the principle than himself.
[MPR]


RW47v24i13p1c5, February 12, 1847, Movement of Troops

[From the Matamoros American Flag, Jan. 24.]

Movement of Troops.– Gen. Worth’s division arrived here on Friday morning last, on its way to Brasos. It is composed of the 4th Infantry, under Col. Whistler; 5th Infantry, Maj. Martin Scott; 8th Infantry, Maj. Wright; 2d Dragoons, Col. Harney; Col. Child’s Artillery Battalion; Lt. Col. Duncan’s Flying Artillery; with Lt. P. Kearney’s company of Dragoons, and Capt. Blanchard’s company of Louisiana Volunteers– the latter acting with the 5th Infantry.

The Division left Saltillo, under orders from the Commander–in–Chief, and will probably soon arrive at the theatre of active operations in the vicinity of Vera Cruz. The Dragoons, with Duncan’s and Taylor’s batteries were encamped at this place, from Thursday until Saturday, having arrived one day previous to the infantry regiments, which passed down on steamboats; but yesterday the dragoons were crossing the river, on their way to camp.

Gen. Worth passed down on the Corvette, without making a passing visit. The boat, however, stopped a short time at our landing, during which a salute was fired, and many persons from the town visited the boat, anxious to pay their respects to the hero of Monterey.

The whole command appear to be in fine health and spirits, and the horses in excellent condition– in fact, a more hardy, or efficient body of men than this command, cannot be produced in any country, and we look forward with much interest to their future operations, being satisfied that they “go where glory waits them.”

Gen. Butler was at Saltillo on the 17th, when Worth’s Division left, but it was understood that he would fall back on Monterey with his troops. Gen. Wool was still at Parras, but it is said that he will also march for Monterey– thus abandoning Saltillo, Parras, and the Rinconada Pass to the possession of the enemy. This step is supposed to be taken on account of the indefensible state of those places with their diminished forces. The severity of the climate and the scarcity of wood, forage, &c., combine to render them unpleasant quarters for this season of the year.

Gen. Taylor has established his head quarters at Monterey, and the place is being put in such a state of defence that all the troops of Mexico, with Santa Anna at their head, will not be able to disturb him. We suppose that Gen. Taylor will be left in command of all the forces above, while the invading army of Gen. Scott, consisting of nearly all the regulars now in Mexico, some seven thousand strong, and nearly twice that number of volunteers, will act in conjunction with the Navy in attacking Vera Cruz.

There are two companies of Dragoons with Gen. Taylor, Capt. May’s and Capt. Graham’s; Capt. Washington and Webster’s batteries are at Saltillo, and one company of Artillery at Camargo, which comprises nearly all the regulars above. At Camargo are the Second Ohio Volunteers, and a few others are stationed at Punta Agunda and Cerralvo, comprising nearly all the force between this and Monterey.

The Ohioans are under orders for Tampico, leaving the Third Indiana Regiment at this place, with a company or two of regulars in Fort Brown.
[MPR]


RW47v24i13p1c6, February 12, 1847

[Correspondence of the New Orleans Bee.]

Head Quarters U.S. Army of Invasion,
Cuidad, Victoria, Jan. 13th, 1847.

Gentlemen:– To–morrow morning the First Division [Gen. Twigg’s command,] will take up the line of march for Tampico, which, considering the season, looks more to me like carrying the war in Africa, than any move that has been made lately. Many feared that from the lateness of the season, we would again move in the direction of Monterey, but I believe the order communicating the intelligence of an advance in the direction of the coast, has given universal satisfaction, and for then once left the grumblers without aught to complain of.

On the 11th, a general Court Martial was convened, and the charges and specifications preferred against Bt. Second Lieut. Sturges, of the dragoons, [mentioned in my last as having lost his rear guard in the mountain,] Lieut. Col. May, was laid before it. As the facts set forth by witnesses, differ some from those I sent you, I will now endeavor to narrate, as near as possible, what Col. May give in as evidence on the occasion.

He said he had been ordered by the Commander–on–Chief to take a squadron of dragoons and protect Capt. Menard, a topographical engineer, in a reconnaissance. He left Monte Morales on the 25th of Dec., and reached Labador the next evening, where he remained during that night. The next morning the command halted for some time to shoe horses, but the Mexicans threw so many obstacles in their way that it was impossible to accomplish their object. This and other indications induced him to believe that he should meet the enemy before getting out of the mountain passes. After leaving Labador, and proceeding 4 miles in the direction of San Pedro, a large number of fresh horse tracks were discovered in the road, and a few minutes after, a Mexican was seen on the mountain side watching their movements. Him they took for a spy, and not long after they observed another. At sunset they arrived and remained during the night at San Pedro. On the 29th, they left San Pedro, and in a short time, entered the pass of Santa Rosa, leaving a Sergeant and 10 men to follow 200 yards after them, and to protect the pack mules. After a march of 7 or 8 miles the pass was found to be a succession of defiles, and believing still that they should be attacked, he ordered Lieut. Sturges, through the Adjutant, to stop and take command of the rear guard when it came up. After giving this order, the command marched 4 or 5 miles, the trail become so rugged that it was impossible to ride along, and the men dismounted and led their horses. As they were passing the most difficult defile yet encountered, and the greater part of the command had succeeded in getting through it, the enemy made an attack upon them. He was in the advance and the first he heard of it, “was an explosion like that of a mine.” The bugle was then sounded from the squadron, and answered by that of the rear guard, whilst his bugler sounded the ‘assembly.’ He supposed he was 150 yards from the mouth of the defile, and immediately hurried back to it and urged the men through it. He called to Lieut. Sturges “where is your guard,” and received for an answer, “here, sir.” He then ordered Lieut. S. to mount and get them out of the defile as quick as possible. He then rode up to where I was, and not seeing his guard, asked him where the packs were, “in there,” pointing to the defile, was the answer. “Is it possible, sir, that you have abandoned your packs?” said May, and finding that the body of the rear guard was not with Lieut. S. he said, “rejoin your guard, immediately sir, recover the pack, protect and defend them, until I can come to you with assistance, and if possible urge them through the defile.” On again returning from the squadron, he met Lieut. S. a second time coming from the defile, and he said, “Col. I have been further than where I left my guard and cannot find them, shall I take some men from the squadron and return?” When they arrived once more at the defile, they found it impossible to pass it without great loss to the command, as the enemy were constantly throwing rocks from the right, and occasionally firing small arms from the left. It was necessary then to endeavor to turn the defile, which they ultimately did by sealing the rocks. After remaining near the defile for ten or fifteen minutes, and returning the fire of the enemy, he sent an order to Lieut. Campbell to bring 20 men to the defile on foot, and to hold it until they returned; they proceeded a mile and a half to the rear, in hopes of recovering the packs and rear guard, but could not find them, and returned to the command and resumed their march, not deeming it proper to remain longer in the pass.

Sergeant Beach, who commanded the rear guard, in his evidence, thus alludes to the attack on the rear guard. The attack commenced by throwing rocks from the high cliffs, the first of which fell between him and the man in his rear. It was very large, and the sergeant seeing it descending in the direction of his horse, urged him forward and escaped. These rocks breaking up as they fell, and the pieces flying amongst the horses frightened, jerked him down, and when he recovered himself and rose up, he saw the rear guard retreating, and the enemy on the cliffs directing the stones at them.

I think it a very curious piece of business, this court mashalling the Lieutenant for losing a command which he proved on his trial he never saw after being detailed or ordered to it. It is certain, however, that although the proceedings of the court have not been made public, yet that he will come off in flying colors. His defence was very good, and he has raised in the estimation of the officers rather than fallen. He was rather sarcastic, but considering the circumstances, I suppose you must excuse him for it.

The Corporal.

*The Lieutenant says the Col. May did not understand him correctly– that he said he had been further that “where the attack was”– and I think he is correct, as no evidence proves him ever to have seen the rear guard after he started for it, as the attack commenced before he had time to reach it. Sergeant Beach, who commanded the guard, never saw Lieut. Sturges after starting in the morning.
[MPR]


RW47v24i13p1c6, February 12, 1847

[5 leagues on the road to Tampico.]

Santa Rosa, Jan. 14th, 1847.

This morning, shortly after sun–rise the first division, took up the line of march for Tampico, and after proceeding in that direction 14 or 15 miles encamped for the night at this place. A few hours after night an express reached us from Gen. Taylor– who remained behind this morning– ordering Bragg’s Battery, which has up to this time been acting with the First, to return to Victoria. Gen. Taylor received an express after we left from Gen. Scott, who was at Matamoros, but who will leave there in time to reach Tampico by the 1 st of February. It is though that by this movement Gen. Taylor will take all the mounted men– dragoons and Tennessee cavalry– and this Battery, and return to Monterey, for the purpose of commanding that wing of the army, whilst the other General will operate with this. The remainder of the troops at Victoria, and those now here will proceed to Tampico. Those who return would be of no benefit whatever to Gen. Scott, in reducing Vera Cruz. The guns of Bragg’s battery are small, and only calculated for quick manouvering.

With Gen. Scott at the head of affairs on the coast, and Old “Zack” in the very bowels of the land, I think the Mexicans will be put to their trumps to keep us from their capitol. General Scott, no doubt, understands his position well, and his measures have been taken accordingly. I understand he has plans of the city of Vera Cruz ad Castle of San Juan D’Ulloa, drawn by an experienced officer, and with a well appointed army, which he will not move without, he will straighten affairs in that direction. In the meantime, Gen. Taylor’s operations above Saltillo will keep the enemy busy, and advantage Gen. S. by demonstrations in that quarter. I believe Gen. Taylor, since he cannot neigh alone, will be well pleased with this arrangement, as it will give him a chance to do something more alone, and you may be sure his exertion will be great, and if he is not reined in by the President, the idea of competing with Scott will induce him to strain every nerve.

Yesterday, in Victoria, Gen. Taylor received a voluntary visit, from a Mexican, who reported himself as being direct from San Luis de Potosi. The Mexican army he stated were almost in a state of mutiny, caused by the scarcity of provisions, and lack of clothing and money. Santa Anna had gone to the city of Mexico, on a political speculation, having been advised by special messenger that all was not going on right there for the interest of his party. The Mexican Congress he said, had a flare up after taking the vote on the peace propositions of our government– which were negatived by a majority of over a fourth– and many of the members were on the eve leaving for their homes, fearing an out–break in the City.

The Corporal.

[MPR]


RW47v24i13p2c1, February 12, 1847, The Difficulties of the Mexican War and Prospects of its End.

We relinquish our editorial column this morning to the intelligent and able correspondent, to whom we are indebted for the subjoined highly interesting article. Its length, we hope, will not deter our readers from undertaking its perusal. No one, we are sure, who commences it, will lay down the paper without reading it to the end.

For the Whig.

The Mexican War has been attended with difficulties foreseen by very few at the onset. It was expected to be a San Jacinto fight, and the Mexico would sue humbly for peace. After the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, the war was supposed to many to be near its end. So little was known of the topography of Mexico, that we were promised an easy march to its capital; and “to revel in the Halls of Montezuma,” and “to conquer a peace,” were the watch words of the officials. It is proper that the People, who have had no will in its conception, should know something of its difficulties, that they may do justice to those who have involved us in them, and may appreciate aright the arduous service of our Army and Navy, upon whom the disposition has manifested itself in the Halls of Congress to cast the balance of its procrastination. It will, […], soon be seen, that if the wise injunction, “with good advice, make war,” had been observed, we should not now be asking, why was this war begun? How is it to terminate?

It is proposed to enumerate briefly the difficulties of a war with Mexico– some of which have already been encountered, others are yet to be met. The chief obstacles in the prosecution of such a war arises from the immensity of the Mexican territory, and its conformation. Nature furnishes the most formidable bulwarks for its defence. Its coast upon the Gulf of Mexico has no harbors. From the Nueces to Tabaso river, (near 900 miles,) a vessel drawing over 9 feet water, can find no safe anchorage. The rivers which admit small vessels, have shifting bars, at all times dangerous, which can be crossed in good weather only. It is believed, that from Tabasco river to Cape Catoche, about 600 miles, there are only open roads, unless we may except the Lake of Terminos, which admits vessels of shallow draught. The formidable winds, known by the names of Los Nortes (the Northers), prevail on this coast from October to March. The Hornet sloop–pf–war was lost some years ago in one of these gales off the Bar of Tampico, where she was lying at anchor. The Somers is a later victim. The shores near the Rio Grande are strewed with wrecks of vessels and steamers stranded during the last few months. The Neptune perished on the Bar of Tampico, in her effort to regain the harbor she had just left. Numerous reefs beguile other victims of destruction. The bones of the Truxton lie on one of them. These are the perils besetting our Navy. Thence have resulted the losses we have sustained, and the abortive attempts to cross the bar of Alvarado river. Our gallant and skillful seamen cannot conquer nature. They have been censured most unjustly for the little which they have done. This would not be, if the public were well informed of the obstacles encountered by them. From April to October, a pestilential plague pervades the greater part of this extensive coast. “The port of Vera Cruz is regarded as the principle seat to the yellow fever (vomito prieto ornegro .) Thousands of Europeans residing on the coasts of Mexico during the warm season, fall victims to this cruel epidemic. Vessels prefer arriving at Vera Cruz during the winter, whilst the tempestuous Northers (los nortes) rage, rather than being exposed, during the summer, to the loss of the larger part of their crew from the effects of the vomito, ” &c. “The unhealthiness of the coasts, which restrains the trade, facilitates, moreover, the military defence of the country against invasion from an European enemy.” This is the testimony of Humboldt, who furnishes much valuable information concerning this disease. It has prevailed at Tampico, Alvarado, and other ports, with like mortality as at Vera Cruz; but, like New Orleans, they escape its infliction some years, with the exception of Vera Cruz, where it is an annual scourge, as constant and as regular as its rainy season.

We will now advert to the difficulties encountered by our Army– particularly that division of it commanded by General Taylor. The war began with the invasion of Mexico on its Northern frontier. Our want of preparation (arising, doubtless, from a belief that the internal dissentions of the country, or its want of courage, or the fear of waging with it more powerful antagonist a disastrous war, would restrain Mexican hostility,) prevented our gallant soldiers from reaping the advantages won on the hard fought fields of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma. The enemy abandoned Matamoros at their leisure, retiring unmolested, because our General had not a sufficiency of troops, munitions, provisions, or means of transportation, to pursue the retreating enemy, who retired to Monterey, three hundred miles distant from Matamoros. It would seem an easy matter to march an army from Fredericksburg, in Virginia, to the city of New York, thro’ a thickly settled country, with good roads and wagon transportation. But our General had a harder task than this. He must be reinforced with troops and supplied with munitions of war and provisions from New Orleans– a distance of a thousand miles. Steamboats of shallow draught, suitable for navigating the Rio Grande, must be procured. The rainy season had then set in, and the shores of that river were inundated– even the encampments were overflowed– and the roads (if they merited this name) were impassable. Three or four months were occupied in overcoming these obstacles. Gen. Taylor was at length enabled to advance with a portion of his force to Monterey, and in September, won that important city from the enemy, after a struggle, in which our arms reaped fresh glory. For a victory such as this, the Romans would have granted a triumph to the General, and voted mural crowns to all engaged in such a gallant fight. “That they [the Mexicans] should have surrendered a place nearly as strong as Quebec, well fortified under the direction of skillful engineers– their works garnished with forty–two pieces of artillery, abundantly supplied with ammunition, garrisoned by 7000 regulars and 2000 irregular troops in addition to some thousand citizens capable of [and no doubt actually] bearing arms, and aiding in its defence– to an opposing force of half their number, scantily supplied with provisions, and with a light train of artillery– is among the unaccountable occurrences of the times.” The skill and courage of our officers and men overcame these obstacles. The public will award to the gallant General and his troops the merit they deserve for this “unaccountable occurrence,” notwithstanding the direct censure inflicted by the President upon General Taylor for granting liberal terms of capitulation to the Mexican troops– followed by the order to terminate the armistice, which would have been terminated in a few days by its own limitation, and the more recent vote of the House of Representatives Saltillo, about 70 miles from Monterey, is also in our possession. Beyond this point, Gen. Taylor regards it next to impracticable to advance. It is 300 miles from thence to San Luis Potosi– near 600 to the city of Mexico– rather a long march by this route to attain the promised reward of “reveling in the Halls of Montezuma.” It would be needless to enumerate other difficulties in the prosecution of the war through the Northern States of Mexico.

Let us now view them from Tampico. The distance thence to San Luis Potosi is about 150 miles. If it were even desirable to reach the enemy at that point, it is wholly impracticable, as this route admits the transportation of nothing but what can be carried on the backs of mules. IF artillery could be dispensed with, how many of these would be required to convey the munitions, provisions, &c. of the 20,000 men, who, say Gen. Taylor, “would be necessary to insure success, if we move on that place?” Where can they be procured? From Tampico to the city of Mexico is nearly 300 miles, which can be travelled by mules only, and is, if possible, more impracticable than the route to San Luis. It traverses a desolate, thinly settled country, and presents obstacles so numerous that the diligent traveller, with ordinary luggage, can average only three miles an hour. There is an abundance of water after the first day’s journey from Tampico Viejo, where, for 25 miles, none is to be procured, and this scarcely potable. But an army would be compelled to carry its provisions, for nothing could be obtained except plantains and sugar cane, which are sometimes met with. It is hard to convey a just idea of the difficulties of this route. One portion of it leads, for 25 or 30 miles, along the rugged bed of a stream, with high mountains on either hand, amidst a most luxuriant tropical growth, the path crossing the stream, it is said, one hundred and twenty times. At another point, the traveller sleeps in a town the elevation of which gives it a temperature so cold as to require fire;– he then descends to the tierra caliente (the hot country)– crosses a mountain stream– ascends again to a considerable height– and a second time descends to the warm country, and takes his dinner surrounded by tropical fruits. He then ascends to a height exceeding 1500 feet by a steep and rugged path, and sleep enveloped in his blanket. Here a small body of troops might prevent the advance of thousands. In view of these insurmountable obstacles, Tampico, as a military station, is of no value whatever. To the Navy, it affords a harbor for small steamers and vessels of light draught.

Let us now suppose Vera Cruz to be in our possession. The town may readily be carried by storm. After it is acquired, of what value is it to us? The Castle might, in course of time, be starved out, and forced to surrender. If it be well supplied with provisions, the sickly season may arrive before this stock be exhausted, and out troops would fall victims to an enemy more fat than the Mexicans. The town does not (as has been stated in some newspapers) command the Castle, and the inconsiderable heights in the rear are shifting sand–hills, destitute of vegetation. When the Castle was in possession of the Spaniards, after they had lost foothold on the Main, it was held by them several years, and was not surrendered until September of 1825, near the close of the first year of Guadaloupe Victoria’s Presidency. Up to that time, Alvarado was the seat of trade. The possession of Vera Cruz would give to our Navy a better anchorage inside of the island of Sacrificios, beyond the range, probably, of the Castle’s guns. From Vera Cruz begins the march to the city of Mexico. The distance is about 225 miles. There is a good carriage road, which might, however, be easily broken up and encumbered in many places. To Jalapa is about sixty miles, of which 50 must be marched before troops reach a healthy country. To this point, the road is first sandy, through a sterile country, uninhabited for the most part, with a thick, low growth, like, we suppose, the chaparral of Northern Mexico. Good water is not to be found until the elevated site of Jalapa is reached. Portions of the road have been paved, and good stone bridges cross the river Antigua– 30 miles from Vera Cruz– and other small streams near the more elevated country. Jalapa is 4334 feet above the sea. Its climate is delightful– like that, probably, of Monterey. The contiguous slopes seem very fertile, and abound in tropical fruits. Our gallant army might readily gain this place, and retain it at pleasure. Nor would it be difficult to maintain its communications with Vera Cruz, though at hazard of great loss by disease during 7 or 8 months of the year. Hence to Mexico, many points offer for strong resistance by the Mexicans, who would, doubtless, abandon San Luis Potosi for the defence of their capital, and take advantage of every mountain pass. From Jalapa, the plains of Perote, of Puebla, and of Mexico must be crossed. Each is more elevated than the other, and lofty ridges of mountain separate them. One hundred and sixty miles from Vera Cruz, is Puebla, a large, well built city, with a population of about 50,000 or 60,000. Its elevation is 7181 feet above the sea. Portions of the plain produce excellent wheat; but like the preceding plain of Perote, it is generally sterile where facilities for irrigating it at pleasure do not exist. Fifty miles onward, from the lofty heights which must now be reached, with mountains of eternal snow near at hand, the eye ranges over the plain of Mexico to the city at its farther edge, 3000 feet below.

Mexico is not a walled town, though surrounded for the most part by trenches filled with water. Like most Spanish towns, its best means of defence consist in its houses built of stone with flat roofs– and each house a castle. Cannon would riddle, but not demolish them. But the Mexicans would hardly expose their beautiful capital to the horrors of a siege, or their best troops to the prospect of captivity, while a better policy, pursued already by Santa Anna, and likely to be persevered in, will best suit their purpose. We may, then, fancy ourselves in possession of the Halls of Montezuma. Is the country then conquered? By no means. The French overran the peninsula. They occupied Madrid, Seville– all its large towns– marched where they pleased, whenever they pleased. Napoleon and his best generals sought earnestly to subdue Spain and “to conquer a peace.” What Spain is in miniature, so is Mexico on a grand scale. Her mountains more lofty and difficult of access– her ways (only one excepted) mere mule paths– her resources limited for feeding her conquering hordes– her magnificent distances counting not by leagues but by degrees– her winds boisterous– with no harbors to shelter the tempest–tossed mariner– her diseases more sure and fatal than the Atlantic Cholera. In possession of her capital, we have overcome almost insuperable difficulties. Is there not a greater difficulty yet to overcome? Which is likely to wear out first, Spanish pride and obstinacy, or Anglo–Saxon patience? Are we prepared to wage a Punic War? A nation of freemen, with Nature as her best ally, cannot be subdued. We ought not, therefore, to attempt it.

Now the question arises, how can this war be terminated? From its commencement in May last, the struggle has been “to conquer a peace.” We have supposed that our armies have overcome almost insuperable difficulties, and that our flag waves proudly in the place where Cortes planted the Spanish ensign three centuries ago. There are yet recesses in the mountains, which sheltered the heroic republicans in the War of Mexican Independence. As our Congress retired from Philadelphia, so will the Mexican from the capital; and her army will find Valley Forge. The chairman of the committee of Foreign Relations in the Senate said, a few days ago, that we had now the power to force contributions, and thus to relieve ourselves from some of the burdens of the war; forgetting that the Mexicans have left us nothing of the sort. They pull their dug themselves so often, that it is now exhausted. Shall we burn their towns, as had been suggested by some? Happily their structure defies this barbarous mode of warfare– their houses, built of stone and covered with tiles, furnish no material for combustion. Shall we sack their churches? Barbarians have done this. We dare not. We have already aroused the hate of the Mexican. Let us give no further cause for hi bitter animosity. * It is useless to enquire into the cause of the intense hatred felt towards us by Mexicans. This naked fact is attested by all who visit that country. This has healed her internal dissentions– has united her people– has consolidated her government. After viewing the war in its most favorable aspect, the conclusion forces itself irresistibly upon us, that it is unwise to expend more men and money in efforts “to conquer a peace” in the mode now pursued. We are strengthened in this belief by the opinion of Gen. Taylor– Commodore Perry is said to entertain the same belief– and policy alone, doubtless, restrains many of our leading Statesmen from expressing similar opinions. But if it was even practicable for us to humble Mexico– to compel its government to sue for peace– is it expedient to do it? Granting that she has wronged us– that she has maltreated our citizens– that she has failed to indemnify them– yet for this ought we to blot her out from among the nations of the earth? Ought we to forget that she is a sister and a neighboring Republic? She did not set out in the career of free government under the advantages possessed by us. Oppressed by the mother country, governed by Spaniards alone in every department, her native citizens degraded, she had every thing to learn when she undertook the task of self–government. Thus have grown her many errors and misfortunes, deserving our sympathy more than our contempt. It becomes us, then, to lend her a helping hand– let us

“Be to her faults a little blind;
Be to her virtues very kind.”

The day may yet come, when she shall be to us an efficient ally in resisting the Allied Despots of the Old World, who regard with ill dissembled jealousy the growing Republics of the New Hemisphere. Let us tell her, that we covet not her territory– it is ill adapted to an union with ours– it suits not the genius of our enterprizing people to be exposed to the soothing indolence of a tropical sun– that we cover now a space larger than was designed by the Fathers of the Constitution– that we are unwilling to hazard its severance by increasing its dimension to an unwieldy size. As victors, we can do this without humiliation– we can soothe her pride, without wounding our own. Artful European diplomatists have infused her with jealousy and suspicion, for which we have furnished heretofore too just grounds. These should be allayed by frank and honest […], and a rigid course of justice in our future intercourse. The course here indicated would; doubtless, lead to an early and lasting peace. The governments of the two nations must abandon their high pretensions. Mexico cannot indemnify us for the expenses of the war. She has not the ability to do it in the money– we ought not ask it in territory. We do not even need the fine harbor of San Francisco, possessing the magnificent harbors of the Straits of Fuca, yielded to us by the late Oregon treaty, of equal access to our whale ships, and more convenient for communication with the Atlantic border of our continent. Nor ought Mexico demand that we shall evacuate her soil and open her ports before she will consent to negotiate with us. Nor ought the two governments to persist in rejecting the friendly offices of a mediator. As private quarrels are, so should public be, most happily terminated by the intervention of friends. In the present contest, mediation seems to be the most likely means of effecting what should be the cherished object of both countries. Indeed it may well be doubted if there be any other mode of terminating the war within the next two years. By the mediation of Russia, a treaty of peace was negotiated between the United States and Great Britain. Prussia was our umpire in the adjustment of our claims against Mexico. If there be a jealousy of an European mediator, the enlightened Republic of Venezuela would, no doubt, gladly interpose her good offices, and institute measures for terminating the existing war. PACIFICUS.

8th February, 1847.

* It was proposed not long since, (the proposition was regarded of great moment by the Enquirer,) that we should conquer the whole country, and thus enjoy the benefit of controlling the trade across the Isthmus. Only two routes have ever been proposed. One is within the limits of New Granada, the other in Guatemala. Have we unsettled claims with this Republic too? Are we to extend our arms to Nicaragua first– then to Panama?
[MPR]


RW47v24i13p2c2, February 12, 1847

A Complimentary Supper was given to Col. Jno. F. Hamtramck, of the Virginia Volunteers, by his neighbors and friends in Charlestown, Jefferson county, on the 30th ult.
[MPR]


RW47v24i13p2c2, February 12, 1847

The Boston Whig of the 7th inst. informs us that Com. Kearney was in that city negotiating for the purpose of two schooners now running as packets. Two others have been bought in New York, and two more are to be added, each of which is to be armed with on of Alger’s new guns, of the heaviest calibre.
[MPR]


RW47v24i13p2c2, February 12, 1847

Col. Whistler, of the U.S. Army, met with a severe accident while leaving a boat at the mouth of the Rio Grande, his arm having been broken.
[MPR]


RW47v24i13p2c2, February 12, 1847

It is rumored that Com. Warrington is to take command of the Gulf Squadron, which is to co–operate with the army in the attack on the Vera Cruz and the Castle of St. Juan de Uloa.
[MPR]


RW47v24i13p2c2, February 12, 1847, Letter from Washington.

Correspondence of the Whig.

Washington, Feb. 9, 1847.

The Senate was the great attraction to–day. After some unimportant business, the special order came up in the shape of the “Three Million Bill.” Mr. Calhoun having the floor, made a great speech on the War. He was in favor of withdrawing the troops from Mexico, to this side of the Rio del Norte. He said that five Regiments and a few small vessels could protect the whole line of boundary which he advocated, which was, to adopt the Rio Grande from its source to the Pass del Norte, thence West to the Pacific, which would give us Upper California. He deprecated the idea of passing any “Wilmot provisos,” and advocated a moderate course of policy, which would make the North refrain from urging its Anti–Slavery measures, while it would secure to the South all that it could reasonably expect. But I do not intend to make a report of his speech. I hope you will find room for it in full. It was listened to attentively by a crowded Senate, and fashionably attended galleries. It was one of his greatest efforts, and will be eagerly and attentively read by the great mass of people. It was clearly anti–Polk in all its positions.

In the House, a movement was made to expel the Reporters of the Washington Union, for the report in the House of Saturday’s proceedings. As a committee has been appointed to consider this subject, the motion was rejected by a very large majority.

The Three Million Bill was then taken up, and speeches were made by several members. Mr. Rathbun and other Locofocos made strong speeches against Slavery. Mr. Dixon of Connecticut made a very able speech against the Three Million Bill. It is supposed that this bill will pass the House, but fail in the Senate.

An important Bill was introduced to the notice of the House of Representatives to–day. It was moved by Mr. Washington Hunt of New York. It is entitled “A Bill for the Relief of Ireland.” It appropriated half a million of dollars to make purchases of flour and provisions to be sent to Ireland. I believe Mr. Webster and Mr. Calhoun are in favor of the measure. I think it will pass Congress without any opposition of much account.

We had a great meeting to–nigh, in Odd Fellows’ Saloon. The Vice President of the United States presided among the Vice Presidents– a member of Congress from every State and Territory in the United States– were Hon. Messrs. John C. Calhoun, of South Carolina, J.J. Crittenden, of Kentucky, J.M. Clayton, of Delaware, D.R. Atohison, of Missouri, &c. Mr. Webster drew up the resolutions with his own pen, and made some remarks in introducing them to the meeting. Rev. Orville Dewey, D.D. read a very eloquent address to the people of the United States. Speeches were also made by Mr. Maclay of New York, Mr. Owen of Indiana, and Mr. Crittenden of Kentucky. Mr. Hannegan of Indiana and Mr. Corwin of Ohio were expected to address the meeting, but were prevented by sickness from attending. Committees were appointed to receive subscriptions to transmit to Ireland the proceeds. The cities of New Orleans, Charleston, Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York and Boston were made general depots for the reception of contributions to be forwarded to Ireland. The meeting was attended by large numbers of ladies, and by a crowd of gentlemen. The resolutions submitted by Mr. Webster, and the address by Dr. Dewey were received with acclamation. The remarks of Mr. Crittenden were received with great applause. I shall probably send you a fuller account in my next letter.

BRUTUS.

[MPR]


RW47v24i13p2c3, February 12, 1847

The New Orleans Bulletin places little reliance in the reported assassination of Santa Anna. It is improbable for every reason, that paper thinks, and particularly for the one assigned for the act on the part of the soldiers.
[MPR]


RW47v24i13p2c3, February 12, 1847

The Washington correspondent of the Baltimore Sun (Locofoco) makes a revelation– which is “important, if true.” He says: “After the close of the present session of Congress, President Polk may himself take a trip to Mexico, with Col. Benton, Gen. Cass and Mr. Crittenden as his staff, and if an opportunity should offer, as Commissioners.” Not very probable.
[MPR]


RW47v24i13p2c3, February 12, 1847

The following officers constitute the Court Martial for the trial of Col. Harney, U.S. Dragoons, for disobedience of orders: Colonel N.S. Clarke; Lieut. Cols. J.P. Taylor, E.A. Hitchcock, James Duncan and Thomas Staniford; Majors H.K. Craig, J.L. Gardner, W.M. Graham, H. Brown, G.W. Allen, B.L.E. Bonneville and Martin Scott, and Capt. W. Chapman. Judge Advocate, Capt. Wm. W. Mackall.
[MPR]


RW47v24i13p2c3, February 12, 1847

A letter from the Camp on the Rio Grande, of the 27th ult. states that “Gen. Worth is confined to his bed, and is quite ill. He looks pale and thin, but issues his orders as minutely and as regularly as when he was able to sit his horse.” Fears are expressed that he will have to suffer much before he can walk. His illness is ascribed to the effect of wounds received during the war of 1812, which have been rendered acutely painful by recent exposure and active exercise.
[MPR]


RW47v24i13p2c5, February 12, 1847, Late and Important from Mexico.

From the New Orleans Picayune, Feb. 3.

By the arrival yesterday of the schooner Mitis, Capt. Thompson, from Anton Lizardo, we have late intelligence of a very exciting nature from Mexico. We have a letter from our attentive correspondent, dated on the 20th ult., containing news of a most startling nature, as well as files of Vera Cruz papers up to the latest date received. The news of the death of Santa Anna, at the hands of his soldiers, needs confirmation; but that there is and has been great excitement against him there can be no doubt.

We see no account, in our files, of the Mexican Congress having touched the matter of a peace with the United States in any way. In all debates, on the contrary, the most hostile feeling appears to have been exhibited.

Santa Anna, in answer to the committee who proceeded to San Luis to congratulate him on his election to the Presidency, said that he had resources sufficient, out of his private means, to support the war for six months, and dismissed his audience highly gratified with the information.

The Mexican Government has raised La Vega from the rank of Colonel with the title of General, to that of Brigadier General, in recompense for his bravery in the action of Resaca de la Palma. A motion has also been made in Congress, by Senor Godoy, which was carried, to present Gen. La Vega with a gold medal bearing the following inscription: on one side, “The National Representation of 1846;” on the reverse, “To Gen. La Vega for his conduct at the Resaca de Guerrero.”

By the way of San Luis we have the Mexican accounts, undoubtedly, of the recent attack upon the rear guard of Col. May, in the mountain pass between Monte Morelos and Linares. In a communication of Santa Anna to the Secretary War, he says that he has received the following dispatch from Don Francisco Paula de Morelos, Governor of New Leon, under date of the 28th December, 1846. We copy it entire:

“In my official communication of yesterday I informed your Excellency that one hundred and seven Americans had proceeded through the defiles of Morelos, and occupied Galeana on the 27th. I have now to inform your Excellency, that at 8 o’clock on the morning of the following day they resumed their march in the direction of Linares, through the defile of Santa Rosa. The inhabitants of San Pedro, however, irritated, at the boldness of the invaders, prepared to attack them on the march at one of those points which I am informed are calculated to repel, with success, any enemy. Accordingly, they attacked them today, at 11 o’clock, A.M., a short distance from the village of San Pedro, having only a force of 25 men and boys. With hardly any arms but stones they succeeded in destroying the whole party, as I am informed. I have not yet received full particulars, but 11 of the enemy, who retreated towards the town, were apprehended by inhabitants, and these I forward, under proper guard, to headquarters.”

One of the writers at San Luis describes a general review of the troops at that city on the 2d ult. He says: “they were well armed, equipped and uniformed, it was a pleasure to gaze upon them, and they appeared as though it were impossible to vanquish them.: It can be done, however.
[MPR]


RW47v24i13p2c5, February 12, 1847

U.S. Squadron, Anton Lizardo, Jan. 20.

There is a report at Vera Cruz that the opposition of Santa Anna to the recent decree of Congress, for the sale of church property, has provoked the vengeance of the soldiers, and that he has been shot. I have heard none of the circumstances attending this alleged outbreak, which of course requires confirmation to be implicitly relied upon. There are many circumstances, however, which render it quite likely that such has been the fate of Santa Anna.

Congress, after a long and stormy session on the 9th inst., approved the first section of a bill which had been introduced on the 7th authorizing the Government to raise $15,000,000 by the hypothecation or sale of certain goods of the church. This project was violently opposed in Congress and out of Congress, and was represented to be nothing less than a scheme to close the churches, suspend divine worship, and starve the priesthood and the inmates of the convents. It was defended on the score of imperious necessity, as being the only means by which money could be raised to save the country from denationalization, the race from extinction, and the very churches from being desecrated. It is said that unless the army at San Luis Potosi could be guaranteed speedy relief and succor by the passing of this measure on that night, that they would disband in the face of the enemy and march on Mexico to subvert the Government. The first article was passed by a vote of 55 to 31. The question upon selling the church property appears to have been taken separately, and to have encountered a stronger opposition, as the vote was 44 to 35. The project emanated from the Government, and the bill was supported by the ministers.

The passage of the law has created the greatest excitement throughout Mexico. The churches are closed, and every indication of mourning and of resistance has been evinced by those who support the religious establishments. The Government have addressed to the soldiers a circular, in which the most stringent measures are authorized for preserving order and enforcing the decree.

Santa Anna declared his opposition to the bill.

If he has been assassinated, as report has it, I am inclined to think there is little prospect of peace, except with the subjugation of the whole country. The Mexican Congress and Mexican press every where make this the […]– “Ser o no ser.” The administration of the country is in the hands of men who have nothing to loss by the misfortune of their country, and the army is conducted by generals who even hail defeat as affording them the best opportunity of filling their pockets with the public funds.

It has been proposed by Gen. Gambos in Congress, to prohibit entirely the exportation of gold and silver without the express permission of Congress during the war with the United States.

It is stated that provision has been made for fortifying the passage between Vera Cruz and Mexico, viz: Puente Nacional, Plan del Rio and Cerro Gordo.

Lt. Rains arrived here a few days ago in charge of 17 prisoners who were exchanged for the “naufrajios” of the Somers, then held in Vera Cruz. Mr. Rogers is still held in confinement, but is I learn from himself treated with great kindness. Gen. La Vega called on him before he left Vera Cruz for Mexico and promised to obtain for him his liberty. It is now said in Vera Cruz that he will be released in a few days.
[MPR]


RW47v24i13p4c1, February 12, 1847, From the Seat of War.

It will be seen by the intelligence of another column that Gen’l Scott is rapidly concentrating his force, with the intention, now no longer questionable, of taking up a line of march for Vera Cruz– taking Gen’l Worth with him, and leaving “Old Rough and Ready” in command at Monterey.

The rumor of the violent death of Santa Anna, in one of those civil brawls of which Mexico seems fated to be the theatre, is by no means improbable. What will be its effect, if it be true, upon the question of peace or war, it is difficult to conjecture. Indeed, no reliable opinion can be formed as to the future policy of a people so factious and turbulent, and of a government so unstable, that we scarcely hear of the installation of its officers before the tidings reach us of their banishment or their violent death. We shall perhaps receive further and more authentic news by this morning’s mail.
[MPR]


RW47v24i13p4c1, February 12, 1847

Col. Sterne Simmons, of Madison County, Missippi, committed suicide, while laboring under an aberration of mind, at Vicksburg, on the 30th ult.
[MPR]


RW47v24i13p4c1, February 12, 1847

The Washington correspondent of the Baltimore Sun says, the Three Million Bill, if not defeated, will have a narrow escape. The two Texas Senators are against it. They go for “conquering a peace,” not buying it.
[MPR]


RW47v24i13p4c1, February 12, 1847, The Brigadier General.

It is understood here that the President will give the appointment of Brigadier General, to command the Southern Volunteers, either to Gen. Cadwallader of Philadelphia, or to Major Gwynn of this city. Independent of the manifest propriety of appointing a Southern man to command the Southern volunteers, it is sufficient, without comparing the qualifications of the two gentlemen, that Pennsylvania has already been honored by the appointment of a Major General, who is no in the field, to incline the scale in favor of Virginia. We hope that the representatives from this State will urge the claims of Virginia, in the person of one of her sons, every way qualified to adorn the station, by pressing the appointment of Maj. Gwynn upon the Executive.
[MPR]


RW47v24i13p4c1, February 12, 1847

Col. Webb, in a letter to the N.Y. Courier, from Washington, says:– “When the Army Bill will become a law, I dare not venture to predict; but I hope and trust that it will be very shortly, as I stand pledged to the Executive to remain here until it does, to learn whether he intends to send me to Mexico.”
[MPR]


RW47v24i13p4c1, February 12, 1847

The New York Express aptly says:– “We never before heard of a people spending a hundred millions of dollars in war to punish a nation accused of robbing us, and of invading our soil, and then giving it three millions to make peace! Among all the originalities of the United States, Europe, we venture to say, will look upon this as the oddest. If any body pays, surely Mexico ought to payus three millions!”
[MPR]


RW47v24i13p4c2, February 12, 1847, Gen. Taylor.

The last N.Y. Spirit of the Times contains a long and highly interesting Diary, from the pen of its accomplished correspondent [Capt. Henry, of the 3d Infantry,] attached to the army in Mexico, for the whole of which we regret that we have not room. We copy from it the following picture of old Rough and Ready:

“Winding down a hill, our column was halted to let a troop of horse pass. Do you see at their head a plain looking gentleman, mounted upon a brown horse, having upon his head a Mexican sombrero, dressed in a brown olive–colored loose frock coat, grey pants, wool socks and shoes; from under the frock appears the scabbard of a sword; he has the eye of an eagle, and every lineament of his countenance is expressive of honesty, and a calm, determined mind. Reader, do you know who this plain looking gentleman is? No? Is it Major Gen’l Zachary Taylor, who, with his military family, and a squadron of Dragoons as an escort, is on his way to Victoria. He never has around him any of the ‘pomp and circumstance of the glorious war;’ but when the battle rages, when the victory hangs upon a thread, when the bravest even dread the galling fire, you will find, foremost among them all, the brave and gallant General, whose presence alone insures a victory.”
[MPR]


RW47v24i13p4c2, February 12, 1847

If, as the Enquirer says, the adoption, by the unanimous vote of the “Democratic” House of Delegates of Virginia, of resolutions of thanks to Gen. Taylor, argues an absence of all “malignity” on their part towards that distinguished officer, what does the refusal to pass similar resolutions by the House of Representatives at Washington imply? And what inference are we to draw from the more than half–expressed approbation of the course of that House by the Executive Organ, speaking doubtless organically on the subject?
[MPR]


RW47v24i13p4c2, February 12, 1847

From Anton Lizardo.– The schooner Loredo, Capt. Thomas, arrived yesterday from Anton Lizardo, having sailed on the 19th ult. The news by her is unimportant, but we learn that on the day the Loredo came away the U.S. steamer Princeton went into Vera Cruz, with Lieut. Raines on board as bearer of despatches, as sixteen Mexican prisoners who had been taken at the mouth of the Rio Grande.

The frigate Raritan was lying at Anton Lizardo; the rest of the U.S. Squadron were at Sacrificios.– N.O. Picayune.

Col. Mitchell, who commanded a regiment of Ohio volunteers at Monterey and who was badly wounded there, has almost entirely recovered. His friends will be pleased to learn that this gallant officer is now here, on his way to rejoin his regiment.– Ib.
[MPR]


RW47c24i13p4c2 February 12, 1847

Correspondence of the Whig.

Baltimore, Feb. 8, 1847– 10 P.M.

The last sad funereal rites of the gallant Col. Watson and Capt. Ridgely, were performed to–day. It was an occasion imposingly grand and solemn. The Military, Odd Fellows and Firemen turned out in strong numbers. The bodies of the honored dead were borne upon two magnificent hearses, drawn each by six richly caparisoned horses. The coffins, covered with black velvet, and beautifully ornamented with gold bullion fringe, plated with silver, &c, were on the top of the hearse. Following immediately in the rear of Col. Watson was the celebrated old soldier, Albert Hart, who lost his arm in the battle of Monterey while fighting under his lamented Colonel. He carried in the remaining left hand the proud banner of his beloved country. The brave Captain Walker, so notorious as a Texas Ranger, was also conspicuous in the solemn train. The entire procession was over a mile in length, and displayed at every point splendid banners, flags, &c. It marched to solemn and appropriate music, which fell in impressive tones upon the ear. The streets and avenue through which the pageant passed, were thronged by thousands, who came out to honor the gallant dead. It was truly an impressive and solemn occasion, and at the silent sepulchre, where the dead patriots now sleep, unheeding the world’s rude strife, many a tear dropped to their memory.

At a meeting of the Stockholders and Directors of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Company, this morning, it was agreed to postpone action in regard to extending the road until the 22d inst. when another meeting will take place, and something definite, in all probability, be accomplished. A committee was appointed, who will report to the next meeting. The friends of the Southern Route had great hopes that Virginia would grant the right of way, but the action of your Legislature has destroyed these hopes. This great internal improvement must be extended to the Ohio, but to do so by awaiting further Virginia legislation would be out of the question.
[MPR]


RW47v24i13p4c6, February 12, 1847, Later from the Army. Arrival of the Steamship McKim– Gen. Worth, with his Command, at the Brazos– Gen. Wool left near Saltillo– Mexicans […], &c. &c.

From the N.O. Picayune, Feb. 2.

By the arrival last evening of the steamship McKim, Capt. Philsbury, from Brazos via Galveston, we have dates from the former place up to the 24th January and from the latter up to the 29th. The McKim remained at Galveston long enough for the editors there to make up the intelligences, and from the News we make up the following summary.

By far the most important news is the arrival at the Brazos of Gen. Wool with his command. He arrived there on the 23d ult. by way of Camargo. The news says that Gens. Scott and Worth are to have command of the main and regular army which is now concentrating at Tampico or at some place in the neighborhood. The new recruits have there place of rendezvous at the new island of Lobos, about sixty miles to the south of Tampico. The opinion is almost universal that a movement is now to be made against Vera Cruz. It is understood that that place is to be invested both by land and water. Col. Harney, with five companies of the 2d dragoons, was expected in Matamoros on the 21 st ult, on which day Col. Duncan arrived there, and his battery was hourly expected. Lieut. Kearney had arrived with his company the day before.

From the News we also learn that Gen. Taylor has returned from Victoria to Monterey with a small escort. He is to remain at the latter place in command of the volunteers. His orders to this effect proceed from Gen. Scott, who now holds the chief command.

Gen. Wool was in command at Saltillo or in the neighborhood, retaining his original force, 3000 men. He was encamped on an elevated and commanding position ten miles to the south of Saltillo on the road to San Luis Potosi. This place is called Buena Vista, and gives General Wool, with a battery of twelve pieces of ordnance, command of the only passable route to and from San Luis. His orders are to maintain this position.

Col. Hardin and his regiment from Illinois– a part of Gen. Wool’s command– are spoken of in the highest terms. The discipline of this regiment is said to have been carried to an almost incredible degree of perfection. In fact, the whole of Gen. Wool’s army is represented as composed of excellent troops, in whose valor and good conduict every confidence may be placed.

The country from Reynosa to Camargo and Mier, and through Monterey, is filled with marauding Mexicans, robbing and murdering wherever they can do so with impunity.

The kindness and hospitality of the Mexican ladies at Parras are highly eulogised. At the time of Gen. Wool’s departure from that place there were thirteen invalid soldiers too much worn by sickness to accompany the army. On this occasion some fifty or sixty Mexican ladies, favorable to the American cause, visited the hospital, every one of whom sought it as a favor that she might be permitted to take home one of those suffering soldiers, where she might be able to nurse and restore him to health. All, of course, could not be gratified in this benevolent desire, and great was the disappointment of those who had to return without an American soldier. Another similar case is given of the two daughters of Don Lorenzo Yarto, a citizen of Parras, who took a sick soldier in their charge, and for several days in succession they kept a constant watch over him, the one sitting by his bedside by day, and the other performing the same service by night. These instances of kindness and humanity are related by Dr. Woodworth, who is direct from Parras, and should be recorded. They will certainly not be soon forgotten by those who have thus had their sufferings alleviated.

A Mr. Laing, who has been engaged in the wine trade between Parras and Chihuahua, recently returned from the later city, and reports that Gen. Cuilty, late Governor of Chihuahua, was posted at San Rosalia as early as the 10th of December, with a force of 2000 citizen soldiers or rancheros, with a view to intercept Gen. Wool, who was expected to march upon Chihuahua from Monclova.

The above is all the intelligence of importance we can find. The arrival of Gen. Worth, with his division, at the Brazos, is of moment, as it would prove almost conclusively that an immediate attack upon Vera Cruz, by land is contemplated. We shall soon hear of stirring events.
[MPR]

Postscript– Still Later.

At 1 o’clock this morning the U.S. steamship Alabama, Capt. Windle, arrived from Brazos Santiago, which place she left on Saturday evening last, the 31st ult., making the run to the Balize in forty–eight and to the city in fifty–six hours– the quickest trip ever made.

Among the passengers by the Alabama were Maj. Morris, Captains Irwin and Fulton, Lieut. Hamilton, Dr. W.R. Smith, and Mr. Smith. Besides these were Messrs. J.A. Banks and Dr. Vanvolra, with the remains of Lieut. Woods, Capt. Johnson with the remains of Gen. Hamer, and Mr. C.G. Miller with those of Capt. Williams.

We have received several letters from Mr. Lumsden, who sailed for Tampico on the 30th ult. in the schooner Eliza S. Leper. We have not room for them to–day, but can state that they mention the arrival of the ships Sharon, Archillaus and Ondiaka, with Louisiana volunteers, and their departure for either Lobos Island or Tampico; also that the regiment of “Rifles” have been dismounted; and further, that Col. Harney has been arrested by Gen. Scott for disobedience of orders, and was to be tried immediately by court martial. More full particulars to–morrow.

We have also received letters from Mr. Haile, who is with Gen. Worth’s division, but which the lateness of the hour prevents our giving this morning. His last letter is dated “On the Rio Grande, near Palo Alto,” on the 27th ult, in which he states that Gen. Worth is quite unwell, but still able to give orders. He has between two and three thousand men with him– the pick of the army.

Gen. Scott and staff still remained at Brazos, but it was thought would sail in a few days for Tampico. The news brought by the McKim that Gen. Taylor had returned to Monterey is confirmed.

The vessels with the 1st Regiment Pennsylvania volunteers on board had arrived off the Brazos– all well. They had been ordered, it is said, to Lobos.

From Tampico we have dates to the 26th ult, brought by Maj. Morris. He informs us that Gen. Patterson arrived there on the 23d with 4500 men. Gens. Twigg, Quitman and Pillow were along– troops all in good health.

The steamer Cincinnati was lost on the night of the 22d ult, about 25 miles to the northward of Tampico. She had on board two companies of troops and two 9 pounders, and was bound on an expedition against Soto la Marina. Two soldiers and the two pieces of cannon were lost. The vessel was sold as she lay high and dry for $50.
[MPR]


RW47v24i13p4c6, February 12, 1847: Highly Important!

From the Picayune Extra, Feb. 2, 1 P.M.

We have just received news from Anton Lizardo up to the 20th ult.

One of the letters states that Congress, on the 9th ult., after a stormy session, approved the first section of a bill authorising the Government of Mexico to raise $15,000,000 by the hypothecation or sale of certain goods of the church. Santa Anna opposed this, and it is rumored that his opposition so exasperated his soldiers that they had shot him! Our correspondent says that this report required confirmation, but there are many circumstances which still render it not impossible such has been the fate of Santa Anna. The army was in great distress.

The passage of the above law has certainly created the greatest excitement in Mexico. The churches are closed, and every indication of mourning and of resistance has been evinced by those who support the religious establishments.

The Mexican Congress, and the Mexican press everywhere, appear to be thoroughly aroused. The issue they make is “Ser o no ser’– to be or not to be.

Mr. Rogers was still in confinement at Vera Cruz, but was well treated.

We have files of papers, but have no time to look at them before the mail closes. To–morrow we shall give a full summary of the news.
[MPR]


RW47v24i14p1c1, February 16, 1847, Mr. McPherson’s Resolution.

On Friday last, Mr. McPherson, one of the delegates from the Tenth Legion, submitted, in the House of Delegates, a preamble and resolutions, which we have been for some time past anticipating, touching the origin and prosecution of the Mexican War, which we cannot permit to pass without that “full and free expression of opinion,” which, in the words of the preamble, “is demanded by the public […]”– though, according to the modern doctrine of “moral treason,” interpolated into the political code by the party of which the member from Page is so distinguished a leader, we may incur the pains and penalties of “the second section,” for presuming to dissent from such high authority.

We have heard it surmised that the authors of this movement had a purpose in view, in the introduction of these resolutions, which does not appear upon the surface– and that was to compel the Calhoun men to show their hands– either to commit them to the propositions therein set forth, or to throw them in an attitude of open opposition to the Hunkerism on this vital question of public policy. We have scanned the list of delegates for the purpose of ascertaining the course of those who are understood to be the friends of Mr. Calhoun; and we find that about a moiety of them did not vote at all, while only six of them voted for the first resolution, in relation to the origin of the war. On the second, extolling the “eminent ability” with which the President has conducted the war, the number of absentees was dismissed by one, six voted for it, and one against it. Whether the suggesters and mover of the resolutions accomplished their alleged principle object of entrapping the “twenty–three,” therefore, is a problem as difficult as ever (regarding them as a party, ) of solution– especially if it be true, as conjectured, that a portion of those who voted in the affirmative did so with decided repugnance, and not without certain mental reservations. Perhaps they had not read Mr. Calhoun’s great speech– or, if they had given it a slight perusal, they had not “learned and inwardly digested” that condensed and masculine argument. But to the resolutions themselves. The first reads as follows:

Resolved, That the present war with the Republic of Mexico, most unrighteously provoked on her part by a long series of outrages towards the United States, presents such an occasion as requires the united action of all true friends of the country in enforcing a speedy and honorable termination of this war, by a vigorous prosecution of hostilities.

We submit to the authors and supporters of this resolution that they have involved themselves and their party in a “predicament,” by not being more careful in their phraseology. They should have studied Senator Cass’ speech, in order to learn how to turn a corner adroitly, and to show two fronts at the same moment. What is the fact asserted in the foregoing resolution? It is, that “the present war with the Republic of Mexico” has been “most unrighteously provokedon her part by a long series of outrages towards the United States.” And what, then, is the inference which the member from Page and the majority in the House of Delegates would have the country to draw from this assertion? Is any man ass enough to believe that Mexico began the war upon us, as is alleged by Mr. Polk and the party generally, because she had been guilty of “this long series of outrages” against us? What had she to complain of, or to avenge? Why should she strike at us because she had thus wronged us? The language of the resolution is an express admission that the existing war, “provoked on her part ” by the outrages referred to, running back, according to Gen. Cass, as far as 1817, and which for thirty years had be patiently submitted to by Monroe, Adams, Jackson and Tyler, was commenced by our own act, and not “by the act of Mexico.” And if this be so, by what authority, we ask, was the war waged? Congress, although in session at the time, had issued no declaration on the subject; and the very first act of that body, the exclusive war–making power, was to recognise its existence, announced to them by the President, at whose instigation they inserted in the preamble of the act providing means for its prosecution, the memorable declaration, the falsehood of which is shown by the foregoing resolution, that this war “exists by the act of Mexico.” Now, we care not how flagrant were the wrongs and injuries we had sustained at the hands of Mexico, or how long they had been continued– which we admit now, as we have heretofore done, might long ago have justified Congress in taking up arms for their redress, and doubtless would have done so but for the peculiar position of that country, in which they can scarcely be said to have been a government at all since she threw off the yoke of Spain. That she has done enough to have “provoked a war,” we admit. But has the Constitution confided to the President the high prerogative of avenging national wrongs and injuries by an appeal to the sword, whenever he may think fit to unsheathe it? This, we beg to say, is the gist of the controversy– the great point in issue between the two parties, on this question. The Whigs– and we appeal to the votes in Congress to confirm the truth of what we say– have exhibited not less readiness, and not less unanimity that their opponents, in voting the necessary supplies of men and money. But they allege, at the same time, that it is to be an unnecessary war and ought therefore to have been avoided– and the failure of Congress to declare it, although that body was as well apprized as the President of the “long series of outrages,” by which Mr. McPherson’s resolution says it was “provoked,” shows that THE war–making power did not believe that every pacific expedient had been exhausted. The Whigs allege, too, as a necessary deduction from this inaction of Congress, that it is an unconstitutional war– that the President , without authority of Congress, assumed the responsibility of beginning the contest, by an act which he knew would lead to conflict. And this is virtually conceded by the resolution of the House of Delegates, in which the “long series of outrages” committed by Mexico against the U.S. are admitted to be the provocation which justified hostilities. For, if Mexico in truth struck the first blow, why go back to subjects of complaint, running through a period of thirty years, to justify our belligerent attitude, when, if this assertion were true, we have been forced into that attitude by a blow, which, however pacific our purposes, left us no alternative but to strike back again? The very exhumation of these antiquated topics of controversy to justify the war, shows that those who refer to them for that purpose, are conscious that they are the authors of it. For, if it were true that Mexico began the conflict, no attempt would be necessary to justify us in assuming a position of hostility towards that power, which her own assault upon us had been rendered inevitable. It would be sufficient to say that the war has been made by Mexico upon us; and that annunciation alone would have been sufficient to vindicate the necessity of returning blow for blow. But the President, while making this assertion, knew that it was contradicted by facts open to the observation of the country. Hence, he felt the necessity of dwelling at so much length and with so much emphasis, upon long forgotten matters of complaint against Mexico,– forgetting that he thereby betrayed a consciousness of the flimsiness of this assumption. He felt that it was necessary to expatiate upon the outrages perpetuated by Mexico, in order to arouse the passions of the people, and to escape from the consequences of his own rash and unconstitutional action, to which alone the origin of the war is to be traced. He has indeed incurred a fearful responsibility, and we are not surprised that he seeks to escape from it, by an effort to induce the people to trace the war to causes which had nothing whatever to do with it, and which, even if they had been of a character to justify hostilities, it was the […] of Congress, and not of the President, to make the declaration to the world. We doubt, therefore, whether the Administration will be more obliged to Mr. McPherson for his good intentions, or dissatisfied with the bungling manner in which he has essayed its vindication and defence.

The second resolution is in the following words:

Resolved, That the thanks of the General Assembly are due and are hereby cordially tendered to the President of the United States, for the justice, firmness, and eminent ability with which he has conducted the war with Mexico.”

This resolution comes with great propriety from a delegate representing a county in the famous “Tenth Legion.” The zeal displayed in that quarter of the State in support of the war, ad the alacrity with which the citizen of those counties rushed to the field, at the sound of the bugle, authorize them peculiarly, through their representatives, to thank even the President for the “firmness” and the “eminent ability” with which he has “conducted the war.” A writer in the Washington Union of Thursday last, proceeding, upon an assumption, so flattering to Mr. Polk’s vanity, […] so false in fact, and so unjust to Gen. Taylor and his gallant associates, has the cool impudence to ascribe to the wise plans of the President the rapidity with which “our victorious eagle had crossed the rivers and the mountains of Mexico, and planted our standard on many of her strongholds.” Do the majority in the House of Delegates intend to unite with the servile courtiers and venal parasites who surround the President, in robbing our gallant Generals and their subalterns of the fame they have won, in order to gratify to ever craving appetite of Power for the flattery and adulation which constitute its hourly food? The President’s “firmness and eminent ability,” forsooth! Where shall the evidence that he possesses either quality be found? We might point to the instances in which he betrayed an utter destitution of one of them– and as for the other, if he has ever exhibited it, surely it is not either in measures in which the war originated, or in those, known to the public, by which its prosecution, so far as the Administration is concerned, has been signalized. We know that the complaints from the Army, of the imbecility and inefficiency of the Executive and its agents, by which its movements had been delayed, and in consequence of which it has been compelled to encounter the enemy in battle with inadequate means, and with fearful odds against them, with nothing but their own indomitable valor could have successfully combated– we say we know that these complaints have been incessant. And to this hour they are reiterated by every arrival from the seat of war. Inadequately supplied with the means of transportation, Gen. Taylor was obliged to linger for months on the banks of the Rio Grande– and when he advanced into the interior, he was compelled to move with a force greatly inferior in numbers to the enemy whom he met and conquered at Monterey, because of his inability to transport provisions for a larger number of troops. Where, then, we repeat, are the evidences of the “eminent ability” displayed by the President in the prosecution of the war? We pause for a reply. Can any one of the gentlemen who voted for the resolution give us the information?
[MPR]


RW47v24i14p1c2, February 16, 1847, Mr. Calhoun read out!

It will be seen by our interesting Washington correspondent, that Mr. Calhoun has at length been openly attacked by a member of the Senate from Tennessee, and thrown upon his defence; and right valiantly has he repelled the assault. We rejoice that from a source it once so distinguished, and so exempt from those party feelings by which the Whigs may be supposed to be biassed, the country is empathetically told, that the War in which we are engaged is the President’s War– made by him in violation of the Constitution– that its true origin was the march of the troops from the Corpus Christi to the Rio Grande– and that, when that order was given, by which the President assumed to himself the right to settle a disputed question of boundary, he knew, by information then in the Department of State, that, if our troops were allowed to remain where they were originally stationed, at Corpus Christi, “the Western frontier of Texas,” the Mexican forces would not cross the Rio Grande, and consequently there would have been no rupture. We thank Mr. Calhoun for this development– though we could have desired, for his and the country’s sake, that it had been made long ago. This development accounts for Mr. Calhoun’s refusal to vote for the war bill at the last session, when he declared that he would not make war upon Mexico! We commend these facts to the consideration of Mr. McPherson and the dominant party in the Legislature.
[MPR]


RW47v24i14p1c2, February 16, 1847

The New Orleans Picayune of the 7th inst. learns by a passenger in the schr.Petrel from Yucatan, that another Commissioner has been dispatched to Com. Conner, upon whore representations, the Commodore had determined to raise the blockade of Laguna.
[MPR]


RW47v24i14p1c2, February 16, 1847, General Taylor.

We insert this morning the lucid statement of Col. Jefferson Davis, and the Generals Worth and Henderson, the commissioners who negotiated the terms of the capitulation of Monterey, which have been made the occasion recently of such harsh reflections upon Gen. Taylor. It will be seen that Gen. T. did not require the commissioners to subscribe to these terms, as has been heretofore stated with so much confidence, but that they were agreed to by those gentlemen– who still avow their willingness to defend their wisdom and expediency against all assailants– and afterwards approved by the Commanding General. Will Mr. Thompson of Mississippi enter the lists against hi late colleague, Jefferson Davis? Will Orlando Fickin take up the gauntlet thrown down to him by General Worth? Nous verrons.
[MPR]


RW47v24i14p1c3, February 16, 1847, Letter from Washington.

Correspondence of the Whig.

Washington, Feb. 12, 1847.

The Senators were all day, to–day, engaged in the discussion of the conduct of the Union. But there were saying and doings worthy of particular attention. There is an old saying which assures us that when rogues fall out, honest men will likely get their own; and when a band of political traitors quarrel, truth may triumph over political falsehood.

The question before the Senate was the expulsion of the Editors and reporters of the Union from the Senate. The principal speakers were Messrs. Allen, Sevier, Yulee, Turney, […] and Mr. Calhoun, and his colleague, Mr. Butler, were drawn in on a side issue. This was the most important part of the discussion. It is worth more than the whole expense of a week’s legislation to have truth laid down with such firmness as Mr. Calhoun stated it to–day. The most remarkable statement was the bold avowal of Mr. Calhoun, to–day, that this war was brought on by the act of the President of the United States. Yes! here we have it acknowledged, by a great Statesman, a leading member of the dominant party, the idol of the Southern Locofocos, that notwithstanding the statement contained in the preamble of the bill recognizing the war, that notwithstanding the reiteration of this statement by Executive flatterers and nonpartizans, and by the Executive himself, the truth is […] avowed by this independent Statesman, who fully endorsed the Whig ground, long maintained, that this was now […] by the daring usurpations of the Executive. Mr. Turney, having made very pointed allusions to the career of Mr. Calhoun, having referred to him as the leader of the “Balance of Power faction,” and having charged that Mr. Calhoun got the country into the war, by urging the Annexation of Texas, which was the cause of the war:

Mr. Calhoun rose to reply. He said he had been accused of aspiring to be President. He said he aspired higher. He aspired to be an independent Senator; which he would rather be, than be President, as Presidents had been chosen for many years past.

Mr. Turney said Mr. Calhoun had been on both sides of every question before the country for a long time. He prophesied that Mr. Calhoun’s friends would support him for the Presidency against the caucus candidate. He said he admired Mr. Calhoun very much, and would support him is he could; but he had made up his mind, hereafter, to ask as politician from principle. This assertion, involving the acknowledgement, that hitherto he had not acted from principle, caused great laughter.

Mr. Calhoun said that his acts, in the Senate, were not the result of obedience to party. They were done from a sense of […]. The only thing he had opposed the Administration on this session, was the Lieutenant Generalship, and in this he but agreed with the great mass of people. Never was a measure so much condemned as this was. He showed that in the Treaty of the Annexation of Texas, which he had sanctioned, the Rio Grande was not the boundary. The Senator from Tennessee contended that Annexation brought on war, and yet the great staple of Mr. Polk’s late Message was that the cause of this war were the acts of Mexico against our citizens long prior to the Annexation. The cause of the war was marching our troops from the Nueces to the Rio Grande. He charged that the Administration knew that if we did not invade the territory between the Nueces and the Rio Grande from the East, Mexico would not invade it from the West. The President may have though the Rio Grande the boundary, but what business had he to think any thing about it? Congress alone had any business to say any thing about boundaries. The marching of our army from Corpus Christi– that was the cause of the war. South Carolina did not do that. The Senator from Tennessee could tell what State the man belonged to that did it.

Mr. Calhoun contended that war could have been easily avoided. The march of Gen. Taylor ought to have been arrested. When he heard that the President had ordered our troops to march to the Rio Grande, he was utterly astonished; and had it not been that the Senate was so eagerly engaged in the discussion of the Oregon question, he would have moved, in the Senate, that the troops should be recalled. But he would not say more about the origin of the war, though the bottom of that business was not yet discovered.

Mr. Yulee made an eloquent defence of Mr. Calhoun. This called to Mr. Turney again, who descended so low as to refer to a conversation between two gentlemen which he had overheard.

Mr. Calhoun said he would relieve Mr. Yulee from the delicacy of replying to this, and said that when Mr. Yulee asked him his opinion of the article in the Union, he said it was utterly disgraceful and that the Editors should be expelled.

But the plainest speech was made by Mr. Butler of South Carolina, who was greatly excited by the attack upon his colleague. He denounced the conduct of a Senator who could overhear and take advantage of a private conversation. He said that he would rather belong to the Balance of Power party than to those who “go it blind” for Party rather than for the Constitution.

He was glad, however, to know that for the balance of his (Mr. Turney’s) life he intended to act from principle! He hoped decency would go with it. Upon this occasion he had made himself the vehicle of the vulgar news paper slang of the day against his (Mr. Butler’s) colleague. He was sorry that the President did not restrain this licentiousness. He concluded by comparing the conduct of the gentleman from Tennessee to that of the silly Crow, who, seeing an eagle carry off a lamb, stuck his claws in the wool of the ram of the flock, but was soon caught and cooped, and laughed at by the rest of the […].

Mr. Turney rose to reply. He said that the gentleman had advised him to continue to act decently. Mr. Butler replied no– but to begin to be decent. And so this ought continue until the Senate adjourned, having been engaged with this business for five hours, without coming to any conclusion thereon. I presume they will finish it to–morrow.

The House was occupied with the debate on the Three Million Bill, upon which they have agreed to vote on Monday.

I understand that ed–Senator Haywood, of North Carolina, will pass through your city in a day or two, on his way North. His numerous friends will be glad to meet him here.

BRUTUS.

[MPR]


RW47v24i14p1c6, February 16, 1847

To the Editor of the Washington Union.

Victoria, Tamaulipas, Mexico,
January 6, 1847.

Dear Sir: After much speculation and no little misrepresentation about the capitulation of Monterey, I perceive by our recent newspapers, that a discussion has arisen as to who is responsible for that transaction. As one of the commissioners who were entrusted by General Taylor with the arrangement of the terms upon which the city of Monterey and its fortifications should be delivered to our forces, I have had frequent occasion to recur to the course then adopted, and the considerations which led to it. My judgment after the fact has fully sustained my decisions at the date of the occurrence; and feeling myself responsible for the instrument as we prepared and presented it to our commanding general, I have the satisfaction, after all subsequent events, to believe that the terms we offered were expedient, and honorable, and wise. A distinguished gentleman with whom I acted on that commission, Governor Henderson, says, in a recently published letter, “I did not at the time, nor do I still like the terms, but acted as one of the commissioners, together with Gen. Worth and Col. Davis, to carry out Gen. Taylor’s instructions. We ought and could have made them surrender at discretion,” &c. &c.

From each position taken in the above paragraph I dissent. The instructions given by Gen. Taylor only presented his object, and fixed a limit to the powers of his commissioners; hence, when points were raised which exceeded our discretion, they were referred to the commander; but minor points were acted on, and finally submitted as part of our negotiation. We fixed the time within which the Mexican forces should retire from Monterey. We agreed upon the time we would wait for the decision of the respective governments, which I recollect was less by 34 days than the Mexican commissioners asked– the period adopted being that which, according to our estimate, was required to bring up the rear of our army with the ordnance and supplies necessary for further operations.

I did not then, nor do I now, believe we could have made the enemy surrender at discretion. Had I entertained the opinion it would have been given to the commission, and to the commanding general, and would have precluded me from signing and agreement which permitted the garrison to retire with the honors of war. It is demonstrable, from the position and known prowess of the two armies, that we could drive the enemy from the town; but the town was untenable whilst the main fort (called the new citadel) remained in the hands of the enemy. Being without siege artillery or entrenching tools, we could only hope to carry this fort by storm, after a heavy loss from our army, now numbered less than half the forces of the enemy. When all this had been achieved, what more would we have gained then by capitulation?

Gen. Taylor’s force was too small to invest the town. It was, therefore, always in the power of the enemy to retreat, bearing his light arms. Our army– poorly provided, and with very insufficient transportation– could not have overtaken, if they had pursued the flying enemy. Hence the conclusion that, as it was not in our power to capture the main body of the Mexican army, it is unreasonable to suppose their General would have surrendered at discretion. The moral effect of retiring under the capitulation was certainly greater than if the enemy had retreated without our consent. By this course we secured the large supply of ammunition he had collected at Monterey– which, had the assault been continued, must have been exploded by our shells, as it was principally stored in “the Cathedral,” which, being supposed to be filled with troops, was the especial aim of our pieces. The destruction which the explosion would have produced must have involved the advance of both divisions of our troops; and I commend this to the consideration of those whose arguments have been drawn from the facts learned since the commissioners closed their negotiations. With these introductory remarks, I send a copy of a manuscript in my possession, which was prepared to meet such necessity as now exists for an explanation of the views which governed the commissioners in arranging the terms of capitulation, to justify the commanding general, should misrepresentation and calumny attempt to tarnish his well–earned reputation, and, for all time to come, to fix the truth of the transaction. Please publish this in your paper, and believe me your friend, &c.,

Jefferson Davis.

[MPR]


RW47v24i14p1c6, February 16, 1847

Memoranda of the transactions in conexion with the capitulation of Monterey, capital of Nueva Leon, Mexico.

By invitation of Gen. Ampudia, commanding the Mexican army, Gen. Taylor accompanied by a number of his officers, proceeded on the 24th of September, 1846, to a house designated as the place at which Gen. Ampudia requested an interview. The parties being convened, Gen. Ampudia announced, as official information, that the commissions from the United States had been received by the government of Mexico, and that the orders under which he had prepared to defend the city of Monterey, had lost their force by the subsequent change of his own government, therefore he asked the conference. A brief conversation between the commanding generals, showed their views to be so opposite, as to leave little reason to expect an amicable arrangement between them.

Gen. Taylor said he would not delay to receive such propositions as Gen. Ampudia indicated. One of Gen. Ampudia’s party, I think, the governor of the city, suggested the appointment of a mixed commission; this was acceded to, and Gen. W.G. Worth of the U. State army, Gen. J. Pinckney Henderson, of the Texan volunteers, and Col. Jefferson Davis, of the Mississippi riflemen on the part of Gen. Taylor; and Gen. J. Ma. Ortega, Gen. P. Requena, and Senor the Governor M. Ma. Llano on the part of Gen. Ampudia, were appointed.

General Taylor gave instructions to his commissioners which, as understood, for they were brief and verbal will be best shown by the copy of the demand which the United States commissioners prepared in the conference room here incorporated:

Copy of demand by United States Commissioners.

“I. As the legitimate result of the operations before this place, and the present position of the contending armies, we demand the surrender of the town, the arms and munitions of war, and all other public property within the place.

“II. That the Mexican armed force retire beyond the Rinconada, Linares, and San Fernando, on the coast.

“III. The commanding general of the army of the United States agrees that the Mexican officers reserve their side arms and private baggage; and the troops be allowed to retire under their officers without parole, a reasonable time being allowed to withdraw their forces.

“IV. The immediate delivery of the main work, no occupied, to the army of the United States.

“V. To avoid collisions, and for mutual convenience, that the troops of the United States shall not occupy the town until the Mexican forces have been withdrawn except for hospital purposes, storehouses, &c.

“VI. The commanding general of the United States agrees not to advance beyond the line specified in the second section before the expiration of eight weeks, or until the respective governments can be herd from.”

The terms of the demand were refused by the Mexican commissioners, who drew up a counter proposition, of which I only recollect that it contained a permission to the Mexican forces to retire with their arms. This was urged as a matter of soldierly pride, and as an ordinary courtesy. We had reached the limit of our instructions, and the commission rose to report the disagreement.

Upon returning to the reception room, after the fact had been announced that the commissioners could not agree upon the terms, Gen. Ampudia entered at length upon the question, treating the point of disagreement as one which involved the honor of his country, spoke of his desire for a settlement without further bloodshed, and said he did not care about the pieces of artillery which he had at that place. Gen. Taylor responded to the wish to avoid unnecessary bloodshed. It was agreed the commission should reassemble, and we were instructed to concede the small arms; and I supposed there would be no question about the artillery. The Mexican commissioners now urged that, as all other arms had been recognised, it would be discreditable to the artillery if required to march without anything to represent their arm, and stated, in answer to an inquiry, that they had a battery of light artillery, maneuvered and equipped as such. The commission again rose, and reported the disagreement on the point of artillery.

Gen. Taylor hearing that more was demanded than the middle ground, upon which, in a spirit of generosity, he has agreed to place the capitulation, announced the conference at an end; and rose in a manner which showed hi determination to talk no more. As he crossed the room to leave it, one of the Mexican commissioners addressed him, and some conversation, which I did not hear, ensued. Gen. Worth asked permission of Gen. Taylor, and addressed some remarks to Gen. Ampudia, the spirit of which was that which he manifested throughout the negotiation, viz: generosity and leniency, and a desire to spare the further effusion of blood. The commission reassembled, and the points of capitulation were agreed upon. After a short recess we again repaired to the room in which we had parted from the Mexican commissioners; they were tardy in joining us, and slow in executing the instrument of capitulation. The 7th, 8th, and 9th articles were added during this session. At a late hour the English original was handed to Gen. Taylor for his examination; the Spanish original having been sent to Gen. Ampudia. Gen. Taylor signed and delivered to me the instrument as it was submitted to him, and I returned to receive the Spanish copy with the signature of General Ampudia, and send that having Gen. Taylor’s signature, that each general might countersign the original to be retained by the other. Gen. Ampudia did not sign the instrument as was expected, but came himself to meet the commissioners. He raised many points which had been settled, and evihed a disposition to make the Spanish differ in essential points from the English instrument. Gen. Worth was absent. Finally he was required to sign the instrument prepared for his own commissioners, and the English original was left with him that he might have it translated, (which he promised to do that night,) and be ready the next morning with a Spanish duplicate of the English instrument left with him. By this means the two instruments would be made to correspond, and he be compelled to admit his knowledge of the contents of the English original before he signed it.

The next morning the commission again met; again the attempt was made, as had been often done before by solicitation, to gain some grant in addition to the compact. Thus we had, at their request, adopted the word capitulation in lieu of surrender; they now wished to substitute stipulation for capitulation. It finally became necessary to make a peremptory demand for the immediate signing of the English instrument by Gen. Ampudia, and the literal translation (now perfected) by the commissioners and their general. The Spanish instrument first signed by Gen. Ampudia was destroyed in presence of his commissioners; the translation of our own instrument was countersigned by Gen. Taylor, and delivered. The agreement was complete, and it only remained to execute the terms.

Much has been said about the construction of article 2 of the capitulation, a copy of which is hereto appended. Whatever ambiguity there may be in the language used, there was a perfect understanding by the commissioners upon both sides, as to the intent of the parties. The distinction we made between light artillery equipped and maneuvered as such, designed for and used in the field, and pieces being the armament of a fort, was clearly stated on our side; and it was comprehended on their’s, appeared in the fact, that repeatedly they asserted their possession of light artillery, and said they had one battery of light pieces. Such conformity of opinion existed among our commissioners upon every measure which was finally adopted, that I consider them, in their sphere, jointly and severally responsible for each and every article of the capitulation. If, as originally viewed by Gen. Worth, our conduct has been in accordance with the peaceful policy of our government, and shall in any degree tend to consummate that policy, we may congratulate ourselves upon the part we have taken. If otherwise, it will remain to me as a deliberate opinion, that the terms of the capitulation gave all which could have followed, of desirable result, from a further assault. It was in the power of the enemy to retreat, and to bear with him his small arms, and such a battery as was contemplated in the capitulation. The other grants were such as it was honorable in a conquering army to bestow, and which it cost magnanimity nothing to give.

The above recollections are submitted to Generals Henderson and Worth for correction and addition that the misrepresentation of this transaction may be presented by a statement made whilst the events are recent and the memory fresh.

Jefferson Davis,
Colonel Mississippi Riflemen.

Camp Near Monterey, October 7th, 1846.

The above is a correct statement of the leading facts connected with the transactions referred to, according to my recollection. It is, however proper, that I should further state, that my first impression was, that no better terms than those first proposed, on the part of Gen. Taylor, ought to have been given, and so I said to General Taylor when I found him disposed to yield to the request of General Ampudia; and, at the same time, gave it as my opinion that they would be accepted by him before we left the town. General Taylor replied, that he would run no risk where it could be avoided– that he wished to avoid the further shedding of blood, and that he was satisfied that our government would be pleased with the terms given by the capitulation; and being myself persuaded of that fact, I yielded my individual views and wishes; and, under that conviction, I shall never be ready to defend the terms of the capitulation.

J. Pickney Henderson,
Major General Commanding the Texan Volunteers.

I not only counselled and advised, the opportunity being offered the general–in–chief, the first proposition; but cordially assented and approved the decision taken by Gen. Taylor in respect to the latter, as did every member of the commission, and for good and sufficient military and national reasons– and stand ready, at all times and proper places, to defend and sustain the action of the commanding general, and participation of the commissioners. Knowing that malignants, the tremer being off, are at work to discredit and misrepresent the case, (as I had anticipated,) I feel obliged to Col. Davis for having thrown together the material and the facts.

W.J. Worth,

Brig. Gen. commanding 2d division.

Monterey, Oct. 12th, 1846.

[Here follow the articles of capitulation agreed upon by the parties, which we deem it unnecessary to republish.]
[MPR]


RW47v24i14p1c7, February 16, 1847

Mexican Privateers at Sea.– The New York Commercial Advertiser has received the following important notification, from its London Correspondent of the Daily Commercial List. It is dated London, Jan. 19, 1847.

Three privateers sailed from the port of London on the 9th of Jan., 1847. They are British ships but have been renamed according to Spanish regulations, and they carry letters of marque. The names are as follows:

Reino de Castilla, Capt. Moody, 214 tons, 20 men.
Sebastian del Cano, “ Smith, 153 “ 30 “
Magallances, “ Lash, 153 “ 20 “

These three vessels cleared out at the port of London for Mantilla, but are really for privateering on the broad Atlantic.
[MPR]


RW47v24i14p1c7, February 16, 1847

U.S. Ship Ohio,
Hampton Roads, Feb. 10th, 1847.

To the Editors of the Baltimore American–

Gentlemen:– Will you be kind enough to give the following a place in our valuable paper, and oblige many officers of this ship:

The U.S. ship of the line “Ohio,” Captain S.H. Stringham, from Boston, arrived in Hampton Roads on the 10th inst. The Ohio has taken Norfolk in her passage to the Gulf of Mexico for the purpose of completing her crew from the Receiving Ship “Pennsylvania.” She will take on board 100 men in a few days, by which time orders are expected from the Navy Department for her to proceed to the Gulf of Mexico and join our Squadron off Vera Cruz.
[MPR]


RW47v24i14p2c1, February 16, 1847

Senator Wallace, we understand, indulged in some very severe criticisms, in the debate last Saturday, upon Gen’l Taylor’s military character. The Senator has some pretensions himself as a military man, having graduated at West Point, and being now, we believe, a Militia General, and his opinions are therefore entitled to some weight. Nevertheless, we doubt whether the country will condemn General Taylor, upon the judgment of one, however well versed in the theory of war, who has yet to win his spurs on the field. It is easier to play the critic than the soldier. Indeed, it is no uncommon thing for book makers to sit in judgment upon the campaigns of Napoleon and Wellington, and to point out the blunders of those great Captains. Gen. Taylor’s will therefore probably survive Gen. Wallace’s attack, as Gen. Harrison’s has done that of Gen. Crary’s! The criticism of the Senator, too, it strikes us, is not altogether in keeping with the unanimous vote of thanks to Gen. Taylor, tendered by the Legislature last week. Did the Senator thank him for his blunders?
[MPR]


RW47v24i14p2c1, February 16, 1847

We said yesterday, that it was surmised that “the McPherson resolutions,” on the Mexican War, had a purpose in view which does not appear upon the surface. We were not then aware that this purpose was openly avowed, in the Senate, last Saturday, by Mr. Cox, who, we are informed, stated that they were intended to force the Calhoun men to show their hands. As most of them, however, were absent, the design was measurably frustrated.
[MPR]


RW47v24i14p2c2, February 16, 1847, Another Message. More Money and Troops asked for– Duty on Tea and Coffee Again Urged.

On Saturday last, the following important communication was addressed by the President to both Houses of Congress:

To the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States.

Congress by the act of the 13th of May last declared that by the act of the Republic of Mexico, a state of war exists between that government and the United States, and “for the purpose of enabling the government of the United States to prosecute said war to a speedy and successful termination,” authority was vested in the President to employ :the naval and military forces of the United States.”

It has been my unalterable purpose, since the commencement of the hostilities by Mexico, and the declaration of the existence of war by Congress, to prosecute the war in which the country was unavoidably involved with the utmost energy, with a view to its “speedy and successful termination” by an honorable peace.

Accordingly all the operations of our naval and military forces have been directed with this view. While the sword has been held in one hand, and our military movements pressed forward into the enemy’s country, and its coasts invested by our navy, the tender of an honorable peace has been constantly presented to Mexico in the other.

Hitherto the overtures of peace which have been made by this government have not been accepted by Mexico. With a view to avoid a protracted war, which hesitancy and delay on our part would be so well calculated to produce, I informed you, in my annual message of the 8th of December last, that the war would “continue to be prosecuted with vigor as the best means of securing peace, and recommended to your early and favorable consideration the measures proposed by the Secretary of War, in his report accompanying that message.

In my message of the 4th January last, these and other measures deemed to be essential to the “speedy and successful termination” of the war, and the attainment of a just and honorable peace, were recommended to your early and favorable consideration.

The worst state of things which could exist in a war with such a power as Mexico, would be a course of indecision and inactivity on our part. Being charged by the constitution and the laws with the conduct of war, I have availed myself of all the means at my command to prosecute it will energy and vigor.

The act “to raise for a limited time an additional military force, and for other purposes,” and which authorizes the raising of ten additional regiments to the regular army, to serve during the war, and to be disbanded at its termination, which was presented to me on the 11th instant, and approved on that day, will constitute an important part of our military force. These regiments will be raised and moved to the seat of war with the least practicable delay.

It will be perceived that this act makes no provision for the organization into brigades and divisions of the increased force which it authorizes, nor for the appointment of general officers to command it. It will be proper that authority be given by law to make such organization, and to appoint, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, such number of major generals and brigadier generals as the efficiency of the service may demand. The number of officers of these grades now in service are not more than are required for their respective commands; but further legislative action during your present session will, in my judgment, be required, and to which it is my duty respectfully to invite your attention.

Should the war, contrary to my earnest desire, be protracted to the close of the term of service of the volunteers now in Mexico, who engaged for 12 months, an additional volunteer force will probably become necessary to supply their place. Many of the volunteers now serving in Mexico, it is not doubted, would cheerfully engage, at the conclusion of their present term, to serve during the war. They would constitute a more efficient force than could be speedily obtained by accepting the services of any new corps who might offer their services. They would have the advantage of the experience and discipline of a year’s service and will have become accustomed to the climate, and be in less danger then new levies of suffering from the diseases of the country. I recommend, therefore, that authority be given to accept the services of such of the volunteers now in Mexico as the state of the public service may require, and who may, at the termination of their present term, voluntarily engage to serve during the war with Mexico, and that provision be made for commissioning the officers. Should this measure receive the favorable consideration of Congress, it is recommended that a bounty be granted to them upon their voluntarily extending their term of service. This would not only be due to these gallant men, but it would be economy to the government; because, if discharged at the end of the twelve months, the government would be bound to incur a heavy expense in bringing them back to their homes, and in sending to the seat of war new corps of fresh troops to supply their place.

By the act of the thirteenth of May last, the President was authorized to accept the services of volunteers, “in companies, battalions, squadrons, and regiments” but no provision was made for the filling of vacancies which might occur by death, or discharges from the service, on account of sickness or other casualties. In consequence of this omission, many of the corps now in service have been reduced much in numbers. Now was any provision made for filling vacancies of regimental or company officers who might die or resign. Information has been received at the War Department of the resignation of more than one hundred of these officers.

They were appointed by the State authorities, and no information had been received, except in a few instances, that their places have been filled; and the efficiency of the service has been impaired from this cause. To remedy these defects, I recommend that authority be given to accept the services of individual volunteers, to fill up the places of such as may die, or become unfit for the service and be discharged; and that provision be also made for filling the places od regimental and company officers who may die or resign. By such provisions, the volunteer corps may be constantly kept full, or may approximate the maximum number authorized and called into service in the first instance.

While it is deemed to be out true policy to prosecute the war in the manner indicated, and this make the enemy feel its pressure and its evils, I shall be at all times ready, with the authority conferred on me by the constitution, and with all the means which may be places at my command by Congress, to conclude a just and honorable peace.

Of equal importance with an energetic and vigorous prosecution of the war are the means required to defray its expenses, and to uphold and maintain the public credit.

In my annual message of the 8th December last, I submitted for the consideration of Congress the propriety of imposing as a war measure, revenue duties on some of the articles now embraced in the free list. The principal articles now exempt from duty, from which any considerable revenue could be derived, are tea and coffee. A moderate revenue duty on these articles, it is estimated, would produce annually an amount exceeding two and a half million of dollars. Though in a period of peace, when ample means could be derived from duties on other articles for the support of the government, it may have been deemed proper not to resort to a duty on these articles; yet; when the country is engaged in a foreign war, and all our resources are demanded to meet the unavoidable increased expenditure in maintaining our armies in the field, no sounds reason is perceived why we should not avail ourselves of the revenues which may be derived from this source. The objections which have heretofore existed to the imposition of these duties were applicable to a state of peace, when they were not needed. We are now, however, engaged in a foreign war. We need money to prosecute it, and to maintain the public honor and credit. It cannot be doubted that the patriotic people of the United States would cheerfully, and without complaint, submit to the payment of this additional duty or any other that may be necessary to maintain the honor of the country, provide for the unavoidable expenses of the government, and to uphold the public credit. It is recommended that any duties which may be imposed on these articles be limited in their duration to the period of the war.

An additional annual revenue it is estimated, of between half a million and a million dollars, would be derived from the graduation and reduction of the price of such of the public lands as have been long offered in the market at the minimum price established by the existing laws, and have remained unsold. And, in addition to other reasons commending the measure to favorable consideration, it is recommended as a financial measure. The duty suggested on tea and coffee, and the graduation and reduction of the price of the public land, would secure an additional annual revenue to the treasure of not less than three millions of dollars, and would thereby prevent the necessity of incurring a public debt annually to that amount, the interest on which must be paid semi–annually, and ultimately the debt itself, by a tax on the people.

It is a sound policy, and one which has long been approved by the government and people of the United States, never to resort to loans unless in cases of great public emergency, and then only for the smallest amount which the public necessities will permit.

The increased revenues which the measure now recommended would produce, would, moreover, enable the government to negotiate a loan, for any additional sum which may be found to be needed, with more facility, and at cheaper rates than can be […] without them.

Under the injunction of the constitution which makes it my duty “from time to time to give to Congress information of the state of the Union, and to recommend to their consideration such measures” as shall be judged “necessary and expedient,” I respectfully and earnestly invite the action of Congress on the measures herein presented for their consideration. The public good, as well as a sense of my responsibility to our common constituents, in my judgment, imperiously demand that it should present them for your enlightened consideration and invoke favorable action upon them before the close of your present session.

James K. Polk.
Washington, Feb. […], 1847.

[MPR]


RW47v24i14p2c3, February 16, 1847, Gen. Taylor’s Letter.

Dr. D.F. Bacon, the medical advisor and friend of Gen. Gaines, details at length in the New York Express, the circumstances that led to the publication of Gen. Taylor’s letter. The letter was addressed to Gen. Gaines, who it seems is a second cousin of Gen. Taylor. He read it to Dr. Bacon, and they mutually agreed that it ought to be published, in order to counteract the violent assaults made upon “old Rough and Ready” by certain carpet–knights, who, although they know nothing of the art of war, to which he has been all his life accustomed, feel no delicacy in criticising and condemning his conduct, notwithstanding he has achieved a series of brilliant victories, unparalleled, when the disparity between his forces and that of the enemy, and his inadequate means are considered, in the annals of war. Dr. Bacon therefore, with the consent of General Gaines, published the letter. Gen. Gaines appends a note to Dr. Bacon’s article declaring that “in no possible contingency could its publication do any injury to the U. States or any service to Mexico.”
[MPR]


RW47v24i14p2c3, February 16, 1847

The New Orleans Picayune publishes Santa Anna’s letter accepting the Provisional Presidency of Mexico– for which we have not room. It is written in his usual strain of self–abnegation. He assumes the high station with reluctance, and will lay down and retire to private life, as soon as “the audacious foreigner” who has invaded Mexico, shall be expelled from her soil. He professes to be anxious only to vindicate his patriotic solicitude for the establishment of public freedom, and to leave an untarnished name to posterity. To accomplish this, however, he must efface the history of the past.
[MPR]


RW47v24i14p2c5, February 16, 1847, Awful Predicament of Poor old “Rough and Ready!”

For the Whig.

Mr. Shelton F. Leake voted, a few days since, in Congress, in favor of a proviso virtually censuring Gen. Taylor for permitting the Mexican army at Monterey to enter into terms of capitulation.

It is greatly to be feared that this censure from our very distinguished representative, will entirely destroy General Taylor’s military character; and the hope is therefore confidently entertained, that the Hon. Mr. Leake will reconsider his opinions upon the subject, as the consequences of his adhering to them may be disastrous in the extreme to a very gallant war–worn veteran!

Mr. Leake’s generosity will surely come to the General’s aid upon so momentous a question. He will not, it is trusted, permit “Rough and Ready” to agonize under the heavy weight of the censure of so great a military genius as that of the member from the Fifth Congressional District of Virginia! The amendment of the Senate to the House resolutions will give Mr. L. an opportunity to retract his vote, and affords some ground to hope that he will yet save General Taylor from the extreme mortification of classing HIM among his enemies! Whilst, however, the General’s friends may hope for the best, the momentous importance of Mr. Leake’s views, founded upon his deservedly exalted military reputation, fills them with alarm– aye, with terror; for high as is Taylor’s military standing, Leake’s is to his as Napoleon’s to Terrenne’s.

RINGGOLD.
Albemarle, Feb’y 5, 1847.M

[MPR]


RW47v24i14p2c7, February 16, 1847, Death of Volunteer.

Extract of a letter to the Editors of the Whig:

Old Point, 9th Feb’y, 1847.

Messrs. Editors:– To–day is a solemn time in our “Barracks.” We have just paid the last last sad duties of respect to a fellow soldier! Poor young Black of our core has just gone to his fathers: he was seized two days since with that most fatal disease, Conjunction of the brain, and expired in a very short time. The tear which is stealing its way down my cheek at present renders me wholly unable to describe the feeling that pervades our quarters.

Mr. Black was quite young, and promised much future usefulness. He sacrificed private interest, as most of us did– cut the tender ties that bound to home and friends, and started for the field of honor– but alas! he has been taken off. Owing to the change of climate, (from the Mountains to the Seashore) there is now about sixty of our core upon the sick list– most of whom, however, I am happy to say are no ways dangerous; but it is a source of much distress to all of us, that in the face of all these facts, the Government sees fit to keep us at this Point, and to plunge us on that doleful stream the Rio Grande, right in the warm season. But I do not wish to hold out the idea for a moment, that any of our core regrets our lot, not at all: WE are composed of better material, and old Montgomery is the county to send the right stuff; but I have merely mentioned this, hoping that it may be noticed at Head–Quarters, and that it may have the salutary effect to have our transports forwarded to us immediately, and thereby we will be enabled to leave for the “Tented Field,” without delay. Yours, &c., R**** of Montgomery Volunteers.
[MPR]


RW47v24i14p4c1, February 16, 1847

The Norfolk papers announce the arrival of Governor Smith at Old Point. The principal object of his visit, we learn, is to present to that portion of the Virginia regiment remaining at that place, the Flag prepared for it, by order of the Legislature.
[MPR]


RW47v24i14p4c2, February 16, 1847

A Sword was presented to Capt. O.E. Edwards, of the Norfolk corps of Mexican Volunteers, by a few of his friends, in the 3d inst.
[MPR]


RW47v24i15p1c2, February 19, 1847

We did not hear the speech of Gen. Wallace in the Senate; but we do not understand the Enquirer as denying that he criticized and censured some portion of Gen. Taylor’s military conduct. The Enquirer, however, states that Gen. W.’s review of Gen. Taylor’s conduct was made with a declaration of the high opinion he entertained of that officer, and that “he would no pluck a leaf from the chaplet which encircled his brow.” But the question is, did he not attempt to pluck that leaf? That, we regret, is not denied. We are also told by the Enquirer that Gen. W. was not in the Senate on the day the resolutions of thanks were passed– a fact of which we were not cognizant, and which of course relieves him from the imputation of inconsistency founded on his supposed vote in favor of those resolutions.
[MPR]


RW47v24i15p1c2, February 19, 1847, The Wilmot Proviso.

We do not deem it necessary to publish the yeas and nays on the Wilmot Proviso. The vote was, with the exception of a few Northern men, a sectional one– every Southern member of both parties voting against it, except Mr. Houston of Delaware, who can scarcely be regarded as belonging to that category– Delaware being nominally only a slaveholding State.

The Senate will unquestionably reject the Bill with the Proviso. Indeed, its passage in that body without it, is exceedingly doubtful.

But the fact is now known that Slavery is to be interdicted in any territory that may be acquired from Mexico; and that fact being fixed, another, just as certainly follows, and that is, that the South will never consent to the acquisition of any territory; and with her voice unanimous against it, that purpose– the original purpose, as we verily believe, of Mr. Polk, in making the war, of which, if he had possessed even ordinary sagacity, he ought to have foreseen that this would be one of the legitimate and necessary fruits– will be frustrated; unless, indeed, that expedient, which we of the South unfortunately invented, of annexing territory by joint resolution, in our hot haste to bring Texan into the Union, shall “return to plague the inventors.”

We shall indulge in no bluster or bravado on the subject. Of this, however, the North may be assured, that, whenever the South shall be called upon to act, it will present an undivided, stern, inflexible front to its fantastical assailants.
[MPR]


RW47v24i15p1c2, February 19, 1847

A Washington letter in the New York Herald says–

I have been informed that the war department, under the Ten Regiment Act, will accept seven companies from New York and three from New Jersey, making one regiment for these two States. From Rhode Island, one company; Maine, three; New Hampshire, two; Connecticut, two, and Vermont, two; or one regiment for New England. From Maryland, four companies, Delaware, one. It is said that Pennsylvania and Ohio will each furnish a regiment; and that North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia, conjointly, will furnish one. Three companies will be accepted from Illinois. The mounted regiment will probably be raised in Tennessee and Kentucky. I have not been able to ascertain the proportion from other states.
[MPR]


RW47v24i15p1c2, February 19, 1847

The Virginia Regiment of Volunteers is full– twelve companies. Six companies are at sea, on their way to Point Isabel, under Lieut. Col. Randolph, and six more are at Fort Monroe awaiting transports, to leave, as soon as Government furnishes them, under Major Early. Col. Hamtramck, Colonel of the Regiment, goes b orders by land to New Orleans on business, and thence to Point Isabel.
[MPR]


RW47v24i15p1c3, February 19, 1847: Letter from Washington.

Correspondence of the Whig.

Washington, Feb. 16, 1847.

The House of Representatives, to–day, have tried to offer another insult to Gen. Taylor. Their former vote of censure was corrected in the Senate, by substituting for that censure a vote of thanks, and voting a Medal to Gen. Taylor. Well, to–day they have modified the Senate’s amendment, so as to have medals struck for a lot of Locofoco Generals, and they insert the other Generals’ names in the resolutions before the name of General Taylor! If the resolutions should ever descend to posterity, it would seem as if Gen. Taylor was but a star of the 7th or 8th magnitude in that brilliant affair. Surely this insult to General Taylor has been carried far enough, for even Locofoco malignity, and might now be properly discontinued.

The House was engaged all day to–day on Reports from committees. Among other bills passed, was one for the admission of the State of Washington.

The Senate were engaged during the morning hour on miscellaneous business; after which, Mr. Badger of N.C. made a very able speech on the Mexican war. He believed that we were got into it unnecessarily and unconstitutionally; but being in it, we were bound to prosecute it to an honorable close. Mr. Colquitt of Ga. has the floor for to–morrow.

The city is full of office–seekers, looking for high military appointments. I believe Mr. Pearce, formerly Senator from New Hampshire, is to be one of the Colonels.

Capt. Walker, of Texas, returned to town to–night.

Mr. Collins, the celebrated Irish actor, leaves to–night for Richmond, where he performs a short engagement. Since the death of the lamented Power, we have had no such Irish actor as he. He sings some of Lover’s songs in such a style as the Richmond people never heard before. He is on his way to New Orleans, and will remain wit you but two or three evenings.

I do not see the Enquirer of Monday will this evening. Whenever I have seen any criticism upon my letters, I think I have been able to meet them. If I do not answer, it is because I do not see, the attacks. It quotes an extract from my letter, which it says is a specimen of my extravagant style of endorsing Mr. Corwin’s speech. Unfortunately for the Enquirer, there is not a sentence in my whole letter endorsing Mr. Corwin. If the Enquirer be very anxious about it, I will tell it what parts of the speech I endorse. Nor shall I be afraid to endorse what I approve. It was not because I did not approve of the speech, on the contrary, that I refrained from endorsing it. Nor would I cavil at the assertion now– but to show that the Enquirer represents me as doing what I did not do.

Now, I will refer to what I said about the speech, including what the Enquirer prints in italics– I said the audience was kept spell–bound; that the speech was sarcastic, witty, eloquent; that it was one of the greatest efforts ever made before the Senate. Now I ask is this endorsing the speech? I might show that the Enquirer’s attacks on Gen. Jackson; Mr. Buchanan’s denunciations of Democracy; Mr. Polk’s and Mr. Walker’s denunciations of a tax in tea and coffee; Mr. Bancroft’s tirades against slavery; were eloquent, witty and sarcastic, without endorsing the Enquirer’s anti–Jacksonism, Buchanan’s old Federalism, Bancroft’s Abolitionism, or Polk’s and Walker’s demagoguism. The extracts which the Enquirer makes were given by me as specimens of the sarcasm and eloquence of the speech. If it please the Enquirer, I shall now say that though I differ in some points from Mr. Corwin, yet, there are very few sentences in that long address which I might not endorse. The references to the menials gaping for fly–blown meat around the Executive chamber– the inconsistency of a nation which ran from a strong enemy in Oregon, to rob and plunder a poor crippled nation in the most senseless limb, (California) and then boasting of heroic deeds, by 20 millions, which a few thousand Texans excelled some time ago– the profligacy of the pirate chaplains, who insult Heaven by pretending to pray, while they are plundering the weak and studying revolvers instead of Revelations– the infernal scenes to follow upon this Abolition storm, which Locofoco policy has evoked from its slumbers, are more easily sneered at, then proved untrue or unpatriotic.

Does the Editor of the Enquirer deny that there are such creatures as Mr. Corwin describes, who gorge themselves on the offals of the Locofoco shambles? Read Mr. Westscott’s (Locofoco) speech in the Senate on Saturday last.

Does he doubt the weak character of the Mexican enemy? Read the sneering remarks of the Locofoco presses and Locofoco orators on the insignificance of a war with Mexico, when we prophesied that war in 1844.

Does it doubt the danger of this Wilmot Proviso, and its consequent influence upon our institutions? Read the Southern Locofoco speeches on this subject, during this session, taken in connection with the proceedings yesterday.

Does it doubt that Mr. Polk deliberately demagogued in his Message, and falsified history? Read Mr. Benton’s speech showing that Mexico had territory this side of the Rio Grande. Read Mr. Ingersoll’s speech (Locofoco chairman of the committee on Foreign Relations,) which says that the first nation crossing the territory between the Nueces and the Rio Grande would be the aggressor. Read Mr. Calhoun’s speech on Friday last, that the marching of our troops from Corpus Christi to the Rio Grande was the cause of the war. Read these and other Locofoco declarations, and then see Mr. Polk’s “atrocious misrepresentation” that Mexico commenced the war! Will the Enquirer go further, or is it satisfied?

BRUTUS.

[MPR]


RW47v24i15p1c4, February 19, 1847

[ Correspondence of the Baltimore Sun.]

Washington, Feb. 17, 1847.

The officers for the ten new regiments are fast being created. The names of the officers of troops which were already organized, waiting to be received, have been sent in by the President, and some confirmations I understand have been made. Among the nominations, is paymaster Andrews, of this city, to be Colonel of the dragoon regiment; John P. Moore, clerk in the Quartermaster’s department, to be Assistant Quartermaster of the same regiment; and another gentleman named Moore, clerk in the comptroller’s office, to be a Captain in the same Dragoons.
[MPR]


RW47v24i15p1c4, February 19, 1847

The National Intelligencer has translations from Vera Cruz papers to the 15th ult.

The city of Mexico Diario del Gobierno of the 30th December gives a letter from Acapulco, on the 15th December; which says they have their intelligence direct from Monterey de California and the Port of San Francisco to the following effect: That, since the late expulsion of the Americans from Ciudad de los Angeles, they rallied a force of 400 men, and returned to attack it; but that at San Pedro, three leagues from Los Angeles, they were encountered by the Californians and driven back to the coast with considerable loss. It is probable that the news of this unexpected resistance of the Californians has led to a proposal of about the same sate, in the Mexican Congress, to raise a special loan of half a million to aid the New Mexicans and Californians in their efforts to expel the invaders from those territories.
[MPR]


RW47v24i15p2c7, February 19, 1847

According to a paragraph in the Baltimore Clipper, President Polk has selected the following captains of companies to be taken from Maryland under the Ten Regiment Act: Capt. Oden Bowie, of Prince George’s county, now a Lieutenant in Capt. Kenly’s company in Mexico; Capt. John Eager Howard, jr. of Baltimore; Capt. Richard Merrick, [son of Ex–Senator Merrick,] of Frederick county; and Capt. James P. Archer, of Baltimore city.
[MPR]


RW47v24i15p2c7, February 19, 1847

The Mexican Privateers.– The Salem Register thinks that the Mexican privateers, reported as having sailed from the Thames, will turn out to be nothing more than vessels destined for the opium trade. A gentleman from Manilla, now in that city, states it as a fact within his knowledge, that before he left there, an agent was on his was to England fort he purpose of procuring such vessels, and these are probably the fruits of his mission.
[MPR]


RW47v24i15p4c2, February 19, 1847, New Hampshire.– The Cause advancing.

We have received glorious tidings from New Hampshire. We have, among other evidences of the rising sentiment of the people, before us the proceedings of a great meeting at Concord, in which Gen. Joseph Low came forward in a manly speech, declaring his separation from the Federal party, and his support of the administration and the country in this war with Mexico. Gen. Low is one of the ablest and most influential Whigs in New Hampshire.– Washington Union.

We know nothing of General Low, whose accession to the Administration party is deemed so very important. We may congratulate the Union, however, that the Republican measures of the Administration has won over on more “Federalist ” to its support!

It may be well to enquire, too, whether Gen. Low may not have been induced to sustain the Administration in its war against Mexico, by the prospect of aiding an immense territory, to the non–slaveholding section of the Union?
[MPR]


RW47v24i15p4c2, February 19, 1847

Yesterday’s Republican states that the Handsome swords ordered by the City Council for Captains Scottland Carrington, for Lieutenants August, Fry and Donnan of the Greys, commanded by the former gentleman, and for Lieutenants Porterfield, Munford and Williamson, commanded by the latter, have been received, and are now at the store of Messrs. Mitchell & Tyler. The Swords were manufactured by Ames of Massachusetts, and each bears the inscription, “Presented by the city of Richmond,” to the several officers named.
[MPR]


RW47v24i15p4c2, February 19, 1847

The following is the amendment offered by Mr. Stanard, on Saturday last, in the Senate, while the “McPherson resolutions” were pending in that body. It was not palatable to the dominant party, and was of course rejected– though we should be glad to know to what sentiment in it they objected:

“That the present war with Mexico, however provoked on her part, could be constitutionally commenced, on the part of the United States, only by Congress, the war–making power, and not by the act of the President; and while this General Assembly is prepared by the use of all proper means, and to the full extent of its ability, to sustain the Government and the Country in the prosecution of the existing war, it can never subscribe to the doctrine (abhorrent to freedom in all ages) that a government which once succeeds in involving the country in war is thenceforth safe from censure, and that an act of oblivion is passed for its misconduct.”

We are glad to hear that Mr. Stanard and Mr. Moore intend to prepare for publication the able speeches delivered by them in the progress of the discussion. Of both of them we have heard the highest commendation.
[MPR]


RW47v24i15p4c2, February 19, 1847: The Wilmot Proviso.

The proviso, interdicting absolutely the existence of Slavery in any territory to be acquired from Mexico, has been engrafted, in the House of Representatives, on the Three Million bill. With this evidence both of the power and intention of the representatives of the non–slaveholding States to monopolize all such territory as may be obtained by conquest or purchase, from Mexico, will Southern men consent to the annexation of an acre of her soil. For one, we say, “we’d non of it”– and such, we undertake to say, will be the unanimous sentiment od the Southern people.
[MPR]


RW47v24i15p4c2, February 19, 1847, Mr. Webster’s Views.

On Monday, Mr. Webster submitted the following resolutions, which, on his own suggestion, were laid upon the table.

Resolved, That the war now existing with Mexico ought not to be prosecuted for the acquisition of territory to form new States to be added to the Union.

Resolved, That is ought to be signified to the government of Mexico, that the government of the U.S. does not desire to dismember the Republic of Mexico, and is ready to […] with the government of that Republic for peace, for a liberal adjustment of boundaries, and for just indemnification due by either government to the citizens of the other.

[MPR]


RW47v24i15p4c2, February 19, 1847, From the South.

We received no New Orleans papers yesterday. By the way of Baltimore, we have the following paragraph from the New Orleans Jeffersonian of the 8th inst.:

Latest from Tampico.– The schr. Rob Roy arrived yesterday afternoon, from Tampico, reports having left on the 28th ult. Capt. Harkness states that four days previous to his sailing, the master of the U.S. steamer Cincinnati arrived at Tampico, having lost his vessel in a tremendous storm on the coast of Mexico. During the gale the steamer Fashion was seen a few miles distant, and serious fears were entertained for her safety, she having not arrived when the Rob Roy sailed. It was supposed that General Scott was on board the Fashion at the time. This, however, was not the case, as recent advices from the Brazos assure us that Gen. Scott was still at that post, concentrating the troops, as was supposed, for Tampico.
[MPR]


RW47v24i15p4c2, February 19, 1847, Lieut. General Benton.

To the Editors of the Whig:

Gentlemen– The late attempt of the President, to fasten upon the country, in the person of the Military Senator whose name stands at the head of this article, an officer designed by the Constitution to exist only in days of extreme danger– such as in Rome was supposed to justify the appointment of a Dictator, whose business it was to provide ne quid detrimenti capat Respublica – calls to mind certain occurrences which tool place many years ago. IN the winter of ’34–’35, while the question of a French war was agitating the country to its very foundation, a letter, said to have been from a gentleman of high distinction in Washington, in which Col. Benton was charged with a disposition to exasperate the angry feelings already existing, in order that a war might ensue, and he receive the office of Lieut. General, was published in the Richmond Compiler. Many persons ascribed the authorship to Gen. Duff Green, but of the justice of their surmises it is not my intention to speak. Certain it is, that he took up the subject in the Telegraph, and produced many, and as I thought at the time, unanswerable proofs of the justice of the charge. He went further than I presume was reasonable; for he did not hesitate to ascribe to Benton a thirst for, and a determination to secure, absolute power. The whole imputation was indignantly repelled by the entire Locofoco press. Do not recent events prove that there might have been some justice in the charge?

I have been surprised that these facts have not been noticed in Congress or the Newspapers.

A COUNTRYMAN.

[MPR]


RW47v25i15p4c2, February 19, 1847, From Santa Fe.

Mr. Merritt, one of a company of thirty, who started from New Mexico on the 2d of last November, has recently arrived at Booneville, Missouri. He says several of their company were badly frostbitten, and three perished. The names of the men frozen to death were Bartlett, Long and Thomasson, from Buchan county.

The company came in on foot, and were fifty–seven days on the route– about four hundred miles of the journey through snow eight inches deep.

The volunteers were selling their Government checks in Santa Fe at 25 per cent discount.
[MPR]


RW47v24i16p1c1, February 22, 1847, A Strange Development

The Washington Correspondent of the Charleston Courier makes a statement, which, if it be not true, ought at once to receive an authentic contradiction– and which, if it be true, ought, in the emphatic language of the Charleston Mercury, to consign Mr. Polk to the unmitigated condemnation of the people of the South. The statement follows:

“I have learned, to–day, that the President and his friends have given assurances to the Northern Democratic members, that if they will suffer the Three Million Bill to pass, without amendment, the North shall have no occasion to complain of the treaty that will be made with Mexico. That is to say, the President promises that he will take no cession of territory to the south of the parallel of 36 deg. 30 m., and that, therefore, the slavery question will be avoided. This is said to be the reason for the determination of many of the Northern Democratic members to vote against Wilmot’s proviso. The proposition for a boundary made by Mr. Sevier, comes very near to this line, and is probably intended to hit it. The line of 36 deg. 30 m., leaves Santa Fe 20 m. to the north of it, and every point on the Pacific that is desirable to the non–slaveholding States.”

The Charleston Mercury, which says a similar statement has reached its editor “from high authority,” declares, that if it be in accordance with facts, “the treason to them (the slave States,) their institutions, their character, and their very existence, would be so deep and unnatural a […], that language would be wanting to give expression to the universal indignation which would consume the author. It is impossible (the Mercury thinks) that a Son of the South would sign a treaty which would be a libel on the people and institutions of fifteen states, and which would deprive them, for reasons the most humiliating to their feelings and degrading to their self–respect, of any share in the lands they had aided by their best blood and their best treasure to win.” Nous verrons! We confess that we are not so incredulous– not in regards to Mr. Polk’s purpose, but as to the fact that he has given the assurances referred to. If he has not, he owes it to himself and to the South to nail the rumor to the counter.
[MPR]


RW47v27i16p1c1, February 22, 1847

We invite attention to the eloquent and scathing speech of Senator Moore, of Rockbridge, on the Mexican war.
[MPR]


RW47v24i16p1c2, February 22, 1847, Lieutenant General Benton.

The declaration of the Missouri Senator, that in 1812, he outranked every General now in service, and had a right to command the whole of them they had met in the same field, has led to some investigations and curious developments. A correspondent of the St. Louis Republican, for example, divulges the following rather discreditable facts:

“Some doubts having been expressed whether Mr. Benton ever was a Lieutenant Colonel in the Regular army, an examination of the records of the United States Court in […] placed the matter at rest. After the peace, an action was commenced by the United States against Lieutenant Colonel Thomas H. Benton, for the recovery of a considerable sum of money, placed in his hands during the war, as superintendent of the recruiting service, which money he had appropriated to his private use; a judgment was rendered against him for several thousand dollars, as any one may see who chooses to examine the records. Mr. Benton stated the truth, then, when he says he was a Lieutenant Colonel in the U.S. army. At a period, too, when those small fry, Gaines, Scott and Taylor, were fighting at Erie Niagara, he was recruiting somewhere in Tennessee, and had plenty of Uncle Sam’s money in his hands.”

And a writer in the New York Courier and Enquirer invalidates the accuracy of the would–be Lieutenant General’s statement, by the subjoined citations from the records:

[From the N.Y.Courier & Enquirer]

“Col. Benton in his speech in the Senate on the 25th inst in vindication of the President, and of his own fitness for the office of Lieut. General, is reported in the National Intelligencer (usually very accurate) to have said– “Even in the Regular Army, in 1813, I was Lieut. Colonel, while most of the present Generals, were company officers, and only one of them of the rank of Colonel.” He had previously said, in the same speech– “In 1812 I was the Military Superior of every General now in the service, and had a right to have commanded the whole of them, if we had chanced to serve together. I was then Colonel in the service of the United States, commissioned by President Madison under a law of Congress, and led a regiment of my own raising from Tennessee, to the lower Mississippi, &c. &c.”
Since the famous “East–Room Letter” of Col. Benton, we presume no one questions the veracity of that gentleman, or at least no one accuses him of intentional misrepresentation; for habit, is ofttimes more controlling than intention.
Now what says “the Record?”– The 12th vol. of the American State Papers, from page 384 to page 424 contains “a corrected list of all the officers in the army of the United States, transmitted by the Secretary of War to the Senate of the United States, in Dec. 29th 1813, in pursuance of a resolution of that body. An official document.
From this list it appears that Thomas H. Benton was Lieut. Colonel of the 39th Regiment of Infantry, with rank of 18th July 1813, and that this regiment was one of 14, raised for one year.
The same list, shows that at the same time, the following officers, whose names appear in the Army Register of 1845, as General Officers (we have no later Register at hand) held rank in “the Regular Army in 1813” as follows.

Hugh Brady, Col. 22d Reg. Inf., 6th July 1813,
E P Gaines, do 25th do do 12 March 1813,
Winfield Scott, do 2d Art do 1813,
W K Armstead, Lt Col Engineers, 31st July, 1812,
G. Gibson, Lt. Col. 5th Reg. Inf. 15th Aug. 1813,
M. Arbuckle, Major, 3d do. do. do. do. 1812,
T. S. Jessup, Major, 19th Inf. 6th April, 1813.
J. E. Wool, do. 29th do. 13 do do.

As all of the foregoing were above the rank of company Officers in the Regular Army in 1813– will the Chairman of the Senate Committee on Military Affairs, inform the public, how many General Officers we now have in the Regular Army, if his assertion be true, that “most of the present Generals, were Company Officers” in 1813? Or must this declaration be classed with the “East Room Letter?”

If the document sent to the Senate in 1813 told the truth, at that time, the Senator from Missouri, misstates it now.

As to the other statement of Col. Benton, viz:– that “in 1812 he was the Military Superior of every General now in the service, and had a right to have commanded the whole of them, if they had chanced to serve together,” he does not give us the date of commission as Colonel, nor the laws under which he ‘raised regiment’– but it was probably a regiment of Volunteers. The same document of the Army, with which the Chairman of the Senate’s Committee on Military Affairs accustomed, in that character, to communicate on military subjects with all Administrations, for about a quarter of a century last passed, who was also in 1812 the Military Superior of every General now in the service, must have been familiar.

Among these ‘rules and regulations, we find the following “Officers of the Regular Army of the same grade with those of Volunteers and Militia, have precedence of missions.” Would then Col. Benton of a Volunteer regiment of his ‘own raising’ have commanded Col. Brady of the Regular Army?

But the gallant Missourian certainly has had great experience. He says that in 1812, he was Col. of a Regiment of his own raising,– if so the record shows that in 1813 he was promoted, possibly on account of his great skill and experience, to be a Lieutenant Colonel– in a regiments of 12 months–men. Can any one doubt his claims to be Lieutenant General?
[MPR]


RW47v24i16p1c2, February 22, 1847, From the Volunteers.

The Times of yesterday says– “We learn from a letter received from a young officer in Capt. Scott’s company, that the May–Flower, with Captains Scott’s and Harper’s companies on board, arrived at Havana on the 4th instant, nine days from Old Point. They had very rough weather the first three of four days, but pleasant afterwards. They were all pretty well, and put in to get a supply of medicines. Expected to be off the next day for the seat of war.”
[MPR]


RW47v24i16p1c2, February 22, 1847, A Wasington Letter

A Washington letter in the New York Herald says–
I have been informed that the war department, under the Ten Regiment Act, will accept seven companies from New York and three from New Jersey, making one regiment for these two States. From Rhode Island, one company; Maine, three; New Hampshire, two; Connecticut, two, and Vermont, two; or one regiment for New England. From Maryland, four companies, Delaware, one. It is said that Pennsylvania and Ohio will each furnish a regiment; and that North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia, conjointly, will furnish one. Three companies will be accepted from Illinois. The mounted regiment will probably be raised in Tennessee and Kentucky. I have not been able to ascertain the proportion from other States.
[MPR]


RW47v24i16p1c5, February 22, 1847, President Santa Anna.

We find in the New Orleans “Picayune” a translation of the letter from Gen. Santa Anna to the Congress of the Republic of Mexico, announcing his acceptance of the Provisional Presidency, to which he has been recently called. This letter professes sincere reluctance to accept the office, which circumstances yet do not allow him to refuse, but declares his unchangeable determination to retire to and remain in private life, as soon as he has “put a happy conclusion to the war” which exists between the United States and Mexico, “by one or more feats of arms” which “may show him on the pages of history entitled to the applause of posterity!”

A very brief extract or two from this reply of his will enable the reader to judge, as far as professions go, what probability there is of the realization of the expectations from Santa Anna which induced the Executive of the United States to assist him to return from his exile and place himself at the head of the Armies of Mexico:<

“Since lately I set my foot upon the soil of my country, as I had not returned to obtain the Presidency of the country, but only to fight the audacious foreigner who professes with his presence the sacred soil of the country– I have reflected much whether I should accept the situation which for the fifth time in the course of my life has been conferred upon me, but at last, overcoming my natural repugnance, stifling within my breast considerations of a private nature which influenced me, and, more than all, convinced that my fellow citizens will not do me the injustice to believe that I resolved upon the sacrifice, for this is nothing which I am not prepared to do in obedience to my dear country.”

“My ambition is for glory and a posthumous fame. The only thing to which I aspire– I will repeat it a thousand times– is to put a happy conclusion to the war which we are raging against the neighboring Republic, by one or more feats of arms which may conclude the story of my services– by some signal actions which may show me on the pages of history entitled to the applause of posterity.

“May Heaven grant that soon, very soon, I may have the happiness to present, with the most profound respect, to the august Congress, trophies conquered from the enemy by the brave men whom I have had the honor to command, and who clamor with eagerness for the arrival of the hour of combat.”
[MPR]


RW47v24i16p2c3, February 22, 1847, Mr. Calhoun.

Occupying the position which Mr. Calhoun does on the vital question of Slavery, which must of necessity intrude itself upon us, whether we will or no, when the spoils won from Mexico, or to be won, are to be disposed of, we need scarcely say to his friends, that, in an emergency not at all unlikely to happen, the eyes of the WHOLE SOUTH will be turned to him as to one of its leaders in the conflict that must ensue. From this position the political managers, however artful, cannot dislodge him. Prejudice, artfully fomented, and the powerful influence of past associations, may for a while alienate a few of his friends temporarily– but the instincts of self–preservation will dispel this prejudice and destroy this influence. Mr. Calhoun stands upon the Southern platform in regard to the Mexican War; and, though he may now seem to stand almost alone, the entire South will eventually be with him. We pray him to be nothing daunted!
[MPR]


RW47v24i16p2c6, February 22, 1847, Mr. Polk’s “Eminent Ability.”

For the Whig.

In reading the President’s Annual Message of December 8th, 1846, I was much struck with the following passage:

“If the war should be continued until the 30th of June, 1848– being the end of the next fiscal year– it is intimated that an additional loan of twenty–three millions of dollars will be required. This estimate is made upon the assumption that it will be necessary to […] the treasury four millions of dollars, to guard against contingencies. If such surplus were not required to be retained, than a loan of nineteen millions of dollars would be sufficient.”

Here we find, that the President, having all the facts and documents before him, about two months ago, said that if the war continued a year and a half longer, it would be necessary to borrow twenty–three millions of dollars. Not having the data before me, I would be obliged to you to inform me how much money the Government has been authorized to borrow directly by loan, and indirectly by issuing Treasury Notes? I don’t know, but I think the answer will expose still farther the stupidity and incompetency of the President and his “constitutional advisers,” and will lay before the country the short–sighted policy by which Polk has temporarily succeeded in blinding his party to the consequences of his measures. I wonder that this admirable financial calculation has not received more attention; and can only account for it on the supposition, that through its invincible dullness and inordinate length, the Message defied a searching criticism; and by its innumerable follies, sickened all persons before they came to the extract quoted above.
Albemarle, Feb. 15th, 1847.

A WHIG.

[MPR]


RW47v24i16p2c7, February 22, 1847: Interesting from Tampico and the Army.

The correspondent of the New Orleans Delta, writing from Tampico on the 27th January, details the movements of Gen. Twigg’s pioneer force, and the arrival of Gen. Patterson’s division. We copy a few paragraphs from his journal.

28th—I learned last night that Lieut. Ritchie, of the 4th Infantry, was assassinated at Villa Grande, by a Mexican. He was on his way to Victoria, escorted by a company of Kentucky Cavalry. General Taylor encamped there for the night, and the Lieutenant was sauntering about the town when it happened. The next morning the General had arrested the alcalde, but I have not learned whether the perpetrator of the outrage had been taken.

One of the officers of Gen. Quitman’s division stated to me yesterday, that the Mexican cavalry were in sight of them for more than half the march from Victoria. On some clear place on the mountain side, they would arrange themselves for a charge, and then start pell–mell in the direction of the column. But I need not sat to you that they never came within musket–shot. Several of the men who lagged behind were killed by them. One, a member of the Baltimore battalion, was killed close to the rear guard– being first shot, and then lanced in the breast. I have not ascertained to what corps the other missing ones belonged.

We hear nothing of an early movement from this place, and from the preparations that are being made, it would be difficult to say when one would be made. At the encampment of Gen. Twiggs, they are clearing off ground and building wharves, as though they contemplated a six weeks’ rest, and I understand Gen. Pillow will move nearer to the town then he now is.

Tampico, Mexico, Jan. 30, 1847.

Gentlemen– Yesterday was quite a busy day in Tampico, and every thing in the military line wore an active appearance. Besides the numerous wagons that were moving to and fro about the forage and commissary departments, the hundreds of Mexican carts that were hauling the public stores from the wharves, the division of Gen. Pillow moved through town, on their march to their new encampment, and taking all things together, it was with great difficulty that either horseman or pedestrian could make headway against the moving mass. I was on the Plaza, when the head of Pillow’s column was passing it, and I do not believe my anxiety to cross the street caused me to exaggerate, when I estimated the time of their passing an hour and a half. The Tennessee cavalry were in front, numbering over 700 men, and they seemed to stretch out to the length of two miles; then the two regiments of infantry from the same State, and in the rear, the third regiment of Illinois Volunteers. The natives were out in large numbers, and many were the speculations, as to whether the mounted men were sure enough Rangers from Texas, or merely Voluntario caballeros. The place selected for the encampment of the division is about two miles from the town, on the edge of a lake, and near a conspicuous white house, which can be seen from all parts of the town. Gen. Quitman has also moved in from the 10 miles encampment, and is now about ten miles in the rear of General Twiggs.

There are rumors here that Gen. Taylor’s rear–guard had been attacked, near Linares, and that he had lost a number of wagons and mules, but I will not believe it until I hear something more, although it is a section of country where an attack of that sort is most likely to be made. Besides the numerous hiding places about there for Mexican soldiers, and the large settlements, the Mexicans would like to trouble old Taylor, for that money transaction in Linares. You may kick a Mexican, and he will probably forget it, but touch his pocket, and he’ll remember you the longest day he lives.

Bigelow, the beef contractor, who was shot by the Mexicans a day or two since, has been brought into Tampico, and will get well without a resort to amputation. I learned last night, that an Illinois volunteer was killed on the first days march of Quitman’s division, this side of […]. He had lagged behind the rear–guard, and a party of lancers rushed upon him, shot and lanced him. He was found during the day, and at night his company returned and buried him.

Gen. Worth, with the 8th and 4th infantry, has been some time on the road to this place, and may be looked for here in a very short time. When he arrives all the regular force, as Scott desired, will be on the sea board.
[MPR]


RW47v24i16p3c1, February 22, 1847, From Yucatan.

From the New Orleans Picayune, Feb. 13.

By the way of Havana we have accounts from Merida to the 16th January.

At that date, the forces of the insurgents of Campeachy were in the immediate vicinity of Merida in hostile array. To avoid the effusion of blood they summoned the city to surrender, giving it twenty–four hours for consultation. […] commissioners to settle all their difficulties amicably. This suggestion was promptly rejected and the surrender insisted upon. To this the government would not accede, and there matters rested at 11 o’clock on the 16th, immediate hostilities being expected on both sides.

In another quarter we have accounts of hostilities. The Faro Industrial gives an official report of the taking of the village of Tabi by the forces of the government of Merida. The action took place on the 11th of January. The Government troops amounted to 400 infantry and 29 dragoons. They had also one piece of artillery. The force of the rebels is not given, but they fought for two hours with unheard of fury, but the valor of the Government troops far surpassed any of which we have any record, and in the end prevailed. They gained possession of the village and the rebels fled most shamefully. The loss of the rebels was between forty and fifty men killed and seventeen prisoners. How many were wounded was not ascertained, but the number of “missing” must have been very large, judging from the manner in which they are said to have fled.

Tabi is a village situated far to the east of Merida and a little South, and on ho direct route between any two points of the least note, so far as we can judge by the map. The commander of the Government troops remarks that he does not consider its possession important to his ulterior operations, and he has accordingly withdrawn his troops from it. Why it should have been the scene of so sanguinary a strife, we do not well understand.

The rebels of Campeachy have seized all the letters intended for Merida received from Havana by the brig Martin. The simplest commercial letters were not allowed to go through.

From Havana– The brig P. Soule, Capt. Thompson, arrived last evening from Havana, having sailed on the 1st inst. The only news of any interest by this arrival is from Yucatan. We give the details in another column.

The papers mention the death of his Excellency Senor D. Santiago de la Cueta y Manzanar, Conde de la Reunion de Cuba and Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Order of Isabella the Catholic; also, of Don Francisco Javier Blanchie y Palms, a young author and poet very much esteemed.

The local news of Havana is totally uninteresting. Not a word more has been received there from the city of Mexico.
[MPR]


RW47v24i16p3c1, February 22, 1847: Very Interesting from Mexico– Latest.

From the Union of Friday night.

We are favored with the following extracts of a letter, which has been received in this city from one of the most respectable sources at Havana. They exhibit an ominous state of things in Mexico– ominous, we trust, of an important change in her political condition; and, may we not hope, auspicious to the restoration of peace between the two countries?

Havana, Feb. 6, 1847.

“I have the honor to inform you of the arrival of the British Steamer from Vera Cruz, with dates from the city to the 2d inst, and from the city of Mexico to the 29th ult, at which time the greatest confusion, yea consternation, prevailed. The ministry had resigned, and Congress had determined to dissolve on the 1st of the month.

“The clergy, as I before observed, had refused to grant a single dollar, and were endeavoring to prevail on the Congress to pronounce with them against Santa Anna.

“Some of the departments or States were for proclaiming Santa Anna dictator, while others were for pulling him down altogether.

“Vera Cruz was under the command of General Vega, the believed prisoner. The city contained about 4,000 regulars and volunteers, dependant for provisions daily from the interior. The castle, about 1,100, also dependant on the city for supplies.

“They appear to be on the verge of another revolution. They had much rather fight among themselves, than with us, or should I say the troops of the United States, for they then know with whom they are fighting.

“Santa Anna’s army at San Luis were in a state of starvation in fact. One regiment had left the city of Mexico, and it is reported that Santa Anna had taken up his march for Tampico.” (Doubtful!) “He most likely will have got back to Mexico to put down the party against him if he can.

“The transport ship May Flower, with Virginia volunteers, anchored here this morning. They are in fine spirits, and sail again in the morning for Point Isabel.”
[MPR]


RW47v24i16p4c2, February 22, 1847, From Havana– Latest Mexican News.

From the Charleston Mercury, Feb. 17.

The brig Adela, Capt. Watson, arrived here yesterday, from Havana, in 8 days passage.

Capt. Watson has furnished us with the following intelligence from Mexico, communicated to him by Mr. Campbell, our Consul at Havana. It was received by the packet from Vera Cruz, arrived at Havanna 6th inst.:

“Santa Anna was still at San Luis Potosi, at the head of 22,000 men, generally occupied with his favorite amusement of cock fighting.

“Gen. Taylor is said to have left his recent position, and passed Victoria at the head of 6000 men, supposed to be on his march to Tampico.

“The Clergy have refused to contribute the 8,000,000 attempted to be raised from them. They are much excited against Santa Anna, and are endeavoring to get up pronunciamentos against him.

“The whole cabinet of Santa Anna is reported to have resigned. Great jealousies exist among the different Generals in the Mexican army, and consequently much confusion and disorganization prevails. Vera Cruz is garrisoned by 3000 troops, dispirited, and expect the city to be attacked by the Americans on the 2d Feb. The best informed think the resistance made by the garrison will be feeble, and that it will fall an easy conquest. In the Castle there are only 1000 men, badly supplied with provisions, their chief dependence being on Vera Cruz for supplies.

“Many vessels laden with valuable cargoes have run the blockade and entered different ports of Mexico. Some ten have left Havana for Alvarado and Tuspan in the last month. A large French ship, with a valuable cargo, has been recently captured after having been warned off once, for a second attempt to enter.

“The May Flower arrived in Havana on the 6th inst with Lieut. Col. Randolph’s command of 318 men. The object is to supply medicines, which it appears had not been furnished in sufficient quantities previous to her leaving Norfolk. The men are fine looking, zealous and anxious to meet the Mexicans in the field of battle, or to plant the standard presented to them, on the walls of St. Juan de Ulloa. The standard is a beautiful one, having on one side the arms of the United States, and the arms of their idolized State of Virginia on the reverse side.

“Col. Randolph’s command are in fine health, except some 18 men. It was for these men that additional medicines were needed. The May Flower will sail 7th inst., (to–morrow,) for Point Isabel, that being the original destination of the vessel.”
[MPR]


RW47v24i16p4c2, February 22, 1847, A Washington Letter

A Washington letter in the Philadelphia Ledger says that the companies accepted from Pennsylvania under the Ten Regiment Act are Captain Butler’s dragoons, Capt. Biddle’s infantry, Syberg’s and Barnard’s, Thurster’s, from Carlisle; Guthria’s from Pittsburgh; Irving’s, Juniata; Moore’s, Bedford and Franklin, making eight companies from Pennsylvania. The field officers will probably be– Colonel Gen. Ramsay, of York county, an experienced military man; Lieut. Colonel, Col. Johnson, of Maryland, an officer of the regular army in Mexico; Major, Major Morgan, of Bradford, a graduate of West Point, who served through the Florida war; Surgeon, Professor Gibson, of Baltimore.
[MPR]


RW47v24i16p4c3, February 22, 1847: Substance of Remarks.

Made in the Senate of Virginia, on Saturday, the 13th of February, 1847, by Mr. Moore, of Rockbridge, upon his motion to postpone indefinitely the Resolutions from the House of Delegates, relating to the Mexican War.

Mr. Moore rose and said, that, before proceeding to submit the remarks which he desired to offer, in support of the motion he had just made, he deemed it proper to say, that in submitting his vies upon the important subject before the Senate, he would not designedly say one word calculated to give personal offence to any member of that body– that the relations of friendship subsisting between all the members of the Senate and himself, if no other consideration, would prevent his saying anything to which any member would have a right to take exception. The duty, however, which he owed to his constituents, and to his country, required that he should express his opinions frankly and unreservedly in reference to the resolutions themselves, and to the conduct of the President of the United States, to which they referred.

Mr. M. said he desired to be informed in the first place, why the resolutions were brought forward at all, especially at this late period of the session? Was it because all the important and appropriate business of the session had been acted on, and nothing else remained to be done? No– Scarcely a single bill of importance (of which a great many were pending in the other branch of the Assembly,) had reached the Senate. That could not, therefore, be the reason for bringing them forward. Was it because the friends of the Administration believed that the people, by whom Mr. Polk was elected, and to whom he was responsible for his acts, were incapable of judging of the propriety of his acts, and that it was therefore necessary to dictate to them what sentence they must pass upon him? Or was it deemed necessary, since sentence of condemnation had been pronounced by the great States of Pennsylvania and New York against Mr. Polk, for a fraud practiced upon them by him, in relation to his opinion on the Tariff, to make a show of great confidence in his Administration, here, in Virginia? Or were the resolutions brought forward, by order of the editor of the Union, who stands charged by members of Congress, with a gross impropriety of conduct– that he may, by a display of the extent of his power here, avert a sentence of condemnation being pronounced against him there? If all these conjectures were wide of the mark, he wished someone who designed voting for the resolutions, to state why they were brought forward, and what purpose they were intended to accomplish?

Mr. M. said he could not vote for either the preamble or the resolutions. He would not vote for the preamble, because it asserted that which every member of the General Assembly knew to be palpably untrue. He spoke of the resolutions now pending, as a “free and full expression of opinion on the great question of peace and war which now agitates the Union.” It was notorious that this was not designed to be a free, full, or candid expression of opinion. The previous question had been called in the House, in which the resolutions were offered, in the very outset, so as to cut off all debate and everything like a free and full expression of opinion, and strong indications were given of a disposition to pursue the same course in the Senate. No time for consideration or reflecting had been allowed after the resolutions were brought forward. With what show of propriety, then, could it be said that this was a free and full expression of opinion by the General Assembly? And yet it was the obvious design to impose this preamble and these resolutions upon the public, as a free expression of opinion, given after due deliberation, on an important subject, by the Representatives of the people of Virginia!

The same objection applied to the first resolution, and in a still stronger degree– that is, it asserted that to be true, which every man knew to be the very reverse of the fact. [Here Mr. M. read the first resolution.] The evident design of the resolution, if it did not say so in so many words, was to convey the idea, that the war grew entirely out of aggressions on the part of Mexico; whilst it was perfectly clear, that the immediate and obvious cause of the war was an unnecessary, unwise, and unauthorized act of the President of the United States. The immediate cause of the war unquestionably was the order given by President Polk to General Taylor, to march from Corpus Christi into the disputed territory, and to station his army opposite to Matamoros. The outrages on the part of Mexico, alluded to in the resolution, could not have been the true cause of the war. They had transpired years before– they had been considered by Congress, which had refused to declare war on that account– and cannot, with any show of propriety or truth, be said to have brought on the war. The order given to General Taylor, not only did in fact bring on the war, but it was the natural, if not the inevitable effect of the order, that it should do so, and Mr. M. confidently appealed to the candor of gentlemen on the other side, to say, if they did not believe, that no war would have broken out between Mexico and the United States up to this time, if the order referred to had not been given by the President.

The territory beyond the Nueces had never been in the possession of the United States, or of Texas, though claimed by the latter; but had been always, and was then, in the actual occupation of the Mexicans, who claimed it as their own; and the invasion of that territory, by an armed force, under those circumstances, was upon every principle acknowledged by the laws of nations, an act of war. But even if that did not amount to war in itself, the erection of a fortification, or stationing of an army, so as to overlook a large and important town, situated on territory acknowledged to belong to Mexico, was a flagrant insult, to which no nation having the slightest regard for its honor could submit. If any foreign nation had offered a similar insult to the United States, the whole nation would have been unanimous and clamorous for war. Suppose, for example, [said Mr. M.,] that Virginia had a town situated like the town of Matamoros, and the State of Maryland to be a foreign state; and even id the ground on the opposite side of the river actually belonged to her, and she should station an army so as to overlook the Virginia town, and command it by their guns, does any one believe there is a man in Virginia who is so very a dastard that he would not be willing to go to war to resent the insult? Such a man cannot be found in the Old Dominion.

The war, then, was actually commenced by the President of the United States. And it was done without constitutional authority or necessity for so doing. If it be said, that Mr. Polk did not intend to bring on a war by his order to invade the disputed territory, and that he did not know that the invasion of the territory claimed by Mexico, and in her actual possession, amounted to an act of war, it only shows a want of common sense, and a degree of ignorance, utterly incompatible with any idea of his fitness for the station which he holds as President of the United States. It is only necessary for any man to reflect for a moment what this country or England would have done under similar circumstances, to satisfy him that war was the natural and almost inevitable consequence of the order given by Mr. Polk to Gen. Taylor, even if the taking possession of the territory in dispute had not, under the circumstances attending it, amounted to war in itself.

The second resolution tenders to the President of the United States, the cordial thanks of this General Assembly “for the justice, firmness and eminent ability with which he has conducted the war with Mexico.”

Mr. M desired to be informed, in what the evidence of the justice and ability with which Mr. Polk conducted the war consisted? Was it, said Mr. M. wise or prudent in the President, to order Gen. Taylor to advance with out Army, of less than three thousand men, into a country in the possession of Mexico, inhabited by her citizens, and claimed as her own, and to offer a flagrant insult to the nation, by fixing his cannon in a position to command and overawe the city of Matamoros, when he knew, or ought to have known, that the Mexicans would have a right to regard the act as a commencement of open hostilities– and that they had a well disciplined army of from seven to fifteen thousand men, in the immediate vicinity? Was it just to the Army to expose it to such imminent danger of being overpowered by superior numbers– and that, too, in a position so distant from our own borders as to preclude the possibility of its receiving timely assistance from the United States? Was it just, or magnanimous, or fair, in the President, to cause or permit his Organ, a newspaper set up by himself, and paid out of the public treasury, (in the shape of contracts for public printing,) for the purpose of libeling all who may dare to differ with the Administration, to make an insidious attempt to throw the whole blame of anticipated defeat on the Commander of the Army, when he knew the Gen. Taylor acted in obedience to his own orders in all that he did? Neither the serious apprehension which prevailed throughout the country for Gen. Taylor and his army, from the time the Mexicans crossed the Rio Grande up to the time that the glorious victories of the 8th and 9th of May were achieved– nor the effort to throw the whole blame of his situation on the Commander of the army, by the Union– can be forgotten. But no sooner than those victories, which covered the army and its leader with glory, and redounded to the credit of the nation, been achieved, than this same Organ claimed the whole credit of our success for the Administration! A success he (Mr. M.) would venture to say, obtained in spite of the failure of the Government to furnish Gen. Taylor with a sufficient force, or with necessary supplies. Was this an evidence of the President’s justice towards our own brave army? Was the act of recalling the volunteers, called out by Gen. Gaines, (with the approbation of all parties in the State of Louisiana, and of others who had the best opportunity of judging of the imminent peril in which the army had been placed by the order of the President)– and of turning them loose in a strange country, without the means of subsistence or of reaching their homes, an act of justice to those patriotic citizens? Was it wise to dismiss them at all, and then call for thousands of others to supply their places, this incurring double cost? Was it just to drag Gen. Gaines a distance of a thousand miles to be tried by a Court Martial, for doing what all admit he was prompted to do by a sense of duty, and which, had he failed to do, and any disaster had happened to the army for want of the aid of those volunteers, he would, in all human probability, have been severely censured by the President and his organ for not having done? Did the President display his ability or his wisdom in totally failing to supply the army with the means of crossing the Rio Grande, or of improving a victory, when he (the President) had ever reason to believe that a battle would be the inevitable consequence of the orders he had given for the invasion of the territory held and claimed by the Mexicans? Did the President display his justice, or his ability, or his humanity, when, after the victories of Palo Alto and Resaca de Palma, he induced thousands of our patriotic citizens to volunteers, and sent them to encamp on the shores of the Rio Grande on the wet ground, and at an unhealthy season of the year, without tents to shield them from the drenching rains of the season, until two thousand of them fell victims to the diseases of the climate? Did the President display great ability in suffering the army to lay for months at Matamoros for want of boats to convey them up the river? Or was it when he ordered the army forward to attack the strongly fortified city of Monterey, defended by twice its own numbers, and failed to supply it with wagons to convey provisions for the support of the men, that he displayed his skill and ability in conducting the war? The fact that a large portion of the army were without any food for days, during the attack upon Monterey, except raw corn, and surrendered, was one which could not be controverted. Did the friends of the Administration rely on these facts as evidencing the eminent ability with which Mr. Polk had conducted the war?

Mr. M. would bring to the attention of the Senate one or two other matters proper to be considered, as tending to show Mr. Polk’s justice and ability, displayed in conducting the war. Col. Twiggs had been promoted over the heads of all the other officer of the Army, after the battles on the Rio Grande; and why? If he had been rightly informed, Col. Twiggs had been perhaps less conspicuous for courage and good conduct than any other officer in the field, in the estimation of the whole army; and his promotion could only be accounted for on the ground of his political opinions.

Mr. M. would state a singular circumstance, said the have occurred about the time that the army were stationed on the Rio Grande. A Lieutenant had been sent on from Washington, having no other claims to the office than his being a brawling partizan of the Administration; and after remaining three weeks in the army, it was discovered that he had managed to draw, within the three weeks, pay for seven weeks. Finding that the fraud had been detected, he wrote to the President or some of the officers at Washington, and before a Court Martial was detailed to try him for the offence, an order arrived from Washington directing Gen. Taylor not to convene a Court Martial trial of the guilty officer, if one had not been convened, and if it had, to dismiss it at once. Mr. M. said he could not speak in reference to this matter as of his own knowledge; but if any friend of the Administration desired it, he would put him in possession of the names of the means of ascertaining whether the story was well founded or not. He believed if the matter were enquired into, the story would be found to be strictly correct.

Perhaps (said Mr. M.) it was in the conduct of the President towards Gen. Taylor, that he displayed his great regard for justice. The President, had, in his letter to Gen’l T. after the capture of Monterey, expressed, or strongly insinuated, his disapprobation of the terms of capitulation. It was known that the partizans of the Administration had become alarmed at the rapidly growing popularity of “Old Rough and Ready,” and a servile press had begun, almost openly, to censure him– the fire on his back (like that apprehended by Gen. Scott) had actually commenced: Under these circumstances, Taylor, probably actuated by a desire to place the means of defending his reputation in the hands of a friend, if he should fall on the field of battle, wrote to a relative a letter, evidently not intended for publication, in which he set forth the facts in relation to the capitulation of Monterey. That relative, finding that a base and insidious attempt was being made, by the partizans of the Government, to blast the reputation of the old General, whilst absent fighting the battles of his country, thought proper, without the knowledge or consent of Gen. Taylor, to publish a part of his letter. The President of the United States, seeing that his own criminal neglect to supply the Army with provisions and the means of conveying their artillery to Monterey, was exposed by the letter, although he knew it had not been written for publication, determined to make its publication a ground of serious complaint against its author. Actuated by a spirit of malignity and meanness, peculiar to men of inferior intellect, and not daring to assail him openly, he raked up an old Army regulation of 1825, forbidding the writing and publication of letters giving an account of the movements and plans of our armies by officers, and orders it to be published; intending thereby to subject Gen’l Taylor to the imputation of a gross dereliction or breach of duty, in the public estimation. It would not suit his purpose to censure Taylor openly for the letter he had written. It was only necessary for men of intelligence to examine the regulation of 1825, to perceive that its object was to prevent the future movements of the armies and plans of the Government becoming known to the enemy, by means of letters written or published by the officers of the Army, and that it could have no application to such a letter as that of Gen. Taylor to Gen’l Gaines, which only spoke of the past, and which would not have been of any value to the enemy had it fallen into their hands. But still, the terms of the regulation or order of 1825 were very broad; and with the aid of a servile and corrupt press, it might serve to fix in the minds of the multitude, an impression that Taylor had been guilty of a great impropriety, and afford some sort of justification for superseding him in the command of the Army; and therefore the President ordered it to be published.

The fire on his back was now fairly commenced, and was soon followed up with a proposition to appoint a Lieutenant General, avowedly designed to place the command of the army in the hands of Col. Benton. One word, said Mr. M., as to Col. Benton: that modest, meek and humble man, who was to have received the appointment of Lieutenant General had the bill passed creating the office. He [Mr. Benton] told the Senate of the United States that he has been an officer in the war of 1812, higher in command than any of the officers now in the Army. He had, however, it seemed, omitted to tell us “where he buried his dead,” during the time he was in office. Mr. M. had never heard of his having been in any battle at all. Yes, he must retract that; he had heard of his being engaged in one battle, but not against the enemies of this country. He [MR. M.] had happened, many years ago, to be on the field or locality of the battle, in the city of Nashville, and had the particulars of the fight detailed to him, by a citizen of the place, professing to know all about them. It seemed that when Col. Hays, (a friend of Gen. Jackson,) entered the tavern in which the fight took place, the old General had received a shot fired at him by Jesse Benton, and lay weltering in his blood on the floor, whilst this Lieutenant General had pointed a pistol at him and was pulling the trigger, when the old man, pointing at him, remarked to Hays, “look at the d–d coward– he has forgotten to cock the pistol.” Whether this account of the affray was correct or not, Mr. M. could not undertake to pronounce; “he told it as it was told to him.”

Mr. M. thought the experiment of appointing men to the command of an army, upon the ground that they had held the office at a remote period, had been sufficiently tried in the war of 1812, when the command of an army in Canada was conferred on Gen. Hull. And he did not think it exactly fair, that a man who had abandoned the army to pursue other objects of ambition, should be placed over the heads of those who had stuck to the flag of their country through thick and thin, from 1812 to the present moment. Such a policy on the part of the government was not very well calculated to prompt the officers of the army to acts of noble daring. Nor did it furnish strong evidence of the “justice, wisdom and ability” of the President who recommended it.

Mr. M. expressed an earnest desire to be informed whether the partizans of the President meant to claim any especial credit for him, for the sagacity, wisdom and ability displayed by him when he permitted Santa Anna and the able officers who were with him, a pass through our fleet, on their way to the city of Mexico? It was notorious that up to that time, Mexico was directed by the contests of contending factions. She had no acknowledged head, in whose ability to conduct the war all the people had confidence. She had but one man in the world in whose ability and courage all parties could confide, and him they had expelled on account of his alleged tyranny, but not from any want of confidence in his capacity. And that man was Santa Anna. And that was the man whom our wise President gave orders to our fleet to permit to enter Vera Cruz, together with all his officers. He did enter. He was immediately placed at the head of the Government; and from that hour, the dissensions which had previously existed among the Mexicans have almost ceased. New energy and confidence have been infused into the Government and its Armies; and our Government has been compelled to change all its plans, and it is probable will soon have to abandon the idea of “conquering the country.” Did Mr. Polk display his eminent ability in thus giving to the enemy a head, and thus uniting their whole power and strength against us? Will any friend of the Administration have the courage to get up and say that he approves of that act? No, not one; and yet we are called on, said Mr. M., to declare, in general terms, that the President has conducted the war with “eminent ability!!”

Mr. M. desired to know whether the policy displayed by Mr. Polk in directing the commanders of our armies to cause all supplies for their support procured in Mexico, to be paid for, instead of levying contributions on the enemy, and quartering upon them, as was customary in all the wars of Europe, was considered as evidence of his wisdom and ability? Mr. M. believed that Bonaparte was reputed to have possessed some little military skill, and some ability in conducting a war; and it had been his invariable practice, and that of every other great General, except Mr. Polk, he had ever heard of, to support their armies, as far as practicable, by contributions levied upon the enemy. It was only by pursuing such a policy that any motive for desiring to make peace could be created in the minds of the Mexicans. By Mr. Polk’s policy, not only the whole burthen of supporting our armies fell upon the people of the U. States, but we actually contributed the means by which Mexico could support her armies and her Government. Mr. M. insisted that if Mexico could only be able to hold San Luis Potosi and her other posts, it would be to their interest to protract the war as long as possible, since the money received by her citizens in payment for provisions and other supplies for our army would be worth five times as much as all she would lose by the interruption of her commerce. We had already incurred a debt of from fifty to an hundred millions of dollars– thousands upon thousands of the lives of our patriotic citizens had fallen a sacrifice to the climate, owing to the criminal neglect of the President to furnish them with tents, clothing and other necessary supplies– the enemy had been furnished by Mr. Polk with an able leader, who had healed all their dissentions, and little or no progress was being made in “conquering a peace.” And yet we were called on to assert that the President had conducted the war with “eminent ability”!!!

Mr. M. could not undertake to say what the National Debt, already incurred by this war, would amount to; but he confidently believed that when all the sums advanced by the different States and territories to clothe and equip the volunteers called out by the President, were taken into account, as undoubtedly they would and must be, the debt of the nation would scarcely fall short of a hundred millions of dollars. Mr. M. said, the sums thus advanced by the States and Corporations for the use of the volunteers ought in the first instance to have been paid by the General Government. They would have been so paid, but for the pitiful policy on the part of the President, in attempting to conceal the enormous amount of debt in which he had involved the country, by rashly, unwisely and without authority, pushing us into a war, by an act of folly, to say the best of it.

The wisdom and propriety of the policy of the President, in pretending to make a distinction between the great body of the People of Mexico and their Rulers, admitted of very great doubt– especially when attempted by the head of a nation situated as we are. The condition of Mexico was, to some extent, like our own. The descendants of the Indians, constituting the great mass of the people, enjoyed but little if any more liberty, than the Slaves in the Southern States; and an attempt to array them against their own government was but little better than an attempt to excite a servile war, the most horrible of all wars;– a policy condemned b all civilized nations, and universally denounced in this country as cruel, monstrous, and inhuman.

There appeared to be a total want of magnanimity in a great Republic, pursuing such a policy in waging war against a sister Republic of less than half her own strength. The attempt, however, had proved eminently successful; and the whole Mexican nation are timely united. And what was most remarkable, the failure of his policy is ascribable principally to his own act, in suffering Santa Anna to return and place himself at the head of their government! And yet we are called on to give the President our cordial thanks for the “eminent ability” with which he has conducted the war!!

Mr. M. believed that President Polk had withheld from the public, under circumstances which could furnish no justification for such conduct, information which they had a right to receive; and that he had, from improper motives, suppressed evidence which, if known, would convict him of having involved the Nation in a useless and expensive war, without and against the consent of Congress– of having been criminally negligent in supplying the Army with wagons, provisions and other necessary means of subsistence– of having sought to destroy the reputation of General Taylor, by mean, covert, underhanded, and dishonorable means,– and of a degree of folly and criminality, in reference to the whole conduct of the war, which, so far from entitling him to a vote of thanks, would, when all the facts come to be known, call down upon his head a sentence of universal condemnations.

Note– Mr. Woofolk was understood, in his reply to Mr. Moore, to admit, though he did not say so in so man words, that there had been an understanding between President Polk and Santa Anna, at the time of his return to Mexico; that Santa Anna was to bring about a treaty of peace between the two nations as speedily as practicable; but that such was the state of excitement among the Mexican people against the U. States, that his purpose could not then be effected; and that the feeling against this country was still too strong for him to succeed in bringing them to agree to a peace. And it was inferred from his remarks, that the President still expected that the understanding between Santa Anna and himself would ultimately be carried into effect. Whether Mr. W. spoke from any knowledge of the expectations and views of the President, or simply from conjecture, was not exactly understood, his remarks not having been very distinctly heard. If such an understanding did exist between the President and Santa Anna it ma go far to explain the object of the Three Million Bill. The policy of coming to such an understanding, if it existed, ma well be doubted; since it must be regarded by the world, if carried into execution, as an act of treachery on the part of the one and of bribery on that of the other party to the agreement, and well calculated to bring discredit on the Republican form of government. Must it not be regarded too, as a discreditable mode of getting the advantage of a Nation so much weaker than our own? Will it not be considered, also, as highly discreditable to us, that we should, after all our boasting of our own strength, and after the contempt so often expressed for our enemy, be under the humiliating necessity of buying a peace, which we had failed to conquer? If there is, or was at the time of Santa Anna’s return, an understanding between him and President Polk, it shows that the President was playing a double game, and endeavoring at the same moment to induce the people to refuse to support their own Government, and to prevail on the Government to betray the people– in both of which he has been eminently successful.
[MPR]


March





April





May

Tuesday, May 4, 1847, RW24i36p1c1, 737 words.

A LOCOFOCO PUZZLE

The Locofoco papers affect to be exceedingly surprised at what appears to them to be the inconsistency of the Whigs, who, while they express the opinion that the war with Mexico has been both unconstitutionally and unnecessarily waged, yet rejoice over the victories of our arms, and even intimate the desire and the purpose to confer upon the heroic commander of our forces on the Rio Grande the highest reward which a grateful people can bestow upon a faithful public servant. There is, however, in truth, nothing inconsistent in condemning the authors of the war and the war itself, and at the same time uniting, heart and hand in its vigorous prosecution. It is, in fact, a beautiful illustration of the trite sentiment of Decatur, “Our country: may she always be right; but our country, right or wrong.” We may denounce the authors of a war which we believe to have been declared without just and sufficient cause, and for purposes and objects in themselves unworthy and improper – a war which neither the outraged rights of the nation nor its wounded honor required to be waged, in defence of the one or in vindication of the other. And yet, the war being begun, we may not only consistently, but we are bound by our allegiance to our country and by our obligation to obey the powers that be, to aid in its efficient and successful prosecution. Influenced by motives of this sort, we have seen that while Whig Legislators have promptly united with their political opponents in placing under the control of the President large bodies of men and millions of dollars, to the full extent of his own estimates of the wants of the public serve, Whig Soldiers have been equally prompt in rushing to the field of battle, and sealing with their blood their devotion to their country, and attesting their determination, under all circumstances, to sustain the honor of its flag, whenever and wherever their Government may cause it to be unfurled. They separate the Administration, [fold] and denounce, from the Country, to which they owe undivided allegiance. They proclaim their opposition to the one, therefore, while they obey, as good citizens, the laws of the other. They regret that unwise or vicious Rulers have unsheathed the sword; but they regret and censure the faturty which brought on the war, yet, once involved in strife, they urge and aid in a vigorous prosecution of hostilities as the most effective mode of restoring peace. As the Baltimore American, commenting on an article in the Union, in which the Whigs are denounced for applauding Taylor, while they condemn Polk, well asks;

“For what other purpose are we now striking such fearful blows in Mexico? Who is pleased with this war on its own account? Is there any one who professes to be delighted with it and does not wish to see it ended? Nay, the public anxiety to see it satisfactorily ended is every day growing stronger and stronger – so much so that the Administration will not be sustained in any exorbitant demands which may drive Mexico to desperation, and defeat the hope of a peace within a reasonable time. With all the martial enthusiasm of our people, they are not blind to justice and reason, nor steeled against the dictates of humanity – whatever may be the reckonings of those who calculate every thing for political effect.

As for Gen. Taylor, he is now fighting in Mexico upon the same principles which animated the Whigs to unite in supporting measures, in Congress for the efficient prosecution of the war. He obeys the government in whose service his is; they obeyed the requisitions of duty to their country to whose honor and welfare they are devoted. Yet both are anxious to see the war ended; and both are in the habit of believing that it might have been avoided, if wise and prudent counsels had prevailed.

But the idea of ‘stealing all the honors of a war’ which the Administration got up for its own especial behead – this is the crying enormity. If this be not Hat burglary, then Dogberry, like necessity, knows no law. But the truth is, this Texas business, from first to last, has proved a bad speculation. Mr. Tyler went into it, and suffered. Mr. Polk is following in the footsteps of his illustrious predecessor. Both accumulated capital for others to use.”
[MSH]


Tuesday, May 4, 1847, RW24i36p1c1  147 words.

THE UNION AND GENERAL TAYLOR.

The Washington Union says, “When Gen. Taylor’s principles have been fully developed, if we approve of his views of the constitution, and of the policy in which the government should be administered, we shall be able to appreciate his claims to the Presidency” – claims, which it adds, it “shall weigh in the best spirit,” being entirely uncommitted to any candidate. Whereupon the Baltimore American well remarks:

“Here is an indication of some promise. Approving of Gen. Taylor’s views of the constitution, and of the policy in which the government should be administered, what will the Union do? Support Gen. Taylor? No. It will merely be able to appreciate his claims to the Presidency.’ – Unlike the player queen, the Union does not promise too much.

“Speaking however of ‘claims to the Presidency,’ the political paper should know that Gen. Taylor makes none. The people make claims upon him.”
[MSH]


Tuesday, May 4, 1847: RW24i36p1c2  284 words.

CALIFORNIA

The exploits of Cortez have been a favorite source of illustration during the Mexican war. We have concluded that what he did, we may do. It happened to this famous hero once, that a successor was appointed to him, and that instead of relinquishing his authority, he turned his arms against his rival, took him prisoner and sent him back from whence he came. The nature of man seems not to have essentially changed since that, as the last news from California indicates that there is some chance of a civil war between two of Mr. Polk’s Governors. The N. O. Picayune says:

“We are much concerned to learn that a serious difficulty has arisen between Gen. Kearney and Com. Stockton, touching the civil government of California. Our information is to the effect that Com. Stockton refused to acknowledge Gen. Kearney’s right to assume the civil magistracy of the province and that Col. Fremont joined with him in resisting the orders of the General Government conferring the office of governor upon Gen. Kearney. This misunderstanding, it was feared would be of serious disadvantage to the American interests in that distant region.”

There is a terrible amount of mystification about this matter. Com. Stockton’s despatches imply that he was at the head of all operations, and especially that he commanded the forces in the battles of the 8th and 9th of January. Lieut. Emory, who is Gen. Kearny’s bearer of despatches, states positively that the latter commanded in both of those battles. We shall hear soon of the establishment of a new empire, with Com. Stockton, by the grace of God, King of California. The days of Cortez’ and the Pizarros have come back. – Charleston Mercury.
[MSH]


Tuesday, May 4, 1847, RW24i36p1c2  59 words.

COMING FROM THE WAR

Capt. McManus, the commander of the State Fencibles, has just returned from the seat of war, to Jackson, (Miss.) He left the city weighing about one hundred and eighty pounds; but come back reduced to ninety. Though unable to command his company at Buena Vista, he was furnished a horse and remained with it all day on horse back.
[MSH]


Tuesday, May 4, 1847, RW24i36p1c4  981 words.

AN ACCOUNT OF THE BATTLE OF BUENA VISTA, IN SCRIPTURAL STYLE.

           1. And it came to pass in those days when the war between the children of brother Jonathan and the children of Ishmael, known as the Mexicans, was prosecuted with rigor.

           2. With the object of conquering a piece of Mexico.

           3. That the army of the Mexicans crossed over the wilderness which stretches from Matehuala and Agua Nueva, some forty leguas, headed by their chief captain Antonio, whose surname was Lopez de Santa Anna.

           4. And Zachary, one of the mightiest of Brother Jonathan, was the chief capitain of the host of the Americans at Agua Nueva, or the New Water, in the heart of the enemy’s country.

           5. Howbeit, the chief captain over all the American armies in Mexico was Winfield, a mighty man of valor, who stood like Soul, the first king of Israel, a head and shoulders above has peers.

           6. Who after supping a “hasty plate of soup” in the chief city of Washington, put on all the panoply of the war, and with ships and transports, a great fleet and huge engines, and twelve thousand men of war, set sail to Vera Cruz, the chief seaport of the Mexicans.

           7. Where, also, there was a prodigious (illegible) black as thunder, and grim as death, settling out like a huge prison in the midst of the sea.

           8. And Antonio, the chief captain of the Mexicans, had a wooden leg.

           9. For the Gauls had bombarded the castle, once upon a time, when Antonio was its defender, and a stray shot from the enemy wounded him (illegible).

           10. And Winfield, when he repaired to Vera Cruz with his mighty host, hearing that Antonio was at San Luis Potosi, midway between VeraCruz and Agua Nueva.

           11. And Hearing that the Mexican armies were fast for provisions, and could not budge a peg from the want thereof;

           12. And thinking that Antonio would be utterly unable to cross the desert to the discomfiture of Zachary;

           13. And called upon Zachary, and took from him the mail body of the regular soldiers, and told him to “lay low and keep dark,” and in order to be perfectly safe, to fall into Monterey, under the shadow of the mountains, where the enemy could not reach him, if peradventure they should cross the desert.

           14. But Zachary was exceeding wroth, and determined to have a crack at ‘em any how.

           15. Moreover, the water at Agua Nueva was wholesome to the men; and as it was on the edge of the desert, he could see further that under the mountains of Monterey.

           16. And though left with but 5,000 young men, he resolved to stand the racket.

           17. And hearing from the spies which were sent out to sour the country that Antonio was approaching with a mighty host of cannonters, rancheros, lancers, horse, foot and dragoons.

           18. And furthermore, that the chief captain of the Mexicans was anxious to immortalize himself in a great battle with the Americans.

           19. Old Zachary put both hands in his pockets, and said he would give him a chance.

           20. And Santa Anna, which is Antonio, drew nigh unto Agua Nueva, with 17, 000 men.

           21. And Zachary fell back to the hacienda of Buena Vista, of Good Prospect, where he could have a Good Prospect, of the enemy.

           22. Where he planted his men by regiments, battalions, squadrons, and companies, among the hills and ravines, flanked by the barren and sun burnt mountains.

           23. And in the second month, and on the 221 day of the month, and on the eleventh hour of the day, the two armies were pitched for the battle.

           24. And the Mexicans were spread around just like a host of starving wolves, while the army of Brother Jonathan mustered like a small herd of tigers among hills.

           25. And Antonio, sent to Zachary a messenger asking him respectfully to surrender, as it would be a great accommodation.

           26. And Zachary respectfully declined.
And the Battle began with some heavy cannonading in the afternoon of the day on which the great Washington was born.

           27. So that the Mexicans unwittingly joined the Americans in the celebration.

           28. And again on the next day, the battle war renewed and sustained all the day with great slaughter on both sides.

           29. And the enemy being starved, fought over dead bodies of the Americans for the meat and drink which was in their knapsacks.

           30. An Antonio had to drive others at the (illegible) of the lance into battle, so exceeding hot was the fire of the American Volunteers.

           31. And there tell of the enemy near two thousand men.

And at night the Chief Captain of the Mexicans, with his shattered army, fell back upon Agua Nueva.

           32. And carried with him three of the great guns of the Americans which were taken by reason that their defenders were shot down.

           33. And issued a proclamation, that on the morrow, when his men had eaten a mouthful of provisions, he would finish the work.

           34. But instead thereof, he precipitately retreated across the desert to San Luis Potosi, on the pretence that Gen. Patterson was coming to town.

           35. And Zachary resumed his position at Agua Nueva, for his men were dry.

           36. An he sent a messenger to Washington with dispatches of all that had been done, and exhibited his loss to be near eight hundred men in killed and wounded.

           37. And told the Adjutant General to tell the Secretary of War, surnamed old leather breeches that it was, perhaps, as well to keep the desert between humans the enemy as to admit them down to Monterey.

           38. And there was great joy among the Americans albeit may hearts were grieved, by reason of the slain.

           39. And Old Zachary was pronounced by acclamations as one of the b’hoys.

[MUL]


Tuesday, May 4, 1847, RW24i36p1c5

OFFICIAL

Letters have just been received at the War Department from General Taylor. The last bears date on the 28th of March. A previous letter runs as follows: and it pays the proper tribute to the gallant conduct of Col. Morgan, of the Ohio volunteers:

See: Niles National Register, /Niles/Nilesg1847MayJun.htm#DATE72.151TaylorCAMARGO

The last letter from General Taylor, of the 28th March, reports that our communications with the rear are now measurably secure, no interruption having taken place since that reported on the 20th ult. A train arrived on the 24th, under escort of the 1st Indiana regiment, and another was daily expected. It is understood, that the regular cavalry of Urrea had retired from that quarter across the mountains; a natural result of the retreat of the main army towards San Luis and of our precautions to secure the trains. All was quiet at Saltillo. The troops in good health and the wounded rapidly recovering. The inhabitant, both at Saltillo and Monterey, were generally returning to their homes, and, in the country, are engaged in planting their crops.
[MSH]


Tuesday, May 4, 1847, RW24i36p2c2

GENERAL TAYLOR IN KENTUCKY. Illegible.


Tuesday, May 4, 1847 RW24i36p2c2  664 words.

INTERESTING FROM MEXICO.

The fact that Santa Anna, on saving enough of Mexico, carried with him his cabinet to the scene of action has given rise to the very plausible surmise that his object is to negotiate and not fight.

A letter from “a highly respectable and reliable source” in the city of Mexico, [fold], the Spanish paper in New Orleans, gives a very gloomy account of the state of affairs at the rapid consequent upon the dissentious and discords of the […] factions into which the Mexican people are divided. The writer says:

“There is the war party, who are not only in favor of war, but of one conducted with decision, energy and real earnest. There is the peace party, which is desirous of effecting an accommodation with the United States, even at the sacrifice of a large portion of their territory. Another party – that of the clergy – hate the Americans as heretica and Jews, but they are unwilling to open the purses of the church to contribute to prosecute the war against the ‘enemies of their religion.’  Gomez Farias has a party which is in favor of hypothecating the property of the church to raise funds to carry on the war. This party is weak, for Santa Anna publicly repudiates it, though it is said he secretly encourages their design. Lastly, there is a party which has always existed to a considerable extent in Mexico, intent upon selfish purposes, disregarding the circumstances of the State – in peace or in war, regarding nothing but the promotion of their own self–interest and ambitious. This party has seized the present occasion as affording an opportunity of promoting their interests, entirely oblivious of the calls of patriotism.”

The writer adds the following interesting facts and speculations:

“Santa Anna leaves to–day [April 1] for Jalapa, where he will unite his force with that of Gen La Vega, who is now at the defences of the National Bridge. Santa Anna says that he goes to conquer or die; but this he has said so often, that we cannot put much reliance in the threat. He takes with him about 20,000 men of all arms, the greater part of them being taken from [jarochada] the lowest class of the people, who are very good for fighting. They will, however, have no other advantage over the army which marched from San Louis, except that they will not be compelled to the same dreary march through vast wildernesses, and exposed to continual cold and rain. But they are equally destitute of resources and means, having no provisions and no money with which to buy any. We have, therefore, no reasons for expecting any other results than have characterized the former enterprises. It is said that if the Americans pass the National Bridge, and march towards the capital, the whole people of Mexico will rise en masse against the invaders. But we do not doubt that a force of 10,000 or 12,000 Americans will not encounter on the march, a Mexican army sufficiently large or determined to resist their onward progress.

“What do the Mexicans hope for when, during a whole year they are permitted so many favorable opportunities of repelling the invaders to pass buy unimproved? Witness the battles of Monterey and Buena Vista – the debarkation of the American troops in the very face of Vera Cruz, and when the expedition had become so universally known and so generally expected.

“Santa Anna says there shall never be peace as long as there is on American in Mexico. But Santa Anna is, in truth, most desirous of all other persons for peace, and will be the first to recommend it, when it is safe to do so. – There are many persons in Mexico who have learned to understand an appreciate the Americans, their laws, government and institutions – but there are many Mexicans who thoroughly despise the Yankees, their manners and customs. [fold] yet they call themselves freemen, and mockingly call their nation a republic!”
[MSH]


Tuesday, May 4, 1847 RW24i36p2c2,  325 words.

A LETTER FROM VERA CRUZ.

The Courrier des Etats Unis, of New York, of the 1st instant, contains a letter from Vera Cruz, dated the 9th of April, said to be from a reliable source, which expresses the opinion that Santa Anna is at hear inclined for peace, and that “an arrangement is not beyond the reach of probability.”  The Courier’s correspondent states that he has seen an authentic copy of a letter written by Senor Atocha (Mr. Polk’s messenger) to Senor Rejon, in which the proposition of the United States Government to that of Mexico is thus stated:

“The adoption of the Rio Grande as the boundary between the two republics, from its mouth to the parallel of California. This parallel strikes the Rio Gila between the 33rd and 34th degrees of latitude; the line, therefore, would by no means come down as low as the 25th of 26th degree, as has been pretended. Such a line would take from Mexico a third of their territory, whereas Senor Antocha’s would cut off only New Mexico and California.

“The United States would pay for this acquisition from fifteen to twenty millions of dollars, besides taking upon themselves the settlement of the old claims, amounting to eleven millions. Adding the expenses of the war, which Senor Atocha estimates at sixty millions, the whole amount thus paid for New Mexico and California would be from 86 to 91 millions; a large price, and perhaps even more than the territory can be worth.

“A treaty of commerce and of alliance, offensive and defensive, to be established, by which the United States should engage to protect Mexico, by force of arms if necessary against any European attempt to introduce a monarchical system. And the Cabinet of Washington would bind itself not to recognize the independence of any Mexican confederation, as also to defend the frontier of both republics against Indian hostilities, keeping up for this purpose a force of give or six thousand men.”
[MSH]


Tuesday, May 4, 1847 RW24i36p2c5  716 words.

LATER FROM THE BRAZOS.

From the New Orleans Picayune, April 24.

The U.S. propeller Trumbull, Capt Stotesbury, arrived yesterday from the Brazos, having sailed on the 18th inst. She brings no news of importance.

Gen Taylor was at Monterey on the 5th inst., while the army remained at its old position under Gen Wool. Gen Taylor was pushing up supplies from Camargo to Saltillo with all rapidity, and with a view to a forward movement upon San Louis. Men only will be wanting for that purpose.

The volunteers are returning towards the mouth of the Rio Grande as their terms of service are expiring. The right wing of the Kentucky Legion had reached the Brazos, and was awaiting there the arrival of the other wing, prior to sailing for this port. We learn that none of the volunteers scarcely are re–enlisting.

In the total absence of letters from our correspondent, we copy a number of items from the Matamoros Flag of the 14th inst.

ROBBERY. – The sum of fifteen hundred dollars was abstracted by some scoundrel from the money of the Subsistence Department in this place on Friday night last. One thousand  dollars was done up in a box constructed to hold that amount of money, and the balance was contained in a small bag, and both deposited into a large wooden box, the lock of which was torn off. There was no relaxation of vigilance on the part of those whose duty it was to watch over the funds at the time of the theft. The robbery must elude the keenest watchfulness.

The North Carolina regiment, as we learn from one of its very clever lieutenants, Staton, is at San Francisco, nine miles this side of Camargo. On the 8th inst. they were joined by their commander, Col. Paine. Capt. Wilson, our readers will recollect, has been appointed colonel of infantry, but prefers remaining with the Edgecombe boys, whose mothers constituted him their guardian during the war.

Lieut. Staton, of the North Carolina regiment, came down the river on Friday last in charge of a number of sick volunteers belonging to his regiment. On the passage down two of the died, viz: Geo. W. Barnes, 1st sergeant, company A; J.J.F. Stokes, 3rd corporal, company E.

MURDER – Wm. C. Gladman, a free mulatto who owns a barber shop in Galveston, but who has been tarrying in our city for the last month or two, was missed from his employment for three of four days. On Saturday morning last his body was discovered by our carrier boys floating in the lake back of our office. It bore the marks of violence, and as he was known to have had a considerable sum of money in his possession, it is supposed avarice prompted the deed.

MORE VIOLENCE – A Mexican was horribly mangled by cuts with a knife, in a fight near the Plaza, on Monday night last. The unfortunate man is not expected to live. On Tuesday night, as we have been informed, another one was shot at a fandango, and it is thought will not survive the wound.

Col. Cushing has issued the following stringent order, with a view to put an end to the disturbances which have prevailed so long in Matamoros:

ORDER – No. 71.

HEADQUARTERS, MATAMOROS, April 13, 1847

For the better maintenance of safety and good morals at this post, and in special regard to the well being of the troops stationed here, also in execution of previous orders emanating from the commanding general, and from officers in immediate command at the post, It is ordered:

1. All houses or other places of gambling of whatever name or nature, or of public dancing, at this post are hereby closed.

2. All sale or traffic in distilled spirits at this post is prohibited.

3. The proprietors of all buildings or other places in which gambling or public dancing occurs, or distilled spirits are sold, as well as the occupants or other persons engaged or employed in an about the same, will be held severally responsible after the present date for any infraction of this order, and will be summarily dealt with according to martial law.

4. Maj. Abbott is charged with the execution of this order.

By order of C. Cushing, Col. Comd’g.
W. W. H. DAVIS, Adj’t.

[MSH]


 Tuesday, May 4, 1847 RW24i36p2c5 247 words.

THE CHANCES OF PEACE.

We saw a private letter from a very intelligent officer at Vera Cruz, dated the 10th inst., in which he says that several of the States of the Mexican confederacy have denounced the war with the United States, and threaten to secede unless peace should be made. Many Mexicans predicted a peace within sixty days, but our correspondent puts little faith in auguries so favorable. He thinks the great difficulty in the way of peace is the fact that Santa Anna is so nearly crushed that he dare not make a treaty. – Nor does there appear to be any one else in Mexico strong enough to incur the great responsibility. None of the old politicians will venture upon the step. Our correspondent adds: “Some man now unknown to fame, with nothing to lose, and every thing to gain, may arise and advocate a peace policy successfully. His want of ambition or the little chance of his obtaining power may prevent him from becoming obnoxious to the jealousies of parties, and gain for him adhern’s generally. He may succeed in making a peace which every body will be glad of; but how long before it will be used as an element of political warfare?”

The Legislature of the State of Vera Cruz, sitting at Jalapa, was said to be deliberating at last accounts upon the propriety of making peace, independent of the General Government.

The State of Zacatecas has declared itself independent – so writes us an intelligent correspondent!
[MSH]


Tuesday, May 4, 1847, RW24i36p2c5  166 words.

THE MARINES OF THE GULF SQUADRON

During the late events at Vera Cruz, the marines of the Gulf Squadron were formed into three companies under the command of Capt. Edson, a popular and gallant officer, assisted by Lieuts Garland, Slack, Simms, Adams and Mayson, of the Marine Corps, and placed at the disposition of Gen. Scott by Com. Conner. They were attached to the 3d Artillery under Col. Belton, and constituted about a half of his command. They landed on the 9th March with the line of the army, an were very actively employed during the investment, and were the first to open and the last to leave the trenches. The first man killed in the trenches was a marine. They were detached by Gen. Scott when the city had surrendered, and after marching into the city returned to their respective vessels. Their services have been warmly acknowledged both by Gen. Scott and Gen Worth in their respective general orders, and elsewhere, and also to Capt. Edson on the occasion of detachment.
[MSH]


Tuesday, May 4, 1847 RW24i36p2c7  465 words.

FROM THE ARMY.

From the Washington Union, Saturday 1st.

Letters were received by the Department of the War and Navy, by last evening’s mail, from Vera Cruz, in the Massachusetts steamer; arrived at New Orleans. General Scott’s last letter bear date on the 11th April. It states the arrangements he was making for the advance towards the capital. It contains no intelligence that is as late or more interesting than what was received at New Orleans by the Picayune and the Delta. The General states that Gen. Twiggs had passed the National Bridge, and was on the road to Jalapa. The first report was that Santa Anna had only 4,000 troops – then the account increased them to 6,000 – and, finally, Gen Twiggs’ despatch augmented them to about 15,000 entrenched at the pass of Cero Gordo. Another letter, written on the 14th, has been received at the War Office, stating that Gen. Scott had left Vera Cruz on the 12th, and Gen Worth on the 13th. They refer to the same rumors that were published last night in the “Union” with this variation, that only two members of the Mexican Congress were reported to be with Santa Anna, for the purpose of making overtures for peace. But nothing has been positively ascertained about it.

Com. Perry’s despatches to the Navy contain nothing that we can, at this time, lay before our readers.

Extract from a letter of Capt. Hughes, of the Corpus Topographical Engineers.

Vera Cruz, April 14, 1847

“Yesterday despatches were received here from Gen Twiggs, at Plano del Rio, dated 12th instant, stating that Santa Anna, with about 15,000 men, had occupied the strong pass of Cerro Gordo, (five miles in his advance) about fifteen miles from Jalapa, where he had an additional force of 7,000 or 8,000 men. Gen . Patterson being ill, Gen. Twiggs proposed to attack the enemy to–day, [14th instant,] but I presume orders have been sent him to defend it until the arrival of the commander–in–chief, who will reech the place to–day. It is now believed that a great battle will be fought at Jalapa, or a few miles the other side, at a formidable pass, called La Hoya, which is gained, opens to us the road to Perotec and to Puebla.

“It is not thought that anything serious will occur at Cerro Gordo, as it is represented that the position may be turned. I am sorry to tell you that Capt. Johnson, of the Corps of Topographical Engineers, [recently appointed lieutenant colonel of voltigeurs,) was very dangerously wounded in two places, while [illegible] on the 12th instant. His wounds had been dressed, most of the balls extracted, and the wounds pronounced not to be mortal. God grant his valuable life may be spared to his family, his friends, and his country!”
[MSH]


Tuesday, May 4, 1847 RW24i36p4c2  84 words.

A LETTER FROM CAPT. HARPER OF STAUNTON.

A letter from Capt. Harper of Staunton, dated near Monterey, on the 18th of March, after complimenting the Virginia Regiment, speaks thus of old Rough ‘n Ready: – “Gen. Taylor has just returned to the this place from Catareta. The General is a remarkably hale, hearty looking man, of medium height, thick set and stoop shouldcred, and would weigh, I suppose, about 175. In dress, &c. he might be readily taken for a wagon master. The Army, I find, are enthusiastic in his praise.”
[MSH]


Tuesday, May 4, 1847 RW24i36p4c2  522 words

THE LATE APPOINTMENTS.

The New Orleans Picayune makes the following very just remarks, upon the recent promotion of Generals Quitman, Pillow and Cushing:

“The task of a fault finder is an ungracious one always, yet we may be permitted to say that those promotions, (with one exception) were not indicated by the confidence of the army in the persons selected, nor suggested by any display of great military abilities on the part of the appointees. – Gen Quitman distinguished himself, it is true, at Monterey, and on this account his promotion will be more acceptable to the army; but for the other two we look in vain for services entitling them to exalted rank. Gen Pillow’s defences of Camargo were the laughter of the service. In throwing up intrenchments he actually made the ditch on the wrong side – converting a breast work designed for the protection of the city into a convenient cover for an assailing party. Now that he is a major general, it is reasonable to suppose that the next time he tries his hand at the business he will dig his ditches on both sides.

“Gen. Cushing has yet to smell gunpowder. He is a man of talents and distinguished above his compeers as a tactician in civil maters. If his strategy in the war prove equal to his maneuvering in politics he will make a very extensive general. Yet there is great doubt whether his civil instincts qualify him for command in a service where the majority is with the enemy.

“There were at Monterey men whom a crowd would spontaneously look to as leaders in a crisis of difficulty. – Such men as Gen A S Johnson, of Texas; Col Jefferson Davis, of Mississippi; Col Campbell, of Tennessee, & c., who disting dished themselves in battle, and who possess the military knowledge and actual experience necessary for high command. They enjoy also the confidence of the soldiery. If gallant deeds, as in the case of Gen. Quitman, are regarded as claims to promotion, these gentlemen were equally conspicuous at Monterey. Colonel Davis has since then freshened his laurels at Buena Vista, and Col Campbell was before Vera Cruz with his regiment. The country will acknowledge the right of these brave officers to complain of neglect, and the service will suffer from a species of favoritism calculated to drive the best men out of it. There is that in every Southern mind, or Northern, or either, which rebels at the idea of making the gallant and distinguished Davis subordinate to an untried officer Gen. Cushing. We would not disparage Gen. Cushing, but his sword has not yet tested the dint of the battle, whilst Col. Davis has fleshed his sabre in fields all reeking with carnage. Gen. Cushing has gone to join Gen. Taylor, where he will rank officers whose prowess decided the issues of combat. This is all wrong to our thinking, and we would not be surprised if the twelve months’ enlistments refused to a man to prolong their stay in Mexico. It is a hard service that in which chivalry and successful valor are not rewarded by rank and command.”
[MSH]


Tuesday, May 4, 1847 RW24i36p4c4  1,724 words.

LATER FROM VERA CRUZ.

From the N. O. Picayune, April 23rd

Important Intelligence – Advance of the American Army – Santa Anna’s Preparations for Defence – Battle Supposed to have been Fought on the 15th inst., &c.

The U.S. steamship Massachusetts arrived here last evening from Vera Cruz, which place she left on the evening of the 14th. Our correspondence is down to the latest hours. The news is of the most stirring interest. The best advices lead to the impression that a battle was fought at Cerro Gordo, nearly midway between the Puente Nacional and Jalapa, on Thursday or Friday last. We have heretofore announced the advance of Gen. Twigg’s division into the interior. When last heard from he was beyond the Puente Nacional and in close proximity to the Mexican army. Gen Scott was expected to arrive at Gen. Twiggs’s headquarters on the night of the 14th inst. Gen. Worth left Vera Cruz with the last division of the army on the 13th, and bivouacked that night at San Juan – about 12 miles in the interior. He probably joined the advance on the 15th. Santa Anna was said to be at Cerro Gordo, where La Vega and Canalizo were posted with a considerable command. The Mexican force at that point, when joined by Santa Anna, was estimated at fifteen thousand strong – consisting of two thousand regular infantry, there thousand cavalry, and the remainder irregulars. The pass of Cerro Gordo is forty–four miles from Vera Cruz and is naturally a very strong one. Some difficulty is anticipated in forcing it. – Rumors state that Santa Anna can obtain any amount of irregular force he may desire. Reconnoitering parties from the American army had been fired upon and several wounded – amongst who was Capt. (now Lieut. Col.) Johnson, of the Topographical Engineers, who was shot in the arm and hip whilst examining the Mexican works at Cerro Gordo. Intelligent officers who arrived in the Massachusetts, entertain very little doubt that a general engagement has taken place.

A number of soldiers have been shot in passing the road to and fro. All accounts represent the Americans as confident of victory, and the Mexicans burning for vengeance. Our next advices from Vera Cruz will, we doubt not bring us the details of an important engagement.

We subjoin the news from the Vera Cruz papers and our correspondence. The letter from Mr. Kendall of the 14th, written at camp San Juan, is the very latest from the army. The soldiers were suffering at Vera Cruz from sickness, but the vomito had not appeared.

[Editorial Correspondence of the Picayune]

So many vessels are leaving almost every day that it is hard keeping the run of them. I send a line by every one I hear of.

A German gentlemen has just told me – it is now 10 o’clock, A.M. – that Santa Anna was at his old hacienda of Errcerro day before yesterday. This place is close by Jalapa. Canalizo and La Vega are at Cerro Gordo, where no less than three heights have been fortified. Gen. Scott went out last night; Gen. Worth, with his division, marched this morning, and will bivouack to night at San Juan, on the other side of Santa Fe. Gen. Twiggs is at Plau del Rio, close by the Mexicans, and there are those who think it more than probable that he has already has a brush with them. It is thought the position at Cerro Gordo can be turned, and in case La Vega and Canalizo make good their retreat that they will make another stand at Los Dios. Time will show.

The hospitals are full, and the sickness is said to be on the increase. I still cannot learn that there has been any well authenticated case of vomito, although many have died of fever. I am off to–day for the headquarters of the army.

Yours, &c.
G.W.K.

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Vera Cruz, April 14, 1847

The Massachusetts sails in half an hour, and I hasten to send you the latest intelligence received from the advance of our army on its march towards Jalapa. Despatches were received here yesterday evening from Gen. Twiggs, stating that the enemy had been discovered, and tat in a reconnaissance some eighteen miles beyond the National Bridge, at a point called the Black Forrest Pass, Capt. J.E. Johnson, of the Topographical Engineers – now Lieut. Col. of voltiguers – was severely wounded with a shot through the arm and another through the thigh. It is more than probable that Gens. Twiggs and Pillow have had something of a “brush with the enemy.” Santa Anna is known to have arrived at this pass with a force said to be 15,000 strong, consisting of 2,000 regulars and the balance of irregular troops – of whom 3,000 are cavalry. The point above named is a very strong one, and naturally affords great advantages to the enemy, but my word for it, they will not hold it long after our troops assail it.

Shut up as I am in my room I cannot know much of what is going on. Mr. Kendall started last evening on the way to the advance of the army; he will probably be in the camp sometime to–day. He wrote you a letter before staring, which goes with this. It is becoming quite sickly here, but as yet I hear nothing of the vomito amongst the soldiers [fold] excepting those who stay to garrison this city, will son be beyond the influence of the impure and sickly air of the coast.

I am still slowly recovering from my accident, and hope to be with you ere many days. It is entirely out of the question to think of following the army in my condition, and I wouldn’t stay in Vera Cruz a month for it. I learn that the steamship New Orleans, now here, is to make one more trip to Tampico for mules, which are much wanted here, and after that she goes to your city.

Yours, &c.,
F. A. L.

P.S. – When Capt. Johnson was wounded in his reconnaissance, he was with an escort of the 2d Dragoons, under Capt. Hardie.

F. A. L.

Camp at San Juan, April 14, 1847.

I arrived at this camp at 11 o’clock last night, the road from Vera Cruz running for the most part through heavy sand. The division of Gen Worth, from the excessive heat and wearisome road, suffered incredibly.

The news in camp is stirring. An express has come down from Gen. Twiggs to the effect that Santa Anna was before him, at Cerro Gordo, with 15,000 men, as near as could be judged from reconnaissance made by Capt. Hardie and other officers of dragoons. Lieut. Col. J.E. Johnson has bee severely but not mortally wounded while examining Santa Anna’s works, which appear to be a succession of breast works on the eminences in the vicinity of Cerro Gordo. Everything would now go to show that Santa Anna is determined to make a bold stand.

A dragoon, who had been sent down express by Gen. Twiggs, was yesterday found shot by the roadside just beyond this. His papers had not been touched. The Mexicans are playing a bloody and at the same time bolder game than is usual for them, as it is thought they have killed no less than fifty of our men within the last three days on the road.

Gen. Scott stopped last night nine miles from this – to–night he will reach Gen’l. Twiggs’s position. If Santa Anna is as strong as he is represented, he probably will not be attacked for two or three days.

I write in great haste.

G. W. K.

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On the 11th inst. Gen. Scott issued the following proclamation, which no one will doubt was written by him:

HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY, VERA CRUZ,
April 11, 1847

Maj. Gen. Scott, General–in–Chief of the Armies of the United States of America

To the Good People of Mexico.

PROCLAMATION.

Mexicans! At the head of a powerful army, soon to be doubled – a part of which is now advancing on your capital – and with another army under Maj. Gen. Taylor in march from Saltillo towards San Luis Potosi – I think myself called upon to address you.

Mexicans! Americans are not your enemies; but the enemies for a time, of the men, who, a year ago, misgoverned you and brought about this unnatural war between two great Republics. We are the friends of the peaceful inhabitants of the country we occupy, and the friends of your holy religion, its hierarchy and its priesthood. The same with devout Catholics, and respected by our Government, laws and people.

For the church of Mexico, the unoffending inhabitants of the country and their property, I have from the first done every thing in my power to place them under the safeguard of martial law against the few bad men in this army.

My orders, to that effect, known to all, are precise and rigorous. Under them several Americans have already been punished, by fine, for the benefit of Mexicans, besides imprisonment; and one, for a rape, has been hung by the neck.

Is this not a proof of good faith and energetic discipline? Other proofs shall be given as often as injuries to Mexicans may be detected.

On the other hand, injuries committed by individuals, or parties of Mexico, not belonging to the public forces, upon individuals, small parties, trains of wagons and teams, or of pack mules, or on any other person or property belonging to this army, contrary to the laws of war, shall be punished with rigor – or if the particular offender be not delivered up by Mexican authorities, the punishment shall fall upon entire cities, towns or neighborhoods.

Let then, all good Mexicans remain at home, or at their peaceful occupations; but they are invited to bring in, for sale, horses, mules, beef, cattle, corn, barley, wheat, flour for bread, and vegetables. Cash will be paid for everything this army may take or purchase, and protection will be given to sellers. The Americans are strong enough to offer these assurances which, should Mexicans wisely accept, this war may soon be happily ended, to the honor and advantage of both belligerents. Then the Americans, having converted enemies into friends, will be happy to take leave of Mexico, and return to their own country.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

[MSH]


Tuesday, May 4, 1847 RW24i36p4c4  1,048 words.

CORRESPONDENCE OF NEW ORLEANS DELTA.

Mexico, 29th March, 1847

Eds. Delta – The city of Montezuma is in a most extraordinary situation at the present writing. Farias and the “Constitutionalists” had a civil war of twenty–three days duration, in which nobody was killed, and neither party lost or gained an inch of ground. That is, no one was killed of the fighters, unless we count some accidental deaths; but a great number of harmless citizens lost their lives by the incessant firing up and down the streets, with which the belligerents amused themselves instead of going within reach of each other. Santa Anna wrote lovingly so both parties, and did his best to urge them to each other up, but as soon as he could reach the city with some force, he threw them all overboard. He is playing for the Dictatorship; and is in fact, clothed with absolute power at this moment. He has induced the clergy to aid him with money to meets and, as he says, to exterminate Scott and “the perfidious invaders.”  But his plan undoubtedly is to make peace, and while he is yet entrenched behind American bayonets, and perhaps with the help of American gold, he will put his enemies where they cannot interfere with him. As soon as he has a clear field, he will […] his army to seize the possessions of the church, to maintain and increase it as the foundation of a throne. Whatever he pretends, he has his eye on the church property, and has twice put forward Gomez Farias as a cats’–paw to grasp it, but when he found the clergy too strong for him, he made no scruple to sacrifice his tool and come out of the other side.     B.

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Vera Cruz, April 14, 1847:

EDS. DELTA – There has been a skirmish at Puente Nacional, and we hourly look for the intelligence of the capture of Cerro Gordo, a strong mountain fort, twenty–two miles from Jalapa. A decisive battle is expected at this point, for it is the best vantage ground this side of Perote. General Santa Anna was at or near Jalapa, at the last accounts, but by this time there is scarcely a doubt that Cerro Gordo is carried by assult, and the army in snug quarters at the healthful and delightful city of Jalapa.

Vera Cruz is as quiet and well governed as any city in the United States. It would improve the health some to throw down the walls, and let in the fresh air, as the commandant thinks of doing.

If the army takes any more of those beautiful brass 24’s, I hope they will be sent home as trophies. There are in the town and castle nearly one hundred of them. They are of splendid workmanship, and superior to any the U. States has of the same caliber. They are worth about 5000 dollars a–piece, and would look extremely well in the “white settlements.”

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Vera Cruz Anchorage, April 12, 1847.

Eds. Delta – A large detachment of the squadron leaves to–day for Tuspan, commanded by the Commodore in person.

The officers anticipate something of a fight at the place. It is believed that there are upwards of 2000 troops at that place, under the command of Gen. Cos, with some sixty pieces of cannon.

The squadron captured at Alvarado sixty pieces of heavy cannon, all serviceable and in fine order with the exception of three.

The greater portion of the army is now on the road to Jalapa; rumor has it that Santa Anna is there with a large force and intends to dispute the pass near that place. The vomito has not yet made its appearance. 

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From the Vera Cruz Eagle of the 13th April

A PILOT DISCOVERED – Some day last week a number of Mexicans were discovered in the act of inciting the citizens in Tampico to revolt and drive the Americans from the place. We are not advised of the particulars, but learn that Col. Gates banished them from the city, forbidding their return under penalty of death.

THE CASTLE – The castle of San Juan de Ulua has undergone a thorough cleansing throughout, making it approach much nearer a place in which an American soldier ought to reside. We are informed that a more filthy place could scarcely be imagined, at the time our troops took possession.

TROOPS– The steamship New Orleans arrived yesterday from Tampico, having on board a company or irregular infantry, from Fort Snelling. Moses Y. Beach, of the N.Y. Sun, who is very recently from the city of Mexico, via Tampico, was a passenger on the New Orleans.

[Mr. Beach came aa a passenger on board the Massachusetts to this city yesterday. – Eds. Delta.]

EXECUTION – The execution of the colored man, Kirk, a citizen of the United States, convicted of committing a rape upon a person of a Mexican woman, and theft, took place on Saturday evening last. A large concourse of people were present, to witness the first execution under American authority, which has ever taken place since our occupation of this country. It will, no doubt, prove a salutary lesson to many who would destroy the safeties guarantied to good citizens, were not such punishments sometimes inflicted.

THE HOSPITAL – Many of our gallant soldiers are now prostrated by disease, and the hospitals are filled to overflowing with them. The disease most prevalent is diarrhea, which in many cases has proved fatal.

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From the Vera Cruz Eagle of the 10th inst.

MILITARY COMMISSION – Besides that of rape, two other cases have been adjudged before the Military Commission. They were for theft committed by two privates of the 1st Pennsylvania Regiment of Volunteers. They were sentenced to one moth’s imprisonment in the Castle of San Juan de Ulua, and a fine of one moth’s pay.

DEATHS – It is with feelings of deep regret we feel ourselves compelled to announce the death of T.J. Lott, late of Covington, Miss.

Also on the 7th inst., private Henry Dickson, of company F, Charleston, S.C., Division Volunteers. The deceased was the son of one of the most respectable Professors in the Medical College of his State, and will be long remembered for this urbanity of manners and kindness of department towards his fellow soldiers, one of whom pays this passing tribute to his memory.
[MSH]


Tuesday, May 4, 1847 RW24i36p4c5  151 words.

NOTICE TO COMMERCE.

The following Notice from the Mexican Consul at Havana, we translate from the Faro Industrial of the 17th.

Mexican Consulate, at Havana

I have a the honor to give notice to Commerce that the supreme government of the Mexican Republic has instructed me, that goods and merchandise which may be carried from this port to Vera Cruz, and which do not appear to have be cleared (despatchados) at this Consulate, by the invoice which according to the existing revenue laws, is to be sent to the Minister of Finance, will be confiscated on their passage from Vera Cruz to any party of the Republic.

The Supreme Government also commands me to announce, that passengers coming to the Republic, whose […] have not been examined by this Consulate, will not be permitted to either the country, but will be compelled to return to the place or places where they embarked.

BUENAVENTURA VIVO

[MSH]


Friday, May 7, 1847 RW24i37p1c5  344 words.

GENERAL TAYLOR’S PERSONAL APPEARANCE.

A Correspondent of the Philadelphia Ledger, who says that he has seen the old General in all conditions – on foot, horseback, sitting, standing, and snoring – on and off parade, and that all the likeness of him yet published are abominable caricatures. He adds: –

The General is not over 5 feet 7 or 8 inches high, is stout, and inclines to corpulency, would weigh, I should think, near 200 lbs., and the most prominent thing about him is an unusual shortness of legs. When he is sitting, he looks like a tall man – not so when standing. His face is intelligent, and it is usually lit up with a benevolent smile. He is in the habit, when speaking to any one, of partially closing his left eye. His hair is grey and grizzly. In one word, gentlemen, if you can imagine a plain, old Pennsylvania farmer, who has a farm paid for worth $5000, and nothing else in the world – an independent, jovial, don’t care a–fig kind of an old coon – you have “old Zack” before you. One word now as to the Presidency.

When the army last summer was at Matamoros, a Mr. Reeder, (I think), from Baltimore, came there to distribute medals to the non–commissioned officers and soldiers who had distinguished themselves at Palo Alto, &c. It is reported that while there, Mr. R. informed “old Zack” that he had been nominated by some persons in New York for the Presidency. The old General’s reply was characteristic. “Mr. Reeder, I don’t want it – I have no other or higher ambition than to remain at the head of my noble little army. I have always considered myself an honest man – my neighbors so considered me – but were I to accept a nomination, there are persons who would call me every thing that is bad, and others who would say of me, as they said of General Harrison, that I never was within two miles of a field of battle. No! no! – I don’t want it! I don’t want it!”
[MSH]


Friday, May 7, 1847 RW24i37p1c5  52 words.

THE VICTORY TO COME

Prentice says “We have before us maps of the battle grounds upon which General Taylor won his four great victories in Mexico. We have also before us a map of the battle ground upon which he win his great battle of 1848 – that is to say, a map of the United States.”
[MSH]


Friday, May 7, 1847 RW24i37p2c1  1012 words.

OFFICIAL DESPATCHES.

We lay before our readers this morning official despatches from Col. Doniphan, whose march, at the head of a single regiment, to the capital of a populous Province, which, after a sanguinary engagement, in which he triumphed over thrice his own force, fell quietly into his possession, deserves to be ranked among the most adventurous and brilliant exploits of the Mexican War. It appears, however, from his letter to the Adjutant General, that the movement to Chihuahua formed no part of a well digested plan of operations, but that, with the small force under his command, beyond the reach of aid from any quarter, he was left exposed to all the hazards of defeat and massacre from the superior force which it might have been foreseen he would encounter, and which fortunately he overthrew. – That he was not cut off is ascribable not to the “eminent ability” of those by whose orders he undertook this fruitless expedition, but to the skill and courage of himself and of the men he commanded. Left unsupported as he is, too, when he expected to have been sustained by the whole force under Gen. Wool, and in command of troops whose term of service expires on the 1st of May, the expedition […] to have been undertaken without any object – as the conquered territory will be necessarily abandoned, after remaining some weeks in possession of the conqueror. Whether the “glory” won by Col. Doniphan and his men is deemed sufficient recompense for the hardships and perils they have successfully encountered, must be left for wiser heads than our’s to determine.

We also publish official despatches from Gen. Kearny, the military commander in our remote “territory” of California, of which Commodore Stockton (as Gen. Kearny writes) has “assumed the title of Governor,” as the General himself had formerly done in New Mexico. The date of those despatches will give the reader some idea of the remoteness of this Pro–Consulate from the seat of government, and of the vast extent of our already “ocean–bound Republic.” The battles of our countrymen there, as at all other points of the extended line of military operations, though on a small scale, have been characterized by an indomitable spirit, and resulted in the most decisive triumphs. The Californians, too, have evinced more bravery and determination, in resisting the invader, than have been elsewhere displayed – but they have been forced to succumb to their “manifest destiny.”

What is to be the end of these things? Fortunately, perhaps, we cannot lift the curtain which hides the future from our sight. But it needs no prophet’s vision to see that they bode no good to the cause of free government – or at all events, none to the Union, as it was formed by the men of ’76, and to the Constitution which has been aptly called its Palladium. Our Pro–Consul [or self–constituted “Governing”]  Commodore Stockton, is already “playing King” in California, with a “pomp and circumstance” commensurate rather with the extent of his empire than with the number of his legions or the magnificence of his Court. We have before us, for example, a programme of the arrangements made at San Francisco for the public reception at that place of the “conquering hero.”  As a cotemporary remarks, it is certainly one of the richest things, in its way, ever seen. We publish it, in order that our readers may catch a glimpse of the Fernando Cortez–like style in which an American Commodore can enact the monarch in the new “territory” which he has “annexed” by proclamation to the American Union, and over which he has “assumed,” unrebuked, if indeed it be not authorized by the Administration, the title and functions of Governor!  The following is the programme referred to:    

PUBLIC RECEPTION

O F  H I S  E X C E L L E N C Y

ROBERT F. STOCKTON,

Governor and Commander–in–Chief

of CALIFORNIA, &c., &c.

The Citizens of the District of San Francisco and vicinity, having united for the purpose of giving a public reception to His Excellency, Robert F. Stockton, on the occasion of his landing, on Monday, Oct. 5th, 1846; the following is the

ORDER OF THE DAY:

1st. The citizens will assemble in ‘Portsmouth Square’ at 8, A.M., and form in procession in the following order:

CHIEF MARSHALL.
AID. AID.
MUSIC.
Military Escorts, under command of
Capt. J. Zetlin, U. S. M. C.
Capt. John B. Montgomery, U. S. N.
(Commanding the Northern District of California,) and Surte.
Officers, U. S. N.
Captain John Party,
Senior Captain of the Hawaiian Navy.
Lieut. Commanding Bonnet – French Navy.
Lieut. Commanding Ludacoff – Russian Navy.
The Magistracy of the District,
and the
Orator of the Day.
FOREIGN CONSULS.

Thomas O’Larkin, and Win. A. Leidendorff, Esqs.,
(Late U. S. Consuls for California.)
U. S. Navy Agent,
and the
U. S. Collector of the District.
Gentlemen who hold Civil or Military Commissions under
the late Government.
STRANGERS OF DISTINCTION.
COMMITTEE OF ARRANGEMENTS.
MASTERS OF SHIPS IN PORT.
CITIZENS GENERALLY.

2. The procession will move at half–past eight o’clock, to take up a position to receive His Excellency at the point of landing.

3d. The Governor and Suite will land at 9, A. M., under a salute of seventeen guns

4th. The Governor will be received by His Honor, Washington A Bartlett, Magistrate of the District, attended by the Corporation.

5th. The Governor will be addressed by Col. William H. Russell, Orator of the day.

6. The procession will then move through the principal streets to the residence of Wm. A. Leidendorff, Esq. where the Ladies will be presented to His Excellency, after which a cavalende will be formed to escort him on his tour of inspection.

7th. On returning from the tour a collation will be served up at the residence of W. A. Ceidesdorff, Esq.

8th. The following gentlemen will be known as Aids to the Marshal, viz. C. E. Pickett, Wm. H. Davis, Frederick Teschmaket, and J. K. Wilson, Esq.; the Aids will appear in uniform.

FRANK WARD, Marshal.
Yerba Buena, October 5th, 1846.

[MSH]


Tuesday, May 4, 1847, RW24i37p2c1 108 words.

UNTITLED

The New Orleans Picayune, on publishing General Taylor’s official account of the battle of Buena Vista, remarks, that like all the others from his pen, this document “is written in the clear and forcible style which has obtained for his compositions a celebrity but little short of the fame of his military operations. It is couched in the severe language of history – elegant from its simplicity, and eloquent in truth. No one can arise from its perusal without feeling his admiration for the brave old General increasing within him by participators in the action, that the first element of the victory of that bloody day was Zachary Taylor.”
;[MSH]


Friday, May 7, 1847, RW24i37p2c2  95 words.

UNTITLED

Late Texas papers have been received in New Orleans, from which we learn that four companies of Volunteers were to leave San Antonio for Camargo about the 8th of this month. Other companies and detachments of companies were fast arriving at San Antonio, full of enthusiasm for the service. There has been a rumor at Houston, that Gen. Lamar and his company, formerly stationed at Laredo, had been surrounded by a large company of Mexicans and cut to pieces. The Texans have it in contemplation to open a direct trade between San Antonio and Chihuahua.
[MSH]


Friday, May 7, 1847, RW24i37p2c3  91 words.

CAUSE AND CONSEQUENCE

The Massachusetts Peace Society some months ago offered a premium of $500 for the best essay on the origin and result of the Mexican war. The New York Express gives the following, and claims the premium for its author. It is brief and comprehensive:

AN ESSAY

Upon the

WAR WITH MEXICO,

Its Origin, and its Results;

Carefully Considered, and Methodically Digested,

BY

An Odd Sort of Fellow.

––

Chapter I.

On the Origin of the War.

1.      Texas

––

Chapter II.

On the Result of the War.

1.      Texas.

––

FINIS.

[MSH]


Friday, May 7, 1847, RW24i37p2c4

OFFICIAL – CALIFORNIA – Gen. Kearny’s Letters.

See Niles NationalRegister, /Niles/Nilesg1847MayJun.htm#72.170171May151847Lettersfrom


Friday, May 7, 1847, RW24i37p2c5  2,779 words.

CHIHUAHUA – Col. Doniphan’s Letters.

See: NIles National Register, /Niles/Nilesg1847MayJun.htm#72.172–172May151847LettersofCol

Headquarters of the Army in Chihuahua,
City of Chihuahua, March 20, 1847

SIR:– The forces under my command are a portion of the Missouri volunteers, called into service for the purpose of invading New Mexico, under the command of Brigadier General (then Colonel) Kearney. After the conquest of New Mexico, and before General Kearney's departure for California, information was received that another regiment and an extra battalion of Missouri volunteers would follow us to Santa Fe. The service of so large a force being wholly unnecessary in that state, I prevailed on Gen. Kearney to order my regiment to report to you at this city. The order was given on the 23rd September, 1846; but after the general arrived at La Joya, in the southern part of the State, be issued an order requiring my regiment to make a campaign into the country inhabited the Navajo Indians, lying between the waters of the Rio del Notre and the Rio Colorado of the west. This campaign detained me until the 14th of December, before our return to Del Notre. We immediately commenced our march for El Paso del Notre with about 800 riflemen. All communication between Chihuahua and New Mexico was entirely prevented. On the 25th of December, 1846, my van guard was attacked at Brazito by the Mexican forces from this State; our force was about 450, and the force of the enemy 1100; the engagement lasted about forty minutes, when the enemy fled, leaving 63 killed and since dead, 150 wounded, and one howitzer, the only piece of artillery in the engagement on either side. On the 29th we entered El Paso without further opposition; from the prisoners and others I learned that you had not marched upon this State. I then determined to order a battery and 100 artillerists from New Mexico. They arrived in El Paso about the 5th February, when we took up the line of march for this place. A copy of my official report of the battle of Sacramento, enclosed to you, will show you all our subsequent movements, up to our taking possession of this capital. The day of my arrival I had determined to send an express to you forthwith; but the whole intermediate country was in the hands of the enemy, and we were cut off, and had been for many months, from all information respecting the American army. Mexican reports are never to be fully credited; yet, from all we could learn, we did not doubt that you would be forced by overwhelming numbers to abandon Saltillo, and of course we could send no express under such circumstances. On yesterday we received the first even tolerably reliable information that a battle had been fought near Saltillo between the American and Mexican forces, and that Santa Anna had probably fallen back on San Luis de Potosi.

My position here is exceedingly embarrassing. In the first place, most of the men under my command have been in service since the 1st of June, and have never received one cent of pay. Their marches have been hard, especially in the Navajo country, and no forage; so that they are literally without horses, clothes or money, nothing but arms and a disposition to use them. They are all volunteers, officers and men; and, although ready for any hardships or danger, are wholly unfit to garrison a town or city. "It is confusion worse confounded." Having performed a march of over 2,000 miles, and their terms of service rapidly expiring, they are restless to join the army under your command. Still, we cannot leave this point safely for some days– the American merchants here, oppose it violently, and have several thousand dollars at stake. They have sent me a memorial, and my determination has been made known to them. A copy of both they will send to you. Of one thing it is necessary to inform you: the merchants admit that their goods could not be sold here in five years; if they go south they will be as near to the markets of Durango and Zacatecas as they now are. I am anxious and willing to protect the merchants as far as practicable; but I protest against remaining here as a mere wagon guard; garrisoning a city with troops wholly unfit for it, and who will be wholly ruined by improper indulgencies. Having been originally ordered to this point, you know the wishes of the government in relation to it, and of course your orders will be promptly and cheerfully obeyed. I fear there is ample use for us with you, and we would greatly prefer joining you before our term of service expires.

All information relative to my previous operations, present condition, &c., will be given you by Mr. J. Collins, the bearer of these dispatches. He is a highly honorable gentleman, and was an amateur soldier at Sacramento.

The Mexicans report your late battle as having been entirely favorable to themselves; but taking it for granted they never report the truth, we have fired a salute for our victory in honor of yourself and General Taylor, presuming from report, you were both present.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
A.W.DONIPHAN,
Comd’g 1st reg. Missouri Mounted Vols.

Should the horses or mules of those bearing this express fail, or prove unfit to return upon, I have to request that they may be supplied by the government with the proper means of returning,

A.W. DONIPHAN.
Colonel 1st Reg. Missouri Vols.

Brig. Gen. Wool, U.S.A.

–––––––––––––––––––

Battle of Sacramento – Defeat of the Enemy – Capture of Chihuahua

HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY IN CHIHUAHUA,
City of Chihuahua, March 4, 1847.

I have the honor to report to you the movements of the army under my command since my last official report.

On the evening of the 8th of February, 1847, we left the town of El Paso del Notre, escorting the merchant train or caravan of about 315 wagons for the city of Chihuahua. Our force consisted of 924 effective men, 117 officers and privates of the artillery, 93 of Lieut. Colonel Mitchell's escort, and the remainder the 1st regiment Missouri mounted volunteers. We progressed in the direction of this place until the 25th, when we were informed by our spied that the enemy, to the number of 1,500 men, were at Inseneas, the country seat of Gov. Trias, about 25 miles in advance.

When we arrived, on the evening of the 26th, near that point, we found that the forces had retreated in the direction of this city. On the evening if the 27th we arrived at Sans, and learned from our spies that the enemy, in great force, had fortified the pass of the Sacramento river, about fifteen miles in advance, and about the same distance from this city. We were also informed that there was no water between the point that we were at and that occupied by the enemy; we therefore determined to halt until morning. At sunrise on the 28th, the last day of February, we took up the line of march and formed the whole train, consisting of 315 heavy traders' wagons and our whole commissary and company wagons, into four columns, this shortening our line so as to make it more easily protected. We placed the artillery and all the command, except 200 cavalry proper, in the intervals between the columns of wagons. We this fully concealed our force and its position, by masking our force with the cavalry. When we arrived within three miles of the enemy, we made a reconnaissance of his position and the arrangement of his forces. This we could easily do– the road leading through an open prairie valley between the sterile mountains. The pass of the Sacramento is formed by a point of the mountains on our right, their left extending into the valley or plain, so as to narrow the valley to about one and a half miles. On our left was a deep, dry, sandy channel of a creek, and between these points the plain rises to sixty feet abruptly. This rise in the form of a crescent, the convex part being to the north of our forces. On the right, from the point of the mountains, a narrow part of the plain extends north one and a half miles further than on the left. The main road passes down the centre of the valley and across the crescent, near the left or dry branch, The Sacramento rises in the mountains on the right, and the road falls on to it about one mile below the battle field or entrenchment of the enemy. We ascertained that the enemy had one battery of four guns, two nine and 6 pounders, on the point of the mountain on our right, (their left,), at a good elevation to sweep the plain, and at the point where the mountains extended furthest into the plain. On our left (their right) they had another battery on an elevation commanding the road, and three entrenchments of two six pounders, and on the brow of the crescent, near the centre, another two 6 and two 4 and 6 culverins, or rampart pieces, mounted on carriages; and on the crest of the hill or ascent between the batteries and the right and left they had 27 redoubts dug and thrown up, extending at short intervals across the whole ground. In these their infantry were placed and were entirely protected. Their cavalry were drawn up in front in the intervals four deep, and in front of the redoubts two deep, so as to mask them as far as practicable. When we had arrived within one and a half miles of the entrenchments along the main road, we advanced the cavalry still further, and suddenly diverged with the columns to the right, so as to gain the narrow part of the ascent on our right, which the enemy discovering, endeavored to prevent, by moving forward with 1,000 cavalry and four pieces of cannon in their rear masked by them. Our movements were so rapid that we gained the elevation with our forces and the advance of our wagons in time to form before they arrived within reach of our guns. The enemy halted, and we advanced the head of our column within twelve hundred yards of them, so as to let our wagons attain the highlands and form as before.

We now commenced the action by a brisk fire from our battery, and the enemy unmasked and commenced also. Our fires proved effective at this distance, killing fifteen men, wounding and disabling one of the enemy's guns. We had two men slightly wounded, and several horses and mules killed. The enemy then slowly retreated behind their works in some confusion, and we resumed our march in our former order, still diverging more to the right to avoid their battery on our left, (their right) and their strongest redoubts, which were on the left near where the road passes. After marching as far as we safely could without coming within range of their heavy battery on our right, Capt. Weightman, of the artillery, was ordered to charge with two 12–pound howitzers, to be supported by the cavalry, under Captains Reid, Parsons, and Hudson. The howitzers charged at speed, and were gallantly sustained by Capt. Reid; but, by some misunderstanding, my order was not given to the other two companies.– Captain Hudson, anticipating my orders, charged in time to give ample support to the howitzers. Capt. Parsons at the same moment came to me and asked permission for his company to charge the redoubts immediately to the left of Capt. Weightman, which he did very gallantly. The remainder of the two battalions of the first regiment were dismounted during the cavalry charge, and, following rapidly on foot, and Major Clarke advancing as fast as practicable with the remainder of battery, we charged their redoubts from right to left with a brisk and deadly fire of riflemen, while Major Clarke opened a rapid and well–directed fire on a column of cavalry attempting to pass to our left so s to attack the wagons and our rear. The fire was so well directed as to force them to fall back; and our riflemen, with the cavalry and howitzers cleared after an obstinate resistance. Our forces advanced to the very brink of their redoubts and attacked them with their sabers. When the redoubts were cleared, and the batteries in the centre were silenced, the main battery on our right still continued to pour in a constant and heavy fire, as it had done during the heat of the engagement; but as it had done during the heat of the engagement; but as the whole fate of the battle depended upon carrying the redoubts and centre battery, this one on the right remained unattacked, and the enemy had rallied there five hundred strong.

Major Clark was directed to commence a heavy fire upon it, while Lieut. Cols. Mitchell and Jackson, commanding the 1st battalion, were ordered to remount and charge the battery on the left, while Major Gilpin was directed to pass the 2nd battalion on foot up the rough ascent of the mountain on the opposite side. The fire of our battery was so effective as to completely silence theirs, and the rapid advance of our column put them to flight over the mountains in great confusion.

Capt. Thompson, of the 1st dragoons, acted as my aid and advisor on the field during the whole engagement, and was on the field during the whole engagement, and was of the most essential service to me.– Also, Lieut. Wooster, of the United States army who acted very coolly and gallantly. Major Campbell, of Springfield, Missouri, also acted as a volunteer aid during part of the time, but left me and jointed Captain Reid in his gallant charge. Thus ended the battle of Sacramento.

The force of the enemy was 1,200 cavalry from Durango and Chihuahua, with the Vera Cruz dragoons, 1,200 infantry from Chihuahua, 300 artillerists, and 1,420 rancheros badly armed with lassos, lances, and macheteos or corn knives, ten pieces of artillery, two nine, two eight, four six and two four pounders, and six culverins or rampart pieces.– Their forces were commanded by Major General Heredia, General of Durango, Chihuahua, Senora, and New Mexico; Brigadier General Garcia Conde, formerly minister of defence; General Uguert, and Governor Trias, who acted as brigadier general on the field, and colonels and other officers without number.

Our force was nine hundred and twenty–four effective me, at least one hundred of whom were engaged in holding horses and driving teams.

The loss of the enemy was his entire artillery, ten wagons, masses of beans and pinola, and other Mexican provisions, about three hundred killed and about the same number wounded, many of whom have since dies, and forty prisoners.

The field was literally covered with the dead and wounded from our artillery and the unerring fire of our riflemen. Night put a stop to the carnage, the battle having commenced about three o'clock. Our loss was one killed, one mortally wounded, and seven so wounded as to recover without any loss of limbs. I cannot speak too highly of the coolness, gallantry, and bravery of the officers and men under my command.

I was ably sustained by the field officers, Lieut. Colonels Mitchell and Jackson, of the first battalion; and Maj. Gilpin of the second battalion; and Maj. Clarke and his artillery acted nobly, and did the most effective service in every part of the field. It is abundantly shown, in the charge made by captain Weightman with the section of howitzers, that they can be used in any charge of cavalry with great effect. Much has been said, and justly said, of the gallantry of our artillery, unlimbering within two hundred and fifty yards of the enemy at Palo Alto; but how much more daring was the charge of Capt. Weightman, when he unlimbered within fifty yards of the redoubts of the enemy!

On the 1st day of March we took formal possession of the capital of Chihuahua in the name of our government.

We were ordered by General Kearny to report to General Wool at this place. Since our arrival, we hear that he is at Saltillo, surrounded by the enemy. Our present purpose is either to force our way to him, or return by Bexar, as our team of service expires on the last day of May next.

I have the honor to be your obedient servant,
A. W. DONIPHAN,
Colonel 1st Rgt. Mo. Vol.

Brigadier Gen. R. Jones, Adjutant General U.S.A
[MSH & KAM]


Friday, May 7, 1847, RW24i37p2c6  253 words.

YUCATAN

[Extract of a letter dated Merida, March 31, 1847.]

“This ill–fated country is in a most deplorable situation – a general opinion is prevailing, even among those who brought on the last revolution at Campeachy; that the only remaining chance of permanent pence is that the war between the United States and Mexico be shortly brought to and end, so that the latter be able to intervene and stop the anarchy, and kill the hydra of civil war. Valladolid and Titzimel have witnessed the most dreadful murders. In the former city, the whole white population, male, female, and children, have been murdered or burned alive. This wholesale murder lasted three days. The future is pregnant with storms.

The whole government can be said to be vested in one man – Don St. Jago Mendez – who, without any official appointment, plays about the same game as did Dr. Francia in Paraguay. He assumed upon himself a most dangerous responsibility. His chief political measure consists in expelling from the country every one he is suspicious of. – Those already amount to a formidable number. Many who had concealed themselves, relying on a promise of amnesty, came out, and how they have to choose between a prison at Campeachy or exile. All prefer the latter alternative, fearing to be made victims of a horrible massacre, such as took place in February 1843, of dreadful memory. – Many rich persons, such as Don Fabricio Lopez and Don Esteman Quijaria, are disposing of their property and preparing to embark for foreign countries.”
[MSH]


Friday, May 7, 1847, RW24i37p4c1  231 words.

UNTITLED.

The Baltimore Sun, though it can of course have received nothing later from the seat of war than had already reached us through other channels, contains some interesting particulars which we have not elsewhere seen. The Mexicans, (it states,) had erected a series of fortifications, between the city of Vera Cruz and Jalapa, extending, with occasional intervals, several miles, which were occupied by squads of men, who, instead of defending them, however, fled like scared sheep, when some 300 dragons, dismounting, scrambled up the mountains for the purpose of attacking them.

The Sun has also private advices from Gen. Twiggs’ camp, near Cerro Gordo, as late as the 13th ult. Gen. T. had moved forward to take the pass of Cerro Gordo on the 12th, but found it so strongly fortified that he was compelled to talk back: General Patterson afterwards joined him with 3,000 men, making their combined force 6,000, and the pars was to be attacked by them on the 14th. Lt. Col. Johnson, on the 13th, made a daring reconnaissance of the Mexican works at Cerro Gordo, where Santa Anna is said to be at the head of 12,000 men, well posted. Col. J. examined the works within musket range, and was shot in the right leg and right arm at the moment he was raising a spy–glass to his eye. His wounds, though severe, are not dangerous.;
[MSH]


Friday, May 7, 1847, RW24i37p4c2 615 words.

THE VOLUNTEERS

The Washington Union, on the 17th inst. accompanied the annunciation of the President’s determination to call out 6000 additional volunteers, to supply the places of those whose term of service is about to expire, exposed the opinion, that many of the latter class would renew their engagements and agree to remain in Mexico. But our last accounts from the seat of war show that in this expectation the Executive will be disappointed. Large numbers of the twelve months volunteers are already on their way home, and others would follow as the periods of their enlistment should expire. The New Orleans Picayune says, it is not supposed that a single regiment can be formed out of all the twelve months’ men now in Mexico; and it goes on the explain the cause of this unfortunate state of things, which is traces to the favoritism of the Administration in the exercise of the appointing power – giving the highest military offices to such men as Pillow and Cushing – the former the jest of the whole camp, and the latter never having seen a day’s service in the field; while men who have borne the burthen and heat of the day – who have shed their blood like water on every battle–field, and who have displayed military skill and talents of the highest order as well as the most undaunted courage, are passed by with cold and contemptuous neglect.

The Picayune says:

“The volunteers who won the glorious battle of Buena Vista are on their way home. One of the Kentucky regiments is already at the Brazos. Col. Jefferson Davis’s regiment will soon be there, and the Illinois and Indiana troops will follow. We learn from officers and men that there is no disposition to re–enlist. The accounts from Gen. Scott’s column is no more satisfactory. The determination to return home, as soon as their enlistments expire, is universal. The officers are as little desirous as the men of remaining in the service; so that the whole of General Taylor’s Buena Vista army, with the exception of a few regulars, and a large portion of Gen. Scott’s, will shortly leave the field.

The reason for this universal desire to quit the service had been explained to us. The men of Monterey and Buena Vista assert, and with good reason, that the laurels that have been won by them have been garnered by the Government to decorate other brows. They say, and with truth, that no valor, no sacrifice, no victories of theirs can insure the promotion or protect them against having overslaughed by inexperienced officers and subjected to the command of political appointees. They pointed to the miserable remnants of regiments which they led to the army with well filled ranks and swelling aspirations, in token of the hardships they have suffered and the perils they have encountered, and then refer to the army register to see how such services are rewarded. They feel that the qualities which they have exhibited in front of blazing batteries are not the ones which insure rank, and they retire to give place to those who possess them.

We hope our citizens will make some preparations to welcome these brave soldiers back to their country. The 2d Kentucky Regiment will return without its colonel or lieutenant colonel, the 1st Mississippi will bring home its colonel and lieutenant colonel upon litters, the Illinois troops leave the gallant Hardin where he fell, and Col. Yell comes back no more at the head of the men from Arkansas. These noble regiments have melted away under the severities of a campaign in which, if they have not won the lasting gratitude of their countrymen, they have won nothing.”
[MSH]


Friday, May 7, 1847, RW24i37p4c4  1,402 words.

LATER FROM BRAZOS.

From the N. O. Bee, April 27.

By the arrival of the U.S. steamship Telegraph, Capt. Auld, we have received papers from Brazos Santiago to the 18th inst. They contain intelligence of special interest.

Gen. Taylor has his headquarters at the Walnut Springs, a few miles outside of Monterey. The old hero has but a meager force under his immediate command, the main body of his army being with Gen. Wool at Agua Nueva. – The 1st Mississippi Regiment (“Gen. Taylor’s Own,” as it is called,) forms what may be considered his body guard, and is with him at the springs. In and around Monterey, are the Kentucky cavalry, 2nd and 3d Ohioans, 3d Indianians, six companies of Virginians, and a few companies of Texan rangers. Six companies of Virginians are occupying China and Cadreita, which places are being fortified. – The 2d Ohio regiment is probably by this time on it way down to Camargo – its term of service is nearly up and the boys are homeward bound. Five companies of Kentucky cavalry were in Camargo a few days ago, but were to return to Monterrey as an escort to a train – this regiment has also but a brief time to remain in service and will soon be returning.

It is pleasing, remarks the Flag, to hear the returning volunteers, those who have battled under him, speak of old Rough and Ready. With one accord they all unite in his praise, and his bravery and military skill, as displayed in the battles and brilliant victories to which he has led them, have stirred up feelings within their breasts which can never be effaced. Napoleon never had more the love and confidence of his troops than has Gen. Taylor – we have heard volunteers say, not in a spirit of barggadocia, but in cool, sober earnest, that under him they would cheerfully go into battle, with odds against them six to one, and feel assured of victory. Many with whom we have spoken, disclaim ever having looked to the possibility of a defeat at Buena Vista – victory, nothing but victory was thought of. The countenance of Gen. Taylor during the long engagement wore, throughout, the appearance of triumph, and all who noticed him augured victory from his look.

The Rio Grande rose several feet a few days ago, leading to the belief that the tiny season had set in; but its waters are again receding, and are so shallow as greatly to retard the operations on the Quarter Master’s Department – only a few of the boats being able to reach Camargo, and they not freighted. Should the river continue to fall Reynosa will be the highest point to which they can ascend.

A most fiendish murder has been committed on the road between Camargo and Monterey. Father Ray, long and favorably known as Chaplain to the Army, was killed by a party of Lancers while in the exercise of his divine vocation. Truly, remarks the Flag, these children of the Montezumas are treasuring up a dreadful punishment that ere long will descend upon their heads with the fury of a tornado.

The country watered by the Rio Grande, between Matamoros and Camargo has suffered greatly from the long continued drought. So long an absence of rain has never before been known, and the destitution among the inhabitants is already considerable. The Mexicans are proverbially improvident, and seldom raise more than sufficient corn for their own consumption, and the demands of the army have exhausted their stress. Distress may follow, but not starvation, since the forest and prairie yield food too abundantly to allow of such apprehensions.

A private in one of the companies of the 2nd Mississippi regiment at Walnut Springs, named Carson, formerly a member of the Mississippi Legislature, was recently waylaid by two Mexicans and inhumanly murdered. The Flag says:

“His inutilated body was discovered in the chapparal a few feet from the road, by Capt. Jack Everitt and Mr. John Hays, who were journeying up to Mier – the warm blood was yet trickling from him, which induced them to think his assassins were still near, and they commenced a search in the thicket and came in sight of the two Mexicans, not more than two hundred yards from where the murdered man lay. Chase was given and they were soon overtaken and their guilt sufficiently proved by their blood stained hands and garments and the property of the murdered man found upon their persons. The first impulse was to kill them upon the spot, but reflecting induced their being taken forward and turned over to Col. Davis, who, with his regiment, was not many miles in advance. The fate of the assassins, after being given over to the Mississippians, we have no learned, but infer their punishment to have been as severe as could be devised by the exasperated companions of the butchered man.

The transport ship America, from this port arrived at Brazos, Santiago, on the 22d inst. all well, and commenced landing her troops when the Telegraph sailed.

List of the passengers names who came with the Telegraph: Col. R. Davis, of the 21 Regiment Mississippi volunteers; Col. Rogers, of the Kentucky Legion; Capt. J. G. Tod, of Texas; Capt. Kent, of the U.S.A. ; Lieut. Fisher, do.; Lieut. Wilson, do., Lieut. Stone, of the Louisville Legion; Lieut. White, do.; and 50 discharged volunteers.

ACCIDENT – Robert White, of Capt. Bulhos’s company, Louisville Legion, lost his hand by the explosion of one of the rockets, found during the fire on Friday morning. The hand was so much shattered by the shock, that amputation above the wrist became necessary, which operation was performed upon the spot by Dr. Matheus, assistant Surgeon to the Legion, and was borne by the sufferer with unusual fortitude. – Monterey American Pioneer.

We learn, with pleasure, that the rank and file of the 1st Ohio Regiment have taken measures to present Major L. Giddings with a sword, to cost $500, as a token of their respect and thanks. This token of approbation could not be bestowed on a more worthy person, or one in whom the characters of a solider and a gentleman are more truly combined. – Ib.

A few days since, the 2nd Regiment of Mississippi Volunteers arrived in this city. They are as fine a body of men as we have seen lately, numbering about seven hundred effectives. They are all armed with rifles, of the same make as those of the 1st Regiment. – Ib.

We would respectfully call the attention of the Governor of this city to an outrage which has ever since the American army came to the city of Monterey, been allowed to pass unnoticed – it is the assessing and levying a tax by the Alcade, on all merchants in the city. We hope that the authorities will look into the master and see with what justice and propriety such a thing can be tolerated – a revenue of from three to four thousand dollars is, we believe, procured every month, which, in the present state of affairs, is far too much to be appropriated for the Mexican government of the city. We firmly believe that one half of this revenue is sent to the central government, in order to assist in prosecuting the war. We deem it improper for the Americans to be compelled to assist and enhance the prospectus of our enemy, in order that they may prosecute their aggressive war. – Ib.

SHAMEFUL. – Persons recently from Monterey, informs us that in coming down, they believe strewn along the roadside, where had been massacred, he teamsters who fell into the hands of Urrea’s assassins in that attack on the wagon train, the decayed and mutilated remains of upwards of fifty of these unfortunate men. Where they fell, there still they are suffered to remain, their flesh made the food of vultures and wolves, and their ones scattered about by these beasts and birds of prey. Then after train has passed them by, with no more notice than a passing commentary upon their sad face – none have stepped forth to give them burial. Humanity sickens at mass indifference to man – death parts friend from friend, and brother from brother, and in one brief hour all the ties which bound them together are forgotten. Such is a consequence of war – it deadens the sensibility and brings man to a level with the unreasoning brute. – Ibid.
[MSH]


Friday, May 7, 1847, RW24i37p4c5  450 words

GENERAL TAYLOR ON THE FIELD OF BATTLE.

Lieut. Corwin writes to the Cincinnati Chronicle, and gives the following interesting sketch of Gen. Taylor on the battle–field of Buena Vista:

“By way of illustrating an important characteristic of Gen. Taylor, to wit, determination, I will briefly relate a scene that occurred on the battle ground of Buena Vista, during the action of the 23rd. At a time when the fortunes of the day seemed extremely problematical – when many on our side even despaired of success – old Rough & Ready, as he is no inaptly styled, whom you must know, by the bye, is short, fat, and dumpy in person, with remarkably short legs – took his proposition a commanding height overlooking the two armies. This was about three or, perhaps, four o’clock in the afternoon. The enemy, who had succeeded in gaining an advantageous position, made a fierce charge upon our column, and fought with a desperation that seemed for a time to ensure success to their arms. The struggle lasted for some time. All the while, General Taylor was a silent spectator, his countenance exhibiting the most anxious solicitude, alternating between hope and despondency. His staff, perceiving his perilous situation, (for he was exposed to the fire of the enemy,) approached him and implored him to retire. He heeded them not. His thoughts were intent upon victory or defeat. He knew not at this moment what the result would be. He felt that that engagement was to decide his fate. He had given all his orders and selected his position. If the day went against him, he was irretrievably lost; if for him, he could rejoice in common with his countrymen, at the triumphant success of our arms.

Such seemed to be his thoughts – his determination. – And when he saw the enemy give way and retreat in the utmost confusion, he gave free vent to his pent up feelings. His right leg was quickly disengaged from the pummel of the saddle, where it had remained during the whole of the fierce encounter – his arms, which were calmly folded over his breast, relaxed their hold – his feet fairly danced in the stirrups, and his whole body was in motion. It was a moment of the most exciting and intense interest. His face was suffused with tears. The day was won – the victory complete – his little army saved from the disgrace of a defeat, and he could not refrain from weeping for joy at what had seemed so many, but a moment before, as an impossible result. Long may the noble and kind hearted old hero live to enjoy the honors of his numerous brilliant victories, and many other honors that a greatful country will ere long bestow upon him.”
[MSH]


Friday, May 7, 1847, RW24i37p4c4  489 words.

A NOBLE VOLUNTEER AT BUENA VISTA

Every day’s report serves to reveal some fresh incident of interest. A long original account of the desperate conflict at Buena Vista, from an Illinois Volunteer, concludes with this affecting notice of a young man of distinction and learning who fell in the ranks:
[MSH]

In the same part of the field, and about the same time with Clay, McKee, and Hardin, another fell, pierced by a lance, whose name is worthy of a place in the rolls of fame–Private Alexander Konze, of company H, 2d regiment of Illinois. The writer was honored with his friendship, and had an opportunity of knowing him well, being a member of the same company and his tent mate. His conduct on the field was most soldierly, cool, calm, deliberate, and prompt in obeying orders. His courage was conspicuous, even in the moment of his death, when he refused to surrender. Except a brother in South America, he left no relatives on this continent. His widowed mother lives in Bueckenburg, in Hanover, near to his native city–Hamburg. He received a splendid education at the universities of Jena and Goettingen. He had been but a year in the United States when he joined our regiment in Alton, whither he had come to volunteer, from Wisconsin. His motives in taking this step were, that he might serve the country, whose constitution he respected before all other systems of government, and gratify his curiosity in a new mode of life, by seeing Mexico, and observing as he did with a philosophic eye, the character of her people and institutions. The writer promised much pleasure to himself in travelling with him through this country. He was twenty seven years of age, and probably the most learned man in the army. His knowledge of philology was accurate and profound. Such was his familiarity with the Latin, that by one day's examination of a Spanish grammar he was able to read this cognate language with facility. Many pleasant hours have we sent together in rambling over the plains and mountains of Mexico, while he filled his haversack with new plants to send to Germany, and which his knowledge of botany often enabled him to class in their several genera and species.

A better or a braver heart than his never beat its last on a field of battle. While awaiting upon the field, on the night of the 23d of February, the renewal of the attack by Santa Anna, the thought was most consolatory to several of his comrades, that death on the next day, might make them companions of Militates, of Socrates, and of Kunze. This man died for a country of which he was not a citizen; shall it be said that he, the republican son of Germany, was not a true American? May his example animate the hearts of those whom alone he would acknowledge as countrymen–the good and the true of every clime and country.[ANP]

See Niles National Register, /Niles/Nilesg1847MayJun.htm#72.155–72.158May81847campaignof


Friday, May 7, 1847, RW24i37p4c4  192 words.

CAPT. BURGWIN.

The Charleston Mercury has an excellent original account of events in New Mexico, in putting down the Taos insurrection. In the course of the letter, the following deserved tribute is paid to the gallant Burgwin, of the 1st Dragoons:

Capt. Burgwin, of the Dragoons, who fell at Taos, was a native of North Carolina; he graduated at West Point in 1830, and at the time of his death was high up on the list of captains. He was one of the most popular officers in the army, from his high–toned, gentlemanly character. – His conduct and courage in the late battles are the theme of universal praise. After being wounded, Col. Price rode up to him and told him that, whether he recovered or not, he should bear testimony of his gallantry. Capt. B. replied, “I hope, colonel, you will also bear witness that my company did its duty.” Lieut. Van Valkenburg, of the Infantry, died of his wounds in a few days: he had both jaws broken.

Captains Burgwin and Henley were buried a few days since, with military honors. Their graves occupy a picturesque spot under the guns of Fort Marcy.
[MSH]


Tuesday, May 11, 1847, RW24i38p1c1

THE “TERRITORIES” OF NEW MEXICO AND CALIFORNIA.

Illegible.


Tuesday, May 11, 1847, RW24i38p1c2 237 words.

GENERAL TAYLOR AND THE LOCOS.

The New Orleans Bulletin, among other reasons for hosting the Taylor flag, stated the fact that various influential Locofocos in the Southwest were talking measures for a demonstration in his behalf as their candidate, and were anxious to adopt him without regard to principles or politics. The intelligent and reliable correspondent of the Philadelphia North American, after advertising to this statement, goes on to make this further curious development:

“It is within my power to vindicate the statement of the Bulletin. Such a movement was in contemplation; and the preliminaries had progressed to a very considerable extent. Neither was it hatched yesterday, nor within the last fortnight. It commenced during the last session of Congress and was headed by that remarkable individual, rendered somewhat notorious as the projector of the war, and more particularly as the manager of the Plaquemine frauds, by which Louisiana was carried in the Presidential election for Mr. Polk, – upon which he had wagers of a large amount depending, and which were won by that proceeding – I mean Mr. John Slidell, Envoy Extraordinary, &c. Through his agency, and that of others, a private correspondence was opened all over the Union towards the close of the winter, for the purpose of bringing forward Gen. Taylor. Whether this was the information upon which the Bulletin acted, I am no proposed to say, but the facts as now sated, are unquestionable and can be substantiated.

Mr. Slidell, like other keen sighted politicians, saw that the days of locofocoism were numbered, and that the work of regeneration which had extended over other quarters of the Union, must go on in Louisiana, unless some successful diversion could be made. Indifferent to any consideration but the immediate one of triumph, he and his compatriots resolved to appropriate Gen Taylor’s services and popularity to accommodate their own selfish designs. Mr. Slidell has used Mr. Polk as long as he was profitable, and seeing the current of public opinion settling him, had abandoned him at the first opportunity. This fraudulent scheme to seize upon the name and character of a Whig General for locofoco purposes, is consistent with the whole policy of our opponents and shows that they are utterly regardless of the means they employ, so long as they can ensure success and command the spoils. It is the threatening aspect of political affairs that makes the editor of the Union howl as he does at the prospect of losing the fat patronage upon which he and his party is fed. Give them the spoils and they care not who is President, or upon what policy the government is administered.”
[MSH]


Tuesday, May 11, 1847, RW24i38p1c3  52 words.

UNTITLED.

We presume we shall receive Gen. Scott’s official account of the battle of Cerro Gordo in a day or two – as we are told by the N. O. Picayune of the 1st inst. that Mr. John Parrott had reached that city from Vera Cruz bearing despatches from Gen. Scott to the Government.
[MSH]


Tuesday, May 11, 1847, RW24i38p1c3  2,443 words.

ORGANIZATION OF THE GOVERNMENT IN NEW MEXICO – POWER OF THE COURTS – TREASON – WHAT DOES IT ALL TEND TO?

Correspondence of the Missouri Republican.

SANTA FE, NEW MEXICO, March 18, 1847

Gentlemen: When Gen. Kearney, under Mr. Polk’s orders, established the hermaphrodite government – half military and half civil – in this country, (a province taken from Mexico,) and called it a territory of the United States, he did not foresee many of the events which have since occurred. Together with many others who came here with him, the General was mistaken in regard to this character of this people. Accustomed at home to a population who can appreciate human liberty and human progress, he did not anticipate internal difficulties, nor suppose that the boon of free and just government, which he seemed at least to proffer, would be rejected by any portion of the New Mexicans. Still, as to all his strictly military arrangements, they were made (if not for the purpose) capable of the effect of suppressing domestic insurrection;  though it may have been that this capability arose, not so much from an expectation that the troops would ever be called to such a duty, as from the necessity of posting them in the positions assigned, in order to sustain the animals, and also to protect the Mexicans, while peaceable, against their Indian enemies.

It is important, in writing of things here, that we treat all with justice. A false estimate of the value of New Mexico had prevailed in the United States, and so extensively, too, as to deceive statesman of even the general and accurate information of Col. Benton, for the resources of this province were greatly overrated. As was the case in Texas before the expedition in 1841, the character of this people, their feelings, and views, were misunderstood in the United States; for it was supposed that they were at least willing, if not desirous, to come under our government. And another error existed in regard to the amount of military force which it was supposed Mexico could draw from this province, during the war.

For these reasons, the military as well as political and economical ones, being all unfounded, it is believed that Con. Benton advised, and Mr. Polk ordered, an army to be marched to this province. WE CAME (may we be forgiven) – WE SAW – WE CONQUERED!

Possession was taken by the General, in the name of the United States. It was but a military possession, and was only expected to be such. But the solemn farce was enacted of administering the oath of allegiance to the United States, with nearly two thousand American soldiers, with loaded arms, around each village, and 16 pieces of ordnance ready to fire into it. No wonder the Alcade, under such a duress, would swear by the whole calendar of saints!  The Governor had fled when we reached the capital, or he too, with a row of cannon fronting his palacio, would have been made “a citizen of the United States, can, during the war, become a citizen. He would have been metamorphosed, by a speech from the General, (and an oath, probably taken with a mental reservation what it should be broken as soon as convenient,) into an AMERICAN CITIZEN, by virtue of Mr. Polk’s orders, and here, on foreign soil, himself an alien enemy, would have been entitled to the protection of the United States government, as fully as any native–born or duly naturalized citizen and patriot in the States!  Such was the doctrine implied in all the General’s acts; but as it did not lead at once to its practical consequences, we suffered it pass.

There was a sort of interregnum in the government here when we reached the capital. Some civil government was necessary for the convenience of the people, and, a very good one was, in fact, established. It was right enough that crimes against natural laws and good morals should be punished; that rights civil and social rather than political, should be protected; and laws for this purpose were promulgated by the conquering general. We saw the necessity for this arrangement, during the war, or until our doings here could be examined by the people’s representatives at home. The move, by the General, was a bold one, but, under the circumstances, it had to be made or the conquest abandoned; and we did not think it worthy of very serious animadversion.

There was an “Attorney of the United States for the district of New Mexico” appointed, and a marshal, &c. But we only regarded the attorney as a very agreeable young gentleman with a very high sounding title, and never expected to see him in the position he has since occupied. – We may have thought that if the United States should have any pecuniary claims against any delinquent officers here, he might be useful enough in enforcing them, using for that purpose the machinery of the courts, which we knew to be necessary for other purposes. It was plain enough that the process of the United States Court for Missouri, could not run into New Mexico, nor even that of Texas and it might do no harm, some may have thought, to have a process for some such purposes, when there was no very very serious principle involved, except that no authority, in constitution or law, appeared for the proceeding!

But we did not then regard as hardly possible, what is now history; for since the departure of Gen. Kearney, the aspect of affairs has changed very materially; and the District Attorney, who was regarded as only an item of the Territorial appendages of no great public consequence, is now acting a part of no little interest in the farcical, though still important, proceedings here. He prosecutes, in the courts here, individuals who were never citizens of the United States – who owe a national and local allegiance to Mexico – for the crime of treason against the United States!

The consummation of the “annexation” of this province to the Union, by Mr. Polk, is already before us. One Mexican has already been convicted of “TREASON.” He was indicted before the court here a few days ago, was found guilty of counseling the late attempt at revolution, and on the 16th, sentenced to be hung! Trae, en the petition of the Judge and others, the execution of the sentence has been postponed by the acting Governor, until the whole case can be referred to President Polk – the real father of the Government here for His consideration. The ultimate decision of the case involves important principles.

The name or this TRAITOR is Antonio Maria Trogillo. – His counsel contended strongly that the whole proceedings were without law to support them, but in vain. The Judges thought it his duty to go on.

Thus, under the orders of Mr. Polk – so far as the machinery here can do it – the political relations of this people towards the United Sates are changed. If this conviction is legal, then “annexation” is complete; and the people of New Mexico must now be recognized as “fellow citizens.” A country which, with but few exceptions, is inhabited by ignorant, dishonest, treacherous men; and by women who are believe scarcely to know what virtue is, beyond its name, is now part of the American Union!

You, who have voices in the States, may do well, perhaps, to think and speak of these things. Reconcile them, if you can, with your regard for law – the constitution – liberty. And ask yourself if Mr. Polk is not advancing rapidly, not as a component part of the law–making power, but as that power itself.

Carry out the propositions and see where they will lead you. This people, if citizens must be represented in Congress. If they elect a delegate – and we have now here candidates feeling their way – will you give him a seat?  Will you let him speak? Nous Verruns. Perhaps, under the new order of things established by Mr. Polk. (and for which, as the instrument, Gen. Kearney has been rather too severely blamed, having been bound, as a military man, to obey orders,) the delegate may even claim a VOTE! – What say you? The doctrine which sustains a prosecution for TREASON against the United States, would at least entitle him to a seat and oblige you to have him; or, otherwise, you will not eustain the already consummated “annexation.”

Again, we wish you to be prepared to protect the property and lives of all MEXICANS, born and reared in this Province, or domiciliated here, who may chance to be imprisoned or otherwise improperly dealt with by any foreign power. Almost the entire population in New Mexico hate us a little worse than they do the devil; yet, according to Mr. Polk’s court, if a single one of these “CITIZENS” gets into any unpleasant dilemma in the hinds of any foreign power – he must be rescued by the United States. This is a consequence of the positions taken here. The relations of “citizens” towards their government impose duties on the former, but obligations on the latter also; and every government owes protection to its “citizens.”  But we are doing that now, said, in court, the District Attorney – towards whom I mean not the slightest personal disrespect – for we defend the New Mexicans against the Nabajo Indians!

The attorney, however, was a little inconsistent, I thought, in one part of his ingenious argument. First having claimed this barren tract as a TERRITORY, he next claimed it, if not as a territory of the United States, as part of Texas!  Now, I was in favor of annexing Texas, because the people had established their independence voluntarily first, and being mostly emigrants from the U. States, wished to be annexed – a very different case from that of the mongrel and motley population of New Mexico – but I did not dream, when I wrote a brief article for your paper some years ago, in favor of annexation, that I was urging the annexation of this province of Mexico!  Till this day I never can understand how New Mexico became part of Texas – New Mexico has been regarded as ONE province by the Mexican government – Texas as ANOTHER. But how the latter swallowed up this worthless part of the globe, I never can understand.

Or, if this is really part of Texas, I beg of some enlightened friend of Mr. Polk to tell me why Gen. Kearney, under the orders of Mr. Polk, established a separate government here? Or, to go back a little, why did the free voters of Texas establish their government so near the Gulf, adopt a constitution, and organise even to the distribution of all officers, without asking a participation by the “citizens” of Texas here? And why did not the General give back to Texas her own, after we came here and conquered it? – When Armljo ran, and the General took the reins, he became the trustee of Texas, and should have rendered to his eestut qui trust an account of the property. Why did he appoint a Governor, make up courts, create attorneys, judges, &c., under the government of the United States, instead of referring all these matters to Texas? As an independent State, Texas is sovereign over her own territory: then what right had the agent of Mr. Polk to appoint a Governor over this portion of the “free and enlightened” – this extremely well–read and republican portion of the “citizens” of Texas? And then these courts, why they claim to be territorial courts, but are within the limits of a State! Are they not anomalies? But we have ? by things here which seem to be sui generis. Let me ask – is there a U. S. Court for the district of Texas? If so, let its sphere be extended, and drive out these usurpers!  Even our “District Attorney of the United States for the Territory of New Mexico” would, in that event, find himself somewhat superfluous.

But, if this is now a State or Territory, how unfortunate for us that there are no orders here to draft the ?. – We might in this way, soon have the army filled up from these “citizens,” and then go home to our wives and children – those who have not yet fallen victims to the rigor and unhealthiness of the winter climate here, operating on constitutions from the climate of the old States, to say nothing of the other causes of disease and death – causes which still sustain a most distressing mortality among the troops.

It is difficult to treat with due gravity, all the ridiculous propositions advanced regarding this “Territory,” yet they are of no little consequence. If Mr. Polk, by the act of his Presidential volition, can create territories, and make citizens thus, by a dash of his pen adding to the population as well as extending our boundaries, we must be careful to frame some new question for the part Presidential candidates.

I would suggest the following among the number absolutely necessary: 1. ?, how many new territories do you think ought to be admitted to the Union? 2. How much, and what part of Canada would you annex? 3. What say you to Nova Scotia? 4. With you extend the boundaries of Oregon to Behring’s Staits, and if so, how much and what part of Kamsohatka will you send a General to conquer? 5. And will you, or will you not, convict the Kamschaikadales of TREASON against the United States, if they speak of revolt against the authority which you have forced upon them? These questions might do; but I have still one or two more: What do you say in regard to Cuba? and what Do you think of the annexation of HATTI?

Let me not be misunderstood. Let murders here be hung; let rogues and thieves be imprisoned, or as is sometimes done, take the lash in the public square. All this is well enough, and may prevail under the present Government very properly, in order that we may hold conquest until the war is over. But if the conquered do not relish our Government; let us not violate its laws – its constitution – its principles – by attempting illegal and unconstitutional punishment. I have no sympathy with those who are opposed to the American Government here; but I love my country, and it is painful to reflect how rapidly the one many power is advancing. Let it be checked.

These thoughts are hastily thrown together, to turn the attention of able minds to the subject, rather than with a design of attempting its full and due elucidation; and all reflecting Americans here, of whatever party at home, concur in these views with

A VOLUNTEER.

[MSH]


Tuesday, May 11, 1847 RW24i38p1c4  1,051 words.

FROM THE N. O.PICAYUNE, MAY 1.

The letter which we give below from Mr. Kendall did not appear in our extra of yesterday – we had not time to print it. It will show the dispositions made for the attack by our troops, for every thing done by Gen. Scott evinced his skill and science as well as gallantry.

Many inquiries are made of us by friends and acquaintances as to the wounded. Mr. Kendall’s letter give all the information which we possess, and it must be recollected that they were written under circumstances of excitement and in great haste. It is a delicate matter for gentlemen who have reached the city from the field of the conflict to speak of the state of the wounded with any positiveness. In individual cases their hopes may be blasted by the result, and again their fears amounting almost to certainty may in other cases be happily disappointed. We must wait further arrivals to dispel the uncertainty which hangs over the fate of many brave men.

In this connection all will read with pleasure that Capt. Johnson is doing so well. This gentleman, captain of the Topographical Engineers, and appointed lieutenant colonel of the Voltigeurs, was so desperately wounded that little hope was felt for him. He has a strong constitution and is in fine spirits, and Capt. Hughes thinks he will recover.

The health of the troops at Vera Cruz is absolutely improving. Great ameliorations are making the city, but above all things it has been undergoing a thorough purification. There is no yellow fever nor other malignant epidemic. This is good news.

Ampudia was in the battle of Cerro Gordo, but neither he nor Santa Anna ventured within the lines which their countrymen so strenuously defended. They were prepared to run the moment the day should seem to go against them, and run they did. Ampudia came near being taken close to Jalapa, and to save himself had to take to the fields!  But we will not longer detain the reader from our correspondence.

[Editorial Correspondence of the Picayune]

PLAN DEL RIO, MEXICO,
April 16, 1847 – Evening.

Meeting Lt. McLane of the navy this afternoon, at Puente Nacional and on his way here, I joined his party and rode over. Maj. Beall, with a small squad of dragoons, was also along with us. On the road, some six miles back, we came up with a forage party of the 2nd Dragoons under Lieut Anderson, and also Capt Caswell’s company of Tennessee volunteers which had been out after beef. The latter had had a brisk skirmish with a party of rancheros, in which Capt. C. had two me wounded, one of them, a young man of great promise, named J L Roberson, badly. His thigh bone was completely shattered, and the poor fellow’s sufferings were most acute as they bore him along in a wagon over the rough road. The Mexicans stood their ground in the chaparral with some little bravery at first, but were finally routed in every direction.

I find all excitement and bustle here. The Mexicans, under Santa Anna, are occupying a chain of works along the road, the nearest of which is about a mile and a quarter from Gen. Scott’s headquarters in a direct line. The road this side is cut up and barricaded, and every possible means of defence and annoyance has been resorted to. Beyond the first work there are there or four others, completely commanding the gorge through which the road to Jalapa runs – these fortifications on hills, and rising so as to defend one another. It is thought that Santa Anna has 20,000 men with him – the lowest estimate gives him 15,000 – and with these he has 24 pieces of field artillery, besides some 14 heavy cannon in position. Some of the prisoners and deserters from the enemy’s camp even place higher estimates, both as to the number of men, and guns.

To turn these different works a road has been partially cut through the rough ground and chappars to the right; and although the reconnaissance is as yet imperfect, it is still thought that a point near the enemy’s farthest work can be reached. Gen. Twiggs, with his division, is to march at 8 o’clock tomorrow morning by the new road, and on the following morning it is thought the attack will commence on the words on this side. If Gen. Twiggs succeeds in reaching the rear of Santa Anna, and he will use every exertions, I do not see what is to save him. He is generally fox enough to have a plenty of holes out of which to escape, however, and from the great difficulty of reconnoitering his position fully he may have some means of escape here. The general impression now in camp is, that this is to be the great battle of the war; and the immense natural strength of Santa Anna’s works would justify the belief.

The Mexicans are more on the alert than they have ever been before, and more bold in throwing out their pickets. Not a party can go near their works without being fired upon, and yesterday a solider of the 7th Infantry fell with no less than seven bullets in his body. It is said that Almonte is with Santa Anna, as also the principal generals of the country.

Gen. Worth left Puente Nacional this afternoon with his division, and will be up during tonight. He started a little after 1 o’clock this morning, with near 2000 picked me, determined to make a forced march through; but learning on the road that the attack upon the Mexican works was not to commence as soon as anticipated, he returned to Puente Nacional after marching a mile and a half. Capt. Pemberton, one of his aids, rode over here last evening after dark, and returned with the information that the attack had been postponed.

The wounds of Capt. Johnson are doing well. I regret to state that Gen. P.F. Smith is confined to his bed – utterly unable either to ride or walk. He has a violent inflammation of the right ankle and knee, resembling erysipelas, which from neglecting several days when he should have remained in his cot, has finally compelled him to lay up. I will write again tomorrow.

G.W.K.

[MSH]


Tuesday, May 11, 1847 RW24i38p1c4  1,139 words.

FURTHER DETAILS OF THE BATTLE

The “American Eagle,” published at Vera Cruz, issued an extra on the 29th ult., from which we extract copiously, though there are many repetitions in it:

The positions occupied by the enemy were as strong as nature, combined with art, could make them, and could you but see them whilst reading these lines, you would wonder at their surrender. The Cerro Gordo, the most prominent of the defences, commands the Jalapa road for two or three miles, and a heavy battery here, in the hands of skilful men, would keep an army in check, for many a day, if not entirely prevent its passage. The importance of this point was soon made apparent to all, and last night, about twelve