The Mexican-American War and the Media, 1845-1848

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Vols. 73-74, January-March and July-December1848

[Note: The Niles' National Register was not published between March and July 1848]

July 1844-April 1846 May-July 1846 August-October 1846 November-December 1846 January-February 1847 March-April 1847
May-June 1847 July-August 1847 September-October 1847 November-December 1847 January-March & July December 1848


NNR 73.276 execution of Mexican officers for violation of their paroles

NNR 73.276 comments on the increase of the Army

NNR 73.276 correspondence between Lts. S.P. Lee and Simon Fraser Blunt and Secretary of the Navy John Young Mason on allegations of claims for prize money submitted for the capture of Veracruz

NNR 73.278 intelligence from the Army, &c.

NNR 73.278 British minister protests against duties being levied on British subjects by the Americans in Mexico

73.278 proceedings of Mexican governors at Queretaro in favor of peace

NNR 73.278 Gen. Anastasio Bustamente nominated chief of the Mexican Army

NNR 73.278 Mazatlan taken

NNR 73.278 demonstration on Guaymas

NNR 73.278 withdrawal of Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna’s party from the Congress

NNR 73.278 Gen. Winfield Scott announces that the Army will raise supplies from the Mexicans, his general order no. 357, relative to train for Veracruz, no. 368, levying contributions

NNR 73.278-73.279 Gen. Winfield Scott’s general order on "echoes from home"

NNR 73.279 Gen. Winfield Scott’s order no. 329 for a court of inquiry on Gen. Gideon Johnson Pillow, proceedings and report of the court

NNR 73.279-73.280 President Pedro Maria Anaya’s inaugural

NNR 73.280 the demonstration on Guaymas

NNR 73.280 Gen. Robert Patterson reaches Mexico with reinforcements of 6,000 men

NNR 73.280 Gen. David Emanuel Twiggs leaves with train for Veracruz

NNR 73.280 Gen. William Orlando Butler with a train leaves Jalapa

NNR 73.280 Gen. Winfield Scott’s orders relative to guerrillas and Mexican highways

NNR 73.280 money discovered

NNR 73.280 protest against seizing church property, Gen. Persifor Frazer Smith’s orders in reply

NNR 73.288 discussion of Gen. Winfield Scott with the Mexican archbishop on the release of Mexican prisoners

NNR 73.290-73.291 Gov. William Smith of Virginia’s message on acquisition of territory

NNR 73.293-73.294 Lewis Cass' letter on the acquisition of territory from Mexico and the Wilmot Proviso

NNR 73.294-73.295 Col. George Wurtz Hughes' proclamation on being appointed military and civil governor of Jalapa

NNR 73.295 the capture of Guaymas

NNR 73.295 Mexican project of a law relative to prisoners

NNR 73.295-73.296 details, affair with guerrillas, Indians, &c.

NNR 73.296 visit to the pyramid of Cholula
NNR 73.297 Domingo and his Americo-Mexican rangers

NNR 73.297 operations of British capitalists in Mexico
NNR 73.297 British method to obtain the specie we send to Mexico, pressure in the United States as a result of the actions of the capitalists of London

NNR 73.304 Gen. David Emanuel Twiggs and train reach Veracruz
NNR 73.304 Col. Bankhead to leave Veracruz for Mexico City
NNR 73.304 Lt. Col. Henry Wilson to leave for the north
NNR 73.304 Lt. Henderson Ridgely killed
NNR 73.304 sittings of the Mexican Congress at Queretaro
NNR 73.304 Mexican commissioners to treat for peace appointed
NNR 73.304 Gen. Robert Patterson arrives at Mexico City
NNR 73.304 Col. Isaac H. Wright remains at Perote as governor
NNR 73.304 guerrilla attack near Veracruz
NNR 73.304 Lt. Michael O'Sullivan accepts colonelcy in Mexican Army
NNR 73.304 train from Jalapa arrives at Veracruz
NNR 73.304 Gen. Franklin Pierce to resign his commission on his return to the United States

NNR 73.304 Gen. Joseph Lane’s affair at Matamoros

NNR 73.304 letter from Mexico about factions among the Mexicans

NNR 73.304 John Pollard Gaines' speech on his return home, criticism of the conduct of the war

NNR 73.304 Jan. 8, 1848 Killed and wounded

NNR 73.305 Gen. Winfield Scott’s orders directing troops to positions throughout Mexico and ordering Mexican taxes to be collected for support of the American Army
NNR 73.305 entertainment planned for Col. Dixon Stansbury Miles on his departure from Veracruz
NNR 73.305 Queretaro Congress plans not to meet again, suppression of monarchical movement
NNR 73.305 Lt. Bedney F. McDonald and train carrying money attacked between Puebla and Jalapa
NNR 73.305 dispersal of American troops in Mexico, letter on need for more troops

NNR 73.305 items
NNR 73.305 Gen. John Ellis Wool’s orders on taking command of the Army of Occupation, its staff

NNR 73.305 Gen. Sterling Price’s arrival at Santa Fe

NNR 73.306 rumor of the recall of Gen. Winfield Scott, other rumors of shifts in command

NNR 73.306 reception of officers from the Army in Mexico

NNR 73.306 a war of diabolical butchery to secure a hornet’s nest

NNR 73.307 Spanish schooner captured while smuggling to Mexico

NNR 73.310-73.311 Washington "Union" on "Union" pretenses, "Union" taxation, supplies, &c.

NNR 73.311-73.312 the unhappy difficulty between Gen. Winfield Scott and Gen. William Jenkins Worth
The Case of General Scott and Worth

NNR 73.320 rumor of issuance of treasury notes to finance the war

NNR 73.322 courts of inquiry ordered on Gen. Gideon Johnson Pillow, Col. James Duncan, and Gen. Winfield Scott, charges against Gen. William Jenkins Worth dropped

NNR 73.323 another publication from Col. James Duncan

NNR 73.323 Secretary of the Navy John Young Mason’s official orders and pass for Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, Com. David Conner’s reply

NNR 73.324 Gen. Winfield Scott’s order no. 376 for further conquest, debate in Senate relative thereto

NNR 73.324 Col. Dixon Stansbury Miles leaves Veracruz with a train
NNR 73.324 Gen. Thomas Marshall at Jalapa
NNR 73.324 John Reynolds hung
NNR 73.324 guerrillas under Mijares defeated
NNR 73.324 affair at Cholula
NNR 73.324 American prisoners sent for exchange, Col. Thomas Child’s reply

NNR 73.334 Massachusetts' Gov. George Nixon Briggs' message on the war with Mexico

NNR 73.334 "manifest destiny" doctrines

NNR 73.335 what is to be done with Mexico? [ . . . illegible . . . ]

NNR 73.336 sentiments expressed at Democratic supper at Washington

NNR 73.336 conflicting reports on the court of inquiry concerning the disputing officers in Mexico

NNR 73.337 Gen. Winfield Scott suspended from command of the Army in Mexico, a court of inquiry in his case to be held, Gen. William Jenkins Worth discharged from arrest, Gen. William Orlando Butler to command the Army
NNR 73.337 rumors prior to Gen. Winfield Scott’s dismissal of his position with regard to the administration and that of Nicholas Philip Trist

NNR 73.337-73.338 rumors relative to the negotiation and signing of a treaty of peace with Mexico

NNR 73.338 resolutions relative to conquered territory proposed in Texas
NNR 73.338 decline in numbers of the Philadelphia Rangers in Mexico
NNR 73.338 Gen. Gideon Johnson Pillow denies knowledge of the "Leonidas" letter
NNR 73.338 400 troops from New York City for the war in Mexico
NNR 73.338 fifth regiment of Tennessee volunteers leave New Orleans for Veracruz
NNR 73.338 six companies of Michigan volunteers reach New Orleans
NNR 73.338 reductions in the ninth Maine regiment
NNR 73.338 losses among the Philadelphia Rangers
NNR 73.338 reduction in the corps of sappers and miners

NNR 73.338 resolution of Whig state convention of Iowa deprecating the war

NNR 73.339-73.340 a Mexican letter on excesses of the Americans

NNR 73.340 proceedings at Queretaro, a guerrilla affair, attack upon Lt. Walker’s detachment, rear of Col. Dixon Stansbury Miles' train, their loss, operations on the route

NNR 73.340-73.341 Gen. Winfield Scott’s orders no. 395, levying contributions on Mexican states

NNR 73.341 orders licensing gaming houses, &c.

NNR 73.341 specie seized for duties
NNR 73.341 items

NNR 73.341 guerrilla attacks in lower California

NNR 73.352 rumors of Nicholas Philip Trist having sent project of a treaty to Washington

NNR 73.352 Army and Navy letters to Mexico free of postage

NNR 73.352 Gen. Caleb Cushing’s brigade sent to San Angel

NNR 73.352 detachment under Col. Jones Mitchell Withers sent to collect revenue in the mining district

NNR 73.353 insistence of California on being acquired by the United States

NNR 73.354 Charleston "Mercury" on relations with Mexico

NNR 73.354 Judge John McLean’s letter on the need for an end to the war

NNR 73.355 opposition of Gov. Albert Gallatin Brown of Mississippi to the Wilmot Proviso

NNR 73.357 order no. 373 re-organizing part of the Army in Mexico

NNR 73.357 order respecting licenses for selling tobacco, cigars, and playing cards

NNR 73.357 order no. 3 on a train for Mexico City
NNR 73.357 Lt. Bedney F. McDonald’s party attacked

NNR 73.357 Surgeon Alexander F. Suter’s obituary

NNR 73.357 dinner to Lt. Col. Dixon Stansbury Miles, Gen. David Emanuel Twiggs' toast

NNR 73.357 Padre Caledonio Domeco Jarauta and Col. Jones Mitchell Withers

NNR 73.357 California tranquil, rumors of Mexicans across the border
NNR 73.357-73.358 naval expedition to capture the western Mexican ports

NNR 73.369 Gen. Franklin Pierce’s compliment to the officers of West Point

NNR 73.370-73.371 rejection of a direct tax to finance the war with Mexico, comment on Whig reluctance to vote for the loan

NNR 73.371 "moral treason"

NNR 73.372 guerrilla affairs, attempt to assassinate Capt. Bragg

NNR 73.372 Gen. George Cadwalader’s march to Toluca

NNR 73.372 insurrection at Mexico City detected
NNR 73.372 disease in Gen. William Orlando Butler’s regiment
NNR 73.372 an affair in California
NNR 73.372 rumor of peace negotiations
NNR 73.372 Col. Jones Mitchell Withers reaches Real del Monte
NNR 73.372 Gens. Gabriel Valencia and Mariano Arista and Cols. Torrejon and Minon captured
NNR 73.372 arrival of silver bars at Mexico City
NNR 73.372 Indians rumored to be volunteering to aid or fight the Mexicans

NNR 73.380-73.383 Albert Gallatin on war expenses

NNR 73.385 rumor relative to peace, James L. Freaner, bearer of the project of a treaty, arrives
NNR 73.385 project of a treaty of peace negotiated by Nicholas Philip Trist received at Washington, dissatisfaction with Trist
NNR 73.385 trains from Veracruz to Mexico

NNR 73.386 operations at Mexico, orders no. 14 and 15, conspiracy detected, and consequent orders

NNR 73.386-73.387 Col. McClelland, Gen. Joseph Lane moving on Orizaba, Col. Hays' pursuit of Padre Caledonio Domeco Jarauta, Gen. George Cadwalader, "the rents," Orizaba taken, train arrives at Veracruz from Mexico, Manuel de la Pena y Pena succeeds to executive power, items, rumors relative to peace, Pedro Maria Anaya’s proclamation, conspiracy at Puebla, regulations at Tampico, congress at Queretaro

NNR 73.387 the capture of Gen. Anastasio Torrejon

NNR 73.387 extracts from Mexican journals

NNR 73.387 Col. Thomas Childs' proclamation on a conspiracy at Puebla

NNR 73.391 the democratic (old banker) New York state convention on acquisition of territory

NNR 73.392 letter of Vice-President George Mifflin Dallas on prosecution of the war with Mexico

NNR 73.392 Secretary of the Treasury Robert John Walker’s note about sustaining the war with Mexico

NNR 73.392 letter of Sen. Daniel Stevens Dickinson on the war with Mexico and the coming election

NNR 73.392 John Adams Dix' letter about bringing the war with Mexico to a conclusion

NNR 73.392 notice of William Brown Maclay’s letter about the Mexican war

NNR 73.392-73.393 "the platform of the south"

NNR 73.394 response from Philadelphia to Lexington

NNR 73.394-73.395 the official correspondence about the transport of Gen. Mariano Paredes y Arillaga by a British mail steamer

NNR 73.400 comments on the defensive line of the Sierra Madre

NNR 73.400 court of inquiry ordered on complaint of Gen. Winfield Scott against Gen. Gideon Johnson Pillow and Col. James Duncan and of Gen. William Jenkins Worth against Scott

NNR 73.401 remarks on the treaty

NNR 73.407 Gen. Joseph Lane’s expedition in pursuit of Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

NNR 73.408 Orizaba occupied, description, revolt at La Paz

NNR 73.409 items, peace announced at Queretaro

NNR 73.416 comments on the prospects of the treaty of peace apparently submitted to the Senate

NNR 74.002-74.003 transports for troops returning from Veracruz

NNR 74.003 proclamation of a treaty of peace with Mexico

NNR 74.004 Gen. Winfield Scott yields command on Army in Mexico to Gen. William Orlando Butler

NNR 74.004, 74.005 last general order announcing the end of the war

NNR 74.004 arrival of some troops at New Orleans, others awaiting transportation in Mexico

NNR 74.005-74.007 report on the Battle of Santa Cruz de Rosales

NNR 74.016 plans for an independent Republic of the Sierra Madre

NNR 74.017 account of support given by American deserters to the Mexicans

NNR 74.017-74.018 arrival of returning troops at New Orleans

NNR 74.029-74.030 letter of Albert Gallatin to Congressman Garret Davis on peace with Mexico and the acquisition of territory

NNR 74.033 warm welcomes to returning volunteers

NNR 74.033 amnesty for deserters during the war with Mexico

NNR 74.033 troops still awaiting departure from Mexico, number of troops so far embarked from Veracruz

NNR 74.043-045 text of the treaty between Mexico and the United States concluded at Guadalupe Hidalgo

NNR 74.049 act regulating position of officers and awarding extra pay to disbanded troops

NNR 74.049-74.050 arrival of troops from Veracruz at New Orleans

NNR 74.054 progress of American troops toward Veracruz for embarkation

NNR 74.065 further arrival of returning troops at New Orleans

NNR 74.068 rapid evacuation of American troops from Mexico along the Rio Grande

NNR 74.096 Paredes rebellion, complaints of the company of Saint Patrick

NNR 74.097 Veracruz surrendered to Mexican authorities

NNR 74.097 number of troops departing Veracruz in six weeks

NNR 74.112 Veracruz surrendered to the Mexicans, Jarauta made prisioner and executed, American deserters in Durango

NNR 74.114 voltigeurs arrive at Fort McHenry

NNR 74.114 arrivals of returning troops at New Orleans, at New York City

NNR 74.115 order respecting claims of volunteers

NNR 74.142 ceremony of the surrender of Veracruz-custom house returned, Paredes rebellion, contra-guerillero in prison

NNR 74.142 Anastasio Bustmante censured; Vera Cruz custom house returned to Mexican authorities

NNR 74.161 arrival of troops at Fortress Monroe

NNR 74.161 detachment of First Artillery reaches New York

NNR 74.165 comments of the "National Intelligencer" on the platform of the Buffalo convention

NNR 74.192 California quiet, Jose Castro promises to obey our laws

NNR 74.192 requisition for California volunteers to garrison Mexican ports, silver discovered

NNR 74.193 force of volunteers furnished by the several states

NNR 74.208 account of the soldiers of the disbanded Saint Patrick company

NNR 74.240 funeral for victims of the war at Mexico City

NNR 74.240 extreme destitution of the Saint Patrick deserters

NNR 74.243 the record of the Cyane in the war against Mexico

NNR 74.259-74.260 proceedings of citizens of Santa Fe in relation to duties on merchandise exacted

NNR 74.306 arrival of several companies at New Orleans

NNR 74.316 size of the force used by the United States in Mexico

NNR 74.384 number of battles fought in the war

NNR 74.386 awards to private soldiers for distinguished service

NNR 74.402 regulars and volunteers in service at close of the war with Mexico

NNR 73.276 Jan. 1, 1848 execution of Mexican officers for violation of their paroles

THE EXECUTION AT JALAPA - Is thus detailed by a correspondent of the N. Orleans Picayune:

I sent off an unfinished letter to you last night, and when interrupted by the information that a courier was on the point of starting, I was going on to speak of the intense feeling manifested by the most influential people in town in favor of Lieut. Alcade, who, with Adj't. Garcia, is to be shot to-day, at noon, for a violation of their parole honor. So deeply were my feelings wrought upon by the scenes of last evening - the crowds of supplicating women - the solemn but animated countenances of Mexican generals, priests, and dignified citizens, as they plead for their lives of those who had so basely forfeited them, that I dreamed of nothing else last night but executions, priests and crying women. The degrading confession, on the part of the most respectable Mexican citizens that it is considered no disgrace, no crime for a Mexican officer to violate his parole of honor while an enlarged prisoner of war, or even for him to join a band of cut-throats while yet a prisoner, and lie in wait to kill those to whom he owes his life and freedom - to whom, in fact, his life belongs, is enough to excuse us from putting any faith in future in the promises of Mexican officers. It is time, too, to give these individuals a few salutary lessons in the school of honor, and to cause them to hold inviolate the almost only barrier against wars of extermination viz: the soldier’s parole.

The two criminals spent the whole of last night in the church with priests, a strong guard being placed over them. Their coffins have already been conveyed to the place of execution, and in less than an hour the two wretched men will die, as they hardly deserve to die, a soldier’s death, and they will appear before a higher judge, who will decide whether it be wrong to take the life of a professional soldier for a violation of the most sacred and humanizing feature in civilized warfare. Yesterday the citizens of Jalapa witnessed an act of American justice; to-day they will see another.

Half past 12 o'clock. - The execution is over. The prisoners marched blindfolded to the plaza, a priest attending them. They were in full uniform, and behaved with as much firmness as could be expected of men under such circumstances. Each was supported by a friend at either arm, and were led to the side of the plaza and seated upon their coffins, near the wall of the barracks. They continued their devotions aloud, after embracing a few friends, until the word "fire!" The troops under Gen. Patterson were all paraded again, and not only looked very well, but behaved as they did yesterday, with propriety. The bodies of the executed officers were given over to their friends, and soon conveyed away in near coffins. Thousands of Mexicans flocked towards the scene, but were prudently kept out of the plaza. The excitement which prevailed yesterday among the inhabitants seems in a measure to have subsided to-day - but whether it yielded to a sense of justice of to awe, remains to be seen.

Every thing in the solemn ceremonies of yesterday and to-day was conducted correctly - Capt. Taylor, of Col. Hughes regiment, acting as provost marshal. The military commission before which all four of the criminals were tried, was presided over by Major Kenly, of Hughes' regiment, Lieut. Burnside, of the 2d artillery, acting as judge advocate. The members of the court proceeded in all the trials with great care, and offered to the prisoners every facility in their power as judges, to prove their innocence and to bring up palliating facts. They performed their duty like just and intelligent men, and true soldiers. Lt. Burnside, the judge advocate, has conducted himself throughout all the proceedings in a manner to call forth praise from all parties. His duties were arduous, and of the most responsible and painful character; but, although young (a recent graduate of West Point academy) he has done his duty kindly, delicately and faithfully. Col. Hughes, whose duty it was to approve or disapprove of the sentences, met the painful subject in the same unbiassed, decided manner. - The prisoners were legally condemned on the most clear and positive evidence, and he had but one course to pursue.

The colonel and captain (guerrilla officers) were sent up this morning to Perote, in charge of the 1st Pennsylvania and Georgia regiments, there to await their trial. It is more than probably that they, too, have broken their parole, but I really hope, for human decency' sake, that they have not been guilty of so inexcusable and disgusting and offence.

We are off tomorrow morning; so farewell, or rather, au revoir. B.  [RLLW]

NNR 73.276 Jan. 1, 1848 comments on the increase of the Army

INCREASE OF THE ARMY. The military commitment of the senate reported a bill, a few days ago, for adding new regiments to the present day twenty-five regiments of the regular army; and yesterday the same committee reports a bill authorizing twenty new regiments of volunteers. - When all these regiments shall be raised, the army of the United States, regular and volunteer, will amount to some sixty or seventy thousand men, at a cost of [ . . . illegible . . . ] of money, which it is at present impossible to estimate and fall to vindicate the personal consistency of President Polk. The ruinous consequences of this ill-starved Mexican war are rapidly approaching a point which almost blind follower of party will be unable to extenuate or uphold. [Nat'l Intd] [RLLW]

NNR 73.276 Jan. 1, 1848 correspondence between Lts. S. P. Lee and Simon Fraser Blunt and Secretary of the Navy John Young Mason on allegations of claims for prize money submitted for the capture of Vera Cruz


Washington, Nov. 30, 1847

SIR: Since our return from the home squadron we learn that the belief is entertained by many, that after the capture of Vera Cruz, a claim was made on the part of the squadron for prize money on account of the enemy’s property which was, on that occasion captured by the combined forces of the army and navy. Having heard of no such claim during our service in the squadron, we respectfully inquire if any such claim has been presented or made known to the navy department, and, as an act of justice to the officers and men of the squadron, we respectfully inquire if any such claim has been presented or made known to the navy department, and, as, as an act of justice to the officers and men of the squadron, who may be injuriously affected by such a rumor, we respectfully ask permission to make your response public.

We have the honor to be, sir, with the highest respect, your most obedient and humble servants,

S. P. LEE, Lt. U. S. N.

To the Hon. John Y. Mason, L
Secretary of the navy, Washington City, D.C.


Navy Department Dec. 15, 1847

GENTLEMEN: I have received your letter of the 30th ult., in which you enquire whether any claim has been presented or made known to the navy department, on the part of the officers of the navy, for prize money on account of enemy’s property "captured by the combined forces of the army and navy" at Vera Cruz.

No such claim has been presented; and there is not, in any communication with the department, a single expression which can be tortured into a justification for such a charge. The only prizes or captures for which a claim of prize money has been made on behalf of the officers and men of the squadron in the gulf, are of vessels afloat, seized as enemy’s property, and which are clearly subject to sale if condemned, and the proceeds subject to distribution under the laws of the United States.

I am entirely ignorant of any circumstance which would justify the rumor to which you refer.

I am, respectfully yours, JOHN Y. MASON,

Lieuts. S. P. Lee and Simon Fraser Blunt, U.S. Navy, Washington D.C. [Union.

NNR 73.278 Jan 1, 1848 intelligence from the Army, &c. 

           Vera Cruz dates to the 5th December and city of Mexico to the 27th November, received at New Orleans, confirm the account of the arrests of Generals Worth and Pillow and Col. Duncan, by Gen. Scott.  Gen. Twiggs was to have come down with the train which left the city of Mexico on the 2d December, but was detained in consequence of the arrest.  [RLLW]

NNR 73.278 Jan 1, 1848 British minister protests against duties being levied on British subjects by the Americans in Mexico

           By an arrival from Queretaro at Vera Cruz on the 4th instant, a communication was received from the English secretary of legation, Mr. Thornton, covering a protest from Lord Palmerston, the British minister of foreign affairs, protesting against the forcible levy of taxes on English residents in Mexico, for the purpose of aiding to support the war.  These levies were made six months since and paid by the English residents under protest, since which they have appealed to their government for protection.  [RLLW]

NNR 73.278 Jan 1, 1848 Gen. Anastasio Bustamante nominated chief of the Mexican Army

           General Bustamente has been nominated by the supreme government general in chief of the army of reserve, and commandant general of the state.  His predecessor, Gutierrez, is second in command, and Cortazar next.  [RLLW]

NNR 73.278 Jan 1, 1848 Mazatlan taken

           Nov. 23 – News had been received at Queretaro by express that the Americans had taken possession of the port of Mazatlan with four ships of war. – It appears to be generally credited, and El Monitor says it aggravates “in an extraordinary manner our desperate situation.”  Government has issued a circular asking resources from the states.  [RLLW]

NNR 73.278 Jan 1, 1848 demonstration on Guaymas

           On the 19th ultimo, a corvette and frigate of the United States navy entered the port of Guyana, demanding a surrender of the place.  The commander of the forces writes to the governor of Sonora that in order to prevent the bombardment he had concluded to remove his forces to Boccachicampo, out of reach of the guns, and there make a stand, although he does not seem to think it would be a successful one.  [RLLW]

NNR 73.278 Jan 1, 1848 withdrawal of Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna’s party from the Congress

           Rumors were current in the city of Mexico that the partisans of Santa Anna had withdrawn from congress in compliance with the instructions of their chief, for the purpose of forcing that body to dissolve; not having a quorum.  These partisans of Santa Anna all belong to the Puro party, and are for war to the knife.  All the Puros however, are not Santa Anna men, and there are some persons here who assert that the reason they oppose the peace propositions is that they desire to keep the American army in the country until they can establish the government upon a firm basis.  In fact, I have been told that many of the Puro deputies have written to their friends here, stating that this was their only reason for opposing a treaty of peace.  [RLLW]

NNR 73.278 Jan 1, 1848 Gen. Winfield Scott announces that the Army will raise supplies from the Mexicans, his general order no. 357, relative to train from Veracruz, no. 368, levying contributions

           A general order of the 25th November, issued by Gen. Scott from his headquarters in the city of Mexico, announces that, under instructions from the government at home, the army will, as soon as practicable, begin to raise the means of its support from Mexico. 


Headquarters of the Army,
Mexico, November 24, 1847.

           Notice is hereby given, That a small train will leave for Vera Cruz about the 28th instant.  Officers and soldiers desirous of forwarding letters by this conveyance, will leave them at the army post office, up stairs, in the same building with the city post office, on the street leading from the palace to the Alameda. 

           The general principles which will govern the general in chief, in permitting officers and enlisted men to leave this country, are laid down in general orders No. 318 and 322, as follows:

           “No officer can be permitted to leave any part of the army, except on application to general headquarters, through the usual channels, beginning with a medical officer’s certificate – setting forth distinctly, that the applicant is not likely, for the reason given to be fit for duty in the next three months. 

           All wounded and sick officers, not likely to be fit for duty in the next three months, but who are able to travel, and desire to return home, will, upon the proper medical certificates, receive orders accordingly. 

           On arriving at New Orleans, or other port of the United States, the officers returning under this order will report, by letter, to the adjutant general’s office, at Washington, for (if able) the recruiting service. 

           Sergeants and other enlisted men who have become subjects for honorable discharge by wounds or otherwise, and who are abler to travel, will receive their discharges and be allowed to accompany to first train to Vera Cruz, and thence receive a free passage to the United States. 

           Under circumstances, as above, officers and men, at Puebla and the posts below, will receive like orders from the respective commanders of departments; but only in the clearest cases; and each commander will make a special report, to general headquarters, to show the grounds  for the exercise of the authority, especially delegated to this occasion only. 

           The 1st regiment of U.S. artillery will proceed to Vera Cruz, as a portion of the escort to the wagon train.  Upon its arrival at Vera Cruz, this regiment will relieve the 1st infantry, now in garrison at that place, and the latter regiment will return with the train to this capital. 

           By command of Major Gen. Scott,

           H.L. SCOTT, A. A. A. G. 

           The same paper furnishes the following orders touching the military contributions which Mexico is to be called upon to make:

General Orders – NO. 358

Headquarters of the Army.
Mexico, November 25, 1847.

           Under instructions from the government at home, requiring that this army shall, as soon as practicable, begin to raise within the country it occupies, the means in whole or in great part of maintaining the expenses of the occupation until the federal government of Mexico shall submit terms of peace which the United States may honorably accept, it is ordered that no uncoined bullion, bars or ingots, either of gold or silver, shall be shipped from any port of Mexico, until the further orders of the government at home shall be made known on the subject, so as to give time for said government to fix the rate of export duty on such bullion, and perhaps a smaller duty on gold and silver coins. 

           At the beginning of the change of system intimated above, all rents for houses or quarters occupied by officers or troops of the army, in any city or village in Mexico, will cease as soon as contracts may permit, and absolutely, from and after the end of this month, wherever this order shall be received in time, and in future necessary quarters both for officers and troops, where the public buildings are insufficient, will first be demanded, as required, of the civil authorities of the several places occupied by the troops, so as to equalise the inconvenience imposed upon the inhabitants, and diminish the same as much as possible. 

           If the authorities fail to put the troops promptly in possession of such quarters, then the commanding officer, in every such case, following out the same principle of giving the least distress practicable to the unoffending inhabitants, will cause the necessary buildings to be occupied. 

           Subsistence, forage and other necessaries, for the army, will be purchased and paid for as heretofore; and the injunctions and penalties of the martial law order, dated February 10, 1847, originally published at Tampico, and republished several times since, with additions, will, as from the first, be strictly enforced, as also, in general, all the obligations of good morals and the most exact discipline. 

           By command of Major Gen. Scott,

H.L. SCOTT, A. A. A. G. 


NNR 73.278-279 Jan 1, 1848 Gen Winfield Scott’s order on “echoes from home”


Headquarters of the Army,
Mexico, November 12, 1847. 

           The attention of certain officers of this army is recalled to the foregoing regulation, which the general in chief is resolved to enforce so far as it may be in his power. 

           As yet but two echoes from home of the brilliant operations of our arms in this basin have reached us: the first in a New Orleans, and the second through a Tampico newspaper. 

           It requires not a little charity to believe that the principal heroes of the scandalous letters alluded to did not write them, or specially procure them to be written, and the intelligent can beat no loss in conjecturing the authors – chiefs, partisans, and pet familiars.  To the honor of the service, the disease – proficiency of fame, not earned – cannot have seized upon half a dozen officers (present) all of whom, it is believed, belong to the same two coteries. 

           False credit may, no doubt, be obtained at home, by such despicable self puffings and malignant exclusion of others; but at the expense of the just esteem and consideration of all honorable officers who love their country, their profession, and the truth of history.  The indignation of the great number of this latter class cannot fail, in the end, to bring down the conceited and the envious to their proper level. 

           By command of Maj. Gen. Scott;
           H. L. SCOTT, A. A. A. G. 

NNR 73.279 Jan 1, 1848 Gen. Winfield Scott’s order no.329 for a court of inquiry on Gen. Gideon Johnson Pillow, proceedings and report of the court.



Headquarters of the Army,
Mexico, November 12, 1847. 

           Proceedings of a court of inquiry, of which Brevet Major Gen. W. J. Worth is president, convened at this place by the following order, viz:


Headquarters of the Army,
Mexico, October 22, 1847. 

           At the instance of Major General G. J. Pillow, a court of inquiry will assemble at the palace, or such other place in this city, as may be designed by the president of the court, tomorrow morning, at nine o’clock. 

           The court will investigate and report the facts and circumstances connected with the removal of two small howitzers on the 14th of September, from Chapultepec – stating by whom removed, and whether with the knowledge of Major General Pillow, and also give their opinion upon the facts which may be developed. 

           Members – Brevet Major General W. J. Worth, Major General J. A. Quitman, Brig. General D. E. Twiggs. 

           Lt. R. P. Hammond, 3d artillery, is appointed the judge advocate of the court. 

           By command of Maj Gen. Scott,

H. L. SCOTT. A. A. A. G. 

The said order being founded on the following communication from Maj. Gen. Pillow, viz:

1.Maj. Gen. Pillow to Capt. H. L. Scott, acting assistant adjutant general, as follows:

Mexico, Oct. 9, 1847. 

Captain – On the night of the 13th I was instructed at Chapultepec that two small howitzers, which my command had captured in storming that place, had been taken from the carriages and were not to be found.  Being myself unable from my wound to get out of bed I caused a strict inquiry to be instituted for them, and was informed late at night that they were found in my own baggage wagon, and found further that they had been placed there by Mr. Welch.  This was done without my knowledge or authority.  I immediately sent for Col. Howard and directed him to have them taken out, and directed them mounted and placed in battery for the defence of the place. 

           I never knew, until last night at 9 o’clock, that my order to take the pieces out of my wagon had not been obeyed.  My aides-de-camp reported to me that night, that there was no ammunition for those pieces, and therefore they could not place them in battery.  I now learn from inquiry, that they were brought to the city in my wagon, and were taken from the wagon by Lieut. Rogers and Mr. Welch, and that they probably have one each.  Mr. Rogers has retired from my staff, and he is now at the ‘Sociedad.’  Mr. Welch is in the city, but I do not know where he resides. 

           Regarding the conduct of those gentlemen as improper, I feeling it my duty not to suffer any persons protection, I felt it to be my duty, as the earliest [illegible[, to give this information to the general-in-chief, for such action as he may think proper to take.  But for my having been so disabled by my wound, I would have seen personally to the execution …[ . . . illegible . . . ]…

           4. It appears from the evidence, that on the nights of the 14th, when the garrison of Chapultepec was about being reduced in numbers, and whilst conversing with the staff about the defences of the place, Gen. Pillow ordered two officers of his staff to have these howitzers taken out of the wagon and remounted, with some other orders relative to the general dispositions for the defence of the work. 

           It was ascertained by his staff officers that no suitable ammunition could be found for the howitzers, and that they were therefore not used, not mounted, not removed from the wagon, and other arrangements for defence were made without them, and reported to Gen. Pillow. 

           The impression is strong and almost conclusive, that this order of Major Gen. Pillow, to his staff and officers, could not have indicated a desire on his part for a full and final restoration of these howitzers to their proper places, as public property – otherwise the mere fact of failure to find suitable ammunition for their immediate use could not justify the staff officers in failing to obey the order to remount the pieces – and it does not appear that the staff officers were censured for the omission. 

           5. That the two howitzers were brought to town on the 15th of September, in Gen. Pillow’s wagon; that one was claimed by Mr. Rogers, and carried to his quarters under his direction, whilst the other was carried to the residence of Welch, and for him. 

           It does not appear that Maj. Gen. Pillow had any information of the actual fact that the howitzers were in the city of Mexico, until the evening of October 8, subsequent to the order of the general-in-chief, in relation to trophies, etc., when, and subsequently, he seems to have used all proper measures to have them restored. 

           And the court is of opinion that further military proceedings may be dispensed with.
           The general-in-chief approves of the proceedings and the opinions of the court in the foregoing case. 
           The court of inquiry, of which Brevet Major Gen. Worth is president is dissolved.

By command of Maj. Gen. Scott,
H. L. SCOTT, A. A. A. G.


NNR 73.279-280 Jan 1, 1848 President Pedro Maria Anaya’s inaugural


           After being sworn in as president and ad interim of the

Republic of Mexico.

                Sres Deputies: I come to fulfil your wishes, taking in charge the supreme executive power of the union, for the short space of time that will elapse until the next constitutional period arrives.  If the days be few, the difficulties present themselves numerous and appalling.  The great misfortune of our land, is the sentiment that exclusively occupies the minds of all who know the meaning of the sacred word country. 

     In such circumstances, without the powerful concurrence of the nation, no government can undertake its defence.  It belongs alone to the executive power to unite all efforts, direct them according to the national will, and remove all obstacles, that disconfidence has hitherto thrown in the way. 

     With the decision of an ancient servant of the country, I have sworn not to omit a single effort, nor to spare the most costly sacrifices in endeavoring to prove myself worthy of the confidence reposed in me by the national representation.  To doubt of the cooperation of the Mexican people would [ . . . illegible . . . ] doubt of that valor and those high virtues which emancipated the country, which although disheartened and led astray by twenty-five years of dissensions, are producing even yet so many and such sublime sacrifices. 

     I declare that in the fulfillment of my oath just taken “of respecting and causing to be respected the fundamental institutions,” I will act in accordance both with my duty and my profound convictions.  The federal system is the only one calculated to save a people in a situation so dangerous as ours.  To seek now a remedy in new systems, or in new revolutions, would be to give up the republic without defence and without remorse to the enemy who tore down our national flag  from the palace where the victorious Iturbide planted it with his own hands. 

     The government relies upon the co-operation of the states, their good sense, and tried love of liberty and order.  It will keep in harmony with them, for their efforts (the heroic capital of the republic being loss) are those that now must save us. 

     In a situation such as ours, individual privations are inevitable; the government far from increasing will endeavor to lessen them as much as lays in its power.  The security of persons and properties will be sacred, taxes will be exacted proportionally, and the amount thereof distributed with honesty and economy. 

     It is the duty of congress, who also knows our necessities, to promulgate such wise laws as the country requires, and to diffuse life and encouragement throughout the republic.  I will be the first to comply with them striving above all to united all the private efforts in the grand object, the salvation of our independence.  For me, all our domestic broils, foolish enmities and dissensions will be henceforth secondary matters of consideration.  My administration will not persecute any class or party.  I call upon all without distinction to assemble around the standard of their country. 

     Without being deluded as to our situation, on the contrary fully aware and overwhelmed with its difficulties and ready to face new misfortunes, of which be our destiny, I have come to this place, with the firm resolution never to seal the dishonor of our native land.  God alone can look into the future; as to public men; it suffices, that they know their duty and fulfil it.  The nation is aware that I never deceived her, that my oaths are always loyal; and that my blood, my life, and my reputation belong to all situations that most contrary to my inclinations.  May God bless and cause to be fulfilled the ardent desires of the man who has not and is incapable of entertaining any other idea than that of the liberty and honor of his unfortunate country.   [RLLW] 

NNR 73.280 Jan 1, 1848 the demonstration on Guaymas

                Guaymas – We stated, in a recent paragraph, that several ships of the American navy had entered the port of Guaymas, and demanded a surrender of the place.  By late advices we learn that on the 20th ult, the place surrendered to the naval force under Lavellette, commanding the naval force of the U. States, and the port is now in possession of the Americans.  The frigates under his command were the Portsmouth and the Congress, which fired upon the place for about an hour.  The terms which the place was subjected are very much like those granted in other places occupied by our forces, and we need not give the articles at length.  W. A. Robinson had been appointed collector of the customs, and the duties were as follows:

                “The duties of importation, until otherwise ordered, will be five per cent, per ton, and ten per cent ad valorem, the value in port to be determined by persons appointed for that purpose.” 

                Until quarters shall be provided for the troops who were to garrison the place, the United States flag would be hoisted in some point in the bay from the U.S. frigate Congress.  [RLLW] 

NNR 73.280 Jan 1, 1848 Gen. Robert Patterson reaches Mexico with reinforcements of 6,000 men

                General Patterson had reached the city of Mexico with 6,000 men, having left a garrison at Rio Frio, where a permanent depot is to be made.  [RLLW]

NNR 73.280 Jan 1, 1848 Gen. David Emanuel Twiggs leaves with train for Vera Cruz

                A train left the city of Mexico on the 9th instant, for Vera Cruz, under command of General Twiggs. Gen. Pierce is coming down with it.  [RLLW]

NNR 73.280 Jan 1, 1848 Gen. William Orlando Butler with a train leaves Jalapa

                General Butler left Jalapa on the 6th, for Puebla.  The train which he commanded, has also left that city.  [RLLW]

NNR 73.280 Jan. 1, 1848 Money discovered, and guerrilla activity

A discovery was made on Thursday in the convent of San Domingo, in this city.  Some of the troops who arrived with General Patterson were quartered there, and turning over an old desk that was left in one of the rooms, found it contained some $15,000 in silver and gold.  This led to a further search, and in one of the cells a large quantity of clothing and ammunition was found, which was removed to the quartermaster’s department.

About 6 o'clock, on Saturday night, Mr. Doyle, the English charge d'affairs, arrived from Vera Cruz in the diligence, escorted by Captain Fairchild, of the Louisiana rangers, and about 36 men.  They brought neither letter or papers, but last night the English courier arrived with a full budget.  Capt. F. informs me that there cannot be less than twelve thousand men on the road up here, and that General Butler would be in Puebla yesterday (Sunday) with seven thousand men.

The Ohio regiment are encamped at Rio Frio, under Colonel Irwin, together with one company of Illinois dragoons, under Captain Little, numbering in all about six hundred men.  There are seven companies of the Ohio regiment there, the other four being at Puebla.  This encampment is doubtless intended to be permanent, as the men were building themselves houses.

I inclose you an order from Gen. Scott, issued today, of the most sever character, about the guerrilla parties, who are said to be gather in considerable numbers through the country.  The concluding paragraph appears to favor the idea that the post of Rio Frio will be permanent.  There is absolutely no news from Queretaro.  Congress does not meet, and there is a rumor in town that Santa Anna has been proclaimed dictator there, but I cannot trace it to any reliable source.  Every thing her appears to favor the belief that a movement will be shortly made for the interior.

What division of the army will take the lead, or who is to command it, I cannot say, but madame rumor points to the gallant Smith, the hero of Contreras, as the commander.  Without doubt he would be an excellent man, but I do not see how he can be spared from his post here.  His moderation, firmness and strict attention to business have endeared him to all the citizens, native and foreign, and they would feel his loss more keenly. Nous verrons. [JNA]

NNR 73.280 Jan 1, 1848 protest against seizing church property, Gen. Persifor Frazer Smith’s orders in reply.

                The Monitor, of Dec. 9, publishes a decree from Senior Ross, the minster of justice and ecclesiastical affairs, protesting against the sale of church property in this city, except for the benefit of the Mexican government and the church,  You will recollect that a short time ago the civil and military governor prohibited the sale of any of this property, except by permission of the government of the United States, the effect of this prohibition.  He, Rosas, prenounced all such sales invalid and of no effect, and speaks warmly on the subject.  The Mexican people, or those who administer the government, appears to think that the result of the recent battles in this valley has be on just nothing at all. 

                The following letter order of Gen. Smith was, perhaps, aimed at the order of Rosa, mentioned above by our correspondent:

Office of the Civil and Military Governor,
National Palace, Mexico, Dec. 10 1847. 

     1.  Any decree of the Mexican general government, affecting or modifying the political rights of those living in the territory occupied by the American army, is null, and any attempt to promulgate such decree as effective or to enforce it, without the consent and approbation of the American authorities, will be considered and punished as a direct opposition to them. 

     2.  The people of the city of Mexico have the right to make their municipal elections without any interruption. 
                                          PERSIFOR F. SMITH.
                 Brevet Brigadier General and Civil and Military Governor.
                By the Governor:

                R.P. Hammond, secretary.    [RLLW] 

NNR 73.288 Jan 1, 1848 discussion of Gen. Winfield Scott with the Mexican archbishop on the release of Mexican prisoners


       The correspondence between Gen. Scott and the archbishop of Mexico, on the subject of the release of the Mexican prisoners, is very interesting.  The latter asks the favor for their liberation on the ground that their families are suffering in consequence of their confinement.  He says the affection and respect which General Scott has always shown to the holy church, of which he is the head in this city, emboldens him to make this request, and instances the liberation of the French prisoners of [ . . . illegible . . . ] through the mediation of the archbishop of Argel. 

       The general replies at some length, citing the cases of the prisoners taken at Vera Cruz and Cerro Gordo, who were liberated on their parole, and had afterwards taken up arms against the Americans; that while at Puebla he asked the liberation of the American prisoners taken on the Rio Grande, who were to have been exchanged by an agreement between Santa Anna and Gen. Taylor, but that an evasive reply having been returned, another communication was sent on the 20th of July, the only response to which was found in the palace, after Gen. Scott had entered the city, folded, sealed, and directed to him under date of August. 

       Gen. Scott concludes by saying that if the archbishop will have the goodness to appoint some dignitary of the church to visit those men and explain to them that prisoners of war under their parole are always shot it found fighting against the same belligerent before being duly exchanged, and that if this dignitary gives also a solemn admonition of the church against the violation of their oaths, he will give them their liberty under its sacred authority. 

       The archbishop, in a subsequent personal interview with the commander in chief, [ . . . illegible . . . ] the decree of the Mexican government which prohibited all Mexicans from giving their paroles not to fight against the Americans, and the responsibility he would incur if the supreme government should disapprove the step, and thus the matter stands at present.  [RLLW] 

NNR 73.290-291 Jan. 8, 1848 Gov. William Smith of Virginia’s message on acquisition of territory


       The message of Governor Smith of Virginia, sent to the legislature of that states discusses at some length the question what institutions shall be given to the new territory which may be acquired from Mexico.  He regards the region to be opened to colonization from the present states of the union as a natural outlet for the superabundant slave population of Virginia and the other states of the south.  He holds that in proportion as the population of a state grows dense, slave labor becomes less profitable, and that therefore room should be given in which it may diffuse itself so as to avoid that consequence; in short that it is a [ . . . illegible . . . ] on which the south should insist, to open [ . . . illegible . . . ] whether the planted may retire with his slaves when pressed by this potent and decreasing profits, and continue to make their labor productive.  The following passage contains the [ . . . illegible . . . ]:

       “It is unquestionable true, that [ . . . illegible . . . ] to be restricted to their present [ . . . illegible . . . ] greatly diminish in value, and thus [ . . . illegible . . . ] the fortunes of the owners, but [ . . . illegible . . . ] humanity must mourn the [ . . . illegible . . . ] forts and the regard for the health of the salve, which has characterized slavery in the south, and made it the most cheerful and happy [ . . . illegible . . . ] to be found in the world.  It is well known, that as the profits of labor diminish, so do [ . . . illegible . . . ].  Many melancholy examples of this truth are to be found in the histories of the old world, and when  the negro population multiplies in [ . . . illegible . . . ] in value,  whatever may be the humanity of the master, necessity will compel him to restrict the comforts of the slave, and reduce him to the smallest pittance upon which it is possible to live. 

       “But the non-slaveholding states will comfort themselves, no doubt, with the reflection, that when this day arrives, the freedom of the slave is sure. – He is to reach the much desired goal of freedom through years of suffering; and when he attains it what is to become of him?  Is he to be allowed political rights and privileges?  The recent vote of the very state which sends us the resolutions I communicate, denying to this race, few as they are in that states in number, the right of suffrage, gives the answer.  Are they to be placed on a footing of social equality?  It is not thought of except in the dream of an occasional fanatic.  Is it expected that they are to become an industrious, orderly, thrifty population?  We have only to appeal to existing experience to know, that if the negro, in a state of freedom, cannot be governed by the ordinary motives and stimulants that elevate the white man, it is utterly hopeless to expect it under the circumstances that mark him as of an inferior and degraded race.” 

       The message proceeds to argue that the negro is incapable of stead industry and of an improved civilization, except under the control of the white man, and that he becomes degraded by freedom. – He illustrates this position by the example of the emancipated Negroes of the British West India possessions, and maintains that their manumission in the southern states would produce the most appalling consequences and throw upon the community three millions of human beings as a charge and a pest, consuming instead of producing.  He then proceeds in the following terms:

       “The south never can consent to be confined to prescribed limits.  She wants and must have space in consistent with [ . . . illegible . . . ].  It is due to the happiness and interests of her population, and to no portion of it more than the slave himself.  [Illegible] allow emigration to the white man must emigrate; and [ . . . illegible . . . ] will become the owner of the present slave building states.  Nothing can arrest [ . . . illegible . . . ] such a policy but the adoption of some [ . . . illegible . . . ] by well known checks upon population, or by sending off the worthless and unproductive to the non-slaveholding states.  These are grave and unpleasant views of this important question; but it is well at once to look them firmly in the face and boldly present them to public consideration.” 

       For theses reasons Governor Smith recommends that the residents [ . . . illegible . . . ]….It is the maxim of Governor Smith, that “the moment you free the slave you degrade the man.”  He says of the free black: 

       “It is well known, gentlemen, to you all, that this case is [ . . . illegible . . . ] and unproductive; that as a general rule they labor only from necessity, content to put up with the most meager supply of their [ . . . illegible . . . ]…

       “Besides that, says Governor Smith, they corrupt the slaves and make them their instruments [ . . . illegible . . . ]…. He asks:

       [ . . . illegible . . . ] And if there be in his natural character the elements to make him a great and good man, it is hopeless to expect that they will ever be developed under our policy.  The inhumanity then consists not in sending them from our state, but in retaining them among us.  It is to me unaccountable how there should be a difference of opinion on this question. – Here the free negro is degraded by our policy – a policy which we cannot relax. And it is in our power to send him to other countries where education, society, and all the agencies that contribute to the advancement and improvement of mankind are within his reach, and we are to be deterred from this benevolent undertaking by the cries of those who affect and overwrought tenderness and humanity.  I say to those who sympathize with the negro, who mourn his moral degradation, and look forward with hope to the day when he will be elevated in the scale of humanity, and placed on a footing of social equality with the white man, that their hopes, wishes and sympathies can never be gratified here.  I consider, then, that it is cruel and in human not to send the free negro away.  We are bound to do it as benevolent men, and as faithful guardians of the best interests of our good old commonwealth.” 

       It is therefore recommended in this message that a law be passed for sending the free negroes of Virginia out of the state, removing them by counties so that “no social or domestic tie may be broken,” and taking them in merchant vessels to countries where slavery does not exist, or to Liberia, if the authorities there will receive them. 

       We have given this abstract of that portion of the message which relates to the subject of slavery, in order that our readers may see what sort of destiny is contemplated for California, and to what consequences the peculiar institution of the south [ . . . illegible . . . ].  We make no comment now upon these plans of sending the negro slaves of Virginia, to a region where their labor will continue for a longer time to be productive, and the free negroes, degraded by the severe regulations which slavery is though to render necessary, to countries where no such [ . . . illegible . . . ] exists.  They need no comment.  Gov. Smith, although he faces the questions arising out of the subject without shirking, yet terms the views  [ . . . illegible . . . ].  [RLLW]

NNR 73.293-295 Jan. 8, 1848 Lewis Cass’ letter on the acquisition of territory from Mexico and the Wilmot Proviso


Washington, December 29, 1817

                SIR: We have learned, through various channels, that a letter has been recently addressed by you to a distinguished citizens of Tennessee, declarative of your views on the subject of the Wilmot Proviso. – Having heretofore read with high satisfaction, what has emanated, in different forms, from [ . . . illegible . . . ] Bachman and Dallas in opposition to the Proviso, and believing that the promulgation of sound views from leading democratic statesmen cannot be without good effect at this time in facilitating the settlement of the momentous question alluded to, we take the liberty of requesting that you will if not disagreeable to yourself, allow your letter referred to, to be published in the “Union,”

                We have the honor to be &c, &c,

                J. THOMPSON,
           W.S. FEATHERSTON,              Mississippi
           WILLIAM SAWYER,                  Ohio
           THOMAS J. TURNER,              
           W. W. WICK,                           Indiana
           JOHN L. ROBINSON,               Illinois,
           H. S. FOOTE, senator from Mississippi
           HOWELL COBB,                     Georgia
           ABRAHAM VENABLE,               North Carolina
           D. S. DICKINSON, senator from New York. 

     Honorable Lewis Cass.

Washington December 30, 1817

                GENTLEMEN: Agreeably to your request, I place at your disposal a copy of the letter to which you refer. 
           With great respect, I am gentlemen, your obedient servant,         LEWIS CASS. 

                Hon. J. Thompson, W.S. Featherston, &c. 

     …[ . . . illegible . . . ]…It appears to me that the kind of metaphysical magnanimity, which would reject all indemnity at the close of a bloody and expensive war, brought on by a direct attack up in our troops by the enemy, and preceded by a succession of unjust acts for a series of years, is as unworthy of the age in which we live, as it is revolting to the common sense and practice of mankind.  It would conduce but little to our future security or indeed, to our present reputation to declare that we repudiate all expectation of compensation from the Mexican government, and are fighting, not for any practical result, but for some vague, perhaps philanthropic object, which escapes my penetration, and must be defined by [ . . . illegible . . . ] assume this new principle of national intercommunication.  All wars are to be deprecated, as well by the statesmen, as by the philanthropist.  They are great [ . . . illegible . . . ]; but there are greater evils than these, and submission to injustice is among them.  The nation, which should refuse to defend its rights and its honor when assailed, would soon have neither to defend; and when driven to war, it is not be professions of disinterestedness and declarations of magnanimity, that its rational objects can be best obtained or other nations taught a lesson of forbearance – the strongest security for permanent peace.  We are at war with Mexico, and its vigorous prosecution is the surest means of the speedy termination, and ample indemnity the surest guaranty against the recurrences of such injustice a provoked it. 

                The Wilmot Proviso has been before the country some time.  It has been repeatedly discussed in congress, and by the public press.  “I am strongly impressed with the opinion, that a great change has been going on in the public mind upon this subject – in my own as well as others; and that doubts are resolving themselves into convictions, that the principle it involves should be kept out of the national legislature, and left to the people of the confederacy in their respective local governments. 

                …[ . . . illegible . . . ]…We may well repeat the existence of slavery in southern states, and wish they had been saved from its [ . . . illegible . . . ].  But there it is, and not by the act of the present generation, and we must deal with it as a great practical question involving the most momentous consequences.  We have neither the right nor the power to touch it where it exists; and if we had both, their exercise, by any means in [ . . . illegible . . . ] might lead to results, which no wise man would will ugly encounter, and which no good man could contemplate [ . . . illegible . . . ] it anxiety. 

                The theory of our government presupposes, that its various members have reserved to themselves the regulation of all subjects relating to what, may be termed their internal police.  They are sovereign within their boundaries, except in those cases where they have surrendered to the general government a portion of their rights, in order to give effect to the object of the Union, whether these concern foreign nations or the several states themselves.  Local institutions, if I may so speak, whether they have reference to slavery or to any other relations, domestic or public, are left to local authority, either original or derivative.  Congress has no right to say, that there shall be slavery in New York, or that there shall be no slavery in Georgia; nor is there any other human power, but the people of those states, respectively; which can change the relation existing therein; and they can say, if they will – We will have slavery in the former, and we will abolish it in the latter. 

                …[ . . . illegible . . . ]…and servant may be regulated or annihilated by its legislation, so may the relation of husband and wife, of parent and child, and of any other condition which our institutions and the habits of our society recognize.  What would be though if congress should undertake to prescribe the terms of marriage in New York, or to regulate the authority of parents over their children in Pennsylvania!  And yet it would be as vain to seek one justifying the interference of the national legislature in the cases referred to in the original states of the union.  I speak here of the inherent power of congress, and do not touch the question of such contracts, as may be formed with the new states when admitted into the confederacy. 

                Of all the questions that can agitate us, those which are merely sectional in their character, are the most dangerous and the most to be deprecated.  The warning voice of him who, from his character, and services and virtue, had the best right to warn us, proclaimed to his countrymen in his farewell address – that monument of wisdom for him, as I hope it will be of safety for them – how much we had to apprehend from measures peculiarly affecting geographical portions of our country.  The grave circumstances in which we are now placed, make these words words of safety; for I am satisfied, from all I have seen and heard here, that a successful attempt to engrail the principles of the Wilmot proviso upon the legislation of this government and to apply them to new territory, should new territory be acquired, would seriously affect our tranquility.  I do not suffer myself to foresee or to foretell the consequences that would ensue, for I trust and believe there is good sense and good feeling enough in the country to avoid them, by avoiding all occasions which might lead to them. 

                Briefly, then, I am opposed to the exercise of any jurisdiction by congress over this matter; and I am in favor of leaving to the people of any territory, which may be hereafter acquired, the right to regulate themselves, under the general principles of the constitution.  Because –

     1. "I do not see in the constitution any grant of the requisite power to congress; and I am not disposed to extend a doubtful precedent beyond its necessity – the establishment of territorial governments when needed – leaving to the inhabitants all the rights compatible with the relations they bear to the confederation."

     2.      "Because I believe this measure, if adopted, would weaken, if not impair, the union of they states and would sow the seeds of future discord, which would grow up and ripen into an abundant harvest of calamity."

     3.     "Because I believe a general conviction, that such a proposition to succeed, would lead to an immediate withholding of supplies, and thus to a dishonorable termination of the war.  I think no dispassionate observer, at the seat of government can doubt this result."

     4.     "If, however, in this I am under a misapphension, I am [ . . . illegible . . . ] shall not turn aside to seek it."

     In this aspect of the matter, the principle of the U. States must choose between this [ . . . illegible . . . ]

     5.     "But after all, it seems to be generally conceded, that this [ . . . illegible . . . ].  The well known attributes of sovereignty, recognized by us as belonging to the state governors, would sweep before them any such barrier and would leave the people to express and exert their will at [ . . . illegible . . . ]….As to the course, which has been intimated, rather than proposed, of engrafting such a restriction upon any treaty of acquisition, I persuade myself it would find but little favor in any portion of this country. – Such an arrangement would render Mexico a party, having a right to interfere in our internal institutions in questions left by the constitution to the state governments, and would inflict a serious blow upon our fundamental principles.  Few indeed, I trust there are among us, who would thus grant a foreign power the right to inquire into the constitution and conduct of the sovereign states of this Union; and if there are any, I am not among them, and never shall be.  To the people of this country, under God, now and hereafter, are its destinies committed, and we want no foreign power to interrogate us, treaty in hand, and to say: - Why have you done this, or why have you left that undone?  Our own dignity and the principles of national independence unite to repel such a proposition."

But there is another important consideration which ought not to be lost sight of, in the investigation of this subject.  The question that presents itself is not a question of the increase, but of the diffusion of slavery.  Whether its sphere be stationary or progressive its amount will be the same.  The rejection of this restriction will not add one to the class of servitude, nor will its adoption give freedom to a single being who is now placed therein.  The same number will be spread over greater territory; and so far as compression, with less abundance of the necessaries of life, is an evil, be mitigated by transporting slaves to a new country, and giving them a larger space to occupy. 

           I say this in the event of the extension of slavery over any new acquisition.  But can be  it go there?  This may well be doubted.  All the descriptions which reach us of the condition of the Californians and of New Mexico, to the acquisition of which our efforts seem at present directed, unite in representing those countries agricultural regions, similar in their production of the great staples, which can alone render slave labor valuable.  If we are not grossly deceived – and it is difficult to conceive how we can be – the inhabitants of those regions, whether they depend upon their ploughs or their herds, cannot be slaveholders.  Involuntary labor, requiring the investment of large capital, can only be profitable when employed in the production of a few favored articles confined by nature to special districts, and paying larger returns from the usual agricultural products spread over more considerable portions of the earth. 

           In the able letter of Mr. Buchanan upon this subject, not long since given to the public, he presents similar considerations with great force.  “Neither,” says the distinguished writer, “the soul, the climate nor the productions of California south or 36° 30’ [ . . . illegible . . . ] north or south, is adapted to slave labor, and besides every facility would be there afforded for the slave to escape from his master.  Such property would be entirely insecure in any part of California.  It is morally impossible, therefore, that a majority of the [ . . . illegible . . . ] rants to that portion of the territory south of 36° 30’ , which will be chiefly composed of our citizens, will ever reestablish slavery within its limits. 

           “In regard to New Mexico, east of the Rio Grande, the question has already been settled by the admission of Texas into the Union. 

           “Should we acquire territory beyond the Rio Grande and east of the Rocky mountains, it is still more impossible that a majority of the people would consent to reestablish slavery.  They are themselves a colored population, and among them the Negro [ . . . illegible . . . ] socially belong to a degraded race.” 

           With this remark Mr. Walker fully coincides [ . . . illegible . . . ] … “Beyond the Del Norte,” says Mr. Walker, “slavery will not pass; not only because it is forbidden by law, but because the colored races there [ . . . illegible . . . ] to the rationed ten to one over the whites; and holding as they do, the government and most of the offices in their possession, they will not permit the enslavement of any portion of the colored race, which makes and executes the laws of the country.” 

           The question, it will be therefore seen, on examination, does not regard to exclusion of slavery from a region where it now exists, but a prohibition against its introduction where it does not exist, and where, from the feeling of the inhabitants and the laws of nature, “it is morally impossible,” as Mr. Buchanan says, that it can ever re-establish itself. 

           It augurs well for the permanence of our confederation, that during more than half a century, which has elapsed since the establishment of this government, many serious questions, and some of the highest importance, have agitated the public mind, and more than once threatened the gravest consequences; but that they have all in succession passed away leaving our institutions unscathed, and our country advancing in numbers, power, and wealth, and in all the other elements of national prosperity, with a rapidity unknown in ancient or in modern days.  In times of political excitement, when difficult and delicate questions present themselves for solution, there is one ark of safety for us; and that is an honest appeal to the fundamental principles of our Union, and a stern determination to abide their dictates.  This course of proceeding has carried us in safety through many a trouble, and I trust will carry us safely through many more, should many more be destined to assail us.  The Wilmot proviso seeks to take from its legitimate tribunal a question of domestic policy, having no relation to the Union, as such, and to transfer it to another created by the subject matter involved in this issue.  By going back to our true principles, we go back to the road of peace and safety.  Leave to the people, who will be affected by this question, to adjust it upon their own responsibility, and in their own manner, and we shall render another tribute to the original principles of our government, and furnish another guaranty for [ . . . illegible . . . ] permanence and prosperity. 

           I am, dear sir, respectfully, your obedient servant,

                      LEWIS CASS,

A. O. P.  NICHOLOSON, esq., Nashville, Tennessee.   [RLLW]

NNR 73.294-295 Jan. 8, 1848 Col. George Wurtz Hughes’ proclamation on being appointed military and civil governor of Jalapa


                The orders issued by Col. Hughes upon being appointed military and civil governor of Jalapa.


Department of Jalapa.
Office military and civil governor, Nov. 30.

       The undersigned, having been duly appointed by the authorities of the United States of the [ . . . illegible . . . ] civil and military governor of the department of Jalapa, assuming the duties of his office, addresses [ . . . illegible . . . ] the inhabitants thus placed under his jurisdiction, and following proclamation:

     1.  The undersigned offers a general and perfect amnesty for the past to all persons within his [ . . . illegible . . . ] who, having under any circumstances borne arms against the United States, may within twelve days from this date, (provided that they do not reside within twenty miles of this city, in which case they will be limited to six days,) report to him in person and giver them parole of honor not [ . . . illegible . . . ] to take arms against the United States urging this present war, and to interfere in any manner in the existing difficulties between the United States and Mexico. 

     2.  All persons residing within twenty miles of this city who have given their paroles, are required within five days from this date to report in person at the office.  The same class of persons residing in the city of Jalapa are referred to the second paragraph.  Gen. Patterson’s orders recently printed. 

     3.  All persons who have heretofore borne arms against the United States, or who may now, at some future time, (while American troops occupy this post,) be found within the municipal limits of [ . . . illegible . . . ] unless with safeguards, paroles, or having been [ . . . illegible . . . ] changed, and who do not immediately report to the officer, will be regarded as spies and treated accordingly. 

     4.  All persons who have given their parole [ . . . illegible . . . ] serve against the United States during the war, [ . . . illegible . . . ] may again be taken in arms within the limits of this department, (unless especial permission has been granted to retain weapons simply for the defence of their horses,) or who may at any time [ . . . illegible . . . ] giving of their paroles have both the arms against the United States and do not avail themselves of the honesty hereby effected, will be tried by a military commission, and if convicted of the crime, will be [ . . . illegible . . . ] without regard to the orders of the Mexican government or any of its functionaries. 

     The American authorities of this department have recently given an example of the summary [ . . . illegible . . . ] in which they will punish their own citizens when guilty of atrocious crimes, and also of the manner in which, they punish those more serious crimes, which violate the law of nations. 

     Ignorant and depraved persons may commit social crimes against society, and yet their [ . . . illegible . . . ] meet with the sympathies of the society which they have offended and outraged, for their acts are generally limited t individuals.  But what [ . . . illegible . . . ] though of educate and intelligent gentlemen, [ . . . illegible . . . ]  the military commission of their country, [ . . . illegible . . . ] have been convicted on their own voluntary [ . . . illegible . . . ] of having broken their parole of honor, [ . . . illegible . . . ] the most sacred obligations which a gentleman and soldier can make. 

     In the truly melancholy occurrence which has recently taken place in this city, the only excuse given by those unfortunate victims of the [ . . . illegible . . . ] and duplicity of certain Mexican officials before the military commission, (which extended towards them every possible indulgence,) was the fact that their government had offered to them the sole alter native of either violating their parole or serving in the ranks as common soldiers; and that, after taking the infamous proposition of the so called Governor Soto into consideration, for twenty-four hours, they at last “preferred (to use their own language) to run the risk of consequences to the certainty of the degradation with which we (they) were threatened.” 

     Mexicans! the blood of these unfortunate and misguided young men rests mainly upon your political authorities. 

     The wise and humane of all civilized nations, anxious to mitigate, as far as possible, the horrors of war, so revolting to the Christian and the true soldier, under the best of circumstances, have instituted the parole of honor – a chivalric code – by which the simply word of an officer may be taken that he will not again bear arms against the victors until legally exchanged; after giving which assurance he is permitted quietly to return to his family and friends. 

     Without this all wars must result either in the barbarous system of slavery or of ransoms of ancient times or the middle ages, or into one of utter extermination.  With this view, and looking into the great interests of humanity, the civilized world has agreed to stigmatise a breach of the parole of honor as the most infamous crime that a soldier can commit, and to consign him to the most signal punishment, not from motives of vengeance, but because of the evils which his want of good faith is calculated to entail upon the human species. 

     Mexicans! in what light can you and the whole world regard the Mexican government, which thus imposes upon you such hard conditions, and which subjects its officers either to degradation at its own hands, or to the certainty of death if recaptured by their [ . . . illegible . . . ], for the perpetration of a grave crime against the laws of nations, in the preservation of which we are all alike most deeply concerned? 

     The government of the United States, anxious from the beginning to secure a lasting peace, based upon the true principles of mutual honor and interests, is throwing the immense force into your country, and you may rest assured that it will never submit to those gross violations of good faith which have so often occurred on the part of the Mexicans during the present war. 

GEO. W. HUGHES, Colonel,
Civil and military governor of the city and Department of Jalapa. 


NNR 73.295 Jan. 8, 1848 the capture of Guaymas

     THE CAPTURE OF GUAYMAS – El Monitor Republicano of the 27th ult. publishes the details of the [ . . . illegible . . . ] and capture of Guaymas.  The frigate Congress, the sloop of war Portsmouth, and the brig Argo, belonging to Mr. John Robinson, U.S. consular agent there, composed our force. The Portsmouth anchored off the port the 16th October, and the Congress and the Argo the next day.  On the 18th the Argo anchored between the islands of Almagre Gratide and Almagre Chico. 

     A mortar was planted during the day upon each Island.  A small boat was then put off from the Argo, bearing Mr. Wm. Robinson, a relative of the consul, and came off to the town.  Robinson was conducted to the governor and explained to him that the purpose of the Americans was to take the port, and he advised its surrender to prevent disastrous consequences.  Mr. Robinson also explained that the had [ . . . illegible . . . ] in with the U.S. squadron, in the Argo.  The next Mexican commandant replied that the surrender of the town was out of the question, being in [ . . . illegible . . . ] that of the aims of the republic.  Mr. Robinson then returned to the Argo.

     On the 19th the Congress and Portsmouth, took up their position to open their fire, the town was formally summoned to surrender, under pain of being fired into.  The commandment still refused; the Americans did not open upon it until that day.  The Mexicans allege that having no heavy artillery to annoy our squadron, the commandant evacuated the town during the night with his troops and took up a position at Boccachicampo, a league from the town, where he had previously placed a batter of fourteen guns to resist the Americans, should they attempt to penetrate the interior. 

     At 6 o’clock on the morning of the 20th, the Americans opened fire from both vessels of war and two mortars, and continued it for more than an hour.  In this time they discharged upon a town 500 shot, among which were many shells.  One English resident was killed, some houses were burnt and others …[ . . . illegible . . . ].  [RLLW]

NNR 73.295 Jan. 8, 1848 Mexican project of a law relative to prisoners

     MEXICAN PRISONERS. – The effort made by the Archbishop of Mexico to obtain from Gen. Scott the release of his Mexican prisoners an General Scott’s reply, have effected something for them. – As soon as it became known that General Scott accused Mexican officers of violating their parole, and with the sanction of Santa Anna’s government, Senor Otero introduced into congress a bill to regulate the law of the country upon the whole subject.  It provides that those only shall be regarded as prisoners of war who are taken by the enemy in the discharge of their military duty, either on the field of battle or in some place taken or surrendered on conditions. 

     It declares those to be deserters who voluntarily become prisoners of war, or in the same manner pledge themselves not to bear arms against the enemy, who shall lose their rights as citizens, be suspended from command from six to ten years, and shall not hold any public office.  Another section is aimed at those who leave their residence for a town occupied by our troops, and thus surrender themselves as prisoners of war, and giver their parole, (as many have done at Monterey and Saltillo.)  A like severe punishment is declared against them.  And those who shall desert in the presence of the enemy, or leave the service on which they are ordered, are declared traitors. 

     The fifth article declares that in the case of capitulations, no stipulation for the liberty of the garrison shall be made upon the condition that they shall not again bear arms against the enemy, nor upon any other condition which excludes exchange or ransom; but in those cases where military rules permit the surrender of a place, an engagement may be entered into that the defenders of it will remain prisoners their world of honor.  The sixth article provides that soldiers, having been made prisoners legitimately according to the first article, [ . . . illegible . . . ] pledge their parole, the first obtained upon a consideration of each case.  The seventh and last article provides that the government itself shall take care that no prisoner, set at large on his parole, shall commit the offence of violating it.  The bill was accompanied by a well written report by Otero.  He defends the power of pledging one’s word of honor as a humane provision of national law which Mexicans should respect.  The violation of it ought never to be tolerated and he thinks that Gen. Scott [ . . . illegible . . . ] have been misinformed in saying that any Mexican soldier had violated his parole.  The bill was likely to become a law.  [RLLW]

NNR 73.295 Jan. 8, 1848 Indians in Mexico

INDIANS IN MEXICO.--Our latest advices from Saltillo told of a conflict between the Texan Rangers and a band of Camanches.  Upon looking over some late papers from the city of Mexico, we find several letters from San Luis Potosi describing actions between the Indians and Mexican troops.  The savages had boldly approached within seventeen leagues of the city of San Luis. In one engagement the Mexicans had fifty infantry and thirty dragoons engaged.  The party was completely cut to pieced, only eight of the dragoons escaping with their lives, and five of the being wounded.

Another engagement took place between the Indians and one hundred dragoons of the 4th regiment of cavalry, which were marching from Matehuala to join Gen. Avalos.  The fight occurred at Mingole, and the dragoons were completely routed, seventy being killed, among whom were Col. Labastida and several other officer.  The survivors of this fight at last joined Avalos.  In a letter from this general, we have a report of an engagement in which the Mexican arms were more successful.  With a force of about 400 cavalry, he writes on the 18th of November, that he that morning attacked a body of from 340 to 370 Indians in the hacienda of San Juan del Salada.

The action began at 5 in the morning and terminated at 2 in the afternoon, (the date of the general’s letter.)  Only thirty or forty Indians were then left in the interior of the hacienda, who he says it will be necessary to destroy, as they refuse to surrender, and defend themselves savagely.  All the rest, he says, perished, the very small number who fled, finding escape impossible on account of the difficulty of the country, the hills, &c.

The Mexicans recovered two thousand horses, and set at liberty over two hundred women and children who had been captured.  The loss of the Mexicans was small, though several officers were wounded and General Avalos had his horse shot under him.

It is calculated that in their incursions into the state of San Luis over four hundred Mexicans have been killed, a great number of captives made, and numberless atrocities have been committed. [JNA]

NNR 73.296 January 8. 1848  Visit to the pyramid of Cholula
NNR 73.297 Domingo and his Mexico-Mexican Rangers

A trip to Cholula is one of the most agreeable jaunts around Puebla. By the road it is about 8 miles distant, and you may pass over a reasonably even road and cross a pretty little river, which is laid down in the map-but as the map is not here, I cannot recollect its name. This fashion we (ahem!) tourist have of nothing down names and incident plays hob with one’s memory in general.

About a week since General Scott, Twiggs and Shields, with an escort of dragoons and the 2nd and 7th infantry, made an excursion to the gate of the ancient Aztec city, and I joined it. About two miles from Puebla, a laughable incident occurred, though it well might needed in a tragedy. The infantry were ascending as easy slope, where two Mexicans came along with a powerful bull, which on of them held by a lasso over the house, while the other urged him along with a goad. The animal became resistive as the soldiers passed, and finally, breaking away from those who held him, charged and left flank, carving a soldier through the ranks on his horns, and landing him in the mud on the opposite side of the road. The two men finally got hold of the lasso again and were getting him along very well, when four of us civilians came along on horse. The he began to plunge and paw the ground, and one of the Mexicans who got in from t of the beast to bean him still, was tossed learn over the bulls. The infuriated creatures then pitched into the other, and throwing him in about two feet of mud and water, geared and ducked him for several seconds. All the horsemen rode up and succeeded in driving the animal from his prey, when he trued and put after us, more furious than ever. As we had no arms, and did not choose our horses ruined, there was some pretty "tall walking" for a short distance. The animal ran down the column till near the head of 7th regiment, and charred again, making a pretty wide breach in the ranks. After satisfying himself that the 7th was "no where" when he was about, he made a rush on the 2nd. The boys had time to fix their bayonets, whoever, and met our friend so coolly, that after receiving five or six bayonets wounds he hauled off and gave up the battle. In a few moments I saw him lassoed by a houseman and pulled along toward the city, bleeding profusely and looking quite crest fallen. He had evidently been deceived in his first charge, and seeing no bayonets, probably did not reckon on finding any on his second spurge. But he can (if the butchers have not killed him, which I strongly suspect,) console himself with the fact that he made more consternation among tow regiments of the U. S. infantry than a thousand two legged Mexicans could have done.

We met with no other interruption on our march. On both sides the land was well tilled and covered with corn in every stage, from the young sprout to the full ripe seed, tomatoes, peppers, etc. On one fine hacienda some men were ploughing, and I rode out to see them. The plough in use here is scarce a degree ahead of that used by the Arabians, and can only be of any effect in soft ground, being made entirely of wood. 1: is drawn by oxen, which ware goaded by a pike set in the end of a long pole. The Mexican holds his plough with one hand, and with the other stirs up the animals.

At the river the troops had stopped to wit for the generals and escort, and three friends, mind my self galloped on the pyramid, which we ascended mounted, and there had a fine view of the advancing column. All the Mexicans ran away to hear the drums. (a Mexicans will follow a single drum all day to hear the music.) and left us in possession of the pyramid, chapel, pulque, and all. We made the best of the room left us before the arrival of the troops, ascended the tower of the church, and examined the structure of the pyramid, &c. &c. In half an hour the whole parties were assembled in the little square fronting the church, the band playing music such as had never before echoed among the ruins of Cholula. Of all the tunes played., the inhabitants seemed most pleased with "Yankee Doodle," probably from this lively nature. We were soon completely sun down by Indians, who brought fruit, bread, &c., from the market in the plaza below, and specimens of ancient pottery, broken idols, &c., &c. At first these curiosities were sold very cheap, but finding that we all wanted them, the rascals raided the price from on or two [ . . . illegible . . . ] to one and two rails, which very soon ruined the business, as they held on to their [ . . . illegible . . . ] and we go our money.

Cholula, at this day, presents little to attract the attention or claims the admiration of the traveler- its great pyramid sill stand, and it will stand a dozen centuries latter, inn as good preservation as now. Young trees have over grown its sides, and run dried brick on which it is con posed, have become a perfect solid. Its dimensions ([ . . . illegible . . . ]) are, "base 1440 feet, present height 179, area on the summit 45,210" Times and the heavy rains have considerable changed its general appearance, and it is difficult to discern the different stories or steps, of which there are three. The fist of these is a large bread platform, extending six or eight yards on either side further than the square eight-yard o either side than the square mass, which supported the temple of the Indians, and now the Catholic chapel. The second platform is hardily discernibly.

The history of this pyramid varies with every book on Mexico, believe Brantz Mayer’s account to be as near to the truth as any that has been written before the flood, tradition has it, this valley was inhabited by giants.  After the great drought and serve 1,400 years after the creation, one of these giants, called the Architect, caused a great number of breaks to be made, and commenced building a pyramid, placing men in files to pass along the bricks, in the same manner that fire buckets are passed at a conflagration in a small village.- He had progressed very well, until one find day the Great Sprit sent down fire, killed the workmen, and put a veto on the pyramid. From this time we hear no more of the giant, and I suppose he was burned up with his workmen. Some time after this a great prophet came to Cholula, who, from being able to cause rains to fall and do other miraculous things, was chosen king of Anahuac. It is said that [ . . . illegible . . . ] corn grew so large that a man had trouble in carrying one ear, and other grain and all manner of fruit grew in similar enormous proportion. After several years resident this great and good prophet removed the south and died. The pyramid was then begun and completed, and coroneted to this great prophet, whose name I think was Quetzacooth, or the "Good of air." There was a temple on the top where Indians were sacrificed to the idols, and papas, or priests in great numbers gathered there.

It was here that the plot was forced against Cortez and all this followers by the orders of Montezuma and which was entry discovered by Donna Martina, the interpreter, and four or five Tlascalan friends of the conqueror. It is hardly necessary to detail this in extension. Montezuma sent 40,000 men to lay in want for Cortez, in ravines outside the city on the road to Mexico, and the caciques had deep ditches made in the streets, filled with sharp pointed sticks, and covered over so as to deceive the Spaniards. – They were also all armed and prepared with cords of hide to tie the Spaniards when they were defeated. The papas were induced to join the plot by a promise that twenty Spaniards should be given them to sacrifice. The sequel is well known. Cortez invited all the caciques and principal men into a large yard surrounded by a high wall, and after rebuking their treachery of signal of one gun was given and the whole were put to death-some were cut down, some shot, and some burned, to show the people that the gods of Cholulans could not aid them. After some time two thousands Tlascalans entered the city, killed and made slaves of a great many of the Cholula, and the travelers now sees nothing of the former city except two mounds near the pyramid, and the streets, which are perfectly straight and cross each other at right angles like those of Philadelphia. Many of the first churches built by the Spaniards are in ruins and the remains of huts of sun dried bricks are seen to miles around. Many think that these ruins are the remains of Indian tenements, but I am of option that they are of recent origins, and of Spanish construction. The town now contains, in its two miles square, about 2000 inhabitants, most of whom raise truck and make pulque for the Puebla market. There is one fine church in the town, and a large female convent besides numerous chapels. That on the pyramid  is a very handsome one, with many rich ornaments, chandeliers, crosses, &c. It has an organ about as large as New England "seraphim," which was the only thing about the whole that I noticed as cut of proportion.

The view from the pyramid is one of the grandest in Mexico. On the west tower the high white peaks of Popocatapetl and Iztecuhualt; and on the southeast the gray head of San Enarras, often whitened with snow. On the south and northeast, as far as the eye can reach, lays the broad valley, dotted with villages and haciendas, and teeming with verdure, and fruits of homely honest labor. Puebla seems almost beneath one’s feet, and a strangers looking on it for the fist time from here, would not suppose it contained more than then thousand inhabitants.

After passing a very agreeable hour on and around the pyramid, I rode through the city and joined the advance of dragoons who were fast returning with the commander in-chief to Puebla. But they rode too fast for me, and I pulled up and drove on alone about a mile in advance of the main body. Presently a band of about they mounted Mexicans came dashing up, and as they approached I noticed two of our principal officers were with them. I joined the new comers, and learned that they are no other than the famous Domingo and his band of rangers. This popular captain, so notorious for his daring feats and bold adventures, out of gratitude to Gen. Scott for his delivery from a durance brought upon him by his political options, is now with his band engaged in scouting the country for guerrilla parties. He is a handsome man, rather large for his century, and just the last person I should desire to meet in the wilds of Mexico as an enemy. Many of his band are men of good lineage, and great personal courage, and they will, I am told, scatter an hundred guerrillas in a very short time. Domingo’s name, alone is enough to frighten half a dozen muchachos out of the self possession.

About five miles from Puebla, four of Domingo’s men gave their arms to their comrades and dashed off into a field where a large heard of cattle were grazing. In a short time they selected a large black bull from the heard and gave chase. Two would get the animal well under way when a third, perhaps five rods in the rear, would rush up, seize the bull’s tail in his right hand, and throw his right foot over it, outside the hand. Then, spurring his horse, he could turn him suddenly with the left hand, and the bull cover and over. This they repeated several times. Sometimes the horseman was unsuccessful, and got his hand pretty well skimmed, but that was nothing so long as he kept his horse. One man, on a little bay horse that [ . . . illegible . . . ] over the ground like the kind, threw a bull three times in succession. The first time the poor animal changed end for end a little quicker and the had ever done before, I’ll warrant. The Mexicans escorted us into the city, and left on a scouting expedition, the result of which was the engagement and diconfigure of a large party of San Juan de los Llanos, by Capt. Rull of the mounted rifles.

But I have already exceeded the bounds so of a small later- so, adios,



NNR 73.297 January 8, 1848 operations of British capitalists in Mexico January 8, 1948
NNR 73.297 British method to obtain the specie we send to Mexico, pressure in the United States as a result of the actions of the capitalist of London

 The Washington correspondent of the Baltimore American writes-

The drafts which are now drawn into Mexico upon the government are calculated to have some effect upon the money market. Two are now on the way from Mexico for half a million each. The specie is furnished at Mexico by agencies of English houses, who sell the bills in Mexico. When presented here, the specie is received, and at once sent to Europe- It is hardly possible that these repeated drafts, and repeated shipments of specie should not have [ . . . illegible . . . ] influence upon the money market of the country; and these drafts will continue to the end of the war- This tact alone, and the speculation it gives rise to, is calculated to have some influence upon the money market.

The claims before congress are multiplying. I hear of one of $400,000, which will be in anon for drafts drawn by Col. Fremont upon the government here.

We copy the following extracts from the N. York Herald:-

"This terrible devastations has been brought about by the action of the capitalist of London and the bank of England. They are still engaged in the same purpose-of diminishing the prices of cotton, corn and other staples, and also of throwing vast quantities if goods into the U. States for the purpose of drawing off our specie. In London it is expected that fifteen or twenty millions of dollars in specie will yet be taken from the United States.

"With this extraordinary course of policy among the capitalist of London, the position of financial affects in this country, in connection with the government and the banks, becomes doubly interesting.- Immense loans will be required by the Americans government, to continue the war in Mexico-for there is no prospect of peace. These loans will come out of the money markets of large cities, in funds furnished by capitalist who own deposits in the banks, and of course the banks will have ultimately to pay, and take these loans, at the same time that the dram of specie is going to on from this country into England. Between two such influences it will be a miracle, as we have already stated, if the baking institutions of this country can maintain their solvency, and pay their deposits in paper and specie, according to law. There must be some relaxation somewhere. Either the American government must abandon the treasure system, which deals entirely on the principle of specie –paying, or the banks must suspend. There is not alternative. We must look at it as two drains on the vaults of the banks- the one produced by the policy of the banks of England, and the other caused by the action of our government and the treasury department, to supply funds for the Mexican War."


73.304 January 8, 1848 Gen. David Emanuel Twiggs and train reach Vera Cruz
NNR 73.304 Col. Bank head to leave Vera Cruz for Mexico City
NNR 73.304 Lt. Col. Henry Wilson to leave for the north
NNR 73.304 Lt. Henderson Ridgley Killed
NNR 73.304 sittings of the Mexican Congress at Queretaro
NNR 73.304 Mexican commissioners to treat for peace appointed
NNR 73.304 Gen. Robert Patterson arrives at Mexico City
NNR 73.304 Col. Isaac H. Wright remains at Perote as governor
NNR 73.304 guerrilla attack near Vera Cruz
NNR 73.304 Lt. Michael O’Sullivan accepts colonelcy in Mexican Army
NNR 73.304 train from Jalapa arrives at Vera Cruz
NNR 73.304 Gen. Franklin Pierce to resign his commission on his return to the United States
NNR 73.304 Gen. Joseph Lane’s affair at Matamoras


By the arrival of the steamer New Orleans at N. Orleans on the 28th December, Vera Cruz dates to the 24th were received. She brought Gen. Pierce and a number of officers as passengers, and also the remains of Lieut. Cols. Dickinson and Graham, Cols. Butler, Martin Scott, and Ransom, Capts. Thompson and Taylor, Lieut. Williams, Clark, and Adams, Sergeant Madison, Dr. Slade, and privates [ . . . illegible . . . ] and Kennedy.

No later intelligence from the city of Mexico, than we had by any previous arrivals.

The barque Brail, Captain Bevand, which sailed from New Orleans come time since had not arrived nor been heard of at Vera Cruz up to the 24th. She is no doubt lost.

The train which left the city of Mexico on the 8th December, accompanied by Generals Twiggs and Pierce, reached Vera Cruz on the 23rd

Gen. Twiggs commenced his duties as governor of Vera Cruz on the 24th inst.

Col. Bank head was to leave immediately for the city of Mexico to join Gen. Scott.

Colonel Wilson was to leave on the 26th instant in the United States ship Germantown, for the north. During the skirmish of Gen. Lane with the Mexicans, Lieut. Ridgeley, of the \ artillery, and assistant adj. General to Gen. Lane, was killed.

The last sitting of the Mexican congress at Queretaro was held on the 25th ult, since which time no further sittings have taken place, in consequences of the absence of a quorum.

President Anaya has appointed Senor Cuevas, At instant and Co. to, as commissioner to go on to Washington to treat of peace, but it is not sure they will leave white Santa Anna is in the country

On December 6th, Maj. General Patterson arrived at Mexico with about 500 of Col. Hay’s Texans regiment, one company of 2nd dragoons, and a small train. On the 8th, Gen. Cushing arrived with the Massachusetts regiment under Captain Webster, and 1st Pennsylvania regiment under Col Winkoop, and another detachment of recruits, and Maj. Gen Butler was on the way, as reported in Mexico, with 8000 more.

Col. Wright, of the Mass. Regiment, remains at Perote as its governor.

On Dec. 2nd, the guerrillas near Vera Cruz, wounded Lt. Gordon, of the rifle reg, and captured about 100 pack mules.

Lieut. O’Sullivan, promoted for gallantry at Palo Alto, and engaged in the late battles before Mexico, after throwing up his commission, has it said, accepted a colonelcy In the Mexican army.

On December 4th, the 1st artillery under Maj. Dinick relieved the 1sst infantry at Vera Cruz.

The U.S. frigate Cumberland, and sloop of war John Adams, were anchored under the castle of San Juan de Ulloa.

On the 27th ultimo, General Lane with detachment fought the Mexicans at a place named Matamoras, whipped them, and delivered several prisoners.  [LVW]

NNR 73.304 January 8, 1848 letter from Mexico about fractions among the Mexicans, Special Correspondence of N. Orleans Picayune

Mexico, Dec. 4, 1847.

The news from Queretaro since my last is extremely meager and uninteresting. The council of governors had at last broken up, and they have done nothing except pledging themselves to sustain the governments in providing the means to meet the expenditures in its branches. The question of peach or war was reserved for the notion of the general government. Well informed Mexicans do not hesitate e to charge the [ . . . illegible . . . ] upon the partisans of Santa Anna, who have been unaccountably increased in Queretaro by the accession of nearly all of the Puros- Parias and one or tow others being the only exceptions.

This party (calling themselves Santanistas) are now said to be backing another revolution to place Santa Anna the head of the government and crush the hopes of the peace party, and this plot, it was believed would be indecision of the government. President Anaya issued a decree on the 25th that no election should be held to any part of the republic occupied by the Americans, but that they authorities now in power should continue to exercise the fractions. From present appearances this would be equivalent to giving the [ . . . illegible . . . ] of this and other place a life-lease of office a thing opposed to the democratic principle of "I don’t know" and therefore not likely to be carried into effect.

The [ . . . illegible . . . ] notice appeared in the Star of Wednesday last-

" A call – The officers of the American army, the citizens attached thereto, Mexican citizens, foreigners and such other citizens as feel disposed, are invited to meet in to senate chamber, at the National Palace, Saturday afternoon next, December 4, at 4 o’clock P.M. for the purpose of settling the preliminaries and taking in a contemplated rail road between the city of Mexico and Vera Cruz and the intermediate points. Many of the citizens of the United States having indicated a determination to occupy the territory of Mexico, it is expected that the sprit of international improvement. Hitherto unknown in this country, will be called forth."

There were but few Mexicans present, but one of them stated that he was there to presented some four or five others, and pledged himself, should the security of the undertaking be manifested, to raise nine millions of subscription for the stock at once.


NNR 73.304 January 8, 1848 John Pollard Gaines’ speech on his return home, criticism of the conduct of the war

Major Gaines at home-

The hon. John P. Gaines, member of congress from Kentucky, arrived at Covington on the 16th, and was received with distinguished honors. In returning thanks, Major Gaines took occasion to present a narrative of his entrance to Mexico, his imprisonment, his sufferings, his escape, the stories of Gen. Scott &c. The Cincinnati Atlas reports a sketch of his remarks, and adds:

"He said very little of political matter, but that little was full of meaning. In regard to the war, he re-vowed the opinion declared by him before he joined the army, that it was wrongfully brought about by our government, and he now added that the administration were quite as censurable for the manner of its prosecution as for its unjust origin. The army, he knew, from personal observation, had suffered for want of provisions, munitions, and men that need of furnishings all of which had been placed in the hands of the president by congress. Not only had the gallant solders suffered great personal privations owing to this delectation of the executive, but the war had been actually prolonged, and rendered much more bloody and disastrous than it would otherwise have been. Had the president employed the means at his disposal in reinforcing Gen. Scott, the city of Mexico would have been captured earlier, and, in his opinion, with a far less loss of life than actually marred from the inefficiency of the administration.- In these opinions respecting the failure of the executive to furnish provisions, munitions, and men to the army, and the mournful results of such inefficiency. Major Gaines said every man in the army, whatever his political predictions, emphatically concurred with him.

"He avowed his intentions to vote in congress the amplest supplies for the army as long as the war legally exists; but he also avowed, with great emphasis, his decisive determination to oppose the annexation of may Mexican territory to the United states, or the incorporation of any portion of the people of Mexico with ours.

"He remarked that he ever found a Mexican in Mexico in favor of peace with the United States, and he had no hope of any treaty thought the instrumentality of Mr. Trist."  [LVW]

NNR 73.304 Jan. 8, 1848 Killed and wounded


By the arrival of the steamer New Orleans at N. Orleans on the 28th December, Vera Cruz dates to the 24th were received.  She brought Gen. Pierce and a number of officers as passengers and also the remains of Lieut. Cols. Dickinson and Graham, Cols. Butler, Martia Scott, and Ransom, Capts. Thompson and Taylor, Lieuts. Williams, Clark and Adams, Sergeant Madison, Dr. Siade, and privates Tresevent and Kennedy…

During the skirmish of Gen. Lane with the Mexicans, Lieut. Ridgely, of the artillery, and assistant adj. General to Gen. Lane, was killed

...On December 2d, the guerrillas near Vera Cruz, wounded Lt. Gordon, of the rifle reg. And captured 100 pack mules. [JNA]

NNR 73.305 January 15, 1848 Gen. Winfield Scott’s orders directing troops to positions throughout Mexico and ordering Mexican taxes to be collected for support of the American Army
NNR 73.305 entertainment planned for Col. Dixon Stansburry Miles on his departure from Vera Cruz
NNR 73.305 Queretaro Congress plan not to meet again, suppression of monarchial movement
NNR 73.305 Lt. Bedney. F. McDonald and train carrying money attached between Puebla and Jalapa
NNR 73.305 dispersal of American troops in Mexico, letter on need for more troops


By the schooner Eleanor, Vera Cruz dates to the 29th December are received.

General Scott had issued orders directing the army to take positions in different portions of the Mexican republic, and occupy them until the government sues for peace on terms which will prove acceptable to the U. States.

Numerous other orders have been issued requiring the taxes of all kinds heretofore paid to the government of Mexico to be paid hereafter for the support of the American army. The orders enumerate the articles taxed, and prohibited lotteries.

Colonel Miles was about to leave Vera Cruz, and the regiment stationed there were making preparations to give him a sumptuous entertainment, as a mark of their respect for him as an officer and a man.

A Queretaro letter in the Moniteur, published in the city of Mexico, states that the present congress, in session at the place, will not come together again. Several deputies had left there, and the letter ads that new deputies an senators would soon be in the city. The government, in the letter further states, was silently taking measures for the suppression of intrigues in connection with the monarchial movement. In consequence of the governors of the different states not having fulfilled their promise to aid the government with such resources as they could command, it was much cramped for means.

Assistant surgeon Sutter died in the city of Mexico on the 15th ult. Full military honors were paid to his remains.

Lieutenant McDonald, of the 3rd artillery, and two other officers, with a small party, left Puebla on the 17th ult. For Jalapa, having in charge a considerable quantity of money, and were attacked by a band of fourteen robbers. Although only three of our countrymen were armed, they defeated the dragoons, and arrived safely at their destination.

The sloop of war Saratoga, arrived at Pensacola on the 6th instant, with Vera Cruz dates to the 27th ult. The accounts by her were not so late, but rather fuller. The new Mexican congress was to assemble at Queretaro early this month.

Most of the U. States troops in the city of Mexico, were, at the last accounts, about to depart for other portions of the republic, which are to be held until those who have the authority to act shall make satisfactory reparations to the U. S. government and enter upon negotiations for peace.

The New York Express, publishes the following extract of a letter which is mentioned as being from an intelligent officer that has been through all the campaign.

Mexico, December 2, 1848

" There is nothing new here since my last. Troops are daily arriving ; but not enough to effect much.- All those that are on the way here ought to have been on the ground before the last battles. We ought to have 75,000 men to-day, and proceed at once to take procession of the country. It is no merit of our government or infantry that we have not been destroyed before this. Our successes are all owing to the weakness of the enemy."  [LVW]

NNR 73.305 January 15, 1848 items
NNR 73.305 Gen. John Ellis Wool’s orders on taking command of the army of Occupation, its staff

"Army of Occupation"

The steamer Telegraph reached New Orleans on the 28th December, from Brazos which she left on the 24th. She brings the remains of Captain Stevenson

The following are the first generals orders of General Wool, upon assuming the command of the army of occupation:

Headquarters Army of Occupation,

Monterey, December 9, 1847.

The orders of Major Gen. Taylor, No. 13e, places the undersigned in the command of the army of occupation.

In entering upon the important duties assigned him he would announce to his command, that no effort on his part will be separated to place it in the most efficient conditions, in order to be prepared to meet any movement which may be required. In these efforts he anticipates to be able to sustained by his troops, and especially his officers.

The people of the United States are anxiously looking in this direction for an honorable termination of the war. The victories so glorious to our arms at Palo Alto, Resaca de la Palma, Monterey, Buena Vista, Vera Cruz, Cerro Gordo, Contreras, Churubusco and the city of Mexico, have failed to produce the desired results. Mexican armies, one after another, have been beaten and dispersed, and their capital taken; yet then Mexicans would continue the war. As peace, from all we can learn, appears far in the distance, we are called upon to prepare for coming events. Pleasure must give way to duty; our whole duty, and nothing but our duty, obedience, order, discipline an instruction must be rigidly enforced, which the interest, honor and glory of our country imperiously demand.

All orders hitherto issued by Major Gen Taylor, will be enforced until other wise directed.

The following officers are announced as chiefs of the staff attached t the army of occupation.

Bvt. Capt. Irving McDowell, assistant adjutant general at headquarters.
Capt. W. D. Fraiser, Chief of engineers, and aid-de-camp.
Maj. Lewis Cass, Jr., 3rd dragoons, acting inspector general.
Major P.M. Washington 31 artillery, chief of artillery, at Saltillo.
Capt. G. D. Ramsey, ordnance department, chief of ordnance at headquarters.
Col. Henry Whiting, assistant quartermaster general, chief of the quartermaster’s department at Matamoras.
Capt. E. S. Sibley, assistant quartermaster at headquarters.
Capt. T. B. Linnard, chief of the topographical corps at Saltillo.
Lt. L. Sitgreaves, corps of topographical engineers at headquarters.
Capt. A. B. Eaton, commissary of subsistence, chief of the commissary department at Brazos.
Captain J. C. Casey, co missionary of subsistence at headquarter.
Surgeon N. S. Jarvis, chief of the medical department at headquarters.
Major D. Hunter, chief of the pay department at Matamoras
Maj. W. A. Spark, payment master at headquarters.


NNR 73.305 January 15, 1848 Gen. Sterling Price’s arrival at Santa Fe

New Mexico-Santa Fe dates nineteen days later than previously give, are received.

Their legislator has assembled. Augrely has been elected speaker of the house of representatives, and Sardival, president of the senate.

General Price arrived at Santa Fe on the 12th Dec., and constituted VIGIL governor of the territory, who sends a message according to usage, to the legislature. A bill has been passed authorizing the election of delegates to take into consideration the annexation of New Mexico to the United States.

Sixty-eight deaths have occurred in the fist battalion since they left Missouri.  [LVW]

NNR 73.306 January 15, 1848 Rumors of the recall of Gen. Winfield Scott, other roomers of shifts in command

RUMORS OF THE RECALL OF GEN. SCOTT Without placing much reliance upon the rumors, the fact that it was quite current at Washington for some days, is undoubted. The Washi9ngton correspondent of the N. York Herald wrote on the 11th instant: "An important cabinet meeting was held to-day. The sitting was protracted until 4 o’clock this afternoon.- The discussion on the army were the principal subjects of deliberation. It as finally determined that Gen. Scott should be recalled, and a messenger will leave there on Thursday morning next, with orders to Gen. Scott from the war department, to return home as speedily as possible, and to report himself in Washington. The command of the army devolves on Major General Butler , as second in rank to Gen. Scott. The officers involved in the dissent ions in the camp, will as matter of course, return home.

The Washington correspondent for the New York Courier, writes that : "The question whether General Scott, Worth and Pillow are to be recalled, was at full length debated in the cabinet meeting yesterday, and I believe they will b called home, were it but to give the army a lesson of obedience to the instructions and law of their country, All the heavy service being done and the heart of Mexico fairly in our possession , our militant generals will answer quite well for garrisoning towns an clearing the high roads of robbers and vagabonds, as Scott himself. After the recall of Scott, Worth and Pillow the command will devolve on Major General Butler, of Kentucky, who stands in the most intimate relation to the president, and who would carry out his views without the aid of a lieutenant general.- If Scott, Worth, Pillow and Ducan come home, they will undoubtedly be court marshaled."

Subsequent letter say that a messenger was actually dispatched, with the orders for Gen. Scott’s recall, but that the messenger was overtaken at Richmond, Va., by another messenger with instructions to return to Washington, the cabinet having determined to delay the order until Gen. Pierce who was said to be hurrying on the Washington immediately from the army, should arrive and report.

Another rumor has been for some days in circulation, which may as well b mentioned here, that is that General Taylor is to be ordered to return to Mexico and take command of the army on the recall for the officers about referred to.

Another important rumor There is another report current at Washington, among military men, and generally believed, that Generals Jessup and Twiggs have exchanged commissions, and that the latter will return to the U. S. as quartermaster general. The former an old brigadier is senor to every general officer in the regular army, except Scott. Taylor and Gaines, and will, doubtless, be assigned to command with is brevet ran, dating, we believe from 1824. This, in case of accident to General Scott, or his recall, would place the command of the army in Mexico in the hands of Gen.. Jessup instead of on of the temporary officers.  [NY Globe]  [LVW]

NNR 73.306 Jan. 15, 1848 Reception of officers from the army in Mexico

RECEPTIOIN OF OFFICERS FROM THE ARMY IN MEXICO.--The papers of the day ar teeming with accounts of the cordial reception and greetings with which the officers that have left the lines of operation, on business or visit to the United States, are received wherever they go.--Generals Quitman and Shields' reception at N. Orleans, Mobile, and other places in their route, and especially on their arrival at Charleston, S.C., on the 22d ult., must have been truly grafifying to those brave officers. The people of the Palmetto state are boundless in their hospitality towards their distinguished guests.

Col. Garland and Lt. Johnson, of Virginia, and Lt. Worcester, of Massachusetts, who distinguished themselves in Mexico, were received in Richmond on Tuesday by the military and citizens, and formally introduced to the legislature.

On Friday evening, 31stDecember, a number of officers of the military corps at Richmond, gave a splendid supper to Col. Garland and the officers that accompany him from Mexico.  The speeches, toasts, &c. occupy three columns of the Richmond Enquirer of the 3d inst. [JNA]

NNR 73.306 January 15, 1848 a war of diabolical butchery to secure a hornet’s nest

Diplomatic Journal

Our correspondent goes much father- He says, "If, as our executive claims, nonpayment of our claims o Mexico is any cause for the war, it should be nationally right, as I hold it should be, morally for a foreign government to take by force, a state’s property, that repudiated, (as some of our states have;) as the U. S. claims that they are not responsible for states debts."

This same ultra correspondent of ours, thus characterizes "the war with Mexico."

"I deem it a war of diabolical butchery, commenced to secure a HORNET’S NEST.

"I regret that the Whig members should have assumed the responsibility of the concern, by voting more men or money than was required to protect Taylor, and withdraw from the disputed territory.- What can be more demoralizing than for legislators to vote money and arms, and then claim that they are not responsible, because legally, the president has no right to use the arms as he please? Shame on such logic an crouching to expediency Well may the preside say ‘come my new logic blood hounds, give me more cash and powder."  [LVW]

NNR 73.306 Jan. 15, 1848 Spanish schooner captured while smuggling to Mexico

The Spanish schooner Renaissance, captured by the U.S. steamer Scorpion in the Gulf of Mexico while engaged in smuggling, arrived at New Orleans on the 5th instant in charge of Midshipman S.J. Bliss. [JNA]

NNR 73.311-312 January 15, 1848  the unhappy difficulty between Gen. Winfield Scott and Gen. William Jenkins Worth


The following letter, which we find in the St. Louise Republic of Dec. 20, over the signature of "Gomez" contains interesting information concerning the origins of the unhappy difficulty between Gen. Scott and Gen. Worth, which has since led, as our readers are aware, to the arrest of t the latter. The facts set forth appear reliable, as they are embodied I the official documents:

"To a correct understanding of the merits of the controversy, it is proper to remark, that the first cause of the complaint on the part of Brevet Maj. Gen. Worth, against the general-in-chief, was the municipal authorities of the city of Puebla, in his advance upon, and occupation of, that city. General Worth, it will be recollected, was directed by General Scott to act with his division as the advance corps of the army, until reading and occupying Puebla. As a matter of history, and for the purpose of permitting every man to draw his won conclusions of the justness or unfairness of Gen. Scott’s disapproval of the terms of that capitulation, I deem it due to all concerned, to insert a copy of the capitation itself. It is in these words:

"General: if, as is to be supposed, you are possessed of a true and ardent love of your country, it will not appear strange the that first sentiment which the municipality of Puebla manifests in your addressing you, be that of proud grief for the inevitable necessity it finds itself under of regulating wit the enemy of its nation, the terms last opprobrious for occupying the capital of this state, by troops of the United States of the North. It consoles itself, however, with the idea that its immediate sacrifice has only object in view, of saving, if not the same national rights- which, is beyond the possibility of the attempting- at leas the very dear interest of the unarmed populations which the municipality presents. Compelled, therefore, to this duty, truly very painful but inevitable, and stimulated by the proposal which you thought proper to direct to it from Nopalucan, that before arriving too near the city, you might enter into a conference with the civil functionaries, in order to concert with them the best and most secure measures in relation to the inters mentioned; now withstanding that some have been adopted anomalous to the present case already ,the municipality, the only political authority which as remained, in view of the defenses tale of the city, and in virtue of your announcement of thing to occupy it in a military manner, and argued that the commission from its body, which as the honor of addressing you, accept the guarantees offered in the following terms:

"During the occupation of the capital of Puebla by the troops of the U. S. , they will invaluably respect the Catholic religion, which the national professes, the public worship and morals, the personas and poverty of all the inhabitants.

" The civil local authorizes will continue in the free exercise of their functions conformably to the laws of the country. In consequence, if the Generals of said troupes should consider any other measures necessary, besides these dictated heretofore, especially the maintenance of public order and tranquility, he will communicate his wishes to said subject to the above mentioned authorities respectively, according to their nature, and sustain and protect such measures.

"The custody of the prisoners and officers in charge of the municipality, will continue in charge of the force which the civil authorities has allotted for it, composed of forty men of the battalion of the free (liber) allowed to go free from Vera Cruz as a convict guard, unit it be relieved by that of the U. S., when said prison guard, will be allowed to retire with their arms.

Headquarters, Chichapa, May 14th, 1847. Approved and granted, (singed) W. J. WORTH, Maj. Gen. Com’g True Copy J. C. Pemberton, Capt. & A. D. C.

The second cause of the complaint on the part of Gen. Worth against the general-in-chief, was the disapprobation by the latter, of a circular addressed by the former to his division alone at a period when the entire force of the army including the general-in-chief, was garrisoned in the city of Puebla, with the exception of a small force left at Jalapa, under Col Childs. The circular purported to convey information to the first division, of which, Gen. Worth was the commanding officer, that a design was contemplated by the citizens of Puebla to position the fountains from whence our army drew their daily supply of water, and in that was destroyed us; and placing them on their guard against such inhumane and nefarious designs, if in reality there was any gourd of apprehension water, that such threats had been made, or if made, whether there was the slightest possibility of their being put in execution.

To the exceptions taken by the generals-in-chief at these two official acts of Gen. Worth, the latter became greatly incensed, and permitting his feelings to pervert his better judgment, became most violently and bitterly inimically to the general-in-chief. The result was, that every reflecting officer in the army most deeply regretting, a rupture in those friendly relations which for upwards of their years had existed between these two gallant and justly distinguish military chieftains.

The following order, published to a very limited extent by the general-in-chief, after the finding of this court of inquiry demanded by Gen.Worth, contains sufficiently explicit, all other facts material to a correct understanding of the affair by your readers. And by simply setting it out in hace veraba, we shall close this communication.

[General orders no. 196] HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY

Puebla, June 30, 1847.

Abstract of the proceedings of the court of inquiry, which convened at this place, by virtue of general order No. 168, headquarters of the army, and of which Maj. Gen. J A Quitman is president.

I. the said court of inquiry proceeded in due form to investigate the subjects embraced in the two papers herein cited, viz; First the general order No 186 headquarters of the army Puebla Mexico June 24 1847 as follows:

"At the instance of Brevet Maj Gen Worth, a court of inquiry will meet in the building called the palace of this city, at then o’clock tomorrow morning, it investigate certain matters in which that general officer convinced himself to have been injured by the general-in-chief of his army, viz; in the matter of the terms granted by the said Brevet Major Gen to the functionaries of this city, in the way of capitulation, as guaranties, at or about the time (May 15, 1847) of this entrance the advanced corps of the army into the city; and in the matter of a circular, June 16, 1847, published by the said major General to the officers of his division."

If there be other matters in the conduct of the said Brevet Major General which he may especially desire to have investigated by the aid court of Inquiry, he will submit them to the general-in-chief, through the recorders, for father orders in the case.


Maj. Gen. Quitman,; Brig. Gen Twiggs; Bvt. Brig. Gen. Smith -- Members

Lieut. R. P. Hammond is appointed special judge advocate.

The court will give an opinion of the merits of all the matters investigated by it.

By command of Maj. Gen. Scott.

[signed] H. L. Scott A A A G

Second. A brief statement by Brevet Major Gen.Worth, of the matters in which he conceived himself wronged by the general-in-chief, and to which the investigation extended under the order instituting the court, in the following terms, viz;

In the matter of an interview had May 15th, at Chicpa, Mexico between Brevet major Gen.Worth, commanding 1st division of the army, and the civil authorities of Puebla, at the instance of said Brevet Major General- the general in chief has improperly, in manner and matter, characterized the proceedings at said interview, to the prejudice and wrong of said Brevet Major General.

In the matter of a circular, which as addressed by Brevet Major General worth; to the 1st division on or about June 16th, 1847 the general in chief verbally and in writing, has harshly and injuriously characterized said circular, and in a matter uncalled for, and in the underserved reproach of said inferior officer.

After an investigation of the above matters, the court made the following decision in the case:


"That, regarding the remarks of the General-in-chief, dated June 17th instant, endorsed upon the translated copy of a letter from the Mexican Judge Duran, to major general Scott, dated the 16th of June, instant, hypothetically and applicable only to claims urged by the Mexican authorities which the General-in-chief at this time of his remarks, supposed to be ‘without authority" and which brevet Maj. General Worth insists were not conceded by any of his official acts-the court can perceive nothing in remarks of the General-in-chief to which Brevet Major could properly take exception.

The court is further of opinion, that the terms of stipulations granted by Brevet Maj. Gen.Worth, to the functionaries of the city of Puebla upon his entrance with the advanced corps of the army into that city on the 15th of may last were unnecessarily yielded, improvident, and in effect, detrimental to the public service. And that the grant of these privileges was in contraception of the ninth a tenth paragraph of general orders no. 20 published at Tampico on the 19th day of Feb. last and was not warranted by the letter of instructions of the General-in-chief Gen. Worth.


The court as required further declares its opinion that the circular published by Brevet Maj Gen Worth to his division dated June 16, 1847m was highly improper and extremely objectionable in many respects as especially as it might extend exasperation in the whole Mexican nation, to thwart the well known pacific policy of the us, and in view of the high sources from which it emendated, to disturbed the friendly relations of our government with Spain, or at least give occasion to the power, to call for explains or apologies. The barbarous offence, against which he circular warned the soldiers of the first division if it existed at all, equally affected the whole army. The information obtained by Worth if worth of notice should therefore have been communicated the General that might have exercised his discretion on the means to be adopted to correcting the evil.

With these views of the circular alluded to , the court is of opinion that is called for the emphatic admonition and rebuke of the General-in-chief.

In conclusion, this court deems it material to make case, to express the opinion, that it is the right and the duty of the General-in-chief, and indispensable to the preservation of proper discipline in the army, that he should at all times possess the privilege of freely commenting upon disapproving or sensor the official acts of his subordinate officers."

II the general in chief approves the processing and opinion of the forgoing case

These orders will not be exceeded beyond the commanders of division and brigades, and the chief of the general staff.

The court of inquire, of which Major Gen. Quitman is president, is dissolved. By command of Maj. Gen. Scott

(signed) H. L. Scott, A. A. A. G.


NNR 73.320 January 15, 1848 rumor of issuance of treasury notes to finance the war

MONEY MATTERS- Species movements. - The New York Herald says that the steamship Caledonia, from Boston for Liverpool, will take out about three hundred thousand dollars in species. This with the shipments made from New York and Boston since the first of Jan. will make an aggregated of about one million of dollars exported with the past twelve days. The exports for Dec., from these two ports was two and a half millions making, from the first December to the sixteenth of January, a total of there and a half million dollars. The drain commenced previous to December in November the export from New York was one and a half million and from Boston about one million making two and a half million in that month. Since the 1st of October, when the exportation to any extent commenced, the total amount of shipments had been to at least seven million dollars equal to more than one quarter of the aggregate importation 1847.

The N. Y. Tribune says:

The committee of ways and means are in correspondence with the leading moneyed men of the country of the purpose of collecting information regarding the best method of obtaining the money which will be needed by the government. An issue of treasury notes will not do, as they are paid at once into the custom house and it is doubtful if a larger loan would be taken at a fair rate unless the specie clauses of the sub-treasury first suspended. The banks could furnish no facilities for such a loan when it will cosset an immediate and large drain upon their vaults it is understood that the secretary will want about a million and a half per month. Several leading capitalist, have it is stated, been called to Washington from Boston, Philadelphia, and New York to discuss this matter.

The Philadelphia American says:

Treasury Notes- According to the last rumor from Washington, the secretary of the treasury has devised a plan for raising the were withdraw for carrying on the war, constituting of an issue of ten million of treasury notes in sums of not less than $50 bearing interest, - and a second issue of treasury notes in sums of not less than $10, not bearing interest.  [LVW]

NNR 73.322 January 22, 1848 courts of inquiry ordered on Gen. Gideon Johnson Pillow, Col. James Duncan, and Gen. Winfield Scott, charges against Gen. William Jenkins Worth dropped

ARMY COURT OF INQUIRY. The Washington correspondent of the Phila. N. Ameri. Writes on the 14th inst.

"The president has this day ordered a court of the inquiry for the purpose of investigation the charges against Gen. Pillow and Col Duncan, which have been preferred by Gen. Scott. After that investigation has terminated, the court is further discrete to inquire into the charges preferred against Gen. Scott by Gen Worth. The charges against Gen. Worth submitted by the commanding General, have been dismissed by the president.

The court is directed to assemble tat Perote, at as early a day as the members can convince. It is consists of Gen. Towson, paymaster general, as president, and Gen. Cushing and Col. Butler, of Louisiana. Towson will start for Mexico on Monday.

The selection of Gen. Towson is an anomaly in court martial, and will doubtless lead to difficulty. His office of paymaster general-is a-civil one, which might be conferred upon any individual in private life, and he holds no rank in the regular line of the army.

The command of the army in Mexico will necessarily devolve on Gen. Butler, of Kentucky, he being the officer next in rank to Gen. Scott, whose presence will be required at the court of inquiry.

The idea of recalling Scott is abandoned for the present, but it may be renewed."

NNR 73.323 January 22, 1848 another publication from Col. James Duncan

COL. DUNCAN. – Another letter. The following letter from Col. Duncan, which originally appeared in the North American Star, published in the city of Mexico, after the arrest of that officer, indicates a highly exasperated state of feeling on his part towards the commander in chief. How far the tone and spirit of the letter may have been authorized by the article of which it is a reply, we know not, not having seen the article, or the "Tampico letter" referred to. [ August Chron. & Sent.

City of Mexico Nov. 17 1847.

To the editor of the North American Star:

Sir- An article that appeared in the Ameri. Star of this morning requires that my name should again most reluctantly appear in your paper:

Two considerations prompt me to notice the article referred to, firstly the semi-official character of the paper in which it appears; and secondly, the position of the writer, who is genially believed not to be the nominal editor.

The writer states that, "in company with Mr. Kendall, of the Picayune, he saw the convent at Churubusco assaulted and carried by storm- carried while the guns of Col. Duncan’s battery were playing upon the bridge-head.

"Mark how a plain tale shall set him down."
It is a fact susceptible of the most unequivocal proof, that Col Duncan’s battery did not fire a shot at the bridge-head.

This battery was not put in position to fire at all, til from ten to fifteen minutes after the bridge-head fell.

Mr. Kendall stood by the side of Col. Duncan’s battery from the time it was put in position till the white flag was hung out from the convent.

Again the Star says: "The 6th and several other corps of infantry charged upon the enemy’ s left, but before this charger could be productive of any beneficial results to our arms; the convent of Churubusco was carried, &c.

As before stated, the bridge-head had fallen from ten to fifteen minutes before Col. Duncan’s battery was put in position. Twenty-seven rounds were fired from one gun, which must have taken some time little time; the convent could not therefore have fall off the bridge instead of before as the Star states.

I do not wish the forgoing statement to be taken as mere random assertions. I am prepared to prove them be numerous disinterested eye witnesses of as higher standing as any officer in the army; indeed I entertain no doubt that I can ever convince the writer of the article in the Star, whose error of statement doubtless are only the result of mistaken impression.

The writer for the Star calls on general Pillow, Twigs, Shields, and Smith, as well as Cols. Ridgeley, Clark, and Garland to "testify" that "erroneous impressions were imbedded to be produced" by the Tampico letter. This is certainly appealing to high authority, and if these gentlemen sustain his appeal, it must be acknowledged that this part of his case is made out.

The Star further states that the Tampico letter tends to least discreet upon subsequent statesmen or other writers." It will be very likely to do so, if subsequent statements are written as incautiously as the article of this morning.

I refrain from making any comments on the tone and temper of the article in question; no good can come of it: it speaks for itself. The writer has followed an exceedingly bad example- and I trust, when he has occasion to assail any body else, he will be sure of his facts and is temper, they are of infinite value to great men as well a little men.

And it is to be hoped that good taste as well as good policy, will prevent him again quoting from order No. 394. The army will not soon forget this order, and last of all will it be forgotten by its illustrations authors.

Very Respectfully,

Your obedient servant,
Jas. Duncan, Bt. Lt. Col. USA

P.S.—Since writing the above, I have seen the Star of the 18th containing certificates from Mexican officers, ( prisoners at the time they were given) in relation to the operations that produced the fall of the convent…Those prisoners are not released or doubtless a bundles of certificates might be produced from them, providing anything- even that they are brave and honest. The highest functionary of the men are little scrupulous about such small matters. The wonder is not that the Mexican officers gave certificates, but that they should have been asked or permitted to give them. Certificates from our own officers could be procured, telling quite a different story but I have no disposition to against this matter. So far as I am personally concerned, I care not a straw about it. Whether "my bow and arrow" killed "Cock Robin," or whether question for present discussion; that "Cock Robin" was killed by some body is quite clear.



NNR 73.323 January 22, 1848 Secretary of the Navy John Young Mason’s official orders and pass for Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, Com. David Conner’s reply

Report of the secretary of the navy

Sir: In compliance wit the direction contained in your endorsement of the resolution of the house of representatives of the 6th inst, I have the honor of transmit herewith copies of all papers in this department, which it is believed, are within the purview of the resolution. A list of the accompanying papers is hereunto annexed.

I have the honor to be, very respectively

Your obedient servant
J. Y. Mason

To the President

US Navy Department, May 13 1846.

"Commodore: If Santa Anna endeavors to enter the Mexican ports, you will allow him to pass freely.

"Respectively yours,

"Commander David Conner, Commanding Home Squadron.


Princeton, Sacrificios, Aug. 16, 1846

Sir- The brig-of-war Daring, just about sailing from New Orleans, with dispatches from the English minister in Mexico, to Mr. Pakenham at Washington, allows me an opportunity, and sufficient time to inform you that Gen. Santa Anna and his friends have just now arrived at Vera Cruz in the English merchant steamer Arab, from Havana.

I have allowed him to enter without molestation, or even speaking the vessel, as here, Capt. Lambert, she carried no cargo, and would not be allowed to take any in return. In could easily have barded the Arab, but I deemed it most proper to not do so, allowing it to appear as if he had entered without my concurrence. It is now quite certain the whole country- that is, the garrison of every town and fortress- have declared in his favor. But unless he has learned something used in his adversity, and become another man, he will only add to the distractions of the country, and be hurled from power in less than three months. Respectfully yours, ob’t serv’t



NNR 73.324 January 22, 1848 Gen. Winfield Scott’s order no. 376 for further conquest, debate in Senate relative there to

Conquest of Mexico- Execution of Tribute- Army of Invasion – General Orders No. 376.

Headquarters of the Army, Mexico Dec,15

This army is about to spend itself over and over to occupy this republic of Mexico, until the latter shall sue for peace in terms acceptable to the government of the United States.

On the occupation of the principal point or points in any states, the payment to the federal government of this republic of all taxes or dues will be demanded of the proper civil authorities for the support of the army of occupation.

The state and federal district of Mexico being already so occupied as well as the states of Vera Cruz, Puebla, and Tamaulipas, the usual taxes or dues, heretofore contributed by the same to the federal government will be considered a due and payable to this army from the beginning of the present month, and will early be demanded of the civil authorities of the states and districts, under lease and penalties which shall be duty announced and enforced.

Other states of the republic as the Californians. Now Mexico, Chihuahua, New Leon, &c, already occupied by the forced of the US through not under the immediate orders of the general in chief will conform to the prescription of this orders, except in which such states or states where a different system has been adopted with the sanction of the government at Washington.

The internal taxes or dues referred to are 1 direct taxes; 2 duties on the product of gold and silver; 3 melting and assaying dues; 3 rent of stamping paper; 6 the rest on the manufacture of playing cards; and 7 the rent of post offices.

The rest of national lotteries is abolished –lotteries being thereby prohibited.

Import and export duties at the ports of the republic will remain as fixed by the government of the US except that the exportations of gold and silver bars or igneous (plata y ono en pasta) is prohibited until the future intrusions of the government on the subject.

All imported articles, good or commodities which have once paid, or given sufficient security or the payment of duties to the US at any port of entry of the republic shall not again be burdened with any tax or duties in any part of this republic occupied by the forces of the United States.

The levying of duties on the transit of animals goods, or commodities whether of foreign or domestic growth, from one state of this republic to another or on entering or leaving the gate of any city within the republic will, from and after the beginning of the this year, be prohibited as far as the US forces may have the power to enforce the prohibition. Other and equitable means, to a moderate extent must be resorted by the several states and the authorities, for the necessities support of their respective governments.

The tobacco, playing cards, and stamped paper agents, will be placed for three, xi or twelve months under contract with the highest bidders, respectively, to the several states: the state and federal district of Mexico being considered as one. Accordingly offers or bids for those rents, within each state, or any one of them are invited. They will be sent in as early as possible sealed to the headquarters of commanders of departments, except of the federal district and state of Mexico. For the two latter, the offers or bids will be addressed to the general in chief.

Further details for the execution of the foregoing system of government and revenue will soon be given in general orders.

By command of Major Gen. Scott



NNR 73.324 January 22, 1848 Col. Dixon Stansbury Miles leaves Veracruz with a train
NNR 73.324 Gen. Thomas Marshall at Jalapa
NNR 73.324 John Reynolds hung
NNR 73.324 guerrillas under Mijares defeated
NNR 73.324 affair at Cholula
NNR 73.324 American prisoners sent for exchange, Col. Thomas Child’s reply

Vera Cruz dates to the 4th inst. are received.

Col. Miles with from 1000 to 1500 men and a heavy train, left Vera Cruz on the 2d, for the city of Mexico accompanied by the first infantry, under the command of Maj. A.S. Miller and E. Bakus.  Gen. Scott was anxiously waiting their arrival.

Gen. Marshall was at Jalapa waiting for the arrival of Col. Miles’s train. When it came up he was to move off for the capital.

John Reynolds, a private in company D, 8th infantry, was hung in the city of Mexico on the 20th ult. for murdering a Mexican woman.

The Mexican papers mention a report that Santa Anna had embarked at Acapulco for the port of San Blas.

The Mexican government was doing all in its power to get the new congress together.

Advices from Mazatlan, 30th Dec., state the guerrillas under Majares made an attack upon a body of Americans, and were completely routed. Majares and a number of his followers were killed.

Another engagement with guerrillas, further north, resulted in a victory to the Americans.

On the night of the 21st ult. an expedition was sent to Cholula to apprehend some Mexican officers.  A fight took place, in which three Mexicans were killed and three wounded.

A number of American prisoners, who had been taken by the Mexicans at various times, were sent from Seatlan, by the Mexican governor of that place, to Puebla, asking that Col. Pavon might be exchanged for them. If that request could not be complied with, the Mexican governor desired the liberation of an equal number of Mexicans.  In case neither of these requests could be complied with, the governor wished it to be understood that he voluntarily restored the Americans to their freedom.--Col. Childs told the governor of Zacatan that he could not comply with either of his requests, as the Mexicans were already indebted to the American army for a number of prisoners liberated by its officers.  He thanked the governor for his for the treatment of Mexicans who might be taken prisoner by him. [JNA]

NNR 73.334 Jan. 22, 1848 Manifest Destiny Doctrines


Amongst the many journals published in our country, that boldly advocate the doctrine that is the duty of the people of this country to conquer and retain the Mexican republic, in order to compel that people to submit to such institutions as we choose to impose, none is more explicit than the New York Evening Post.  In an argument upon the subject the editor says:

"Now we ask," whether any man can coolly contemplate the idea of recalling our troops from the territory we at present occupy--from Mexico--from San Juan de …from Monterey--from Puebla--and thus, by one stroke of a secretary’s  pen, resign this beautiful country to the custody of the ignorant cowards and…puritans who have ruled it for the last twenty five years?  Why, humanity cries out against it.  Civilization and Christianity protests against this reflux of the tide of barbarism and anarchy."

And again, "the aborigines of this country have not attempted and cannot attempt, to exist independently alongside of us.  Providence has so ordained it; and it is folly not to recognize the fact.  The Mexicans are aboriginal Indians, and they must share the destiny of their race."

The "destiny of the race" of "aboriginal Indians along side of us" has been extinction--rapid extinction--not subjection, as we all know. They never have submitted to become slaves.  Is it then seriously contemplated that the seven millions of Mexican Indians shall not "exist independently along side of us?"--and pronounced to be "a folly not to recognize the fact, that Providence has so ordained it?"

Numerous articles of the same import are gracing journals published in this free, this enlightened, this Christian country--this model republic?

Besides the tone of public journals, we have numerous letter from various directions, and especially from Americans with the army in Mexico, loudly calling upon government to hurry on to fulfil the manifest destiny of humbling and subduing the devoted race and of taking upon ourselves or rather of handing over to the tender mercies of the army, the fulfillment of the "purposes of Providence" in regard to these our next neighbors.

 Added to the public journals and letter writers, we have speeches from eloquent orators and from men high in station and command--to the same purpose.

According to reported congressional proceedings of Wednesday, Senator Dickenson, in his speech advocating his own resolutions and the "annexation of all Mexico," which he considers a thing of fate, declared, as an evidence of the "inevitable destiny of the matter," that "had we never gone to war, Mexico would have become a portion of the great empire we have founded."

The most striking and direct to the purpose of those speeches that has fallen under our notice, we find in following extracts from a speech of Com. Stockton, delivered by him at the public dinner with which he was complimented at Philadelphia on the 30th ult.  He regards the "destiny" which he thinks the people of this country are called upon to fulfil a solemn religious obligation, from which they may not shrink without having to answer not only to posterity, but to high heaven. [JNA]

NNR 73.336 January 22, 1848 sentiments expressed at Democratic supper at Washington (this article is extremely difficult to read on the microfilm)

At Jackson Hall, Washington City, took place on the evening of the 12th and was a splendid affair. Thomas Ritchie Esq. Presided supported on the rights by the Vice President of the US, Geo. M. Dallas Senators Dickerson and Cass, JE Dow esp. and where and in the left by Vice President C P SENGSACK Gen SHEILDS COL RICHARDSON of Ill. And the hon. CHARLES BROWN, and RICHARD BROADHEAD of PA, and the others. There were two hundred and fifty present, besides guest.

The company being seated, the presiding officer rose and in brief address, assigned the reason of his occupying the station that had been designed "it not an odder, certainly a better solider in the cause, FRANCISC P. BLAIR" whose [ . . . illegible . . . ] he first [ . . . illegible . . . ] was occasioned by modest he regretted to learn since by indisposition. Somebody had to fulfill the [ . . . illegible . . . ], and Mr. R. was willing to the [ . . . illegible . . . ] to the cause."

The president then in a speech of some length, referred to the illustrious chief whose achievements [ . . . illegible . . . ] to commemorate, and from that topic [ . . . illegible . . . ] comment upon the condition of national affair and of party polices, ending up with a rally [ . . . illegible . . . ] party to stand together- union harmony [ . . . illegible . . . ] –everything to the cause and no [ . . . illegible . . . ] tight on in the full confidence of [ . . . illegible . . . ] but it deterred. [ . . . illegible . . . ]

"laid back [ . . . illegible . . . ], upon our ancient platform, rally around our republic in principles and fight the battle over again." He concluded by of it ring the following toast.:… [LVW]

NNR 73.336 January 22, 1848 conflicting reports on the court of inquiry concerning the disputing officers in Mexico

GEN. SCOTT AND ARMY OFFICERS. If we may credit the Washington correspondent of the Philadelphia Ledger, who is considered to be minute with the process of the cabinet there have been several changes in the decision of that body, with in a few days, in relation to the course to be pursed with the dispatching officers of the army in Mexico. Last week the writer alluded to stated in substance, that the cabinet had taken to the course I indicated in the letter which will be found on a preceding page, extracted from a letter of the Washington correspondents of the North American. Subsequently the Ledger (on the 18th) positioned a telegraph dispatch from the correspondents, saying:

"Gen. Townson has not left for Mexico. The difficulties in the army have been reconsidered in cabinet considered and General Scott has this day been suspended and ordered to Washington. Gen. Worth is released from arrest, by order of the president, and restored to his command as major general to the army"

The National Intelligencer of the 2oth, in contradiction of the above says "Last evening we learned authentically that Gen Towson, paymaster general, did set out on Monday night last to Mexico, where he is, in conjunction with Gen [ . . . illegible . . . ] and Col. Butler of the volunteer forces to form a court of inquiry or [ . . . illegible . . . ] by the President of the United States, on Gen. Scott.

The New York Courier says, that Col. Belknap, of the eighth infantry US army who has been on a brief visit to [ . . . illegible . . . ] in Newburg, N.Y. has been ordered back to Mexico to serve on the court of inquiry order to assemble at Perote. To investigate the charge against Gen. Pillow and Co [ . . . illegible . . . ] .  [LVW]

NNR 73.337 January 29, 1848 Gen. Winfield Scott suspended from command of the Army in Mexico, a court of inquiry in his case to be held, Gen. William Jenkins Worth discharged from arrest, Gen. William Orlando Butler to command the Army
NNR 73.337 rumors prior to Gen. Winfield Scott’s dismissal of his position with regard to the administration and that of Nicholas Philip Trist 


GENERAL SCOTT SUSPENDED. The thousand and one rumors that unhappy disputes amongst the officers of the army in Mexico have given rise to, as to the course determined upon by the cabinet, were all settled four the day, by the announcement of Gen. Cass, chairman of the committee on military affairs of the senate, who on Tuesday last in reply to questions put to him by Mr. Crittenden, stated, that orders had gone on for the suspension of Gen. Scott, from the command of the army, for the assembling of a court of inquiry in his case of Perote, and for the discharge of Gen. Worth from arrest. VOL. XXIII SIG 22.

Gen. Butler will be commander of the army.

On the 15th inst. The Washington correspondent of the Philadelphia Ledger, wrote as follows:

"You will see by the last news from Mexico that Gen. Scott is faithfully carrying out the vies of the administration, which are to obtain peace as quickly as possible by coercion, and not as Mr. Trist would imagine, by suing for it though an itinerant clerk in the state department. Mr. Trist has altogether transcended his orders, and it is probably for his reason that he is about to be dismissed from the state department, and Mr. Appleton, now chief clerk of the navy department, appointed in his place," &c.

The following paragraph in the same paper, was probably from the same pen.

"Gen. Scott- We learn from a respectably source that Gen. Scott is not to be recalled as it is plain he carries out the views of the president. If he was to be recalled, it was for less for the quarrels of the generals than on account of his official correspondence with the war department. Now that he excludes orders there is no need for a change."

Amongst the rumors of the past week, one as given by a Washington letter writer, was that "In case the difficulties should increase on account of these feuds, it is said that General Scott, Worth, and Pillow, will be recalled and that a court martial will be held here, of which General Taylor will be president."  [LVW]

NNR 73.337-338 January 29, 1848 rumors relative to the negotiation and signing of a treaty of peace with Mexico

Rumors relative to peace. The National Intelligencer of the 25th, under this head stated that, "There was a good deal of stir occasioned in the city yesterday, by sundry rumors received from the south by telegraphy, of a pacific turn to affairs in Mexico, even to an agreement to the basis of a treaty, on the conditions proposed last fall by Mr. Trist. The authority for the rumors was, however, too vague to inspire general confidence in it."

The next day the Intelligencer had following on the subject: "The rumors of peace, or rather of propositions for peace, which have floated in the atmosphere of our city for a day or tow past, yesterday assumed a more definite form. We ourselves receiver a letter from our respected correspondents at New Orleans, under date of the 16th instant, in which he says that he has received information from a source such as to leave little doubt on his mind of its correctness, that "Mr. Trist has signed a treaty, and that it will be received here (at New Orleans) by the next arrival."

Private letters from officers in Mexico mention rumors there which look to the result above indicated."

The Arco Iris, of the 7th Jan. published the following:

The treaty of the peace signed.- In a letter received by us yesterday from our correspondents at Jalapa, he informs us that an individual holdings a high position in the American Army, and whose assertions deserve entire credit, said publicly, and without the lease reserve, that from letters received from Jalapa from Puebla, on the 1st instant, it was positively known that a treaty of peace had been signed in Mexico. On being told that it was strange that this should be the case, as Mr. Trist had not power to give such treaty he answered that General Scott had taken it upon his own responsibility to sing the treaty; in consequences of which the treaty had been sent to Queretaro for the approbation of the Mexican government.

The Free American, putting no faith in the rumor goes on to reason on the subject as follows:

"It is very strange, indeed if this be true. Gen. Scott, if he is directed by his government not to be signing any treaty, would certainly not sign it. He is too well known for his obedience to superior orders to put himself in a post ion that his countrymen might not approve; he had to much at heart the friendlier feelings of those whom he serves.

The last annual message of the president assures us that Mr. Trist’s Power had been revoked, and that he was recalled. It is true that Mr. Trist has not yet left the city of Mexico; but this he may do to await further orders from his government relative to the propositions of peace lately made by the Mexican commissioner, to which he could certainly not have received any answer from Washington before the 1st of the present month. The Mexicans could not have been in such a hurry to make the peace, as they have always refused the proposition mad e by our envoy, and we are certain that Gen. Scott is not so anxious for it as to grasp at the first shadow of an opportunity. We wish to receive the news of peace from a better source before we give credit to it."

The Washington Union thus speaks on the subject:

Washington is full of rumors about peace. But we cannot understand that any official accounts have been received to justify these angina calculations.

The only thing which we have heard of any authentic character, is a letter from ma distinguished officer, who writes from Vera Cruz, on the 3rd inst to a member of congress reporting the arrival of the courier from the capital with rumors about negotiations, and the option of the commander in chief that we should have peace at no distant day.

We have no confirmation of these reports from official sources; though we should not be surprised if Mr. Trist, without any instructions or authority, was receiving proposals from the Mexican commissioners.

The tone of the foregoing paragraph would seem in some degree to countenance the [acieration] of the Washington correspo9ndent of the Baltimore Patriot, who writes on the 26th, that "The administration has sent some four or five special messengers, with dispatches after Mr. Trist but they cannot find him or at all events they cannot get him to come home."

The arrival at N. Orleans on the 18th, of the steamer N. Orleans, with Vera Cruz dates on the 14th, without bringing any confirmation of the above rumors of peace seems to terminate all hopes of there being any truth in the accounts. A letter from an intelligent American at Vera Cruz, speaking of the news from the interior of Mexico, says, "We find little said about a treaty of peace, but there were whispers at Queretaro of an armistice of three months being on the tapis."

And yet the Washington correspondent of Baltimore Sun, who is well known to have opportunities of acquiring information at headquarters writes:

Washington, Jan 26, 1848

"I have not time to write you a long letter, but will endeavor to make a few points. First as to Mr. Trist, you may take it for granted, beyond cavil or dispute that Mr. Trist has sent to Washington a project of treaty, (not treaty) and that the same has been submitted to the president and discussed in cabinet council.

2nd. You may take it for granted that Mr. Trist had not direct and positive authority to make a treaty, and that, consequently the whole thus far is a mere ex part arrangement between Mr. Trist on one part, and Mexican commissioners, acting without direct authority of congress, on the other.

3rd. That Mr. Trist and Gen. Scott co-operate with each other in these preliminary arrangements; and that both are sanguine that a treaty on the basis contained in the project may be ratified by the Mexican congress."

4th. That the administration will seriously consider the proposition, and that, in all probabilities, the president will communicate it to both houses of congress.

The Mobile Register publishes a letter from a gentleman of high standing, dated Vera Cruz, January 4, which says:-"An express got in yesterday from the city with the dispatches from General Scott. The officer who brought them told me that seven days since when he left every one in Mexico was talking of peace and that Gen. Scott said to him that he did not doubt that we should have such a peace by April next as would enable our government to withdraw the army. God grant it; but I do not think so. We of the army are, I presume, at this time the most anxious advocates for peace. The truth is, even the "Elephant" himself in disgust at being looking at for such a length of time has left for parts unknown."  [LVW]

NNR 73.338 January 29, 1848 resolutions relative to conquered territory proposed in Texas
NNR 73.338 decline in numbers of the Philadelphia Rangers in Mexico
NNR 73.338 Gen. Gideon Johnson Pillow denies knowledge of the "Leonidas" letter
NNR 73.338 400 troops from New York City for the war in Mexico
NNR 73.338 fifth regiment of Tennessee volunteers leave New Orleans for Veracruz
NNR 73.338 six companies of Michigan volunteers reach New Orleans
NNR 73.338 reductions in the ninth Maine regiment
NNR 73.338 losses among the Philadelphia Rangers
NNR 73.338 reduction in the corps of sappers and miners


Major Gen. Gains, reached Washington on the 17th instant from New York, where he is not stationed.

Brigadier General Pierce, reached Washington on the 16th instant, directed from the army in Mexico.

Maj. B. McCullough of the Texas Rangers, Capt. J. B. Magruder, and Capt P. Kearny, (who has lost one arm in the war) have also reached Washington, as has also Major Bliss, assigned adjutant general, and chief of Gen. Taylor’s staff.

General Pillow, by an article in the American Star, published in the city of Mexico, denies all knowledge of the famous "Leonidas" letter, or of its author.

Troops for the war- The new packet ship Maid of Orleans was to sail from New York on Thursday last for Vera Cruz, with 400 US troops on board for the war in Mexico. [N.Y. Com. Adv]

The fifth regiment of East Tennessee volunteers, numbering 684 privates, arrived at New Orleans on the 28th, and went on board the ships Tahmaroo and Mississippi, about to start for Vera Cruz.

Four companies of the Michigan volunteers (293 men) arrived at New Orleans on the 10th from Cincinnati, under the command of Col T B W Stockton, Capt FW Curtennis, N Breasel, JS Rowland, and J Wittenmeyer.

Two more companies of the Michigan regiment, comprising of 251 men, under command of Maj Buehl, arrived at New Orleans on the 11th instant, en route to Mexico.

The ninth regiment- A letter received by Ben. Wade, of Bangor, from his son who belongs to the 9th, which says that when they left Newport, R I, the regiment number 800 men, but that it has been reduced to 200..

The corps of sappers and miners- A correspondent of the Portland Advertiser, writing from Mexico, 24th November says: "the company now consists of less than their men on duty, out of seventy one that left West Point a year from last September. Three of that number have received a dishonorable discharge."

The Philadelphia Rangers one of the volunteer companies from Pennsylvania, now in Mexico, numbered on the 29th of October only 15 men. When they left Pittsburgh for the seat of war they munster 96 men.  [JNA]

Honors- The senate of Pennsylvania has unanimously passed resolutions of thanks to General Scott and the army in Mexico; and a resolution directing the presentation of swords to Gens. Cadwallder and Patterson.

The New York papers contain descriptions of two magnificent gold mounted swords manufactured in that city. One of them was ordered by the common councils and citizens of Troy as a present to the General Wool; and the other is intended as a present from the citizens of Hudson and Kinderhook to Gen. Worth. The former cost $1000 and the latter $500.  [LVW]

NNR 73.338 January 29, 1848 resolution of Whig state convention of Iowa deprecating the war

IOWA. The legislature, assembled to Iowa city on the 3rd January.

The senate. Thomas Hughes was elected president JB Russell clerk, and Mr. Rockwell assistant clerk. (all adm)

The house elected Gen. JB Brown (whig) clerk JS Palmer (adm) assistant clerk. Hawkins Taylor (whig) sergeant at arms Mr. Hedrick messenger.

Mr. Reynolds was the only member that was not in his seat on organizing the house.

A resolution was adopted appointing a committee to investigate the right of Mr. Kinsman to the seat he occupied. Other cases, it is probable, will be referred to the same committee.

The "democrats" have a majority of four in the senate, and the whigs had a majority of two in the house, when organized.

The administration party were confident that the result of the special election in Lee country would give them a majority in the house, and are uncertain of succeeding in electing US senators.

The democratic state convention was to assemble on the 8th January.

A whig state convention assembled on Iowa city on the 6th January. MD Browning of Burlington presided The convention was named as

Delegates to the wig national presidential convention Gen RP Low JW Grimes AB Porter and Jas McManus. They also appointed four substitute delegates.

A resolution was passed instructing the delegates to express a preference for Gen. Taylor as the presidential candidate. HW Starr, of Burlington, delivered a brilliant speech on the Texans question.

Resolutions were also passed condemning the present administration, the sub-treasury, tariff of ’46, &c.  [LVW]

NNR 73.339-340 January 29, 1848 a Mexican letter on excesses of the Americans


The American Star, published in Mexico, translates the following passage of a letter written In the city of Mexico, and published in the Republicano of the 16th of December.

"The American who have been expected have arrived after committing a thousand excesses in every place through which they have passed. In this city they have occupied by force the Covent de las Viscaines, and the houses of Echeverria and Teran, who they say are agents of the government. A body of Texans have arrived who flattered with the idea of avenging their brethren killed in 1836, are committing all kinds of evils and excess. This is no longer to be feared for that would be far better to have a legion of demons here than these criminal ferocious and atrocious men. For myself I intend to leave immediately with my father to go and live in the woods for it is much preferable living with wild beasts than with such fellows. The tiger Scott oppresses the proprietors because he supposes they will be influenced in bringing about a peace. I have neither time more temper to tell you that all illus…   [LVW]

NNR 73.340 Jan. 29, 1848 Proceedings at Queretaro, a guerrilla affair

GUERRILLA AFFAIR.  On the 3d January Colonel Miles left Vera Cruz with a large train, for the city of Mexico.

The Vera Cruz American of the 5th , says, for some cause, not understood here, a portion of the train was unable to leave their encampment near this city until this morning.  In dragging through the heavy sand the train and pack mules, of which there was a large number, became much scattered, so that the rear guard, which consisted of Capt. Ruff’s company of the regiment of mounted riflemen, under the command of 1st Lt. Walker, was thrown nearly seven miles in the rear of the main body of the wagon train.  About 9 o'clock work was sent back that a guerrilla party at Santa Fe had captured some of the packs scattered along the road.  Lt. Walker, leaving ten riflemen, with some wagons which had not been able to keep up, immediately moved up to Santa Fe, where he found the guerrillas drawn up.  One statement makes them 400 string, another 250.  They were immediately charged by the riflemen, and without attempting to stand or resist, they scattered keeping up a random and destructive fire upon Lt. Walker’s little party of 30 men; who, finding it impossible to send forward to the advance, sent a messenger to this city stating nearly as above. Subsequent messengers, two or three of whom are men of the company, and who were in the fight, state that Ruff’s company had been surrounded and nearly every man cut off; that Lt. Walker had been killed, and that some sixty mules had been driven off by the guerrillas. Another, who left still later, contradicts the death of Lt. Walker, but states clearly and positively that he was ordered in by Lt. W. to report to Gen. Twiggs--that the lieutenant had posted the company, or what remained of them, in a ravine, from which they continued to keep up a most destructive fire upon the Mexican lancers.  A company of 1st dragoons, Lt. Gardiner’s, has been sent out, and also a mounted company of Louisiana volunteers.

Seven o'clock, P.M.  A few soldiers just arrived from Santa Fe with dispatches to Gen. Twiggs.--Some of them report that an engagement had taken place between the guerrillas and Lieut. Walker, in which the former lost some 25 men, and the latter 5 men killed and wounded.  One of the men who came says that there was only one American killed.

Further from Lt. Walker’s command--By express.--Just as we were going to press we received the following letter, written after the engagement:

Santa Fe, jan. 4--9 o'clock.

Here we are--we have lost about 300 pack mules--one hundred thousand dollars worth of property! 

The guerrillas attacked us about 4 o'clock; we have lost about ten men out of thirty under Lieut. Walker, of the rifles.  He was obliged to dismount his men in an open prairie, for at the first fire 17 horses broke from under their riders.  Thirty men were not enough to protect a million worth of property.

We understand that some of the merchants who suffered from this loss of the mules taken by the robbers left the city for Orizaba, or Cordova, (we suppose) to enter into an arrangement with them.--We wish them success.

The steamer New Orleans, which reached New Orleans on the 18th, with Vera Cruz dates to the 14th January, brings further particulars.

The account says that the portion of the train cut off had incautiously lagged behind.  Col. Miles could not wait for them to come up, but left a guard of 25 men behind, which was totally inadequate against the sudden onset of 400 guerrillas.  The loss may have been exaggerated, and it will, moreover, fall principally upon foreign merchants, to whom the pack mules stolen belonged.  One house is said to have lost property worth $54,000, and English firm.  The French and Spanish merchants robbed were able to obtain the restoration of their goods by paying smartly, but no compromise could be made by English and American merchants. Their reliance now is upon Gen. Twiggs, who is expected to assess upon the district of Orizaba, whence the brigands came, the amount lost.  In the skirmish it is supposed that three or four men of the mounted rifles were killed, and eight or ten of the Mexican muleteers. [JNA]

NNR 73.340-341 January 29, 1848 Gen. Winfield Scott’s orders no. 395, levying contributions on Mexican states

General Orders No, 395

To support in part the military occupation of the Republic of Mexico by the army of the United States, the several States of the republic, already occupied and others as they shall become occupied are, or will be assessed by the year in dollars

This assessment is the quadruple of the direct taxes paid by the several states to their lateral government in the year 1843 or 1844. But, on the other hand all transit duties, heretofore payable at gates of cities and on passing the lines between states, have been abolished together with national lotteries. The tobacco monopoly will be abolished from and after the present year. The cultivation and the sale of that plant shall here after be free- save any duty that the US may have imposed or shall hereafter impose on the import of tobacco though the customs houses at Mexican ports occupied by this army,

The governors and members of the legislatures in different stats, and the collecting officers now in commission and theretofore charged with the collection of the federal dues of any kind, will be individually held responsible in their persons and property for the collecting and full payment of this assessment of the twelfth monthly at the usual state capitals respectively or other places or places within the same, as maybe by appointed by the US commander within each state.

The assessment on each state that may hereafter [ . . . illegible . . . ]….the first day of the month within which the occupation may take place in wonder to avoid all calculations founded on days less than a money. Hence no credit will be allowed a state for any payment previously made to the federal governed, or its officers, for nay part of a month within which the state shall have been occupied by the American forces. In the sate already so occupied the assessments will be considered as having commenced with the present month, and be demanded accordingly.

In payment of the money assessment any state may substitute at a fair valuation with the consent of the US commanding earlier therein such articles of subsistence and for are as many may be found convenient to the two parties.

On the failure of any state to pay its assessment of [ . . . illegible . . . ]…and their property seized registered reported and converted to the use of occupation in strict accordance to the general regulations of this army. No [ . . . illegible . . . ] or abdication of office by any of the said Mexican [ . . . illegible . . . ] obligations or beastliest.

If the forgoing measures should fall to enforce the regular payment, as above from any state the commanding officer of the US forces with the same will immediately proceed to collect in money or kind form the earthier inhabitants other than [ . . . illegible . . . ] friends within his reach the amount of assessment due fro the state taking care always to make the collection as equitable as saving as practicable and to report the [ . . . illegible . . . ] officer this army. Any waste of wanton injury committed in these operations, as well as fraud and corruption shall be vigorously prosecuted before a tribal of the army.

With a view to a vigorous accountability to receipts in payment of assessments wither in a [ . . . illegible . . . ]…..or in kind will be assigned by some quartermaster commissary or payment of this army, named by the commanding officer within a state and be duly assisted by the latter, who will also keep a register of all such payments. The amount of those payments and of forced levees will be reported only to general headquarters , as well as to Washington [ . . . illegible . . . ]… both b the receivers and the attesting and commanding officers within the several states

The usual dues heretofore levied on the precious metals in the interior by the federal government of Mexico will be continued and collected of the military chest of this army. Commanding officers [ . . . illegible . . . ] will inquire and report to general headquarters on the subject; but until further orders the following tale will be exacted.

On production of both gold and silver three percent; on melting [ . . . illegible . . . ]… the mark of the ounces, on assaying, $1 the bar for bars of silver at $150 each for bars of gold pr of gold and silver mixed, and on coinage the percentages on both metals heretofore paid by the rains respectively; according to contract with the Mexican government. Those contracts in every case will be particularly examined. The one real per mark on both gold and silver, heretofore paid to the college of [ . . . illegible . . . ]…societies institutions, and may collect as usual.

It is understood that the collection of the dues on production, melting and assaying may b made at the assay offices, and they will be demanded and received accordingly. The tree per centage on cowage will be collected for this army at the main. At both places officers of intelligence and accordance habits of inspection will be appointed from time to time to giver the necessary attendance.

The like penalties receipts attestations registers and reports are prescribed in respect to dues on the precious metals as are prescribed in respect to dues on the precious metals as are prescribed above for other contribution in money or in kind, and the former will continue also at the same period and under take circumstances-that is in the Mexican states already occupied by the American forces from the first instant and in other states from the beginning of the months within which the states shall be prospectively entered and occupied.

The American troops in spreading themselves over this republic will take care to observe the strictest disciplining and morals in respect to the per sums and property of the country- purchasing and paying for all necessaries and comports they may require and treating the unoffending inhabitants with forbearance and kindness. The high honor of our country as well as the particular honor of this army, must and shall be maintained amongst the few instances in our ranks. The [ . . . illegible . . . ]…be permitted to dishonor the whole mass of our citizens and soldiers at home and abroad. The miscreants must therefore be watched, and for every good officer denounce and sent before the proper tribunals for exemplary punishment. This required of every good officer and soldier. Men [ . . . illegible . . . ]… maintain the honor of freemen when abroad. If they forget that they will degrade themselves to the level of felons and slaves, and may be rightfully condemned and treated as such for felons according to the laws of God and man, are slaves.

The laws of war will also be strictly observed towards all Mexicans in arms who respect those laws. For the treatment of these atrocious bands of guerilleros and armed rancheros, see general order No. 327, dated the 12th inst.

By command of Maj. Gen. Scott


NNR 73.341 Jan. 29, 1848 Guerrilla attacks in Lower California

Lower California.  Advices from Mazatlan have been received to the 30th ult.  The guerrillas under Mijates, made an attack upon the Cape, (Lower California,) and were completely routed--Majares and many other Mexicans being killed.  Pa Paz, further north in the Peninsula, was also the scene of a sanguinary conflict between the guerrillas, under Captain Peneda, and the Americans.  The place was reduced to ashes by the fire that took place between the combatants.  The Mexicans were finally compelled to retire.  There are rumors of other engagements, but nothing to be relied on.

The reported deaths of Mr. Cloud, paymaster, and Lieut. Miner, of the U.S. artillery, are confirmed.   [JNA]

NNR 73.341 January 29, 1848 orders licensing gaming houses, &c. 

Office of civil and military governor,
National palace, December 20, 1847

On and after the first day of January, 1848, three gaming houses will be licensed and recognized as lawful in the city of Mexico. Each of these will pay in advance, a monthly tax of $500, and all other gamin houses are positively prohibited.

After the specified date all personal property found in any house or place in which public gaming without license, is detected, and all money and property employed in such unlicensed public gaming house will be confiscated and the persons so detected will be subject to imprisonment for thirty days, and to be fined according to circumstances from fifty to two hundred dollars. By the governor

RP HAMMOND Sec’y, &c.


NNR 73.341 January 29, 1848 specie seized for duties
NNR 73.341 items

Army of Occupation

Brazos Santiago dates of Jan. 11, afford no recent intelligence from Monterey.

Col. Davenport left Matamoras on the 8th instant for the mouth of the river Brazos Santiago, on a tour of inspections.

The $90,000 in species which recently arrived at the Brazos, from Camargo was consigned to the SC Haiz II. U S consul. The duties amounted to $7,000 and the American collector was willing to receive a written promise from the consigned pledging himself to pay this sum on the demand. This the consigned would not consent to nor would be given informationas who where he had pleased the specie. Mr. Chapman, the collector then forced Mr. H’ doors, found the silver and placed [ . . . illegible . . . ] ever it, which were not to be withdrawn until the duty was paid.

Notice had been given by a number of Americans that a meeting of the friends of education would be held at Matamoros, and the Mexicans were invited to attend, and take the lead in the arrangements.

Lower California. Avarices from Mazatlan have been received to the 30th ult. The guerrillas under Mijates made an attack upon the Cape, and were completely [ . . . illegible . . . ] (routed)- Mijates and many other Mexicans being killed. La Paz, further north in the Peninsula, was also the scene of a sanguinary conflict between the guerrillas, under Captain Peneda, and the Americans. The place between the combatants. The Mexicans were finally compelled to retire. There are rumors of other engagements, but nothing to be returned on.

The reported deaths of Mr. Cloud, paymaster, and Lieut. Miner, of the US artillery, are confirmed.  [LVW]

NNR 73.352 January 29, 1848 rumors of Nicholas Philip Trist having sent project of a treaty to Washington

Rumors had revealed Vera Cruz [ . . . illegible . . . ] last dates from thence, that a treaty had been concluded between Mr. Trist, and the Mexican commissioners. Vera Cruz papers placed no reliance upon the report but private letters from the city of Mexico have been received which contented such a result. Reports were current in Washington other beginning of this week, which looked to such an event. On Wednesday the National Intelligencer announced that they had themselves received a letter from their correspondent at New Orleans, dated the 16th inst. Giving information which he said was received from such a source as to leave little doubt on his mind if its correctness, that Mr. Trist has signed a treaty, and that it will be received here (N. Orleans) by the next arrival.[LVW]

NNR 73.352 January 29, 1848 Army and Navy letters to Mexico free of postage

Letters for the army and navy.- The postmaster general has decided that letters to the officers and seamen of the navy, as well as of the army in Mexico, and on the Mexican coast or the frontier are free of postage, under the law of the last session.  [LVW]

NNR 73.352 January 29, 1848 Gen. Caleb Cushing’s brigade sent to San Angel January 29, 1848

Gen. Cushing’s brigade comprising of the 1st and 28th Pennsylvania regiments, New York, South Carolina and Massachusetts [ . . . illegible . . . ] were sent to San Angel.   [LVW]

NNR 73.352 January 29, 1848 detachment under Col. Jones Mitchell Withers sent to collect revenue in the mining district

A small command had been dispatched from the city of Mexico, composed primarily of the 9th infantry under Col Withers, for the [ . . . illegible . . . ] district of the Real del Monte, on the road of inwards Tampico, for the purpose of [ . . . illegible . . . ] the revenues [ . . . illegible . . . ]…Another was expected in a few days for Toluca, the capital of the state of Mexico. [LVW]

NNR 73.353 February 5, 1848 insistence of California on being acquired by the United States

CALIFORNIA.- The N. York Journal of Commerce has a letter from Monterey, under date of Oct. 10, which says-

The advance party of the emigrant column for this season, is already in California. We have ceased counting their wagons-and as for the emigrants, you might was well attempt to number the trees which wave over them. These emigrants would have settled the fare of California without any declaration of war with Mexico. They might perhaps have had a little fighting here between themselves and the natives, but their triumphs was sure, not only in their courage and skill, but in heir overpowering numbers.

Some of your politicians talk of giving up California. Why you can no more giver her up, than you can the soil on which you tread. You may say she shall go back to Mexico, but we won’ t go there; she will be a territory, and then a state of the American Confederacy, and nothing else. We don’t care a fig how you figure it out on your political maps; we have figured it out for ourselves and our work will stand, whatever may become yours.  [LVW]

NNR 73.354 February 5, 1848 Charleston "Mercury" on relations with Mexico

Our Mexican Relations- The Charleston Courier published a communication of considerable length signed, "Lorondes." The writer, probably General Waddy Thompson or Mr. Poinsett coincides mail with the views of Mr. Calhoun, as recently set forth in the senate. The subjugation quotation must limit our extracts for the present.

"It has been said that in offering his resolutions recently in the senate, deciding it inexpedient to subjugate and hold Mexico, Mr. Calhoun is denouncing a purpose which no one entertains. It is strange that this should be said, when most of the leading democratic papers openly advocate that policy and the official organ itself does not disclaim it I should not be surprised before the expiration of there months to see those who doubt its expediency denounced as guilty of moral treason. He must be blind to the signs of the times, and greatly ignorance of the progress of popular opinion, and the tendency of measures now in progress, who does no see that "to the completion it must come at last." For what other purpose is the large additional force required? Less than ten thousand men have achieved the conquest and occupation of the capital- we have been told, over and over again, that the occupation of the capital would be followed by a [ . . . illegible . . . ] for peace. In less that three months from that ever an before its efficacy has been tested, and led is maid for more troops- surly a force of more than 30,.000men which is not here is sufficient to retain the possession of the capital, and all the country to Vera Cruz, if then thousand could conquer it. More especially now, when the Mexican army has not only been dispersed by annihilated and nearly all their arms and mutations taken in them- why send so large an additional force, for any other purpose that additional and permanent conquest? We have no reason to suppose that it will have any great indulgence in conquering a peace- we have already possession of the half of the republic and its capital- of several departments on the northern frontier- of California, and most of the ports and to us on the Pacific. If these conquests have wholly failed of the end desires, the anticipated uncertain efforts of further conquests can scarcely be worth the blood and treasure which they will cost. Besides the dishonest of repeated and humiliating details in sight of their capital, it is difficult to point out any very substantial injury which has been caused to Mexico by our occupation of the country. As to security of persons an property, she has not known so good, and so little is to be hoped, understand to be continue to be. The people are left there to purpose the usual avocations, and more profitable than ever before. Every town and city in Mexico in our possession has been made a watering place- and millions of dollars of foreign capital expended there; enough one would suppose to stimulate the industry of even Mexican Lazzarom, which constitute nineteenths of the population. In these have been the results heretofore, what ground have we taken that it will be otherwise to fortune conquests.  [LVW]

NNR 73.354 February 5, 1848 Judge John McLean’s letter on the need for an end to the war


The following letter was written to a gentleman In the state, and has been furnished us for publication. The opinions of our distinguished men, upon the war and the means of ending it should be known, Judge McLean occupied a high official position, an had been named and has many friends in the social states for the presidency.

[Cincinnati Gazette]

My dear sir: To all human appearance the termination of this miserable war with Mexico is more remote than when the first blow was struck. In my judgment it was unnecessarily and unconstitutional commenced by marching our army into disputed territory in the possession of Mexico; and I think that congress, who may questionable have the power, should be put an end to the war on just and honorable possibilities.

After agreeing upon thee terms on which a territory should be made, they should call upon the Mexican resolution to offer a peace to Mexico upon that suspended. If the president shall refuse to do the military appropriation bill the army should be conquered to take such positions as shall carry on the views of congress. These bills will presented and veto, and he would be bound by their inquires. This may be done by the house.

I hope congress will refuse to issue any more treasury notes. The notes demanded in addition to those already in circulation would flood the country with that description of paper. Such an emission would constitute a government bank, controlled and managed by a part of a party administration. We have new authority to issue five million notes more. I would not increase this circulation, a dollar but reduce it as much as possible. Such a system would be [ . . . illegible . . . ]…and the public liberty than any other system of baking that could be devised.

To meet any deficiency of the revenue to pay the current expense of the war, I would authorize a loan for part of pay not more than six percent means of loans cannot be made at this relate, let the administration resort to a system of taxation. Noting short of this can show in addition to the sacrifice of life, what we pay for military glory. This was policy in the better day s of the republic.

The late war with England was nobly sustained by the people, not only in the field out by the payment of taxes. And they will sustain every just war which our country shall be involved. But I risk to think in saying that an attempt to adopt such a system of taxation would wind up this Mexican war to sixty days. And this shows that the war should be put an end to. This may be done by congress in ninety days, and I pray God that they may do it.

Very truly, yours,


NNR 73.355 February 5, 1848 opposition of Gov. Albert Gallatin Brown of Mississippi to the Wilmot Proviso

Mississippi – The Legislature assembled at Jackson on the 30 January; and organized, both branches electing administration officers

The Senate – Lipencomb, of Lowndes, was chosen president, Mr. Dezier, secretary.

The House – J.J. McRead, of Clarke county, was elected speaker and E. P. Russell, clerk.

Governor Brown’s annual message, [ . . . illegible . . . ] the recommendations of his former message in relation to the payment of Planters’ bank bonds.

Finances – Relative to the current condition of the financial affairs of the state the governor says: - "The treasury, having recovered from its embarrassments, has continued for two years past, without intermission, to pay all authorized demands upon it, and now contains a surplus of $115,755.41, exclusive of the two and three percent funds."

Federal relations – On the subject of the acquisition of territory he takes the anti-Wilmot proviso ground.  [LVW]

NNR 73.357 February 5, 1848 order No. 373 re-organizing part of the Army in Mexico

Army of Occupation

General orders, No 373- Reorganization of this division of the army.

Bvt. Brig. Gen. Smith’s brigade- Brevet Capt. Page assistant adjusting generals; regiments mounted riflemen, 3d. Regiment artillery, 3d. 7th, 12th and 14th regiments of infantry and Marine Corps.

Brig. Gen. Cadwallader’s brigade- Capt. Deas. Assistant adjusted general; 4h artillery,1at, 6th, 8th, 9th, and 11th regiments of infantry.

Bvt. Col Riley’s brigade- Capt Canby assistant adjutant general; 2nd regiment artillery, 2nd 4th and 5th regiments of infantry and voltigeur regiment.

The field batteries of Capt. Taylor, Dr. French, and Dr. Hung, will report and serve in the brigades as above seated.

Capts. Mackall and Hooker, assistant adjutant Generals, will report respectively to Maj Gen Patterson, and Brig. Gen. Scott


NNR 73.357 February 5, 1848 order respecting licenses for selling tobacco, cigars, and playing cards


Headquarters, Department of Vera Cruz
December 28, 1847.

Sealed proposals will be received at this office up to 2 o’clock on the 1st of January, 1848, for the contract, to the highest bidder, for the privilege of selling tobacco and cigars, and also the manufacture of playing cards for the moths of January, February, and March next.

By orders of Brig. Gen. Twiggs


NNR 73.357 Feb. 5, 1848 order no. 3 on a train for Mexico City
NNR 73.357 Lt. Bedney F. McDonald’s party attacked


All persons not connected with the army (not including suters, but exclusive of persons referred to in the 2nd party of his orders,) desirous of placing themselves under the protection of the troops that will leave here with a train in a few days for the city of Mexico, must furnish their own transportation and subsistence, and report themselves to Capt. Gleason, for assignment to a place in the line of march, and obey such orders and regulations as may be authorized to give.

Merchants desirous of sending up to the city of Mexico wagons or pack mules, will immediately report to the lieutenant colonel commanding, the number of each, in order that he may assign to then a position in the line, and also appoint a conductor to take charge of the game.

It is recommended that the merchants appoint this conductor he reporting to the commanding officer for special instructions.

By order of Lieut. Col. Milers:
1st inf. AA Adj General. 

Lieut. McDonald, of the 3rd artillery; Lieut. Catinet, assistant quartermasters, and Mr. Rivers, interpreter, with a small part, left Puebla for Jalapa on the 17th ult. having a considerable sum of money in their charge. They were attacked on that night by some fourteen robbers, but although the three named were the only persons of the party who had arms, they defeated the landornes, and arrived safe at their destination. [LVW]

NNR 73.357 Feb. 5, 1848 Surgeon Alexander F. Suter’s obituary

Assistant surgeon Suter, U.S.A., died at the city of Mexico on the 15th inst., very justly and highly appreciated as a surgeon and gentleman. All honors were paid his memory by his brother officers.

        [Amer. Star, Dec. 13] [JNA]

NNR 73.357 February 5, 1848 dinner to Lt. Col. Dixon Stansbury Miles, Gen. David Emanuel Twiggs' toast

Col, Miles- A public dinner was given to col Miles prior to his having Vera Cruz for the interior.

General Twiggs toast- At dinner given to Col. Miles the following toast was given by General Twiggs:

"Honor to the citizen solider, who steps forward to battle for his country! Shame to the knaves at home who give and comfort to our enemies."

A question arises whether this hit was aimed at President Polk, or at those of the people of the US that have ventured to utter doubts of the property of the present war- whichever the shaft may have been armed at, the sentiment from an officer in their service, was insulting in the highest degree.

NNR 73.357 February 5, 1848 Padre Caledonio Domeco Jarauta and Col. Jones Mitchell Withers

We being to suspect that Gen. Patterson hurt the feelings of their reverend caption of guerrilleros, when he refused to make a treaty with him accepting his submission on some fanciful terms dictated by the padre’s caution or high sense of honor. It is news to hear of him in arms again at the head of eight hundred men, in the valley of Mexico and evening carrying his reconnaissance in person up to the gates of Guadalupe, almost a suburb of the capital His presence there at the head of such a force his jaunt almost to headquarters, as if in defiance and derision of the American army betoken the audacity and perhaps something more when we connect hi movements with those Col Withers and the rumors that prevailed in Mexico of disasters having appended to this detachment.- Col. Withers command left Mexico on the evening of the 26th December. Real del Monte lies northeast from Mexico on the Tampico road distant by a direct route only about forty-five miles, but by the ordinary road between sixty and seventy. We are told that on the 27th, Jarauta slept on San Juan de Teotihacan, and o nt eh 28th rode to Guadalupe, with an escort of only fifteen men, and thence continued on to Tlanepantla, on the Queretaro road.

New Teotihuacan-to shorten the name - is also northeast of Mexico but east of the Tampico or Real del Monte road which road, however is pursued from Mexico to San Cristobal by travelers going to Teotihuacan. San Cristobal is on the neck between the two lakes of Tezcuso and San Cristobal, and about twenty miles west of Teotihuacan. The rumor in Mexico was that Col. Withes command had been cut to pieces about 20 miles distant from Mexico, that is some five miles beyond San Cristobal: and as he started out on the evening of the 26th he may have made the twenty miles the next day. One the following day, the 28th Jarauta must have passed San Cristobal closed on his rear, and he must have been in a position to observe the colonels march the preceding day from Teotihuacan.

From these facts several questions arise- Could Col. Withers have been so near to Jarauta, without knowing it? Would he have suffered such a force as threatening his flank or to get to San Cristobal on his ear? Would he not have taken steps immediate to rout and disperse it? Or finally supposing him ignorant of Jarauta’s presence, pursing his way toward the miners is it not most probable that Jarauta, with his eight hundred men would rather have followed him dogged his march in the hope of finding some unguarded money to attach him with advantage than to ride in idle bravado towards the capital?

It does not seem easy to solve these riddles or explain the mystic and highly probable rumor of Wither’s defeat. Only hypotheses we can venture on is to suppose that Jarauta did attack Withers or what is more likely was a sudden attack himself and his escort of fifteen cut off from the retreat to Teotihuacan, and obliged to escape by taking the former route to Mexico. It is certainly no the last obvious question if Jakarta had eight hundred followers at Teotihuacan, how did he happen to be rambling to Tanepantil west of the north task so far from his command.  [N. American]  [LVW]

NNR 73.357 February 5, 1848 California tranquil, rumors of Mexicans across the border
NNR 73.357-73.358 naval expedition to capture the western Mexican ports

Monterey, California, October 4th, 1847

The affairs of California continue tranquil. Now and then a report reaches us of Mexicans having crossed the southern line of the territory; but these are idle rumors. The Mexicans have enough to do at home. We apprehend no outbreak here, the sober portion of the community would regard such a step as one of frantic folly; and even that restless class which is found in every country would shrink from the idea of its fearful issue.

The wild Indians give us some trouble. They come down from the Tulares, steal our houses and drive them into the mountains, where they kill and eat them. The prefer horse flesh to the finest [ . . . illegible . . . ]. We want in California for a few years some four hundred men, well mounted. They would repress any possible tumult, and protect property in the settlements from the depredation of the wild Indians. You send us out huge guns, which are of no more use than so many hollow trees. No instruments of war is of use here, unless it is invented with locomotive qualities.

The Congress, Portsmouth, and Dale, are on the Mexican coast. The Preble leaves tomorrow for Panama, where she is to receive Commodore Jones, and then return here. Commodore Shubrick goes at once with the Independence and Cyane to join the Congress and Portsmouth, and will then capture Mazatlan, San Blas, Guaymas and Acapulco. It is likely there may be hard knocks at the latter place; indeed, nothing could prevent this but the fact that a considerable portion of the troops have been sent to the city of Mexico. The commodore, I believe, intends to garrison Mazatlan. This is by far the most important point on the Pacific. What a stride four our arms from the Atlantic to the Pacific- but what treasures and blood it has cast. Now is the end yet. Think not of [ . . . illegible . . . ] it is an idle dream. There is no discharge in this war. There is no settled government or permanent party with which to make a peace. The leaders are all military chieftains, whose ascendancy depends on the continuance of hostilities. Peace would deprive them of their commands and of the subsistence.

Harvest this year are very abundant in California; wheat in the kernel is low, and the grinding commonly high. We want mills. Fortunes might be made by them here. The must however, but for by steam for we have but few water falls except in the north. We want also stream sawmills. We have fine forest trees for lumber and yet boards are fifty dollars a thousand and difficult to get at that much of the sawing is done by hand. Send us out a dozen good saw mills and men to manage them.

The Rev. Walter Colton is still with us exercising the functions of accolade. This gentleman has so far gained the confidence and esteem of the inhabitants that as soon as they heard he made application to be relieved from his accolade ship, the whole town of Monterey raised their voices demanding his reelection or appointment, when was accorded to the, and Mr. Colton has agreed to stay with us until the congress said for home.

Should Mr. Colton leave California before the war is over, we should be in but a sorry plight in Monterey. It will never due to let an ignorant man hold the accolade’s staff in Monterey, after Mr. Colton- The lawyers now here would eat up both accolade and client. WG  [Cor. N. American and US Gazette   [LVW]

NNR 73.369 February 12, 1848 Gen. Franklin Pierce’s compliment to the officers of West Point

WEST POINT VINDICATED- In some remarks made in reply to a complimentary address at Concord, New Hampshire, on the 27th ultimo, General Pierce paid the following very explicit and manly tribute to the eminent utility of the Military Academy at West Point:

"Gen. Pierce proceeded to say he had to retract opinions he had formerly entertained and expressed in relation to the Military Academy at West Point. He was now of opinion that the city of Mexico could not have been entered in the way it was but for the officers of the old army, mostly from West Point. Services were rendered by the officers of the topographical engineers and ordnance, which could not have been rendered but by men who had received the most complete military education. The force of the Americans had been overrated. Over 7,500 effective men left Puebla to attack a city of 250,000 inhabitants, defended by 35,000 of the best troupes ever raised in Mexico, one hundred pieces of cannon, and the finest fortifications ever raised, in addition to the natural defenses of marshes and lakes."  [LVW]

NNR 73.370-371 February 12, 1848 rejection of a direct tax to finance the war with Mexico, comment on Whig reluctance to vote for the loan

[Transcriber’s note: A section of this article is missing, but most words are deciphered. Some misinterpretations may prevail.]

UNITED STATES FINCACES. In references to the vies of the authorities upon this highly important [ . . . illegible . . . ] Washington Union for the 4th says, under [ . . . illegible . . . ]

The new pretence- Direct Taxation. The clear as the [ . . . illegible . . . ]…yesterday in disclaiming against directed taxation as mode of sustain the war. Who proposes any such thing? Certainly not the administration [ . . . illegible . . . ]. They have presented their plan of financial and frankly assumed the responsibility by the of and success, ill adopted and of their approval by the people. The plan endorses a particular form of loan a temporary war of tax on [ . . . illegible . . . ] and [ . . . illegible . . . ] and wish regulation of their price of the people. In its main [ . . . illegible . . . ] , has already been tried with complete and unprecedented success. The form of loan proposed placed at the last session of congress, more than fifty million of capital at the disposal of the government above par. Presented in a time of war it lifted the cried of the treasury higher perhaps than it ever stood before even in them of peace. [ . . . illegible . . . ] crated not the slight at embarrassment in the money wanted, on the most favorable terms, and it sent [ . . . illegible . . . ] … It gave the treasury at once alt the money it wanted on the most [ . . . illegible . . . ], away unaccepted. The government asks authorities to make a similar loan now for a similar purpose. The comment of ways and mean instead of granting the loan or recommending the small temporary duty [ . . . illegible . . . ] and tea and coffee, refuse both; present to the government a bill authorizing the issue of a naked six cent, such and then its entrapment gets up full of zeal to [ . . . illegible . . . ] direct taxation!

In this state of facts the case is plain. If the whigs [ . . . illegible . . . ] the house wish to finish supplies to the treasure [ . . . illegible . . . ] the country in the war they know how to do it- How to do it without embarrassment to the money [ . . . illegible . . . ] without burdensome taxation upon the people [ . . . illegible . . . ] out the slightest disparagement of the public credit [ . . . illegible . . . ] they no mean to furnish the supplies they mean to break down the war, and with tit break down their rights of character of the country, by their holding money from the government- they lent them say soon openly and strictly. The ms do this sooner or later. So [ . . . illegible . . . ]…will on leave them from [ . . . illegible . . . ] war. And that the chapter of accidents they are [ . . . illegible . . . ] vote. He government the facilities which it asks and deems required for the supply of the treasury and the [ . . . illegible . . . ] of the public credit in view of the expenditures necessary to save the lustrate of our army from [ . . . illegible . . . ] and the cause of our country against her enemy [ . . . illegible . . . ] failure and same?

They can by their votes answer the question [ . . . illegible . . . ] the negative, and then face their constituents on the responsibility upon the nomination and those [ . . . illegible . . . ]….support it by passing this measure which the administration has already tried successfully and now [ . . . illegible . . . ] voting they take the responsibility away from the administration ,and assume it for themselves. In the [ . . . illegible . . . ] they will stain responsibility of it before the people. [ . . . illegible . . . ] the treasure is embarrassed, or the money market [ . . . illegible . . . ]………..The people will be tricked into a position of national failure and embarrassment it an discredit and dishonor- and they will see through the trick!

We put these vies on record now, because me men refer to them again, and keep them before the people. We warn the people that opinions whispers are already beginning to be heard among the whig leaders at Washington, to the effect that it will revere do it blew of the party [ . . . illegible . . . ]…loan measures, [ . . . illegible . . . ]….recommended by the [ . . . illegible . . . ]. That measure it is said in high who [ . . . illegible . . . ] ….of the country and far to favorable for the government to meet the views of our people [ . . . illegible . . . ]…. Hence it is that the government plan of a loan is thus aside in committee to make way of the issue of once six per cent stock . hence it is that a monetary cry is up. Hence it is that the do-nothing policy reported on a larger scale, and ore than eight weeks to refer the president’s annual message. And once it is that the chairman of the committee of way and means gets up to thunder in the house against the react taxation which no none on behave o the administration has even suggested.

But none of these pretenses will avail the whigs before the country. The must meet the supply question boldly they must bear the mark. If they mean on principle and openly to refuse money of the war let them stand they can on that position before the people! But if indirection and [ . . . illegible . . . ] – by shame measures or half measures. Looking at once to the embarrassment of the treasury and of the country- they mean to prevail the measures of the war and prolong it nuances we pledge ourselves that on our part at least no effort shall be [ . . . illegible . . . ] to put their factories ours in [ . . . illegible . . . ] like be [ . . . illegible . . . ] and we invite our brethren of the democratic press through the country to co-operate with in our work of just and [ . . . illegible . . . ] exposure. [LVW]

NNR 73.371 February 12, 1848  "moral treason"

[Transcriber’s Note:  A section of this article is missing but most words are deciphered. Some misinterpretations may have occurred.]

The Union said boldly, (he might use a stranger phrase) that the opposing were impossible" words like these feel from the lips of the celebrated Mr. John Bell, a senator from Tennessee, in which is speech of yesterday. We repeat it boldly, and before the country, at they are responsible for the [ . . . illegible . . . ] of this war. Since we wrote our article of Tuesday night – since we heard the honorable senator’s each yesterday, the following letter dressed to a gentleman has been put into our hands. This ledger is [ . . . illegible . . . ] in our possession. It is from the pen of a gentleman who was once a whig member of congress from Pennsylvania, and is now in command of a company of volunteers, and the governor of the natural palace in the city of Mexico. We call upon a free and enlightened people to read this letter. We call upon the whigs to read it, and answer at the bar of their country to the transgressions of which they have been guilty.- [ . . . illegible . . . ] readers will see the writer abjures the whig city and denounces the conduct of its leaders as the burst worst kind of treason. Such are the changes which is treasonable conducts the whig leaders is daily producing in the mind of the patriotic men of their own need. To such men the democratic party should [ . . . illegible . . . ] the warm grasp of welcome. Let patriots come our of ranks, whatever may have been their former party relations. These times of shameless directions, men occupy high places call for the efforts of man who loves his country to put them down-democracy welcomes all who will join in the patriotic. Thee mortal traitors must be put down, and branded with the shame which their revolting treachery to interests and honor of their country deserves. They [ . . . illegible . . . ] the fate of the opponents of the revolution, and mortal traitors of the war of 1812. Let their doom [ . . . illegible . . . ] let their doom [ . . . illegible . . . ] of the moral traitors of 1847.

It seems that he condition of which may man can carry or aspire to nomination for the presidency of the whig, is , that he should publish himself to the world as a moral traitor in his feelings to his country be the judge. The supreme court, who has thrown off the enemies understand it, and hence he has taken the [ . . . illegible . . . ] and passed the ordeal. His letter, it he were a private person; would be a disgraceful production, but occupying the official position which he does, it is more and deserves impeachment at the bar of public opinion. Are those which are thus disparaging and degrading their country before the world extravagant enough to for the suffrages of a patriotic people for the highest of their gift? So it seems. Alas! What a liberal upon American Character does such a speculate presented we forbear But to the letter:

"I believe that there can be no peace. I have always believed this and my belief is confirmed by the occurrences of every day. Let there be decision to the [ . . . illegible . . . ] and them let us have vigorous decisions in the world.. ******** The whigs are mad. I hang my head in humiliate and same, when I think I have a number of their party. Mr. [ . . . illegible . . . ] (Webster’s) speech has been republished here by the Mexicans in every variety of form, as well as a synopsis of Mr. Clavis and they have been made the foundation of appeals to the faltering their hoes that one of the parties of our country will arrest the prosecution of the war, and put off forever, in my opinion all prospects of an amicable settlement of it. It seems to me that the whig leaders are guilty of the worst kind of treason I have discovered here that some on is the states who has had access to all the publics of the country has been in correspondence with the Mexicans and the Mexican cause I have in my possession nearly three hundred of these [ . . . illegible . . . ]. Many of theme are translated and republished here; and one of them an article from the "new Work Express." (an appeal to the Catholics of the US to opposes Mr. Polk’s administration, upon the ground that the war was a religious war- a crusader against the Catholic religion in Mexico) has not only been published in the Mexican papers, but published in the hand bills and thousands a at all the churches in the city of Mexico’s. Who can tell in views of facts like these who much of the blood that has been shed in their war is owing to the action of such publications [Union}.

NNR 73.372 Feb. 12, 1848 Personal letter from soldier (listed in index as "guerrilla affairs, attempt to assassinate Capt. Bragg")
NNR 73.372 Gen. George Caldwalder’s march to Toluca


Gen. Cadwallader has arrived at Toluca.  The following letter from a friend will give an account of the march, and their arrival at their place of destination.

Toluca, January 1848

My dear Mustang:--I promised to tell you what kind of a country we traversed in reaching this place.  Hearing that the diligence is robbed every day, I have waited some other opportunity of writing, and now hear that the dragoons leave for Mexico in a few moments, which gives me little time.

After quitting Tacubaya, our road began to ascend the country continuing sterile and volcanic, like that around Contreras.  Towards sunset we reached a hacienda, or inn, and encamped; the night closing upon us bitterly cold.  The infantry encamped mostly around the brow of a hill adjacent, and few pleasant dreams, I ween, did the cold wind permit to them.  Early on the 7th, we started again, the earth white with frost, and icicles hanging from the rocks, the read, if possible, harder and more finished than yesterday, and ascending always.  Arriving at the highest point of the mountain ridge, we saw a number of crosses together, and were told that they commemorated a desperate conflict that cam off here some thirty years ago between the Spaniards and Mexicans.  The first were attacked in position by the latter, and gained the day.  One cross fastened into the solid rock marks the grave of the Mexican general.

At this point opened upon us one of the finest views I ever saw--the valley of Toluca.  Stretched out in front and on either side it lay, studded with villages and haciendas, and just enough watered to give variety, while far away rose the snowy summit of Nevado de Toluca, with its wide crater.  I thought to myself, had Tom Moore seen this, he had certainly written the "Sweet Vale of" Toluca, instead of that other.

The road now descended regularly, and we came upon Lerma, a small dirty village, every home filled with children, gaping women, and surmounted by a white flag--the only clean thing about the premises, and the prepared, no doubt, for this occasion only.

Before getting to Lerma, however, we passed a small bridge stream, the passage of which was defended by a sandbag fort, and the hills adjacent were also crowned by works--all made while we lay at Puebla and abandoned on the fall of the capital.--It is said that the fort at the bridge was carried by "Dutch Mary," certainly she was first there.

Capt. Thompson took his squadron on to Toluca this afternoon, in company with the alcalde, who had come out to meet the general.

At sunrise on the next day, (8th ,) we started for Toluca, some ten miles distant, marching for some short distance on the edge of a marsh, where we perceived abundance of waterfowl, and promised ourselves some good sport …  The country on either side became more and more fertile: a superior cultivation to any we had seen in Mexico, obtained; fine haciendas, with American looking farm-yards and granaries; abundance of cattle, &c., &c.--all proclaiming a decidedly improved state of society.

We reached Toluca after a few hours march, and, as usual, were surrounded by a dense mass of wondering beings, and took our quarters--the soldiers in convents, &c., and many of the officers by billet.  I have never seen a more pacific looking people in all our progress, not withstanding the preaching of father Jarauta, who was lately here. Some thousand troops, it is said, left here on our approach, with the government, for Morelia.

This town is capable of holding from 10,000 to 12,000 people, but at present has not so many.  It is prettily built, is very clean, and is supplied with good water by an aqueduct. Nor have we felt the degree of cold for which it has a reputation.

Yesterday the 11th infantry were ordered to retrace their steps as far as Lerma, and occupy that place.  Rumor says that the convention in which they were quartered suffered a few in the way of gold vessels, and the general thought it prudent to quarter the regiment where gold and silver are apparently unknown. [JNA, LVW]]

NNR 73.372 February 12, 1848 insurrections at Mexico City detected
NNR 73.372 disease in Gen. William Orlando Butler’s regiment
NNR 73.372 an affair in California
NNR 73.372 rumor of peace negotiations
NNR 73.372 Col. Jones Mitchell Withers reaches Real del Monte
NNR 73.372 Gens. Gabriel Valencia and Mariano Arista and Cols. Torrejon and Minon captured
NNR 73.372 arrival of silver bars at Mexico City
NNR 73.372 Indians rumored to be volunteering to aid or fight the Mexicans

Vera Cruz, Jan 20. An attempt has been made a insurrection in the city of Mexico, which failed.

Gen. Bulter’s regiment is suffering with diseases.

A Guadalajara paper of the 17th ult. says that news had reached Mazatlan of an attack on the Americans at Lapane and San Jose, by 1500 California rangers, which resulted in the defeat of the Americans and the destruction of their houses. Three American vessels left Mazatlan on the 2nd ult. to render assistance to the Americans at the places named.

It was rumored in the city of Mexico that the Mexican commissioners had offered to enter into a treaty of peace based on the proposing made by Mr. Trist at Tacubaya, and that the treaty in question had been dispatched to Washington.

Col. Withers command concerning the safely of which there had been so much fear, arrived without any molestation at Real del Monte.

Col. Wynkoop, whilst in pursuit of Jarauta and Rea, captured generals Valencia and Arista. They are [ . . . illegible . . . ] subsequently set at liberty on parole.

Major Taliaferro had arrived at the Mexican capital fro Real Del Monte with one hundred and fifty thousand dollars worth of silver bars, bring part of the assessment levied by gen. Scott on the sate and federal districts.

Cols. Torrejon and Minon and guard were captured by the Mexican Spy Company in the service of the American army.

Gen. Cadwallader’s command left the city of Mexico for Toluca; and reached Lunia without interruption. The troops under general C. were in fine sprits.

Indians war on the Texas frontier. Galveston dates of the 22d January state, that the consequences of some of the Delaware Indians encroaching on the hanging ground of the Camanches, a bloody fight took place, in which the Delaware were defeated with the loss of twenty five warriors. A fierce war between those tribes will probably ensure, as Delaware are eager for revenge.

A party of Camanches have stolen several horses from the camp of Captain Gillett. Lieut. Cuzzenx and twelve men went in pursuit, and came up with them on the ninth day, when a skirmish took place, in which seven Indians were killed. The stolen horse were recaptured with a number of others belonging to the Indians.

It is rumored that several tribes of Indians have volunteered to assist the Mexicans in carrying on the war- Late accounts, with more probability, say they offer to carry on toward against Mexico. There would be less danger on that side, which the Indians have sagacity enough to see! [LVW]

NNR 73.380-383 February 12, 1848 Albert Gallatin on war expenses

I. There are in political economy many debatable, doubtful, and complex propositions, some which it may be impossible, most of which it would extremely difficult, to discuss a popular and generally intelligible manner. But there are some, which every member of the community may bring home to himself and clearly understand. Among these may be counted the acquisition and application of capital.

Every man who enjoys a certain income knows that he will grow poorer if he spends more, and richer if he spends less, than the amount of that annual income. In the first case, he loses part of his capital: in the other he acquires a new capital. Every man who earns his living be his industry and labor, whatever this may be, knows perfectly well that if he spends annually less than he earns, the difference is an acquisition of capital. The journeyman who in the course of the ([ . . . illegible . . . ])

In every instance capital is produced by labor, and is equal to the excess of that which is produced over and above the amount in which is consumed. It is obvious that, since this is true of every individual, it is equally true of the aggregate of individuals who compose the nation. The acquisition of capital, or increase of wealth, of the United States is, in any one year, equal to the excess of the value of the productive labor of the people, over and above the value of that which they have consumed during that year. The whole capital of the United States has been produced by the accumulated aggregate of that annual excess of value produced over the value consumed.

However great this may be, it is generally been inadequate to the demand. In order that land may be productive, labor must be applied to it. In the forest land, which constitutes probably nineteen-twentieths of that which has as yet been cultivated, it is in the first place necessary to clear the land of trees and to enclose it. The average price of this amounts to four or five dollars per acre. It is clear that this first outlay, the cost of the humblest dwelling, and of absolutely necessary agricultural buildings, as well as that of horses and cattle, require a town and village, but throughout the whole country. As a whole, the general result has been much less in proportion than in New York, since during that period, the population of the United States at large has only been quadrupled. It seems probable that the whole amount of capital absorbed in the United States in that way, during that period of fifty years, does not fall much short of fifteen hundred millions of dollars.

The whole of that capital, whatever its amount may be, has not been yet actually expended, since the houses do exist; but it has been applied to an unproductive object. It is clear that no man who lives in his own house derives any revenue from it. It is a portion of that which he spends his own comfort, and which independent of wear and tear, is equal to the interest of the capital laid out in the building the house. If man lets a house, instead of enjoying it for his own use, he receives rent equivalent to the interest. But the person who occupies the house, or part of it, and who pays that rent does no derive any means of paying it from the house itself, but from his own income or labor. Thus in every instance, though forming and important and necessary portion of the fixed capital of the nation, dwelling houses are unproductive, and a portion of consumption, and not of the income of the nation.

Taking all these facts into consideration, it will be easily understood why the acquisition of circulating capital has been so slow in the United States, and why they were obliged to depend so long on the and afforded by foreign capital. At the time when independence was declared, and for more than thirty years after, America was in debt to Great Britain. Even now the amount of accumulated capital is comparatively small and inadequate to supply the ordinary demand for it. In almost every instance, the funds necessary to carry into effect extensive plans of improvement, whether rational or wild, have been borrowed abroad; and there is now a large debt due to foreigners, principally to British subjects, die not by individuals, but by several of the states. It is doubtful whether, pending the war with Mexico, the government of the United States could obtain any considerable loan at par for a six percent stock. Hence it is that the destruction of circulating capital, caused by the war expenses, is sensibly felt.

A merchant, having full confidence in the probity and skill of a man who has no property, sells him on credit merchandise worth five thousand; the goods are delivered, and on the same day are burnt, or otherwise destroyed, by some unforeseen accident. In this case there is no capital left which represents debt. There remains only a promise to pay, from a man who has no property whatever. In order to discharge the debt, he must, by his subsequent labor and frugality, acquire new capital.

The same result attends war expenses, and for the same reason: the capital thus expended has been destroyed.

The public debt of Great Britain may account to about eight hundred millions sterling; and there is no existing capital which represents that debt. The creditors hold only a promise to pay the interest of which they receive regularly. This payment of interest and general confidence in the good faith of government, give current value to the public stocks or promise to pay But the government has no capital where with to pay either the principal or interest. In order to do either taxes must be laid on the people at large. The people must by their own be industrious and create a new capital destroyed by those wars, there must be added to the line of debt [ . . . illegible . . . ]..all the war taxes raised and expended for the same purpose.

I do not perceive that any deduction can be made from the aggregate, other than the profits of contractors, and in some cases those of persons employed in producing or manufacturing that part of the supplied which is drawn from home.

But whatever may be the case in other countries, it does not appear that any deduction should be made in the US on accounts of the moneys earned by mean who may have been employed in furnishing certain supplies. There is in the US a constant demand for capital and labor, to be applied to productive purpose. Ever able bodied man, where laborer of the soil or laborer, can, in the US, obtain remunerating wages; and therefore every many employed in preparing war supplies, for instance in building war steamers or there vessels has been diverted from some analogous employment which would have been applied to productive objectives.

But the causes which had produced that state of things have, at least for the present, ceased to operate.

II The preceding observations are of a general nature. The first subject of special inquiry is the amount of the actual receipts and expenditures since the commencement of the war.

All the receipts, whether arising from revenue, loans, or any other source, are paid into the treasury, and therefore known to the secretary of that department. He is also responsible for the disbursements by his own department, the most important of which are those which relate to the public debt. But with respect to the money expectedly by the other departments the statements of the secretary of the treasury only show the amount received by each from the treasury. These never can exceed that for which appropriations have been made. The secretary is bound provided the receipts are adequate, to pay to each department the sum appropriate for its use and under the several heads of the respective appropriations have been made. The secretary is bound, provided the receipts are adequate, to pay to each department, the sum appropriated for its use and under the several head of the respective appropriations. But he is not degree responsible for the manner in which the moneys have been expanded by any other department than his own.

The secretary of the treasury is in the same manner responsible for the correctness of his estimates of receipts. But with respect to those of expenditures by any other department than his won, he is only transmits those prepared by each department, for the correctness of which each is respectively responsible.


As far, therefore, as may be inferred from the statements furnished it would appear that the total amount of expedited during the fiscal year ending June 30th 1847 for the army proper including both the regulars and volunteers.

Fiscal year ending June 30, 1848.

It appears to me impossible that the expense for that year should not be equal to those for the year ndg 30th June 1848, The secretary estimates them at only l 31,856,758 50, to which adding for navy and ordinance my estimation of two millions they would still amount to less than thirty four million.

The great diminutions is in the quartermaster generals estimate, which is reduced to $13187000, instead of $17914000 expended in the year ending 30th June, 1848. On this subject the quartermaster general writes to the secretary of the war department, under date of Nov. 18, 1847:

"Sir: the estimates which I submitted for your consideration on the 4th instant, for the service of the next fiscal year were made out from date depliance with your suggestions I have carefully examined every item; and in all , depending in any degree upon my own action, it that of the officer of the department I have made considerable reeducations. Whether those reductions be judicious time must determine. I would not have ventured to make them but for the fact that two sessions of congress will have terminated before he expiration of the fiscal year for which the estimates now submitted have been made. The sums asked for arraignments for the present fiscal year for which the estimates now submitted have been made. The sums asked for arrangements for the present fiscal year are not more I am persuaded, than will be required. I am however, making every effort to reduce expenditures for every description of the lowest point possible."

It is therefore clear that the estimate was underrated, contrary to the quartermaster generals;’ optional that be would not have made the reduction had he to relied on congress making up the defiance before the hole of the money was wanted; and that the attempt is now deliberately made to underrate the expenses which must necessarily be incurred.


It has already been observed that the causes which had theretofore prevented the evils of the war from being left, had, at least for a while ceased to operate. A total derangement has taken place in England, which appears to have affected almost every brand of business connected with the commercial and manufacturing concerns of thee country.- The causes generally assigned are, the extraordinary imports of provision, and the magnitude of the investments in railroad, which have converted calculating into a fixed capital not immediately productive. There may b other more remote and recondite cause. Whatever these may be, the results are well known. Most numerous are extensive failures have destroyed confidence, and caused a general pressure, followed by a fall of species affecting almost every species of commodity and by a great demand for specie.

The effects of that commercial catasophy were immediately felt in the US. There was and still is reciprocal want of confidence. Hence the usual mode of consigning produce to England, accompanied by bills drawn on the consigners for a large portion of its value had been considerable impeded. The low prices of cotton abroad influenced the planter to keep it back; and every arrival from England brought large parcels of American Stocks ordered to be sold for what they would fetch. The reaction took place in the early part of Nov. when it was manifested by its infallible index, a rise in the rat of exchange and the consequent exportation of specie.

The amount of specie in the vaults of the banks of the city of New York was lessened near two millions and a half of dollars during the moth of Nov. Yet it does to appear to me that there is any great danger to be apprehended from a long continued exportation. There was, in the course of the present crisis in Great Britain, in the first place, a large exportation of specie principally to the US in any payment for the articles of food she was obliged to purchase, and subsequently a great demand for specie. This has been an ample supported, and for the present at lease, England wants no more. If an continues to be exported there, this is principally die to the want of confidence, and those other causes which created a scarcity of bills of indubitable credit on Europe, and readied the price of these two per cent. Above the true part.

There is yet scattered in the interior a large portion of the specie imported during the proceeding year; and this naturally will always the case naturally flow to the place or places where it is most needed. In point of fact, this hash hardly taken place and notwithstanding the continued exportation, the amount of specie in the vaults of the banks during the last tree weeks; been increased to several hundred dollars.

As soon as the internal navigation shall be open large quantities of maxi, pork, and other articles of food will be exported to Europe; and cannot be held back much longer. Thus for every thing is yet soundly but the high relate at which money is borrowed on paper of [ . . . illegible . . . ] credit, would alone be sufficient to show that great caution is required on the part not only of the banks but of all those who are engaged to act business.

Notwithstanding the great increase of national wealth, there is still a perpetual demand for capital. The circulating capital of the country I clearly the found out of which the public revenues and loan must be raised; and the effects produced by a demand of thirty million \ next six months requires serous consideration.

Five eighths of the revenue derived from customs are collected in New York; and nine tenths is for or six Atlantic ports. These duties are payable the money the merchandize is landed, or with draw from the public warehouses. This [ . . . illegible . . . ] tuition of immediate payment, of the former system of bonds and credit was a sacrifice suppose on commerce, the importance of which has not been sufficiently apperceived. It has amount other effects, thrown a considerable portion of the important business in the and of foreign to he prejudice of American house? Still commerce, left to the operation of the natural laws of trade, knows how to adapt to sell to the existing circumstances; and not withstanding this change things went on s smoothly enough so long as peace continued.

The necessary effects of a war carried on in a foreign country, of our war with Mexico, is that the money thus collected in a few seaports, an in fact advanced by commerce, instead of being expended with some degree of uniformity in the country, must be immediately transferred by the treasury department of the US to the place where it is wanted an depended. The great mass goes to Mexico and New Orleans, whence it does not return to New York or to another Atlantic seaport since it is absorbed and destroyed by war expense.

In these transfers from the places where the revenue is collected. The secretary had done nothing more than that which was absolutely necessary;- and he has done it cautiously, skilled and with as much regard for local and is collected. But it has also become the center of the great moneyed operation of the country. It is accordingly to place also where a considerable share of the most disposable portion of the circulating capital of the country is concentrated.. t6his most disposable is that which is deposited in the bank of the several states. And exclusively of the deposits due to individuals the banks out of this city have easily a large amount of deposed in the city banks. Including both items. It would seem fro the general returns from al the banks that the amount deposed in those of the city of new York does not exceed one farter part o f the total amount deposed in all the banks of the US. But experts are shown that , wit the exception of S. Carolina and of Louisiana, the deposits in the banks of the southern and western states are available only for local purpose continue to but very little to the loans which may be wanted by the US-. The same observation is generally applicable to the deposits in the country banks of New England, N. York and Pennsylvania. Those Atlantic reports, in which nine tenth s of the revenue are collected are also the places which contribute in the same, proportion to the national loans. Although varying from yet to year, the amount of deposits in all the banks of the US which are truly available for general purpose may be estimated at twice that which id deposited in the city banks of New York. According to the last official report.

The deposits in the city banks consist of two items, those due to individuals and those due to banks out of the city; that is to say, the difference between thee sums due and from those banks, which on the [ . . . illegible . . . ] Nov. last amounted to $8300000 and added to the deposits due to individuals more and aggregated of more than thirty four millions. But is must be observed that these times, [ . . . illegible . . . ]….But n considering the US at large the amount due from all the banks, both items with disappear altogether, and do not constitute a real resource.

No official stamen of the situations of the banks subsequent to the month of Nov. has as yet been published. Bt from accounts obtained from several of the most respectable of the city bank, it appears that during the moths of Nov. and the first weeks of Dec. the amounts of their deposits has lessened at least twenty percent. This is in reference to the fiscal and commercial concerns of the national, the most important and pregnant tact which has taken place since the commencement of the war, to as much as it now [ . . . illegible . . . ]...manner to what extend to war expense and the circulating capital of the country.

That the deposits in banks are the most disposable circulation capital of the US is indivertible for the staple reason that they bear no interest.- the constitute, therefore, evidently the most likely to support the means of subscripting to the loans of the US. Is there any other [ . . . illegible . . . ]…any other amount of dormant unemployed extend continue to the public loans? [ . . . illegible . . . ]

[ . . . illegible . . . ] paragraph

[ . . . illegible . . . ] paragraph

Since both the sub-treasury act and the obligation to receive treasury notes in payment of debts due to the US cannot substuite together either of eh one or the other should be repealed. This cannot be done with respect to the notes already issued and outstanding, since it is privilege already granted a condition which the US are bound in fulfill. But although the secretary of the treasury has a right to re-issue an amount of notes equal to that which has been paid in for duties or their debts he is under no obligation to di to. The fact is that in order to extricate the treasure from the difficulties resulting from the incompatibility allude to it, is necessarily instead of extending in contract the amount of notes in circulation.

Treasury note s never can become a currency unless they be vested with that attribute. This could not be effected otherwise than by converting the treasury in a ban insuring notes, bearing no interest, but building to pay the demand in gold or silver. It is hoped that such a plan will not [ . . . illegible . . . ] a single advocate.

The attempts to borrow at a lower rate, by substituting treasury notes for stock is in every respect impracticable; any effort to conceal the truth is in the people will provide equally futile. The resort to any species of proper money, that is to say, the at attempt to convert into currency a simple promise to pay at a future date, is outrageous, liable to me grossly alludes wild calculated to datary confluence; for whenever issued to an amount much greater than the demand for it, a bout may arise where such promises to pay shall be actually discharged when they come to infarct. That which has happened both in the countries and at home ay happen against and immoderate issues have a tendency to endeavor a flood of redeemable paper money.  [LVW]

NNR 73.385 February 19, 1848 rumor relative to peace, James L. Freaner, bearer of the project of a treaty, arrives
NNR 73.385 project of a treaty of peace negotiated by Nicholas Philip Trist received at Washington, dissatisfaction with Trist

That the administration have become dissatisfied with the course perused by Mr. Trist, as commissioner charged with negotiating with the government of Mexico, is not only officially announced by the message of the president to the U. Sates senate, of last week in reply to their call for his correspondence, but is unmistakably implied in his being superceded in the office he held in the states department. A rumor is mentioned in the N. Y. courier, of orders having been sent to Maj. Gen. Butler, to have Mr. Trist arrested and sent home for trial under the act of January 1799, for the punishment of persons guilty of carrying on a correspondence with a foreign government, in relation to disputes &c, without the authority or permission of the government of the US which declares such correspondence to be misdemeanor punished by fine and imprisonment

The president in his communication to congress explicitly denies having received any intelligence of treaty being negotiated by Mr. Trist. The union in noticing the communication appears to insinuate that something probably something not recognizable by the government may have been received. Speculation of course is busy in guessing what this informal something is. On suggesting is that the British bearer of dispatches from the city of Mexico, brought a project submitted through or by the new British minister at Mexico, of tersm that might be agreed upon.

Another, the latest from New Orleans, is that Maj. Van Buren, paymaster USA who came down with the last train from Mexico, was bearer of the project of a treaty.

The most knowing of the Washington correspondents of Philadelphia and N. York papers that are regarded as semi-official organs, continue to write in the most confident language, that a project of treaty has been received at Washington, and has been gravely considered in cabinet council. [LVW]

NNR 73.386 February 19, 1848 operations at Mexico, orders no. 14 and 15, conspiracy detected, and consequent orders

            The steamer Eliju, left Vera Cruz on the 20th and reached New Orleans on the 29th January with large number of passengers, army officers, &c. amongst them Brevet Colonel J. S. McIntosh. She brought also forty sick and discharged soldiers, two died on the passage, and the remains of a number of officers who fell in the campaign.

GEN. Scott’s GENERAL ORDER, No. 14, dated Mexico, Jan. 11th, names 16 officers, "sick, wounded, or reported supernumerary" who will proceed home, and on arriving at New Orleans report themselves to the adjutant general.

            His ORDER, No. 15, same date, appoints Major J. L. Gardner "superintendent of the direct and indirect taxes for the support of the army on that portion of Mexico called the federal district," which includes the capital,--and specifies his powers and duties.

            A CONSPIRACY, had been apprehended at Mexico, and measures were promptly taken to suppress it.--It probably gave occasion for the following:

Office Civil and Military Governor,

National Palace, Mexico, Jan. 11, 1848.

            It is ordered that all officers of the Mexican army, all retired officers, as also those of the corps of National Guards, including certain regiments known as those of Independence, Bravo, Victoria, Hidalgo, Galeana, Mina, and the corps of Zapadores, who may now be in the city of Mexico, not on parole, shall present themselves at the office of the inspector general of the American army, between the hours of 10 A.M. and 3 P.M. on the 12th, 13th, or 14th instant.

            It is also ordered that all officers of the Mexican army and of the above named corps who may hereafter arrive in the city shall report themselves at the aforesaid office within twenty-four hours after reaching the city.

            This order is rendered necessary by the highly improper conduct of certain officers of the Mexican army, known to be in the city; and any failure to comply with it will subject the offender to the most rigorous punishment known to the laws of war.

            By the Governor:

R.P. Hammond, Secretary.

            The steamer McKim left Vera Cruz on the 24th, and Tampico on the 31st. News from the city of Mexico to the 19th left all quiet.

            A courier sent by Mr. Peoples, with copies of the president’s message for his paper in the city of Mexico,--the American Star,--was seized by guerrillas on his return, and taken into some bushes, by the roadside, where they first stripped and then shot him. This was done near Vera Cruz.

            Col. McClelland, with three hundred infantry and two hundred mounted men, started up the Orizaba road to cut off robbers who were said to be on the main road to the National Bridge in large numbers.

            It is positively asserted by merchants, who are usually well informed respecting affairs in the interior, that Gen. Lane was moving on Orizaba with five hundred cavalry.

            There had been fifteen cases of small pox at Vera Cruz.

            It was rumored that Mr. Trist had had frequent interviews with the Mexican commissioners, and that certain articles had been agreed upon, but nothing of an authentic nature transpired.

            Col Hays, with one hundred rangers, and a few Illinois volunteers, reached Teotihuacan on the 10th ult. In pursuit of Padre Jarauta. While reposing at an inn, with their horses unbridled and unsaddled, Jarauta and a party of Mexicans came suddenly upon Col. H. and his men, and a severe contest ensued. Eight Mexicans were killed. None of the Americans were injured. The horse of Jarauta was seen after the fight with blood running down his sides, and it is thought that his rider received several severe wounds.

            Accounts from Gen. Cadwallader at Toluca, have been received to the 8th and 11th inst. He had dispatched the 11th infantry to Lerma, some five leagues this side of Toluca.

            The rents.--A letter from Atlixco states that the citizens there--a meeting of the council and others having been held, to take the matter into consideration--had agreed to obey the order of Gen. Scott in regard to the payment of the public rents, in addition to those required for the support of their own government. A communication had been sent to Gov. Childs at Puebla, to make this representation to him.

            Letters by this arrival are very contradictory as to the rumored treaty of peace.

            The barque Archimides arrived next, with Vera Cruz dates to the 26th. The Vera Cruz Free American of that date states, that Capt. Whipple had arrived from the city of Mexico, bringing news that Orizaba had been taken and was in possession of a body of troops dispatched from the capital for that purpose.

            Next arrived that ships Napier and Danvers, with Vera Cruz dated to the 29th.

            The train of 2000 wagons, with a strong detachment consisting of a squadron of cavalry, two companies of dragoons, a vol[]geur corps with 6 pieces, and some battalions of infantry, the whole under command of Major Cadwallader, of the vol[]geurs, left the city of Mexico on the 14th, and reached Vera Cruz on the 27th Jan. A number of the officers of the army came down with the train.

            The train met Gen. Marshall and Col. Miles, with their respective commands, at Puebla, on the 17th ult.

            The Vera Cruz American Star says that at the last accounts from Queretaro a quorum of congress was not in attendence. Gen. Anaya had been succeeded by Pena y Pena as president of the republic of Mexico, and a new one was to be chosen when congress assembled.

            The brigade under Col. Riley, is at Tacubaya.

            The brigade under Gen. Cushing is at San Angel.

            No movement could be made for San Louis before the 1st February, for want of adequate clothing for the men, which Gen. Scott had sent twice to Vera Cruz after, without obtaining but a meagre supply, and had finally to set about a thousand men and women to work at the city of Mexico, at making them, and they could no be ready before the 1st of February. [TBW]

NNR 73.387 Feb. 19, 1848 Guerrilla attacks and sickness

R.P. Hammond, Secretary.

The steamer, McKim left Vera Cruz on the 24th, and Tampico on the 31st.  News from the city of Mexico to the 19th left all quiet.

A courier sent by Mr. Peoples, with copies of the president’s message fro his paper in the city of Mexico,--the American Star,--was seized by guerrillas, on his return, and taken into some bushes, by the roadside, where they first stripped and then shot him.  This was done near Vera Cruz.

Col. McClelland, with three hundred infantry and two hundred mounted men, started up the Orizaba road to cut off robbers who were said to be on the main road to the National Bridge in large numbers.

It is positively asserted by merchants, who are usually well informed respecting affairs in the interior, that Gen. Lane was moving on Orizana with five hundred cavalry.

There had been fifteen cases of small pox at Vera Cruz.

It was rumored that Mr. Trist had had frequent interviews with the Mexican commissioners, and that certain articles had been agreed upon, but nothing of an authentic nature had transpired.

Col. Hays, with one hundred rangers, and a few Illinois volunteers, reached Teotihuacan on the 10th ult. in pursuit of Padre Jarauta.  While reposing at an inn, with their horses unbridled and unsaddled, Jarauta and a party of Mexicans came suddenly upon Co. H. and his men, and a severe contest ensued.  Eight Mexicans were killed.  None of the Americans were injured.  The horse of Jarauta was seen after the fight with blood running down his sides, and it is thought that his rider received several severe wounds.

Accounts from Gen. Cadwallader at Toluca, have been received to the 8th and 11th inst.  He had dispatched the 11th infantry to Lerma, some five leagues this side of Toluca. [JNA]

NNR 73.387 Feb. 19, 1848 the capture of Gen. Anastasio Torrejon

            CAPTURE OF TORREJON    The Morning Star gives the following account of the capture of Gen. Torrejon and his companions.

            "A little towards the left of Santa Fe, Col. Dominguez ascertained that there were some fifty or sixty guerrillas, under Col. Zenobia, hovering in the vicinity. He charged upon them and they dispersed without firing a gun. On the 6th, on the plains of Salao, between Ojode Agua and Nopalucan the proprietors of the haciendas of St. Gertrude, Santa Clara, [][][] requested aid of Col. Dominquez in their efforts to liberate themselves from the robberies of Torrejon and his party, composed of 150 cavalry and two American deserters. The Colonel, with his 70 men, charged upon them, and, after a slight brush, put them completely to route, taking Gen. Torrejon, Gen. Minon, Gen. Gauna and five other officers, prisoners, 50 Mexican cavalry, and the two American deserters--These were all placed at the disposal of Col. Childs at Puebla. It appears that Torrejon, when captured, was about proceeding to San Andres, to join the forces in that place, and march thence to Orizaba. Pursuing his course towards the city, the Colonel, upon entering the P[][]al, perceived a party of guerrillas on both sides of the road but was not attacked. On the 10th--that is the day before yesterday--near the Venta de Chalco, Padre Jarauta was seen with some 200 guerrillas.

            A corresondent of the Delta, gives the particulars of the arrest of Gen. Valencia, as follows:

            "ol. H. M. Wynkoap, of the 2d Pennsylvania volunteers, having learned by a Mexican friend, that Padre Jarauta and Gen. Rea were at Tlalnepanatla, about five leagues from the city of Mexico, applied to Gen. Scott for permission to take twenty men and capture them. Permission being granted, the Colonel set off on the 1st with thirty eight Texian Rangers, under command of Lieutenants Daggerts, Burkes and Jones. Upon arriving at and charging Tlalnepanatla, and finding no one there, they learned that Rea and Jarauta had left for Toluca a few hours previous to our arrival. Colonel Wynkoap here learned that Gen. Valencia and his staff were at a hacienda some six leagues distant. Admittance into the house was demanded by the gallant little party, but it was for a time refused, when Colonel Silea, a wounded Mexican officer on parole, opened the door and assured Col. Wynkoap that Gen. Valencia had departed that day for Toluca; but this was not credited, and lights were demanded to search the building. Colonel Silea then proposed to deliver Gen. Valencia the next day if the party would leave. To this the Colonel would not assent, and proposed to send an officer and eight men with him to await their return. This proposition completely non-plussed Col. Silea, and convinced Col. W. that Valencia was really in the house. Search was accordingly made, but nothing could be found of him--Col. W. declared that he would not leave the hacienda without him, and that if Valencia would give hive himself up he would be perfectly safe, but if he attempted to escape he would not answer for his life. At this moment a person stepped up and said, "I am Valencia." He then said that is was against the usages of civilized warfare to attack a man in the peace and quiet of his family in the dead hour of the night. The Colonel answered that it was the only way he could be captured. Col. A[]reta was also captured in the same hacienda on that night.

            The following officers volunteered their services in the expedition: Capt. Bennett and Lieut. Clinton of the 1st Pa. Reg't. Capts. Diller and Harley. Lieut. Davis of Gen. Cushing’s staff: Lieut. Perry, of Gen. Patterson’s staff; Capt. Svberg, 11th Inf. and Lieut. Tilton, Vol[]geurs. Yours, ULUA. [TBW]

NNR 73.387 Feb. 19, 1848  extracts from Mexican journals

            The Delta makes the following extract from the Mexican journals:

            The Noticioso, of January 12, contains the proclamation of President Anaya, dated at Queretaro, December 16, relative to the organization of the Mexican army.--The several levies amount to 16,000 men, exclusive of the troops already raised, whose ranks are to be filled up. The new levies are to serve for three years, unless sooner discharged. They are not to consist of malefactors or invalids, they must be at least five feet in height, and their age not to exceed forty years.

            The disaffected population of Huasteca had made a pronunciamento against the Mexican army, laws and government, and valorously threatened to march against the city of Mexico in order to wrest it from the Americans.

            Col. Gates, commanding at Tampico, has given notice that all gold and silver metals, or specie, must be left at the customhouse, when designed for exportation, where an exact account will be taken of it. The duty will be deducted therefrom and the balance returned to the owners for exportation.

            A pronunciamento was put down at Queretaro, by President Anaya, on the 19th ult., by a display to military force which overawed the disaffected. They however, threatened to rise, after Anaya’s term expires, which occurred on the 8th instant.

            The small sum allowed the Mexican officers and soldiers had disgusted many of them, according to the Noticioso, and a great many of the officers had petitioned for permission to resign.

            The Anteojo, of Durango, hopes that peace will soon be concluded, or the war renewed with vigor.

            The legislature of Durango had joined its vote to that of Jalisco, in favor of authorizing the Mexican congress to take measures to form a coalition between all the Hispano-American governments on the continent.

            The Patriota of Aguascalientes, says it has received various communications on the existing state of the country. Some of the writers propose to call Santa Anna to the dictatorship, while others suggest a national convention, to deliberate whether peace shall be made or the war continued.

NNR 73.387 Feb. 19, 1848 Col. Thomas Childs' proclamation on a conspiracy at Puebla


Headquarters Dep't of Puebla

Puebla, Jan. 5th, 1848.

            Whereas, a diabolical and bloody correspondence has been detected between Don Manuel Perez, and other (as yet unknown,) citizens of Puebla, with a person called Gen. Rea, a guerrilla chief, in which the said Perez and his confederates recommend the assassination of the person who styles himself the governor of the state of Puebla, as well as many of the peaceably disposed citizens, in order to "strike terror into the whole community," and then for the said Rea to pronounce against the state and general government, and declare himself dictator; this is to give notice to the inhabitants of the city of Puebla that so long as the troops of the United States of North America shall hold military possession of the city, any Mexican, or other person, not owing allegiance to the United States, corresponding with known guerrillas, or with any organised military body, in arms against the forces of the U. States, will be considered in the light of spies, and any attempt to furnish such armed bodies with supplies of any kind, will be deemed as a violation of good faith, and persons thus detected will be regarded as in open hostility against the forces of the United States, and treated accordingly. Citizens remaining in the city of Puebla during the military occupation by the U. States troops, enjoying protection of person and propery, tacitly acknowledge such military authority, and any aid of theirs compromising their neutrality, is, by the laws of war, severely punished.


Civil and military governor. [JNA, TBW]

NNR 73.391 Feb. 19, 1848 the democratic (old banker) New York state convention on acquisition of territory

            Fellow-citizens, the war forced upon us by the aggression of Mexico is the war of our country.--He that will oppose it, or he that hesitates in the support of it, is not of the country. He is an alien in sentiment within it, and is unworthy of the association of Americans.

            We are in favor of the acquisition of territory as compensation and indemnity. Those who profess to be in favor of the acquisition of territory, and insist upon the agitation of a subject which will prevent it, cannot very strongly commend themselves to the candid judgment of the intelligent. Those who openly advocate the no-territory doctrine are less to be feared, for they can be met in the open field of argument; the others are the more insidious and subtle foes, being in ambuscade.

            Strongly as we are impressed with the propriety and justice of the acquisition of territory, we would despise ourselves if we were to avail ourselves of a conquest to secure that end, because the weakness of our enemy yielded to our strength. Such a motive is entirely repugnant to those principles of moral justice which are the life of the democratic faith and democratic practice. [TBW]

73.392 Feb. 19, 1848 letter of Vice-President George Mifflin Dallas on prosecution of the war with Mexico

Washington, January 25, 1848

            Gentlemen:--I am honored by your invitation to be present at the mass meeting of democratic electors of the city of New York, held on Saturday evening next, "or the purpose of approving and sustaining the patriotic course of the administration of the general government in conducting the war with Mexico;" and I regret that my public engagements necessarily preclude its acceptance.

            The war merits, at this moment, the almost exclusive attention of the American people. It is their present chief concern, and cannot too promptly nor too emphatically be made to receive a fresh impulse from their will. Heretofore embraced by them with enthusiasm, as necessary to their union, honor and interests, it has been characterized, at every stage of its progress, by their mingled traits of energy, courage, perseverance, and patriotism. Our armies rapidly emerged from our masses, and have been true to their representative mission. They have sought the enemy at every one of his posts; they have pursued him through wastes and deserts, in rocky gorges and marshy defiles, over mountains and rivers, within numberless forts, batteries and citadels; and they have achieved a triumph wherever they found him. They have finally planted our meteor flag on the highest turret of the Mexican capital; and, standing round that symbol of national strength, in the centre of seven millions of foes, they are prepared to proffer, serenely and sincerely, honorable peace of total subjugation.

            Is there any other alternative reconcileable to the humanity, power, self-respect, conscious integrity, and superior institutions of the people of the United States? None is perceptible to me. This war, in my judgment, can have but one wise, natural and legitimate end--peace or subjugation.

            Nor are we yet at liberty to consider peace--a firm, durable and cementing peace--altogether unattainable. Thus far we have sought in vain to elicit a just one from the central government of the Mexican confederacy, so long wielded by heartless military usurpers. But that is not the only government to which overtures of conciliation can be addressed. Out armies, indeed, in carrying out enlarged principles of beneficent reform, might be directed to overthrow and extinguish what has been so profligately perverted; and then, approaching a step nearer to the rightful sovereigns, the people themselves, we could treat separately with the respective states. The dissolution of the central authority, destroying nothing but a means of combined action, would at once give to each member of the confederacy the independent right of self-preservation, with the powers of peace and war. Nor should I feel averse to see as many treaties of amity as there are Mexican states, rather than be driven to the other branch of the alternative--subjugation. Such a course of proceeding, we have some reason to believe, would be acceptable to the best portion of the population: it must rekindle and invigorate the intercourse of trade, inspire the unknown sense of security as to person and property, diffuse correct sentiments of social liberty and order, and quietly as well as speechly prepare their several communities for the happy destiny of incorporation into our Union.

            It, however, a moody obstinacy is everywhere to be substituted for political wisdom, and the forbearance of the American people, so strongly tempted by wonderful successes, is still to be outraged by gasconade and contempt, I do hope that, whenever and wherever multitudes of my countrymen shall assemble, they will manifest their usual and unabated spirit, their unshaken reliance upon the justice of their cause, and their manly faith in the capacity of their institutions to meet with safety all the emergencies and obligations of a national progress, which cannot be swayed without national disgrace. Let us not shrink from subjugating implacable enemies, when we know that by so doing we shall advance the great objects of civilization--when we know that we are sure to teach them the only true ways to liberty, self-government, prosperity and happiness.--Opposed as I am to receive permanently into the family of American freemen those who are unwilling to enter it, I can yet discover in our noble constitution of government nothing not perfectly equal to the vast task which may be assigned to it by the resistless force of events--the guardianship of a crowded and confederated continent.

            Thanking you for your obliging remembrance of me, I remain, very respectfully, your friend and fellow-citizen.


            To Wm. S. Conley, Esq., and committee.

NNR 73.392 Feb. 19, 1848 Secretary of the Treasury Robert John Walker’s note about sustaining the war with Mexico

           To Wm. S. Conley, Esq., and committee.

           THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY, R. J. WALKER, in a brief note, acknowledges the invitation "to unite with the patriotic democracy of the great city of New York, in sustaining this war--the just, the glorious and heaven-favored cause of our beloved country," which continued indisposition prevents him accepting. [TBW]

NNR 73.392 Feb. 19, 1848 letter of Sen. Daniel Stevens Dickinson on the war with Mexico and the coming election

Washington, January 27, 1848.

            GENTLEMEN: I regret that indispensable engagements prevent my accepting your kind invitation to attend and address a meeting of the democratic republican electors of the city of New York, to be held at Tammany Hall, on Saturday evening next, for the purpose of approving and sustaining the patriotic course of the general administration in conducting the war with Mexico; for it would afford me high gratification to meet with and address those whose sympathies are with their country, and who believe the arm of the administration should be sustained and strengthened in the prosecution of a war provoked for years by robbery, spoliation, and every effort of insolence and disregard of faith, and finally commenced by shedding the blood of our people upon their own soil. I am aware that this war has been denounced as wicked, unconstitutional, and atrocious--as the war of the president, and not that of the people--as originating in base and ignoble motives, and prosecuted, not for any worthy or justifiable objects, but to minister to the cravings of a sordid ambition; that those who have periled their lives in the service of their country, and have displayed a bravery which has wrung unwilling admiration from an envious and invidious world, are classed, by some, with ruffians and murderers. But the same malign spirit resisted the war of 1812, and then, as now, covered our gallant army with reproachful epithets, and shocked the moral sense of every true American by the declaration of their sentiments, which are now merely repeated, and have not the poor merit of originality.

            A presidential campaign is approaching, and federalism has called together her magicians, astrologers, and soothsayers for the emergency. The country, too obstinate to submit to be ruined by a revenue tariff, is to make amends for the delay, and be thrice ruined by the prosecution of the war; and, least the picture should lack for sombre coloring, like the familiar spirit of Endor, she has raised from their political cemeteries her departed prophets, to mutter their antiquated solecisms over the injustice of the war.

            But the American people are too wise to be betrayed by pretension, and too firm to be shaken in their purposes by these architects of ruin. They know, as the world knows; that on our part the war is eminently righteous--that it is not prosecuted against the Mexican people, but against their despoilers and aggressors, who, like Attila, the Hun, have been to that fair and fertile land the scourge of God. They know that, to these marauders, it is a mission of long deferred justice, and to the Mexican people an errand of humanity, civilization and peace. They demand that it be prosecuted with an energy and vigor becoming the American character, until an honorable peace, with adequate indemnity, shall be obtained, or until the last cowardly miscreant shall be dragged from his hiding place, and that deluded and oppressed people enjoy the protection of American citizens.

            It has been left to the democracy to vindicate the integrity of their country against enemies abroad and monopolies at home, and the present moment demands, by all that is sound in their creed and endearing in their principles, one of their highest and noblest efforts. May they prove themselves equal to an emergency so interesting and fruitful of results, and by that devotion to their cherished faith, which has borne them through so many conflicts in triumph, and by harmonious counsels, achieve an abiding victory over foreign and domestic foes.

            That such may be their happy destiny, is the sincere desire of none who regards with deep solicitude and lively sympathy all that concerns their interest and their welfare, and who has the honor to subscribe himself, with high consideration your fellow citizen,


NNR 73.392 Feb. 19, 1848 John Adams Dix' letter about bringing the war with Mexico to a conclusion

            To WM. S. CONLY, esq. and committee.

            U. S. SENATOR, JOHN A. DIX, in his letter, briefly acknowledges an invitation, which he says, "it would afford me great pleasure to accept, if I could with propriety absent myself from the city of Washington.--But my public duties require my constant attendance, and among them is that of sustaining in the senate the measures necessary to bring the war to a termination which shall be satisfactory and honorable to the country." [TBW]

NNR 73.392 Feb. 19, 1848 notice of William Brown Maclay’s letter about the Mexican war

            THE HON. WM. B. MACLAY, in a long letter, reviews the whole history of the dispute with Mexico, and the annexation of Texas. The following is his concluding paragraph:

            "am a believer in that destiny which contemplates the spread and success of free government over the face of this continent. There is a sympathy, a magnetic charm, in republican institutions, which, once kindled, spreads with the stride of electricity. Our revolution, more than any other cause, contributed to the events of '93 in France; and our onward march and miraculous achievements in the arts and sciences, in manufactures, and in all that makes a people happy and prosperous, have attracted to us the eyes of the civilized world, and made to tremble thrones that have stood the test of ages. Mexico, in making the election of this war, has hastened the work which inevitable destiny would some day have accomplished. It may be well for her--it cannot injure us. Her distinct idea of freedom may become enlightened under the wholesome restraints of our system, and may enable us to carry on the great work, until our standard shall wave in peaceful triumph over a free and happy people, with equal laws and equal rights.

Very respectfully,


73.392-393 Feb. 19, 1848 "he platform of the south"

From the Baltimore American of the 17th Feb.

            When we quoted some time ago the strong expressions of disapprobation used by the Charleston Mercury against Gen. Cass' views and those also of Mr. Buchanan and of Mr. Dickinson, on the subject of the Wilmot proviso, we intimated that there was difficulty in ascertaining precisely what ground the Mercury held on that point.

            Gen. Cass has declared that he was opposed to any action by congress on the proviso question, and this announcement was regarded at the south, for a time, as very satisfactory indeed; Mr. Buchanan had said, in substance, the same thing; so had Mr. Dickinson. But these gentlemen had also said, in the way of a confidential whisper to the north, "the inhabitants of the territory that may be acquired will have the right to decide whether slavery shall have entrance upon the soil or not; and as the institution has now no existence there, and is regarded with great aversion by the people, there is no danger whatever that slavery will ever be permitted to advance beyond its present limits."

            Upon consideration, our southern friends recalled the commendation which they had given quite lavishly to Messrs. Buchanan, Cass, &c. To leave to the territories themselves the absolute decision of the existence of slavery upon their soil, might do very well if slavery had been previously established there, as was the case when Louisiana was purchased, when Florida was acquired, and when Texas was annexed. But in the present case it would not do. The old formula must be changed. The long and fondly cherished doctrine of state sovereignty, so conveniently inchoate in a territory as the germ of a state--even that must be abandoned.

            The legislature of Virginia had laid down the "platform of the south" according to the old recipe, when it declared by resolution, unanimously, "that the general government of the United States has no control, directly or indirectly, mediately or immediately, over the institution of slavery; and that, in taking any such control, it transcends the limits of its legitimate functions by destroying the internal organization of the sovereignties who created it."

            This was the platform of the south less than a year ago--constructed according to the resolutions of '98. Surely those famous resolutions must afford a basis wide enough for all purposes. But it seems not. A case has arisen in which the south cannot find sovereign virtue in a denial of power to the general government. Strange, but true!    A crisis has come at which sate sovereignty itself must be disowned in order that no authority may be found in the embryo territory to shape its own internal system, preparatory to its entrance into the Union.

            The south must have a new platform. The old one was scarcely demolished before another was put up, by the legislature of Alabama, in the form of resolutions declaring it "o be the natural and indefeasible right of each citizen of each and every state of the confederacy to reside, with his property, of every description, in any territory which may be acquired by the arms of the United Stated, or yielded by treaty with any foreign power."

            "heir adoption,"says the Charleston Mercury, speaking of the resolutions, which embody the foregoing proposition, "eflects credit on the enlightened body by which they have been announced to the world; and because to Alabama belongs the credit of having, so far as the subject of these resolutions extend, constructed that platform on which all the slaveholding states will stand."

            This platform, we take, is no better than the old one. What authority is to determine the meaning of the word "property," which forms so characteristic a feature in the new formula? Everything depends upon that. If the people of the territories are to decide they will say that "persons held to service" are not property. What decision would congress give? Whatever decision congress might give, it is plain that the new platform, instead of allowing no room for a discussion of the essential principle involved in the proviso, does in fact throw the door wide open to it.

            This very question of personality and property--that is, how far slaves were persons and how far they were property--was thoroughly discussed in the convention of the United States; and the provisions of the constitution relating to slavery bear witness of the compromise made on that subject.--The constitution does not designate slavery as property; it call them "persons;" it provides that they shall be enumerated in the census and admitted, to a certain extent, in the basis of representation. In truth the constitution never uses the term "slave" or "slaves;" they are always designated as "persons," or "persons held to service." Nevertheless, with all this guarded phraseology, the constitution recognises the rights of property growing out of the institution of slavery, in those states in which it existed; and it protects those rights of property in the case of an absconding slave escaping into a state where slavery is not allowed.

            We refer to these facts to show that the recently announced programme which designates, as the Mercury phrases it, "the platform of the south," does not really obviate a single difficulty pertaining to the question at issue.

            To conclude upon this topic, we place before our readers another form which the proviso itself has recently taken. Certain resolution offered in the senate of the United States, last week, by Mr. Baldwin, of Connecticut, after announcing the proviso clause substantially went on to declare, "that in any extension of territory that may be acquired as the result of the war with Mexico, the desire of that republic, expressed by her commissioners, in their negotiation with Mr. Trist, to provide for the protection of the inhabitants of the system of human slavery therein, by a stipulation to that effect in any treaty that may be made, cannot, consistently with the rights of those inhabitants, or with the principles of justice and liberty which have been proclaimed to the world as the basis of our institutions, be disregarded or denied." [TBW]

NNR 73.394 Feb. 19, 1848 response from Philadelphia to Lexington

            RESPONSE FROM PHILADELPHIA TO LEXINGTON.--The Philadelphia North American says: The thunders that broke from Lexington during the revolution, were echoed, peal for peal, from the heart of the entire land; and a fire was lighted up that no storm could extinguish until the country was saved. Another Lexington has spoken, in another crisis, and one almost as solemn; and its voice is given back from millions of sterling and patriotic hearts. Already we hear of preparations in various places to respond to the call made upon the people, in the Lexington resolutions, to meet, and speak and act upon the momentous question of the war. Philadelphia cannot be content to be second in the emulation of duty. We learn that a very considerable number of our first and best citizens, business men rather than politicians, but men whose intelligence, virtues, and patriotism are a guarantee of the sincere earnestness of their action, have already made arrangements for a great town meeting, to be held probably on Monday, for the expression of the sentiments of whig citizens of Philadelphia upon the great question, which forms the basis of the resolutions and speech of Mr. Clay at Lexington. [TBW]

NNR 73.394-395 Feb. 19, 1848 official correspondence about the transport of Gen. Mariano Paredes y Arillaga by a British mail steamer


Official instructions of the secretary of state to the minister at London.


Washington, September 14, 1848.

            Sir: I transmit you the copy of a letter, bearing date the 15th ultimo, from Colonel Henry Wilson, of the United States army, the acting governor of Vera Cruz, addressed to the war department. From this, as well as other information, it appears that Captain May, of the British steamer Teviot, although fully aware of the character of his passenger, brought General Paredes from Havana to Vera Cruz, and connived at, if he did not directly aid in his landing at that port in a clandestine manner, and contrary to the established regulations, requiring a visit from the proper inspecting officer before any passenger could be landed.

            That the captain of the British steamer, by this conduct, has been guilty of a grave and serious violation of the duties of neutrality which Great Britain owes to the United States, can neither be doubted nor denied. It is known to the world that General Paredes, as president of Mexico, was the chief author of the existing war between that republic and the United States, and that he is the avowed and embittered enemy of our country. The British captain must have known that all his influence would be exerted to prolong and exasperate this war. It is, indeed, truly astonishing, that, with a knowledge of these facts, he should have brought this hostile Mexican general, under an assumed name, on board of a British mail steamer, to Vera Cruz, and aided or permitted him to land clandestinely, for the purpose of rushing into the war against the United States.--If any circumstance could aggravate this violation of neutrality, it would be the extraordinary privileges which this government has granted to British mail steamers ever since the commencement of the present war.

            The president has not yet determined what course he will pursue in regard to British mail steamers.--The great law of self-defense would, under such circumstances, justify him in withdrawing the privilege altogether from these steamers of entering the port of Vera Cruz, and thus effectually prevent the landing of enemies in disguise. He will not, however, resort at present to this extreme measure; convinced, as he is, that the British government will at once, upon your representation, adopt efficient means to prevent such violations of their neutrality for the future. In the mean time Colonel Wilson will be instructed to adopt the necessary means, under the law of nations, for the purpose of preventing and punishing similar outrages on our belligerent rights. British mail steamers cannot be suffered to bring to Vera Cruz either Mexican citizens or the subjects of any other nation, for the purpose of engaging in the existing war on the part of Mexico against the United States. A neutral vessel which carries a Mexican officer of high military rank to Mexico, for the purpose of taking part in the hostilities against our country, is liable to confiscation, according to the opinion of Sir William Scott, in the case of the Orozimbo--(6 Robinson’s reports, 430;) and this, even although her captain and officers were ignorant that they has such a person on board. That is their look out. Such ignorance is no excuse, because it is their duty to inquire into the character of their passengers. The consequence is the same to the belligerent as if they had acted with full knowledge--"Otherwise (in the language of that distinguished jurist) such opportunities of conveyance would be constantly used; and it would almost be impossible, in the greater number of cases, to prove the knowledge and p[][]vity of the immediate offender."

            You are instructed to make Lord Palmerston fully acquainted with the conduct of Captain May. I do no know whether he or any of his officers who may be implicated in this serious charge are officers in the British service. Should this prove to be the case then you will ask for their dismissal, or such other punishment as may clearly manifest that the British government has disapproved their conduct.

I am, &c.,                JAMES BUCHANAN.

            GOEORGE BANCROFT, Esq., &c. [TBW]

NNR 73.400 Feb. 19, 1848 comments on the defensive line of the Sierra Madre

            THE LINE OF THE SIERRA MADRE. It is known that Gen. Taylor, in his letter to Gen. Gaines, advocated the holding of the Sierra Madre range of mountains, as a defensive line, which would give us the whole valley of the Rio Grande, and by extension to the Pacific would also include California. There is no reason to suppose, from any thing known to the public, that Gen. Taylor has changed his views on that subject. On the other hand the inference is fair that he still adheres to the policy of a defensive line, as indicated by him--a defensive line of easy defence, marking a palpable separation of distinct geographical systems, and involving the acquisition of a territory, as indemnity or by purchase, bound by strong affinities to the Mississippi valley, of which, in fact, it forms a part, and yet containing so sparse a population as to present no difficulties to its gradual settlement by our people.

            We observe in the Washington correspondence of some of the New Orleans papers certain allusions to Gen. Taylor in this connection, in which his position is spoken of confidently, as one maturely considered and deliberately held. The correspondent of the Courier says:

            "From information lately received, I am satisfied that, by the time the canvass fairly opens, Gen. Taylor will show his hand upon the indemnity question. In this, if keeping to his present mind, he will advocate, first, putting down all the military factions in Mexico; next, retiring to a line to be drawn from Tampico to the gulf of California--that is, the line of the Sierra Madre, which, according to Mr. Calhoun and himself, will require the guarding of five passes; next, again, the establishment of territorial government over Tamaulipas, Chihuahua, California, &c., with the declaration that hereafter they are to be the property of the U. States."

            The Picayune correspondent, referring to the same subject, calls the Sierra Madre "Old Zack’s line," and says: "This Sierra Madre line is so much better than that which Mr. Trist has been bargaining and begging for ever since he went to Mexico, that the democrats themselves will have to go for it, as an improvement upon the plan of the administration, which was willing to purchase California and take the Rio Grande for a frontier."

            The assumption of this line, with fifteen thousand men to guard it, or twenty thousand at the most, would secure virtually an immediate peace. Ever since the battle of Buena Vista, the force occupying it, under Gen. Taylor, and now under Gen. Wool, has not averaged probably more than six or seven thousand effective men. Yet the line has not been attacked. The trains from Camargo pass through to Monterey and Saltillo, without interruption; the whole valley of the Rio Grand, from the mountain to the river, is quiet and undisturbed. The passes through the Sierra Madre are so few in number, and the positions which command them are so strong, that the business of defence becomes very simple, and is confined to definite and known points. The Mexican war, in all practical respects, need not last another month. It is hardly to be supposed, however, that Gen. Taylor’s counsels will prevail, until he is placed in a position to enforce them himself.

NNR 73.400 February 19, 1848 court of inquiry ordered on complaint of Gen. Winfield Scott against Gen. Gideon Johnson Pillow and Col. James Duncan and of Gen. William Jenkins Worth against Scott

General orders, No. 2

War department, adjutant General’s office,

Washington, Jan. 13, 1848.

The following order, received from the secretary of war, is published for the published for the information and guidance of the officers concerned:

War Department, Jan. 13, 1848.

By direction of the president of thee US, a court of Inquiry, to constitute of Brevet Brigadier Gen. Caleb Cushing, and Col. E G W Butler, 3rd dragoons, members, will assemble in Mexico to inquire and examine into the charges an allegations preferred by Major Gen. Winfield Scott against Maj. Gen. Gideon J. Pillow, and Brevet Lieut. Col. James Duncan, Captain of the 2 regiment of artillery, and way of appeal by Brevet Major Gen. WJ Worth, Colonel of the 8th regiment infantry, against Major Gen. Winfield Scott; and also into matters connected with the same, as well as such other transactions as may be submitted to the consideration of the court; the facts in each case, thought with their opinions there on for the information of the president:

The court will convene on the 18th day of February next, or as soon thereafter as practicable in the Castle of Perote, in Mexico, where it will continue to hold its sittings, unless eh exigencies of the public service may require the place to be changed, in which case the court is authorized to adjourn from place to place, as circumstances may render necessary, in order that no embarrassment to the service may be occasioned by its sessions.

Should any of the members named in the order be prevented from attending the court will proceeded to and continue the business, before, it ,provided the number of members present be within the limits prescribed by law.

First Lieut. Richard P Hammond, 3d. artillery, is appointed to act as Judge Advocate and recorder of the court.

In case the Judge Advocate and recorders should be prevented from attending or unable to discharge the duties, the court is authorized to appoint some other proper person or devolve the duties of recorder upon the junior member.

WL MARCHY Secretary of war.

By Order. R. Jones, Adj, Gen.

NNR 73.401 Feb. 26, 1848 Remarks on the treaty

THE TREATY--So called.

The Union of the 24th , "respectfully suggests to (their) contemporaries the propriety of calmly waiting before expressing any conclusive opinions upon it" and refers to an editorial of the Baltimore Clipper and of the New York Herald, the latter of which intimated that the treaty is a sham-work a trick got up by the administration to aid in the negotion of the sixteen million loan.  In this the Union says the Herald does great injustice to the president--[and so we should say.]  The Clipper "cannot agree with the Herald,"--but goes on to infer that Mr. Trist’s authority to treat could not have been withdrawn, or he would hardly have undertaken to negotiate.  To this the Union replies.

"If the Clipper had only consulted the last message of the president, it would have seen at once the incorrectness of the supposition.  Mr. Trist was recalled, and no additional conditions and no secret instructions were sent to him.

The Picayune of the 16th states, that a letter received by a mercantile house of high credit in that city, from its correspondent in Mexico, states that the Rothschilds had loaned to the Mexican government at Querataro, $2,000,000, to sustain itself till the ratification or rejection of the treaty could be ascertained.  The writer concluded that Gen. Scott must have been consulted on the subject.  The Picayune adds, "we see no reason to doubt that the United States government and senate will agree to the terms proposed.  The government may feel chagrin at the result of Mr. Trist’s pertinacious spirit of diplomacy, but will ultimately swallow its disappointment, and California and New Mexico, at the same time--this is our opinion." [JNA]

NNR 74.002-003 February 26, 1848 transports for troops returning from Veracruz

            New Orleans papers give a list of United States and chartered vessels which have been dispatched from that port by Maj. Tompkins, Q. M., to convey returning troops from Vera Cruz. The total number of vessels is 42, capable of conveying 16,175 men, of which 10 are U. S. vessels, and 92 chartered--16 steamers and 26 ships and barques. [TBW]

NNR 74.003 February 26, 1848 proclamation of a treaty of peace with Mexico

By the President of the United States of America.

            Whereas, a treaty of peace, friendship, limits and settlement between the United States of America and the Mexican Republic, was concluded and signed at the city of Guadalupe Hidalgo on the second day of February, one thousand eight hundred and forty-eight, which treaty, as amended by the Senate of the United States, and being the English and Spanish languages, is word for word as follows:

[Here follows the treaty.]  [See treaty below]

            And whereas the said treaty as amended, has been duly ratified on both parts, and the respective ratifications of the same were exchanged at Queretaro, on the thirtieth day of May last, by Ambrose H. Sevier and Nathan Clifford, Commissioners on the part of the Government of the United States, and by Senor Don Luis de la Rosa, Minister of Relations of the Mexican Republic, on the part of that Government.

            Now, therefore, be it known, that I, James K. Polk, President of the United States of America, have caused the said treaty to be made public, to the end that the same, and every clause and article thereof, may be observed and fulfilled with good faith by the United States and the citizens thereof.

            In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed

Done at the city of Washington, this fourth day of July, on thousand eight [L. S.] hundred and forty eight, and of the independence of the United States the seventy-third.


            By the President.

74.004 February 26, 1848 Gen. Winfield Scott yields command on Army in Mexico to Gen. William Orlando Butler


            Agreeably to orders from the War Department, General Scott, on the 18th of February last, surrendered to General Butler the command of the army in Mexico, in a general order which reflects the highest honor on his discipline and soldier-like bearing:

Head Quarters of the Army,
Mexico, Feb. 18, 1848.
General Order, No. 39.

            By instructions of the President of the United States, just received, Major General Scott turns over the command of the Army to Major General Butler, who will immediately enter upon duty accordingly. In taking official leave of the troops he has so long had the honor personally to command in an arduous campaign--a small part of whose glory has been, from position, reflected on the senior officer, Major General Scott is happy to be received by a General of established merit and distinction in the service of his country.

            By command of Major General Scott,

H. L. SCOTT, A. A. A. G.

            The following is the General Order issued by Major General Butler, upon assuming command:

Head Quarters, Army of Mexico,
Mexico, Feb. 19, 1848.
Order, No. 1.

            Pursuant to the orders of the President of the United States, and the instructions of Major General Scott, communicated in his General Order, No. 29, of yesterday’s date, Major General Butler hereby assumes command of the army of Mexico. On entering upon the duties assigned him, General Butler cannot be unmindful that he succeeds a General familiar alike with the science and the art of war, and who has but recently brought to a glorious termination one of the boldest campaigns to be found in its annals. He feels however less diffidence in assuming the important and responsible command assigned him, from the conviction that he is aided and sustained by many of the talented and experienced officers who contributed nobly to our recent success in arms, and by a gallant army who have learned too well the road to victory easily to mistake it. The orders and instructions issued by Major Genera Scott, for the government of this army, will be sustained in force.

            By order of Major General Butler,


74.004-005 February 26, 1848 last general order announcing the end of the war

            The following general orders have been issued by the Commander-in-Chief.

Mexico, May 29, 1948.
[ORDERS NO. 122.]

            I. Under a deep sense of gratitude to the Almighty, Major General Butler announces to the army under his command that the Mexican war is ended.

           The great object of the campaign has been accomplished. A treaty of peace, just and honorable to both nations, has been duly ratified. It now becomes the pleasing duty of the commanding General to restore to a grateful country the gallant army which has so nobly sustained her rights and added to her renown.

           The homeward march will be at once commenced, and it is expected that the most perfect order and discipline will be observed. Ample supplies of all kinds will be furnished at convenient posts, and there will be no excuse for the slightest depredations, which will be totally at war with the existing relations between the two countries.

           II. In accordance with the foregoing, the troops in the valley of Mexico and at the surrounding posts will move to the rear in the following order on Jalapa, and encamp at some favorable place in its vicinity, or at Encero, until suitable transportation can be procured to transport them to the United States. 1st. The siege train under Lieut. Rayner, Ordnance Department, and Capt. Rowland’s heavy battery with a company of the 3d Artillery as an additional escort--this train to proceed on to Vera Cruz. 2d. First division of volunteers, commanded by Major General Patterson. 3d. Second division of volunteers commanded by Brig. Gen. Marshall.--4th. Third division of regular troops, commanded by Col. Trousdale, the senior colonel on duty with it, except the 9th Infantry, at Pachuca, which with the detachments at that place, will march via Opan and Perote. 5th. Second division regular troops, commanded by Brig. Gen. Kearney. 6th. First division of regular troops, commanded by Brevet Maj. Gen. Worth. Each division will have assigned to it at least on company of horse. The dragoons not assigned to divisions will receive special orders for their march.

           The chiefs of the several departments, when not otherwise specially instructed, will accompany the head quarters.

           III. The volunteer divisions on the march will be joined by such troops as may belong to them, at the points intermediate between the city of Mexico and Jalapa, which will leave sufficient guards of regular troops at Rio Frio, Puebla and Perote, to protect the supplies until the rear division comes up, when these small garrisons will march with said division--all attached men, including recruits, will in like manner join their respective regiments on the march.

           IV. Ample supplies of forage and subsistence have been place in Depot at Puebla, Perote, and Jalapa, forage at Rio Frio; tents and shoes, it is expected, will be at Puebla, from which the troops requiring such articles can be supplied.

           V. All ordnance and ordnance stores, and other public property in the city of Mexico, Chapultepec, Perote, Vera Cruz and elsewhere, which reverts to the Mexican Government under the 4th article of the treaty of peace, will be delivered to agents of said Government, duly authorised to receive the same.

           VI. Such ordnance and ordnance stores, quartermaster’s stores and subsistence, not required for the troops, and which cannot by transported, or which on other accounts it may be advisable to dispose of, will be sold under the orders of the chiefs of the ordnance, quartermasters and subsistence departments respectively.

           VII. Should it become necessary to transport any surplus stores or specie, the wagon train for the purpose will proceed to Jalapa with the first division of regulars.

           VIII. Prisoners under-sentence of death, or to be dishonorably discharged at the expiration of the war, will accompany their respective regiments.

           IX. All the volunteer troops will be transported to New Orleans, there to be mustered out of the service, and paid by officers specially assigned to that duty--except the troops from Georgia and South Carolina, which will be sent to Mobile for the like purpose. Major General Patterson’s division will proceed to advance.--Should other instruction be not received from the war department, all the regular troops in the order laid down in paragraph 2, will be transported to New Orleans, there to receive further orders from Washington. No troops will leave the camp from Jalapa until notified by Brevet Brig. Gen. Smith, commanding at Vera Cruz, that vessels are prepared for them.

           X. Owing to the lateness of the season, and the difficulty of speedily procuring transportation for a large army, it may be impossible to transport horses. Troops must first be embarked. Officers entitled to forage--except general officers, who are restricted to two horses--may take one horse each, if it can be done without incommoding the troops. Battery horses will next be transported, then dragoon horses will next be transported, if the number of vessels will admit of it.

           XI. The commanding officer at Tampico will order the evacuation of that place, according to the principles laid down in this order.

By order of
Major General BUTLER:

Assistant Adjutant General.


NNR 74.004 February 26, 1848 arrival of some troops at New Orleans, others awaiting transportation in Mexico

            The United States steamer Portland has arrived at New Orleans from Vera Cruz, which she left on the 9th ult. The Portland brought over about 350 of the 13th infantry, with some convalescents, discharged seamen, &c. The remainder of that regiment had embarked on the ship Rhode Island, and was ready for sea when the Portland left. Capt. Lee, engineers, and other distinguished members of Gen. Scott’s staff, also came passengers on the Portland, and Dr. Vanderlinden, former Surgeon General of the Mexican army, who seeks America as an asylum.

            The Orizaba garrison, about 1000 strong, under Col. Bankhead, and consisting of the 13th infantry and Alabama battalion, arrived at Vera Cruz on the morning of the 8th ult., and commenced embarking on the same day. The Alabama battalion sailed on the 9th, in the brigs or schooners Heroine, Mopang, and Massachusetts, for Mobile.

            Gen. Patterson’s division was expected in Vera Cruz on Monday, the 12th ult., and General Marshall’s on the following day. A letter from Mexico, dated the 3d ult. Says, that General Kearney’s division was ordered to leave Mexico on Tuesday, the 6th ult., and Gen. Worth’s on Wednesday, the 7th ult. The Michigan regiment was shortly expected at Vera Cruz from Cordova.

            Two thousand troops were encamped at Sierra Gordo, awaiting transportation, and the arrival of detachments from the capital. The health of Vera Cruz was improving.

            The United States commissioners, Messrs. Sevier and Clifford, were expected in the city of Mexico on the 3d ult. Mr. Sevier returns home with Gen. Butler. [TBW]

NNR 74.005-007 February 26, 1848 report on the Battle of Santa Cruz de Rosales

            We are indebted to the war department for the following full and very interesting report of the military operations prior to and during the siege and capture of Santa Cruz de Rosales, in New Mexico. It is praise enough to state that these transactions are of a piece with the gallantry and the glory which have marked all the operations of this brilliant war. They redound, like all the rest, to the honor of the commanding general, officers and men of the army of New Mexico, and to the glory of our country.

Headquarters, Army of the West,
Chihuahua, March 31, 1848.

            GENERAL: I have the honor to submit a report of my operations from the period of adopting the intentions expressed in my communication to the war department, dated 6th February, 1848, to the present instant.

            After making such arrangements both military and civil, as I deemed essential for the security and tranquility of New Mexico, I took up the line of march on the 8th of February, with one company of Missouri horse, for El Paso, where I had previously ordered a concentration of the following troops to operate against the State of Chihuahua, viz: three companies United States dragoons, commanded by Major B. L. Beal--one of which was acting as light artillery, under the command of Lieut. Love; six companies Missouri horse, under command of Col. Rolls; five companies Missouri infantry, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Easton; and Major Walker’s battalion of Santa Fe horse, three companies of horse and one of light artillery.

            On the 23d I arrived at El Paso, distant from Santa Fe 340 miles, where measures were at once adopted for the intended operations; the peculiar characteristics and general features of the country, embracing the privations which must necessarily be endured on the road thus traveled, have been, I believe, already submitted to the department in former reports.

            The additional information at El Paso confirming the many reports respecting the hostile intentions of the enemy supported by positive evidence as to the extended preparations in the fabrication of cannon and munitions of war, together with contributions of small arms from the adjoining states, induced me to change my original plan of operations, and adopt forced marches with my best mounted troops, for the purpose of striking a blow before the enemy could conceive my design. With this determination, I dispatched Major Walker with three companies of his battalion on the night of the 24th, to occupy the small town of Carrizal, distant from El Paso 90 miles, and so situated as to command all the passes leading to Chihuahua. This command has orders to reconnoitre the country: cut off all communication, by establishing strong pickets, and make every effort to obtain information respecting the designs and movements of the enemy.

            On the 1st of March, after having been delayed by the non-arrival of my supply of trains, conducted as they were compelled to be by inexperienced officers, I resumed by march with four companies of Roll’s and two of Beale’s command, supplied with eight day’s subsistence, leaving orders for Love’s artillery, the remainder of Rall’s command, under Lieut. Col. Lane, and Easton’s infantry, with the exception of one company, which I designed as additional protection to the train, yet in the rear, to march on the 2d. Major Walker, at Carrizal, received no additional information, but succeeded in effectually stopping all communication with the enemy.

            Thus far my march was successful, and continued so until the night of the 6th. When within sixty miles of Chihuahua, a small party of my advance unexpectedly came upon one of the enemy’s pickets, which, unfortunately, succeeded in escaping.

            Aware, now, that my approach would be known on the following morning, I pushed forward my command until I arrived within six miles of the Sacremento, at a point termed Laguna, where I was met by a flag of truce from the general commanding the Mexican forces, protesting against the advance of my troops upon Chihuahua, upon the ground that instructions had been received from the Mexican government suspending hostilities, as a treaty of peace had been concluded and signed by commissioners on behalf of both governments. The evidence adduced on behalf of this assertion I did not then deem sufficiently satisfactory, and could not, therefore, comply with the proposition. Convinced of the uselessness of further conference, I was solicited to send in advance of my command two of my officers, to arrange the preliminaries of a capitulation. To this request I yielded, and immediately dispatched Capt. McKissick, of the quartermaster’s department, and Lieut. Prince, my assistant adjutant general, who were fully made acquainted with my views.--Fearful that dissimulation was the object of this interview, I determined to move my command upon Chihuahua that night, and accordingly proceeded with rapidity, when, in about an hour after the departure of my officers, I was met by some American citizens of Chihuahua, who informed me of the retreat, the morning previous, of the Mexican army, with their munitions of war. Anticipating events of this nature, I had, on the previous day, detached Beall’s dragoons, so that by a forced march over the mountains during the night, he would be able to intersect the Durango road, and possibly encounter the enemy in his rapid and confused fight. For his operations, I respectfully refer to the report herewith submitted. At 9 o'clock at night, my troops had possession of the city. On the following morning, (the 8th,) with portions of Rall’s, Beall’s, and Walker’s commands, (the majority mounted,) and numbering about 250 men, I pursued the enemy to the town of Santa Cruz de Rosales, where he had already strongly fortified himself--a distance of 60 miles from Chihuahua--where I arrived at sunrise the morning of the 9th. After a careful reconnaissance of the place, I determined to carry the town by storm, notwithstanding the immense superiority of the enemy in numbers, implements and munitions of war. Dismounting Rall’s (with the exception of McNain’s company) and Walker’s commands to operate as infantry, and posting Beall’s dragoons, now augmented by one company of Rall’s regiment, to act either as a reserve or to intercept the flight of the enemy, in the event of success, I determined the attack on the west side of the town, with Rall’s command, and on the southeast angle of the same, with Walker’s command.--These arrangements perfected, I dispatched Lieut. Prince, with a flag of truce, demanding an unconditional surrender of the town and public property. An interview upon this summons was requested by General Trias, which I readily granted for the reason adduced--viz: that official notice from the Mexican government of a treaty of peace having been signed by commissioners, on behalf of both governments, had been received, and the solemn assurance by General Trias that he himself had no doubt of the existence of the treaty; moreover, that he felt assured that confirmation of the same from his government would reach him by a courier (express) expected in three days. This declaration was supported by the honor of the Mexican general, and, under the circumstances, was regarded important. I therefore made the proposition contained in the subsequent correspondence, which I have the honor to submit herewith. That success must inevitably follow any course I might decree, I had not the slightest doubt. I was expecting reinforcements of my artillery and horse, and was willing, if human life could be saved, to withdraw for a few days my forces; though, at the same time, I considered it my duty to besiege the town, as I maintained the right to dictate such terms as I deemed consistent with American honor.

            It will thus be seen, that a small American force, not exceeding 300 men in the aggregate besieged with success a strongly fortified town, containing over 900 troops of the enemy.    Without tents, a scarcity of provisions, and suffering from the effects of forced marches beyond a parallel, my troops cheerfully performed the onerous duties of the siege day and night, and are entitled to the highest considerations of their government.

            From the 9th instant to the morning of the 16th, nothing of importance transpired for the subject of my report, save the correspondence before alluded to, and the arrival of small detachments of the several commands, together with two 12 pounder howitzers, of Major Walker’s battalion, under the command of Captain Hassendeubel, whom I left at Chihuahua on the morning of the 8th.

            Expecting daily a sally from the enemy, my troops were constantly in the saddle ever vigilant and cautious, each appearing to possess the individual interest, which belongs more properly to the commander. That the enemy exhibited supineness--that his every effort became paralyzed by the vigilance of my troops, is sufficiently manifested by his total inaction, although numbering near four times my own. With a battery of eight pieces of artillery (several heavier than any of my guns,) and nine wall pieces, no attempt was made, designs executed, or pickets forced, to remedy the evils which were the subject of complaint in his official correspondence.

            About daylight on the morning of the 16th, my expected reinforcements arrived; they consisted of part of three companies of Missouri horse, under the command of Lieut. Colonel Lane, and Love’s battery.

            They reports of these officers, which I have the honor to submit, evince a zeal seldom displayed, a rapidity of movement yet to be surpassed, and an iron energy of will which recognizes no limit, and convey to the department a record of their own merits.

            Convinced now of the necessity of terminating a siege peculiarly burdensome to my troops, I determined at once upon an act. From several reconnaissances, I felt sure the enemy believed my main force would be directed against that portion of the town fronting my camp, as new batteries had been established, and an unusual degree of activity became apparent throughout the siege in that quarter. At seven o'clock, A. M., I broke up my camp, and with my entire force, excepting Beall’s dragoons, augmented by Captain McNair’s company Missouri horse, who were left to cut off a retreat on the Durango road, I proceeded round the southern point of the town, where I placed in position Walker’s battalion, protected from the enemy’s artillery by walls and houses, for the meditated assault. Continuing to the western side of the town, I then detached Lieutenant Colonel Lane, with two companies of the Missouri regiment, to support Love’s battery, which I ordered to take position within 500 yards of the town, on the road leading to Chihuahua, and commanding the principal plaza church, around and in which the enemy were strongly posted, reserving Rall’s remaining four companies as my centre, and so disposes as to afford timely support to the artillery under Love and Hassendeubel.

            My final disposition made, Hassendeubel’s two 12 pounders having been put in battery on the west side of the town, supported by Rall’s command, I, at 101/2 A. M., ordered my batteries to open, which, for nearly an hour, maintained a spirited and destructive fire, clearing the houses and church of the enemy; which latter, from its flanking position and strength of construction, became the stronghold of the enemy.

            The fire of the enemy, during this time, from all his heavy guns and wall pieces, was incessant, but, from their position, without effect.--Observing that large gun of the enemy, which I afterwards learned to be a 9 pounder, had been brought to bear upon Hassendeubel’s battery, and evidently with a view to silence it, Lieut. Dyer, of the ordnance, belonging to my staff, but who volunteered for duty with Love’s battery, was ordered to reinforce Hassendeubel with a 24 pounder howizter and a 6 pounder gun. This movement having been perceived by the enemy, his battery was reinforced, and an incessant fire of canister, grape, and round shot was opened upon our batter, but without doing material injury. Lieut. Dyer was soon in position, where he continued a direct fire upon this battery, placed in embrasure in one of the principal streets leading to the main plaza, as well as the church and a large building, upon both of which were stationed a strong force. For the upwards of an hour this battery was served with great effect, clearing the houses and church during which time it was exposed to the fire of the enemy’s batteries, which, throughout mantained a most rapid firing.

            I now ordered Lieut. Love, with a 24 pounder howitzer and a 5 pounder gun, (the remainder of his battery having been disabled in firing,) to advance upon the position occupied by Lieut. Dyer, determined if possible, to silence the enemy’s 9 pounder, which contributed, by the efficient manner in which it was served, greatly to our annoyance. Immediately thereafter I received information that my rear was threatened by a large cavalry force of the enemy, supposed to be about 900 strong, and intended as a reinforcement for the enemy within the town. I immediately withdrew my artillery to a commanding position about three quarters of a mile from the town, and in the direction of the Chihuahua road; ordering, at the same time the remainder of my command to the same point, for the purpose of attacking this supposed reinforcement. This movement was evidently regarded by the enemy as a prelude to a signal defeat.--Loud cheers arose from the town, the houses were again covered by the soldiery, a flag was immediately run up from an angle of the church, and the fire of the enemy’s heavy guns became unusually brisk. I soon discovered the report of a large reinforcement of the enemy in my rear to be incorrect, and that only a small body of cavalry had threatened it, which I soon dispersed with the command under Lieutenant Col. Lane.

            I now determined to storm the town, agreeably to the dispositions made at the commencement of the attack; and therefore gave orders for Ralls, Lane, and Walker to resume their former positions, dismount their men, and charge the town at the points assigned them, as soon as my batteries should re-open.

            Lieut. Love was ordered to take up his former position. About 31/2 P. M., the action was resumed, and the fire of our battery returned with unusual briskness. Lieut. Love’s battery at this time consisted of one 24 pounder howitzer, one 6 pounder, and one 5 pounder. For a more detailed report of this battery, and the efficien aid contributed by the officers who kindly assisted at it, I respectfully refer to Lieutenant Love’s report, which I take pleasure in endorsing, from my personal observations upon that day.

            For the particulars of the several storming parties, I must also refer to the reports of their respective chiefs, which I desire to be identified as a portion of my own. The charge of Ralls was commenced under my own eye, and in a manner which foreboded success. So soon as time would permit, I witnessed the persevering efforts of Major Walker’s command, and felt confident of the result.

            I would also refer to Major Beall’s report for the duty assigned the squadron of dragoons, under the command of Capt. Grier. In affording protection to my battery on the 16th, in the judgment and activity displayed to intercept any attempt by flight of the enemy, and in the discharge of the highly important duties of the siege, I discovered talent and ability.

            I feel confident that I cannot add to the known reputation of this command; for the second time has it shared with me the honors of victory. Although the first was at the sacrifice of its gallant and accomplished leader, (the lamented Burgwin,) yet I cannot refrain from according that tribute of praise which is due the distinguished services they have performed since forming a portion of my command.

            Shortly after sundown the enemy surrendered. Gen. Trias and forty-two (42) of his principal officers were made prisoners of war; and eleven pieces of artillery, nine wall pieces, besides 577 stand of arms, fell into our hands. Our loss in the action was one lieutenant, two corporals, and one private killed; and nineteen privates wounded. The loss of the enemy--from the evidence of commanding officers herewith submitted--was two officers, and 236 non-commissioned officers and privates; the number wounded cannot be correctly ascertained.

            In submitting to the consideration of the government the operations which have been performed by my troops, I feel anxious to exhibit that high degree of praise their conduct on this occasion so justly merits. The exceedingly onerous duties of forced marches, over a sterile and desert country of nearly 320 miles, without tents or transportation trains, with merely a few days' rations of subsistence, have been willingly, indeed cheerfully, endured by my gallant column. I feel a sense of pride in recording the distinguished bravery of all--regulars and volunteers; believing that feeling will be reciprocated by the war department, and cherished by the American people.

            The distinguished conduct of Lieutenant Love--in the highly efficient manner in which his battery was served; in the rapidity of movement which characterized his conduct, when ordered to reinforce me, traveling night and day, going into battery four hours after his arrival, and his unceasing efforts during the entire day in working his battery--deserves especial notice; and I cannot refrain from expressing the strongest recommendation for that honorable gratitude from this country which the brave soldier acquires by his exploits.

            To Colonel Ralls, to Lieutenant Colonel Lane, to Major Walker, and their brave officers and men, I must accord the highest honors; unflinching in the performance, they each and all vied, where duty called them, for the crowning result of success. Ralls, on the west, charged with animation and enthusiasm; Walker, on the southeast, stormed with daring and bold determination; Lane, on the northwest, with a small command, forces the enemy’s barriers, gained the main plaza, but, overwhelmed by numbers, prudently withdrew, in good order, his small command. In this charge, the brave but lamented Lieutenant G. O. Hepburn, Missouri mounted horse, fell, leading the men gloriously, cheering and animating them to the last. His country has lost a valuable officer; his relatives and friends must look to his deeds, worthy of record upon the page of history, to console them for their loss.

            From the officers of my personal staff, I have received the most important services and encouraging aid. Capt. McKissick, assistant quartermaster, Capt. Garrison, assistant commissary of subsistence, Maj. Spalding, pay department, and Lieutenant Prince, A. D. C. and A. A. A. General, served during the contest near my person, conveying my orders with promptness wherever necessity demanded.

            Captain McKissick, suffering severely from sickness, resumed his position in the field, rendering valuable services throughout the action.

            To the medical staff, conducted by Assistant Surgeon R. T. Simpson United States army, I have to express my acknowledgements. The attention and ability displayed by Assistant Surgeon Simpson to our wounded upon the field, as well as those of the enemy after the action, has won for him admiration and esteem from both armies.

            I also mention, with pleasure, the services of Capt. Haley, Missouri horse, acting brigade inspector of my command, who voluntarily led his company at the storming of the town, under the immediate command of Colonel Ralls.

            I also take great pleasure in recording the services of Messrs. James L. Collins, E. W. Pomeroy, and W. C. Skinner, American citizens, resident at Chihuahua, who volunteered their services as aids-de-camp upon that duty.

            Of these gentlemen I must take particular mention. The valuable information received from the former upon my arrival at El Paso, as respects the condition of the enemy, a knowledge of the country and its language, together with his unremitting efforts to second my views in all that pertains to these occurrences, and the personal exertions of the two latter, in assisting me to remount my command at this place, with their services on the 16th, entitle them to my warmest thanks.

            I respectfully transmit herewith a special field return of the forces engaged in the action of the 16th: a report of the killed and wounded; a list of officers paroled; a list of stores captured;a muster-roll of the enemy’s forces, as furnished by Gen. Trias; and two topographical sketches of the town, showing the position of my several commands; prepared respectively by Captain Hassendeubel, of Maj. Walker’s battalion, and Assistant Surgeon Horace R. Wirtz, United States army.

            I think proper to state here, that every exertion was made by Lieut. Col. Easton, commanding battalion of infantry, Lieut. Webber, commanding two sections of Captain Hassendeubel’s artillery, and those officers who were necessarily absent with the trains, including Major Bodine, pay department, in charge of the public funds, to share the honor of the attack.

            I would also inform the department that Gen. Manuel Armijo, late governor of New Mexico, surrendered himself to me as a prisoner of war on the 21st inst., and is now on his parole of honor; a copy of which together with that of Gen. Trias, I have the honor herewith to submit.

I am, sir, very respectfully,
Your obedient servant,
Brig. Gen. U. S. A. Comd'g.

To Brig. Gen. R. JONES,
Adjt. Gen. U. S. A., Washington, D. C.

NNR 73.407 February 26, 1848 Gen. Joseph Lane’s expedition in pursuit of Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna


            The New Orleans Picayune, of the 15th furnishes letters from their correspondent in Mexico, giving interesting details from the army, from which we derive the following:

            His letter dated city of Mexico, January 17, 1848, is occupied in comments upon the papers received there from the U. States, and in giving his own speculations and opinions upon the policy which ought to be pursued. As it was written before the project of a treaty had been agreed upon, most of those speculations are superceded by certainties, and the opinions are no longer germa[][] to the state of affairs. We confine our extracts to matter of fact.

            Puebla, January 21.--I wrote on the 17th instant from Mexico, and informed you that I intended to accompany a secret expedition under the command of Gen. Lane, which, at the time, was supposed to be intended to scour the valley of Mexico in quest of guerrillas; and after giving it a thorough search, to march in the direction of Santa Anna’s residence for the time being. The expedition, consisting of two companies of the 3d dragoons, under the command of Capt. Duperu and Lieuts. Adde and Martin; company of mounted rifles, commanded by Lieut. Claiborne; and four companies of Texas rangers, commanded by Captains Roberts and Daggitt and Lieuts. Tucker and Evans--numbering in all about 359 officers and men--left Mexico on the morning of the 18th, taking the Penon, or Vera Cruz road; Major Polk in chief command of the dragoons and rifles, and Colonel Hays in chief command of the rangers, accompanied the expedition, together with Major Chevalie, formerly of the rangers, Captain Crittenden of the rifles, and Lieutenant Butler, Dr. Hunt, of Kentucky, and Mr. Merriwether, of Indiana--the former aid, and the two latter volunteer aids of Gen. Butler, who followed the expedition as volunteers.

            The expedition arrived at Puebla on the 20th and left on the 22d of January. [TBW]

NNR 73.408 February 26, 1848 Orizaba occupied, description, revolt at La Paz

            Orizaba, January 25, 1845.--We left Tehuacan for this city early on the morning of the 23d, after a rest of a day and a night; and a few miles from the town came to a hacienda of Santa Anna’s, at the base of a mountain, and at the entrance of a narrow valley.--The hacienda was thoroughly searched, but nothing subject to seizure was found; and the command proceeded for six or eight miles being rough and jagged, and over a naked lime-stone rock, as has been occasionally the case in the two preceding [][]arc[]es. It must not be inferred, however, that because the road was a naked rock, the valley we were penetrating was barren. Not so; some fields of wheat--the only crop now growing--[][][][] as tine as ever seen; and the wheat on Santa Anna’s ground, in particular, was beautiful and rich in appearance. But he has taken advantage of a stream which runs through the valley, to irrigate his land--an economy the other proprietors seem to have neglected; and he has the benefit of his superior management, or rather, I suppose, the superior management of his stewards.--Here too for the first time since we left the valley of Mexico, we saw the pimento tree, in full bearing.

            This valley runs, say ten or twelve miles, in a northerly direction, and then, turning abruptly to the east, narrows into a mountain gorge, where there are numerous passes capable of successful defence by a small force against a larger superior one; but although we were warned to be cautious in marching through this gorge least the enemy should surprise us, we passed through it without meeting a combatant.    The road is a continuous ascent. After traveling three or four miles through the gorge, the [][][][][] before us, and an occasional glimpse of Orizaba’s snow, much nearer than is pleasing to the imagination of a man accustomed to a warm climate, gave intimation that we were ascending a lofty mountain. At the top, governed by a single impulse, the whole column halts, and officers and men rush from the line to behold a scene, perhaps unequalled in the world for beauty and magnificence. Before us were two ranges of mountains, running parallel at a very short distance apart; the tops enveloped in clouds, as we were ourselves, were invisible, but the sun penetrating the mist gave to their barren sides an ashy whiteness; the numerous mule paths traversing them in every direction, appeared like so many fiery serpents; and beneath, the fields of grass, corn, and stubble, alternated with the regularity of squares of a chequer board. The churches and haciendas on the plain, all white as snow, added, by the contrast with the green, in no small degree to the charm of the scene. I find myself guilty of the egotism of attempting a description of a scene that would baffle the most gifted pen or pencil, and can only offer as an excuse the uneffaceable impression it made upon my memory--an impression that would not brook neglect.

            The valley we were gazing upon was the valley of Orizaba. The road down the mountain side must have been cut at an immense cost. It is about a mile in a direct line, but the steepness of the descent made it necessary to have a road five times that length, and frequently when a companion is within hearing of an ordinary voice, to reach you by the bends of the road, he has to travel a quarter of a mile. In one of the turns, from the side of the rock, where it has been blasted, to the depth of two or three hundred feet, a spring gushes and falls almost from the top into an artificial basin, and thence finds its way by subterraneous passages into the valley.--This is one of the sources, and I am told the main source of the Alvarado river.

            At the foot of the mountain the general was met by the curate and Ayuntamiento of the small village of Acalzingo, bearing a white flag. They accompanied us into the village, pointed out good quarters in the cleanest and best managed country inn I have seen in Mexico, and men and horses found a good night’s rest. The city was now but seventeen miles distant. From what had been heard on the road, it was expected a defence of it would be attempted; but, about 3 o'clock in the morning, a deputation came to the general from the Ayuntamiento, requesting to know what terms he would agree to, if the keys of the city were given up to him. The reply was, that they would know his terms when he had possession.--With this the deputation returned; and at about five o'clock in the morning, the troops were on the last day’s march to Orizaba--350 men were on their way to take a city of 20,000 to 25,000 population. To cut the matter short, the Ayuntamiento, the principal clergyman, and many of the respectable inhabitants, met the command about three miles from the city, and after, at their own request, being informed of what the troops would want, a portion went ahead to provide for them, and the remainder, accompanying the general, on arriving at the gates gave up the keys of the city to him. On entering, we found a white flag displayed at every house, and the whole population seemed to have turned out to witness our entry, and showed a degree of confidence that was decidedly complimentary. On conversing with some of the most friendly citizens, we found there were about 100 or 150 guerrillas here last night, who were ambitious of defending the city at the gate by which we entered, or who pretended they were. Whether they were sincere or not, is a matter of but little moment; but the citizens, desirous of avoiding those excesses which always will take place after a successful assault, wisely cleared the rascals out early in the morning.

            Orizaba, Jan. 26, 1848.--We are now quietly and comfortably quartered here, and the inhabitants seem thus far to be satisfied with our presence. The general has appointed Major Polk, military and civil governor of the city; Co. Dumont, attorney general; and Col. Hays, commander of troops. Inquires are about being instituted in relation to certain matters of importance, the nature of which will be revealed by the orders I enclose. As soon as these inquiries are concluded, you will be informed of the result.--You will find a correspondence between the Ayuntamiento of Cordova and the general, requesting him to occupy their city. The people in this part of the country are generally peaceable, and all that was wanting to put down the guerrillas who have rendezvoused in the neighborhood, was the presence of a sufficient force to countenance and support the well disposed. The good conduct of the troops on the march, and since their arrival here, has assisted much in conciliating the people, and the durability of first impressions is proverbial.

            Col. Bankhead, we learn, is on his way here with 1,000 or 1,200 men and several pieces of artillery, and is expected to arrive at Cordova to-night. If he does, he will be here to-morrow. This amount of well-conducted troops in and about here will be of great service in protecting life and property from guerrilla depredations, and in encouraging our friends to speak their sentiments boldly, be they what they may, for peace and or for occupation. We shall remain here until Col. Bankhead arrives; how much longer, I do not know. From this point it is probable the general will take the direct road to Puebla, and thence as rapidly as possible to Mexico, where it is expected the San Luis expedition will be preparing about the time we arrive. Should Rea or any of the guerrilla parties lie on the road, you may depend they will not be allowed much rest.

            I will conclude this letter by giving you a copy of a memorandum furnished by a person in Puebla, in relation to the character and disposition of the peoply in the towns and villages we have passed through from Puebla to this place, and in like places on the direct road from here to Puebla.           D.S.

            CALIFORNIA--Revolt at La Paz.--An account is given of the revolt at La Paz in the New York Globe, in a letter dated La Paz, October 29th, (latest prior date Oct. 10,) which says:

            "The inhabitants have risen throughout the country against us, obliging every one who has shown any friendship for us to flee to La Paz for protection.--One American (Mathew Davis) was murdered at Muhje, not having time to escape. At this last place the marines and sailors of the "Dale" had a skirmish with the inhabitants, and drove them from their town into the mountains. They are now collecting at various points in the interior, with the intention of obliging us to evacuate this place; but, although we are small in numbers, we are well fortified, and it will be no easy matter. I can hardly believe they will make a direct attack on us; they will be more apt to annoy us, by hovering about the neighboring farms, cutting off supplies, &c. We are too few to act on the offensive. The sloop of war Dale I[]g[]s[]ly in the harbor.

            "All this difficulty is the result of not having a single vessel in the gulf since the beginning of last July, to prevent the transportation of arms, ammunition, and men then Guayamas to this coast. The English cruisers have been there all the stormy season."

            Referring the taking of Mazatlan and Guayamas, the letter says:

            "How they are to be retained and garrisoned I cannot well imagine; we have not a thousand troops from the forty-ninth parallel to Cape St. Lucas.--They are trying to make nondescript soldiers out the sailors, but it will be found much easier to garrison a man-of war with such material, than a captured city with a densely populated back country."

            A series of small fights and skirmishes on the Pacific coast of Mexico is reported by Mazatlan letters of Dec. 1st to the Express--the U. S. vessels Independence, Captain Shubrick, Congress, Cyane, and Portsmouth being then at anchor there. The Congress and Portsmouth bombarded Guayamas in October, and took possession after driving out the troops--800 in number. Com. Sellridge, of the Dale, landed at Sinaloa with 88 officers and men 17th Nov. and unexpectedly encountered a force of 400 men, with the aid of shot and shell from the ship. Com. S. was slightly wounded.

            A body of near 200 California troops, with two 6 pounders, attacked Lt. Haywood, who was posted at San Jose, near Cape Lucas, with about 100 men, including 30 California volunteers, led by Mr. G[]le[]p[]e, and American merchant, and one 9 pounders.--The Mexican leader, Majores, was killed with 20 of his men. A few days after Lt. Col. Burton, with 40 New York volunteers was assaulted at La Paz, on the Gulf side of the peninsula, by 300 Mexicans under Peuanda--who lost 50 men. Burton lost 1 killed and 2 wounded. In two days after, 25th November, attack was renewed. Burton having sent to Lt. Haywood at San Jose, 70 leagues off, for aid. No fears are felt for the result.

            In a brisk skirmish near Mazatlan between Lieut. Halleck and Rowan and 160 men, a band of Mexicans were routed, with the loss of 1 man and 13 wounded on our side. Col. Stevenson, 7th N. York volunteers, commands the southern department at Los Angelos. [TBW]

NNR 73.409 February 26, 1848 items, peace announced at Queretaro

LATER FROM MEXICO.--The English steamer Dee arrived at Ship Island, below New Orleans, on the 20th instant, with advices from Vera Cruz to the 16th instant, four day later than previous accounts, and from Tampico to the 13th instant.

            The Dee had five passengers on board for England, and five for Havana.

            She also had on board $100,000 in specie.

            The courier of the English legation had arrives at Vera Cruz with advices from the city of Mexico to the 13th. The American Star of the 11th, published in the capital, contains an official announcement that the treaty of peace had been concluded.    Attached to the document is the signature of Senor Rosa, Mexican minister of foreign relations.

            Intelligence from Queretaro, up to the 10th inst., states that there was still no quorum of congress.

            A meeting of deputies was held on the 7th, at which twenty four were present. A majority of these declared in favor in peace.

            Gen. Lane reached the city of Mexico from Orizaba on the 10th instant, without having met with any further adventures than have already been noticed.

            Lieut. Gaston, of the Kentucky volunteers, died at the city of Mexico a short time before the courier left that city.

            Lieut. Clark, with his command, was at Cuernavaca on the 9th. Gen. Alvarez was making an effort to cut off his supplies, but Lieut. C. had adopted every means to thwart his designs.

            The American Star of the 12th says that Santa Anna had asked for a passport that he might leave the republic, and that he recommends his friends to favor peace, and sustain the existing government.

            Pena y Pena has published a letter, which states that the government in Queretaro has resolved, in agreement with Gen. Scott, upon the imprisonment of Santa Anna, as the best means of removing the only obstacle to the conclusion of a peace.

            There was much animation of Queretaro; commerce was reviving; and the general opinion there was that a peace would soon be concluded.

            The American Star of the 16th inst, says it has been officially announced by the Mexican minister of foreign relations, at Queretaro, that a treaty of peace was signed at Guadaloupe on the 2d inst. Between Mr. Trist, on the part of the United States, and Senors Corto Cuevas, commissioners on the part of the Mexican government. [TBW]

NNR 73.416 February 26, 1848 comments on the prospects of the treaty of peace apparently submitted to the Senate

            THE TREATY. It is understood that a message from the president reached the senate chamber the moment after that body adjourned in consequence of Mr. Adam’s illness on Tuesday. It was communicated as soon as the senate organized on Wednesday. Nothing of less importance could have detained that body in session on that day. The message and the accompanying project of a treaty with Mexico, it is understood was, during the secret session, referred to the committee on foreign relations.

            A faint glimpse of the sentiments of some of the prominent members in the senate in relation to the treaty, may be obtained by noticing the proceedings of the body whilst they were in open session.

            Of the disposition of the president and his cabinet in respect to accepting the proposed terms, very contrary opinions have been expressed. For ourselves, we took it for granted, that if the executive, with whom exclusively the constitution has reposed the initiatory treaty making duties, recognized the project so far as to submit it to the senate, that they of course waived all objections as to the authority by which it had been negatived, however informal.

            And (notwithstanding a recent instance to the contrary) we further concluded, that those informalities would not have been waived in this case, if the president and his cabinet were not in favor of accepting and ratifying the treaty, which he submitted.

            Of course we looked to the government organ at Washington for the most authentic intimations upon the subject. No announcements could reasonably be expected from thence in the present posture of affairs, but something may be gathered from the tone of their remarks. These so far as they go, leave little room to doubt the president’s approval of the terms. The Union of Friday night, the 25th, has between two and three columns under its leading article "The treaty," most of which are extracts from other papers with their own comments. From the whole we gather a distinct approval of the project, at least so far as the territory acquired, is at issue. Relying upon it also, as they do, as conclusive proof that the president has no design to conquer all Mexico, implies his acquiescence in the treaty as submitted.

            What chance there is of two-thirds of the senate advising its ratification, is another question, and is likely to involve that of the terms on which additional territory shall be admitted into the Union.

            On the other hand, the project is admitted to have originated from the executive of Mexico, and will have to be submitted to the ratification of the Mexican congress. The cash consideration of some twenty millions is relied upon to win them over.

            The Washington correspondent of the New York Courier, writes that there will be serious opposition to ratify the treaty, by the Wilmot proviso senators of the north, and by the Calhoun men of the south, Butler, Yulee, and Johnson, of La. Some urge the necessity of a military frontier, and suggest the Sierra Madre line, others object to the treaty as informally negotiated; other do not like its stipulations; "a very small portion, if any, advocate openly, the whole of Mexico." The writer upon the whole, however, for various reasons assigned, concludes that the influence of the executive will carry the ratification. The last of his reasons is, that congress will refuse money and men to carry on the war.

            The three millions are to be paid down on the exchange of ratification, and our troops are to leave Mexico within three months thereafter. [TBW]

NNR 74.016 February 26, 1848 plans for an independent Republic of the Sierra Madre

            REPUBLIC OF SIERRA MADRA.--A New movement in New Mexico contemplated.--From the New Orleans Bulletin we learn the following piece of intelligence of the contemplated formation of an Independent Republic of the Northern States of Mexico. The idea has been broached before, but it seems now to be seriously entertained.

            "A gentleman of this city, who has very lately been in Tampico, and who came passenger in the Tay, informs us that reliable persons living in that place stated to him, that if peace was declared between the United States and Mexico, they would get up a revolution against the latter country, and declare themselves independent. Their scheme is to unite with the States of Tamaulipas, Coahuila, Zacatecas, and San Luis, and declare for a Republic--invite a few thousand Americans to join in with them, and by blocking up the mountain passes, beat off the foe at all points, and compel Mexico to acknowledge her as an independent nation. Their plan, though a wild one, has a host of supporters, who have even gone so far as to form a national flag, a fancy affair, with the letters of R. S. M., Republic of Sierra Madre, and to nominate General SHIELDS as President."

             The New Orleans Delta of a late date, says: We learn from a gentleman who arrived yesterday in the steamship Portland from Vera Cruz--one who is well posted up in the matter--that a public declaration was to be made on the 13th June ult, by the leading Mexicans of Vera Cruz, in favor of separating that State from the present Mexican confederacy, in other words, declaring in favor of the contemplated Republic of Sierra Madre. [TBW]

Note:  The Niles Register was not published again until July 12, 1848

NNR 74.017 July 12, 1848 Deserters

DESERTERS.--A writer in the New Orleans Delta states that since the commencement of the war there have been at least one thousand desertions from the American to the Mexican army; That numbers of them were recognized at Queretaro by their old comrades; and that they have been the main stay of the Mexican Government in repressing manifestations of mutiny and disaffection by the Mexicans against the administration of Pena y Pena. [JNA]

NNR 74.017-018 July 12, 1848 arrival of returning troops at New Orleans

            RETURN OF THE VOLUNTEERS.--The Company of Sappers and Miners which went out to Mexico under Capt. Swift, has returned to New York, the first of the returned volunteers. There were a number of volunteers from Philadelphia in this company. When it left the United States it numbered 72 brave fellows. Twelve died from fevers and other diseases--two were killed in battler--one deserted to speculate in mining--two deserted and joined the enemy--twenty-four fell sick or were discharged at Vera Cruz, and thirty-three have returned in the steamship Crescent City. They bring with them a number of Mexican lances, side arms and accoutrements, as trophies of their bravery at Contreras, and other sanguinary battle-fields.--[Public Ledger.

            The first arrival of troops from Mexico at New Orleans took place on the 16th ult., in the ship Russia, from Vera Cruz. She anchored off Slaughter-house Point, below the city, with the following companies on board:

            Lieut. C. B. Perry, 4th infantry, commanding the detachment; company A, 7th infantry, 92 men, with Lieut. J. D. Potter, 3d dragoons, and Lieut. J. Neilly, 5th infantry; company M, 4th artillery, 89 men, Lieut. E. Murray, 2d infantry, commanding, and Lieut. E Cook, New York Volunteers, attached; company G, 2d artillery, 90 men, Lieut. J. H. Carlisle, 2d artillery, commanding, and Lieuts. E. Underwood and J. B. Collins, 4th infantry, attached; company C, 2d artillery, 90 men, Lieut. R. Hopkins, 9th infantry commanding, and Lieut. R. M. Floyd, New York Volunteers attached.

            Since our last announcement the U. S. Steamer Fashion, from Brazos Santiago, arrived at N. Orleans with Brevet Lieut. Col. Bragg and other officers.

            The Schooners Creole and Athos from Vera Cruz, and the James L. Day, Steamship, from the same port, have also arrived, bringing troops--the Creole with companies B, H, and K, numbering 148 men, of the New York Volunteers, under command of Major G. Dykeman; the Athos, with companies D, H, and K,--180 men, of the Michigan Volunteers; and the James L. Day, with 125 men of the Baltimore and District of Columbia regiment, under Col. Hughes.

            The U. S. Steamships Alabama, and Massachusetts, the ship Edgar, the bark Florida, and the brig Winthrop, have also arrived.

            A large number of officers and soldiers came over on these vessels, among whom were Major General Patterson and staff.

            The Ohio steamer was to leave immediately after the Alabama, with troops, she arrived there on the 22d inst.

            Lieutenant Jenkins, of the 2d Illinois Volunteers, and a private soldier, died on the Massachusetts on the passage.

            The ship Sabattis, was to sail on the 24th with the remainder of the Illinois troops.

            The Alabama brought up the Georgia mounted men, and the New Jersey battalion--eleven companies, in all 629 men--with their officers, twenty-three bodies in coffins, from Gen. Patterson’s command, and ten horses; Lieut. Col. J. S. Calhoun and 316 non-commissioned officers and privates of the Georgia Mounted Volunteers; Lieut. G. Anderson, and 28 men. Independent Georgians; Captains McDowell, Harrison, and Mickle, and 244 non-commissioned officers and privates of the New Jersey Battalion.

            Passengers by the Massachusetts--Major Gen. Patterson and staff--six companies of the 2d Illinois Volunteers--325 men--under command of Col. Hicks:--Capt. Powell and 52 men; Capt. Moore and 53 men; Capt. Burnes and 46 men; Capt. Monaghan and 47 men; Capt. Stapps and 47 men.

            Passengers by the Ship Edgar.--Lieut. Colonel Moore, with companies F, G, H, I, E and C, 4th Ohio Regiment--380 men--all well.

            Passengers by the barque Florida.--Lieut. Col. William Brindle, 2d Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers--180 men.

            Passengers by the brig Winthrop.--1st Massachusetts Regiment, under command of Major B. K. Andrews--255 men, companies F, G and H.


            May 30--U. S. ship Suviah, 200 sick from Jalapa. U. S. barque Robert Morris, 130 sick from Vera Cruz.

            June 3--U. S. ship America, 290 troops from N. Orleans, and Capt. Howes' Co. 2d Dragoons. Ship Russia, troops from N. York per America, 369.

            June 7--Ship America, sick from Jalapa, 500. Brig Helen, Engineer, 36; convalescents from Vera Cruz 41--76.

            June 9--Brig Massachusetts, Ala. Vols. To Mobile, 100; bark Mopang, do. do., 160; schr. Heroine, do. do., 110; ship Rhode Island, 13th inf., 250; steamer Portland, do. 350.

            June 14--Steamer Maria Burt, 100 1st Art., 90 3d Art., 80 Ord., 25 Vol., and 40 discharged Q. M. men, 335; sch. J. Randall, Capt. Tilghman’s Co., 90.

            June 18--Steamer Palmetto, Mich. Vols., 400; 13th inst. 45--445; schr. Athos, Mich. Vols, 150; barque Kathleen, do. do., 150; steamer Galveston, N. York Vols., 415; schr. Creole, do. do., 150; steamer Virginia, S. C. Vols., to Mobile, 300; schr. T. F. Hunt, do. do., 80; steamer Edith, 1st Pa. Vols. 135; steamer Eudora, do. do., 175; schr: S. Churchman, do. do., 150; schr. May, Fa. Co. 46.

            June 20--Steamer Mary Kingsland, 2d Pa. Vols., 450; barque Florida, do. do., 250; barque Victory, Mass. Vols., 250.

            June 21--Brig Winthrop, Mass. Vols., 200; barque Alexander, 4th Ohio Vols., 300; ship Edgar, do. do., 400.

            June 22--Steamer James L. Day, Md. And D. C. Bat, 324; schr. Velasco, do. do., 150.

            June 24--Steamer Mass., 250 Ill. Vols., and 150 La. and Mo. Vols., 400; ship Sabatis, 350 Ill. Vols. and 77 Geo. Vols., 427; schr. Louisiana, Geo. Vols., 108; schr. Gen. Patterson, Indpt. Co. Ohio Vols., 50.

            June 24--Steamer Alabama, 247 Geo. Mid. Men and 248 N. J. Vols., 495; Steamer Ohio, 2d Ohio Vols., 220; brig Othello, do. do., 220; bark Chief, do. 220. [TBW]

NNR 74.029-030 July 12, 1848 letter of Albert Gallatin to Congressman Garret Davis on peace with Mexico and the acquisition of territory

            ALBERT GALLATIN ON PEACE AND TERRITORIAL EXPANSION.--The Paris (Kentucky) Citizen has the following excellent letter from the friend and counselor of Jefferson on the prospect of peace with Mexico. It is addressed to an eminent Kentucky member of the last congress.

New York, Feb. 16, 1848.

            Dear Sir: I feel highly gratified by the favorable opinion you expressed of my attempt to promote the restoration of peace with Mexico, on principles consistent with justice. The war cannot last much longer; but with regret, I am compelled to say, that most of the friends of peace care not what the terms of peace may be, and that many even of those who think the war unjust, and was provoked by the United States, are imbued with the notion that our victories and conquests give us a right to extort from Mexico a part of its territory. Even Gen. Taylor, whose military talents I admire, and whose character I respect, expresses a similar opinion in his letter to Gen. Gaines. Have we then, they say, fought, conquered, covered ourselves with glory, and all for nothing? even so, if you will be just you have won the glory and nothing else. Yet I do not despair; for I have faith in our institutions, and in the ultimate prevalence of truth. Indeed, even my essay (seed thrown to the wind, some of which may fructify,) has had a far greater circulation, and has met with greater approbation than I expected; and no one has attempted a direct refutation.

            The lessons of history may not altogether be lost. Great Britain came out triumphant at the end of her long war against France, or rather the French revolution. She was covered with glory, added Malta, the Ionian Islands, as many Dutch and French colonies as she pleased to her dominion, dictated the conditions of peace, with her victorious army within the walls of her enemy’s metropolis; and, for the sake of France, restored to her the legitimate dynasty. In the meanwhile she completed the conquest of an empire, of India. And what has she in reality gained? An addition of five hundred millions sterling to her former debts, which imposes an enormous weight of oppressive taxation on the people, and has already crippled her resources and her power. And the result of her apparent extension of her commercial monopoly has been to enrich the few, to impoverish the poor, and occasionally to throw one million of people out of employment.

            What shall be said of a nation, of an empire, extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and from the north pole to the equator? of the destiny of the Anglo Saxon race, of its universal monarchy over the whole of North America? Now, I will ask, which is the portion of the globe that has attained the highest degree of civilization, and even of power? Asia, with its vast empire of Turkey, India and China, or Europe, divided into twenty independent sovereignties? Other powerful causes have undoubtedly largely contributed to that result, but this the great division into ten or twelve distinct languages, must not be neglected. But all these allegations of superiority of race and destiny, neither require or deserve any answer. They are but pretences under which to disguise ambition, cupidity, or silly vanity.

            I would be much gratified by a personal acquaintance with one whose great merit is well known to me. As you express a hope to that effect, it must be by your visiting this city; for now in my 88th year, I travel no more. I would feel most happy to see you here, but it must not be deferred.

            Please accept the assurances of my distinguished consideration and personal regard.

Your ob't and faithful servant,

            Hon. GARRET DAVIS, Paris, Ky. [TBW]

NNR 74.033 July 19, 1848 warm welcomes to returning volunteers

        ADMIRATION FOR AMERICA ABROAD.--An affecting scene.--At Venice, on occasion of consecrating the tri-colored banner, by the patriarch of that city, in front of St. Mark’s, the American consul is said to have been the only foreign diplomat invited to be present, and in the course of the ceremonies, the commander of the troops on parade exclaimed: "Attention! Honor to the flag of the United States of America!"--on which the dense mass burst forth in shouts of applause, with cries of "long live our sister republic!" The people of all classes and conditions, soldiers and civilians, threw themselves into the arms of the consul, embraced him, and kissed the "star spangled banner," pressed it to their hearts; while many, with moistened eye, stretching their hands through the dense crowd merely to touch it, could just but articulate "viva il console!--viva gli Stali Uniti--viva la gran republcia!" And in the evening, at the theatre, there was a repetition of the enthusiasm, on the consul’s entering his box, with his wife. [TBW]

NNR 74.033 July 19, 1848 Amnesty for deserters during the war with Mexico

A GENERAL ORDER (No. 25) from the Adjustant General, is published with the President’s proclamation, dated July 6.  It concludes as follows:

9.     All deserters, enlisted for the period of the war, in confinement, or under sentence of Courts Martial, will be dismissed the service, the work "honorably" being erased from the face of the discharge.

10.  "The President directs it to be announced in "general orders" that deserters from the army at large may peaceably return to their homes without being subject to punishment or trial on account of such desertion.  No reward or expenses will be allowed for apprehending any soldier who deserted prior to this order; nor will any deserter be allowed to enter the army.

11.  "The hair to be short, or what is generally termed cropped; the whiskers not to extend below the lower tip of the ear, and a line thence with the curve of the mouth; moustaches will not be worn (except by cavalry regiments) by officers or men on any pretence whatever."--Army Regulations. Sept. 215.

12.  The non observance of the above regulation (tolerated during the war with Mexico) is no longer permitted.  It is enjoined upon all officers to observe and enforce the regulation.

By order of the Secretary of War. [JNA]

NNR 74.033 July 19, 1848 troops still awaiting departure from Mexico, number of troops so far embarked from Veracruz

            The total number of troops embarked at Vera Cruz, for the United States from the 30th May to July 2, inclusive, was 18,331; according to the Quartermaster’s statement. [TBW]

NNR 74.043-045 July 19, 1848 text of the treaty between Mexico and the United States concluded at Guadalupe Hidalgo

     Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo with U.S. Senate revisions and with 26 May 1848 Mexican protocols.

     Also available online at

TREATY WITH MEXICO (February 2, 1848)



     The United States of America and the United Mexican States animated by a sincere desire to put an end to the calamities of the war which unhappily exists between the two Republics and to establish Upon a solid basis relations of peace and friendship, which shall confer reciprocal benefits upon the citizens of both, and assure the concord, harmony, and mutual confidence wherein the two people should live, as good neighbors have for that purpose appointed their respective plenipotentiaries, that is to say: The President of the United States has appointed Nicholas P Trist, a citizen of the United States, and the President of the Mexican Republic has appointed Don Luis Gonzaga Cuevas, Don Bernardo Couto, and Don Miguel Atristain, citizens of the said Republic; Who, after a reciprocal communication of their respective full powers, have, under the protection of Almighty God, the author of peace, arranged, agreed upon, and signed the following:


     Treaty of Peace, Friendship, Limits, and Settlement between the United States of America and the Mexican Republic.


     There shall be firm and universal peace between the United States of America and the Mexican Republic, and between their respective countries, territories, cities, towns, and people, without exception of places or persons.


     Immediately upon the signature of this treaty, a convention shall be entered into between a commissioner or commissioners appointed ~y the General-in-chief of the forces of the United States, and such as may be appointed by the Mexican Government, to the end that a provisional suspension of hostilities shall take place, and that, in the places occupied by the said forces, constitutional order may be reestablished, as regards the political, administrative, and judicial branches, so far as this shall be permitted by the circumstances of military occupation.


     Immediately upon the ratification of the present treaty by the Government of the United States, orders shall be transmitted to the commanders of their land and naval forces, requiring the latter (provided this treaty shall then have been ratified by the Government of the Mexican Republic, and the ratifications exchanged) immediately to desist from blockading any Mexican ports and requiring the former (under the same condition) to commence, at the earliest moment practicable, withdrawing all troops of the United State then in the interior of the Mexican Republic, to points that shall be selected by common agreement, at a distance from the seaports not exceeding thirty leagues; and such evacuation of the interior of the Republic shall be completed with the least possible delay; the Mexican Government hereby binding itself to afford every facility in i~ power for rendering the same convenient to the troops, on their march and in their new positions, and for promoting a good understanding between them and the inhabitants. In like manner orders shall be despatched to the persons in charge of the custom houses at all ports occupied by the forces of the United States, requiring them (under the same condition) immediately to deliver possession of the same to the persons authorized by the Mexican Government to receive it, together with all bonds and evidences of debt for duties on importations and on exportations, not yet fallen due. Moreover, a faithful and exact account shall be made out, showing the entire amount of all duties on imports and on exports, collected at such custom-houses, or elsewhere in Mexico, by authority of the United States, from and after the day of ratification of this treaty by the Government of the Mexican Republic; and also an account of the cost of collection; and such entire amount, deducting only the cost of collection, shall be delivered to the Mexican Government, at the city of Mexico, within three months after the exchange of ratifications.

     The evacuation of the capital of the Mexican Republic by the troops of the United States, in virtue of the above stipulation, shall be completed in one month after the orders there stipulated for shall have been received by the commander of said troops, or sooner if possible.


     Immediately after the exchange of ratifications of the present treaty all castles, forts, territories, places, and possessions, which have been taken or occupied by the forces of the United States during the present war, within the limits of the Mexican Republic, as about to be established by the following article, shall be definitely restored to the said Republic, together with all the artillery, arms, apparatus of war, munitions, and other public property, which were in the said castles and forts when captured, and which shall remain there at the time when this treaty shall be duly ratified by the Government of the Mexican Republic. To this end, immediately upon the signature of this treaty, orders shall be despatched to the American officers commanding such castles and forts, securing against the removal or destruction of any such artillery, arms, apparatus of war, munitions, or other public property. The city of Mexico, within the inner line of intrenchments surrounding the said city, is comprehended in the above stipulation, as regards the restoration of artillery, apparatus of war, & c.

     The final evacuation of the territory of the Mexican Republic, by the forces of the United States, shall be completed in three months -from the said exchange of ratifications, or sooner if possible; the Mexican Government hereby engaging, as in the foregoing article to use all means in its power for facilitating such evacuation, and rendering it convenient to the troops, and for promoting a good understanding between them and the inhabitants.

     If, however, the ratification of this treaty by both parties should not take place in time to allow the embarcation of the troops of the United States to be completed before the commencement of the sickly season, at the Mexican ports on the Gulf of Mexico, in such case a friendly arrangement shall be entered into between the General-in-Chief of the said troops and the Mexican Government, whereby healthy and otherwise suitable places, at a distance from the ports not exceeding thirty leagues, shall be designated for the residence of such troops as may not yet have embarked, until the return 1i of the healthy season. And the space of time here referred to as, comprehending the sickly season shall be understood to extend from the first day of May to the first day of November.

     All prisoners of war taken on either side, on land or on sea, shall be restored as soon as practicable after the exchange of ratifications of this treaty. It is also agreed that if any Mexicans should now be held as captives by any savage tribe within the limits of the United States, as about to be established by the following article, the Government of the said United States will exact the release of such captives and cause them to be restored to their country.


     The boundary line between the two Republics shall commence in the Gulf of Mexico, three leagues from land, opposite the mouth of the Rio Grande, otherwise called Rio Bravo del Norte, or Opposite the mouth of its deepest branch, if it should have more than one branch emptying directly into the sea; from thence up the middle of that river, following the deepest channel, where it has more than one, to the point where it strikes the southern boundary of New Mexico; thence, westwardly, along the whole southern boundary of New Mexico (which runs north of the town called Paso) to its western termination; thence, northward, along the western line of New Mexico, until it intersects the first branch of the river Gila; (or if it should not intersect any branch of that river, then to the point on the said line nearest to such branch, and thence in a direct line to the same); thence down the middle of the said branch and of the said river, until it empties into the Rio Colorado; thence across the Rio Colorado, following the division line between Upper and Lower California, to the Pacific Ocean.

     The southern and western limits of New Mexico, mentioned in the article, are those laid down in the map entitled "Map of the United Mexican States, as organized and defined by various acts of the Congress of said republic, and constructed according to the best authorities. Revised edition. Published at New York, in 1847, by J. Disturnell," of which map a copy is added to this treaty, bearing the signatures and seals of the undersigned Plenipotentiaries,. And, in order to preclude all difficulty in tracing upon the ground the limit separating Upper from Lower California, it is agreed that the said limit shall consist of a straight line drawn from the middle of the Rio Gila, where it unites with the Colorado, to a point on the coast of the Pacific Ocean, distant one marine league due south of the southernmost point of the port of San Diego, according to the plan of said port made in the year 1782 by Don Juan Pantoja, second sailing-master of the Spanish fleet, and published at Madrid in the year 1802, in the atlas to the voyage of the schooners Sutil and Mexicana; of which plan a copy is hereunto added, signed and sealed by the respective Plenipotentiaries.

     In order to designate the boundary line with due precision, upon authoritative maps, and to establish upon the ground land-marks which shall show the limits of both republics, as described in the present article, the two Governments shall each appoint a commissioner and a surveyor, who, before the expiration of one year from the date of the exchange of ratifications of this treaty, shall meet at the port of San Diego, and proceed to run and mark the said boundary in its whole course to the mouth of the Rio Bravo del Norte. They shall keep journals and make out plans of their operations; and the result agreed upon by them shall be deemed a part of this treaty, and shall have the same force as if it were inserted therein. The two Governments will amicably agree regarding what may be necessary to these persons, and also as to their respective escorts, should such be necessary.

     The boundary line established by this article shall be religiously respected by each of the two republics, and no change shall ever be made therein, except by the express and free consent of both nations, lawfully given by the General Government of each, in conformity with its own constitution.


     The vessels and citizens of the United States shall, in all time, have a free and uninterrupted passage by the Gulf of California, and by the river Colorado below its confluence with the Gila, to and from their possessions situated north of the boundary line defined in the preceding article; it being understood that this passage is to be by navigating the Gulf of California and the river Colorado, and not by land, without the express consent of the Mexican Government.

     If, by the examinations which may be made, it should be ascertained to be practicable and advantageous to construct a road, canal, or railway, which should in whole or in part run upon the river Gila, or upon its right or its left bank, within the space of one marine league from either margin of the river, the Governments of both republics will form an agreement regarding its construction, in order that it may serve equally for the use and advantage of both countries.


     The river Gila, and the part of the Rio Bravo del Norte lying below the southern boundary of New Mexico, being, agreeably to the fifth article, divided in the middle between the two republics, the navigation of the Gila and of the Bravo below said boundary shall be free and common to the vessels and citizens of both countries; and neither shall, without the consent of the other, construct any work that may impede or interrupt, in whole or in part, the exercise of this right; not even for the purpose of favoring new methods of navigation. Nor shall any tax or contribution, under any denomination or title, be levied upon vessels or persons navigating the same or upon merchandise or effects transported thereon, except in the case of landing upon one of their shores. If, for the purpose of making the said rivers navigable, or for maintaining them in such state, it should be necessary or advantageous to establish any tax or contribution, this shall not be done without the consent of both Governments.

     The stipulations contained in the present article shall not impair the territorial rights of either republic within its established limits.


     Mexicans now established in territories previously belonging to Mexico, and which remain for the future within the limits of the United States, as defined by the present treaty, shall be free to continue where they now reside, or to remove at any time to the Mexican Republic, retaining the property which they possess in the said territories, or disposing thereof, and removing the proceeds wherever they please, without their being subjected, on this account, to any contribution, tax, or charge whatever.

     Those who shall prefer to remain in the said territories may either retain the title and rights of Mexican citizens, or acquire those of citizens of the United States. But they shall be under the obligation to make their election within one year from the date of the exchange of ratifications of this treaty; and those who shall remain in the said territories after the expiration of that year, without having declared their intention to retain the character of Mexicans, shall be considered to have elected to become citizens of the United States.

     In the said territories, property of every kind, now belonging to Mexicans not established there, shall be inviolably respected. The present owners, the heirs of these, and all Mexicans who may hereafter acquire said property by contract, shall enjoy with respect to it guarantees equally ample as if the same belonged to citizens of the United States.

     ARTICLE IX [modified by the Protocol of Queréretaro]

     The Mexicans who, in the territories aforesaid, shall not preserve the character of citizens of the Mexican Republic, conformably with what is stipulated in the preceding article, shall be incorporated into the Union of the United States. and be admitted at the proper time (to be judged of by the Congress of the United States) to the enjoyment of all the rights of citizens of the United States, according to the principles of the Constitution; and in the mean time, shall be maintained and protected in the free enjoyment of their liberty and property, and secured in the free exercise of their religion without; restriction.

     ARTICLE X  [Stricken out by the United States Amendments]

     Article XI

     Considering that a great part of the territories, which, by the present treaty, are to be comprehended for the future within the limits of the United States, is now occupied by savage tribes, who will hereafter be under the exclusive control of the Government of the United States, and whose incursions within the territory of Mexico would be prejudicial in the extreme, it is solemnly agreed that all such incursions shall be forcibly restrained by the Government of the United States whensoever this may be necessary; and that when they cannot be prevented, they shall be punished by the said Government, and satisfaction for the same shall be exactedQall in the same way, and with equal diligence and energy, as if the same incursions were meditated or committed within its own territory, against its own citizens.

     It shall not be lawful, under any pretext whatever, for any inhabitant of the United States to purchase or acquire any Mexican, or any foreigner residing in Mexico, who may have been captured by Indians inhabiting the territory of either of the two republics; nor to purchase or acquire horses, mules, cattle, or property of any kind, stolen within Mexican territory by such Indians.

     And in the event of any person or persons, captured within Mexican territory by Indians, being carried into the territory of the united States, the Government of the latter engages and binds itself, in the most solemn manner, so soon as it shall know of such captives being within its territory, and shall be able so to do, through the faithful exercise of its influence and power, to rescue them and return them to their country. or deliver them to the agent or representative of the Mexican Government. The Mexican authorities will, as far as practicable, give to the Government of the United States notice of such captures; and its agents shall pay the expenses incurred in the maintenance and transmission of the rescued captives; who, in the mean time, shall be treated with the utmost hospitality by the American authorities at the place where they may be. But if the Government of the United States, before receiving such notice from Mexico, should obtain intelligence, through any other channel, of the existence of Mexican captives within its territory, it will proceed forthwith to effect their release and delivery to the Mexican agent, as above stipulated.

     For the purpose of giving to these stipulations the fullest possible efficacy, thereby affording the security and redress demanded by their true spirit and intent, the Government of the United States will now and hereafter pass, without unnecessary delay, and always vigilantly enforce, such laws as the nature of the subject may require. And, finally, the sacredness of this obligation shall never be lost sight of by the said Government, when providing for the removal of the Indians from any portion of the said territories, or for its being settled by citizens of the United States; but, on the contrary, special care shall then be taken not to place its Indian occupants under the necessity of seeking new homes, by committing those invasions which the United States have solemnly obliged themselves to restrain.


     In consideration of the extension acquired by the boundaries of the United States, as defined in the fifth article of the present treaty, the Government of the United States engages to pay to that of the Mexican Republic the sum of fifteen millions of dollars.

     Immediately after the treaty shall have been duly ratified by the Government of the Mexican Republic, the sum of three millions of dollars shall be paid to the said Government by that of the United States, at the city of Mexico, in the gold or silver coin of Mexico The remaining twelve millions of dollars shall be paid at the same place, and in the same coin, in annual installments of three millions of dollars each, together with interest on the same at the rate of six per centum per annum. This interest shall begin to run upon the whole sum of twelve millions from the day of the ratification of the present treaty by--the Mexican Government, and the first of the installments shall be paid-at the expiration of one year from the same day. Together with each annual installment, as it falls due, the whole interest accruing on such installment from the beginning shall also be paid.


     The United States engage, moreover, to assume and pay to the claimants all the amounts now due them, and those hereafter to become due, by reason of the claims already liquidated and decided against the Mexican Republic, under the conventions between the two republics severally concluded on the eleventh day of April, eighteen hundred and thirty-nine, and on the thirtieth day of January, eighteen hundred and forty-three; so that the Mexican Republic shall be absolutely exempt, for the future, from all expense whatever on account of the said claims.


     The United States do furthermore discharge the Mexican Republic from all claims of citizens of the United States, not heretofore decided against the Mexican Government, which may have arisen previously to the date of the signature of this treaty; which discharge shall be final and perpetual, whether the said claims be rejected or be allowed by the board of commissioners provided for in the following article, and whatever shall be the total amount of those allowed.


     The United States, exonerating Mexico from all demands on account of the claims of their citizens mentioned in the preceding article, and considering them entirely and forever canceled, whatever their amount may be, undertake to make satisfaction for the same, to an amount not exceeding three and one-quarter millions of dollars. To ascertain the validity and amount of those claims, a . board of commissioners shall be established by the Government of the United States, whose awards shall be final and conclusive; provided that, in deciding upon the validity of each claim, the boa shall be guided and governed by the principles and rules of decision prescribed by the first and fifth articles of the unratified convention, concluded at the city of Mexico on the twentieth day of November, one thousand eight hundred and forty-three; and in no case shall an award be made in favour of any claim not embraced by these principles and rules.

     If, in the opinion of the said board of commissioners or of the claimants, any books, records, or documents, in the possession or power of the Government of the Mexican Republic, shall be deemed necessary to the just decision of any claim, the commissioners, or the claimants through them, shall, within such period as Congress may designate, make an application in writing for the same, addressed to the Mexican Minister of Foreign Affairs, to be transmitted by the Secretary of State of the United States; and the Mexican Government engages, at the earliest possible moment after the receipt of such demand, to cause any of the books, records, or documents so specified, which shall be in their possession or power (or authenticated copies or extracts of the same), to be transmitted to the said Secretary of State, who shall immediately deliver them over to the said board of commissioners; provided that no such application shall be made by or at the instance of any claimant, until the facts which it is expected to prove by such books, records, or documents, shall have been stated under oath or affirmation.


     Each of the contracting parties reserves to itself the entire right to fortify whatever point within its territory it may judge proper so to fortify for its security.


     The treaty of amity, commerce, and navigation, concluded at the city of Mexico, on the fifth day of April, A. D. 1831, between the United States of America and the United Mexican States, except the additional article, and except so far as the stipulations of the said treaty may be incompatible with any stipulation contained in the present treaty, is hereby revived for the period of eight years from the day of the exchange of ratifications of this treaty, with the same force and virtue as if incorporated therein; it being understood that each of the contracting parties reserves to itself the right, at any time after the said period of eight years shall have expired, to terminate the same by giving one year’s notice of such intention to the other party.


     All supplies whatever for troops of the United States in Mexico, arriving at ports in the occupation of such troops previous to the final evacuation thereof, although subsequently to the restoration o~ the custom-houses at such ports, shall be entirely exempt from duties and charges of any kind; the Government of the United States hereby engaging and pledging its faith to establish and vigilantly to enforce, all possible guards for securing the revenue of Mexico, by preventing the importation, under cover of this stipulation, of any articles other than such, both in kind and in quantity, as shall really be wanted for the use and consumption of the forces of the United States during the time they may remain in Mexico. To this end it shall be the duty of all officers and agents of the United States to denounce to the Mexican authorities at the respective ports any attempts at a fraudulent abuse of this stipulation, which they may know of, or may have reason to suspect, and to give to such authorities all the aid in their power with regard thereto; and every such attempt, when duly proved and established by sentence of a competent tribunal, They shall be punished by the confiscation of the property so attempted to be fraudulently introduced.


     With respect to all merchandise, effects, and property whatsoever, imported into ports of Mexico, whilst in the occupation of the forces of the United States, whether by citizens of either republic, or by citizens or subjects of any neutral nation, the following rules shall be observed:

     (1) All such merchandise, effects, and property, if imported previously to the restoration of the custom-houses to the Mexican authorities, as stipulated for in the third article of this treaty, shall be exempt from confiscation, although the importation of the same be prohibited by the Mexican tariff.

     (2) The same perfect exemption shall be enjoyed by all such merchandise, effects, and property, imported subsequently to the restoration of the custom-houses, and previously to the sixty days fixed in the following article for the coming into force of the Mexican tariff at such ports respectively; the said merchandise, effects, and property being, however, at the time of their importation, subject to the payment of duties, as provided for in the said following article.

     (3) All merchandise, effects, and property described in the two rules foregoing shall, during their continuance at the place of importation, and upon their leaving such place for the interior, be exempt from all duty, tax, or imposts of every kind, under whatsoever title or denomination. Nor shall they be there subject to any charge whatsoever upon the sale thereof. (4) All merchandise, effects, and property, described in the first and second rules, which shall have been removed to any place in the interior, whilst such place was in the occupation of the forces of the United States, shall, during their continuance therein, be exempt from all tax upon the sale or consumption thereof, and from every kind of impost or contribution, under whatsoever title or denomination.

     (5) But if any merchandise, effects, or property, described in the first and second rules, shall be removed to any place not occupied at the time by the forces of the United States, they shall, upon their introduction into such place, or upon their sale or consumption there, be subject to the same duties which, under the Mexican laws, they would be required to pay in such cases if they had been imported in time of peace, through the maritime custom-houses, and had there paid the duties conformably with the Mexican tariff.

     (6) The owners of all merchandise, effects, or property, described in the first and second rules, and existing in any port of Mexico, shall have the right to reship the same, exempt from all tax, impost, or contribution whatever.

     With respect to the metals, or other property, exported from any Mexican port whilst in the occupation of the forces of the United States, and previously to the restoration of the custom-house at such port, no person shall be required by the Mexican authorities, whether general or state, to pay any tax, duty, or contribution upon any such exportation, or in any manner to account for the same to the said authorities.


     Through consideration for the interests of commerce generally, it is agreed, that if less than sixty days should elapse between the date of the signature of this treaty and the restoration of the custom houses, conformably with the stipulation in the third article, in such case all merchandise, effects and property whatsoever, arriving at the Mexican ports after the restoration of the said custom-houses, and previously to the expiration of sixty days after the day of signature of this treaty, shall be admitted to entry; and no other duties shall be levied thereon than the duties established by the tariff found in force at such custom-houses at the time of the restoration of the same. And to all such merchandise, effects, and property, the rules established by the preceding article shall apply.


     If unhappily any disagreement should hereafter arise between the Governments of the two republics, whether with respect to the interpretation of any stipulation in this treaty, or with respect to any other particular concerning the political or commercial relations of the two nations, the said Governments, in the name of those nations, do promise to each other that they will endeavour, in the most sincere and earnest manner, to settle the differences so arising, and to preserve the state of peace and friendship in which the two countries are now placing themselves, using, for this end, mutual representations and pacific negotiations. And if, by these means, they should not be enabled to come to an agreement, a resort shall not, on this account, be had to reprisals, aggression, or hostility of any kind, by the one republic against the other, until the Government of that which deems itself aggrieved shall have maturely considered, in the spirit of peace and good neighbourship, whether it would not be better that such difference should be settled by the arbitration of commissioners appointed on each side, or by that of a friendly nation. And should such course be proposed by either party, it shall be acceded to by the other, unless deemed by it altogether incompatible with the nature of the difference, or the circumstances of the case.


     If (which is not to be expected, and which God forbid) war should unhappily break out between the two republics, they do now, with a view to such calamity, solemnly pledge themselves to each other and to the world to observe the following rules; absolutely where the nature of the subject permits, and as closely as possible in all cases where such absolute observance shall be impossible:

(1) The merchants of either republic then residing in the other shall be allowed to remain twelve months (for those dwelling in the interior), and six months (for those dwelling at the seaports) to collect their debts and settle their affairs; during which periods they shall enjoy the same protection, and be on the same footing, in all respects, as the citizens or subjects of the most friendly nations; and, at the expiration thereof, or at any time before, they shall have full liberty to depart, carrying off all their effects without molestation or hindrance, conforming therein to the same laws which the citizens or subjects of the most friendly nations are required to conform to. Upon the entrance of the armies of either nation into the territories of the other, women and children, ecclesiastics, scholars of every faculty, cultivators of the earth, merchants, artisans, manufacturers, and fishermen, unarmed and inhabiting unfortified towns, villages, or places, and in general all persons whose occupations are for the common subsistence and benefit of mankind, shall be allowed to continue their respective employments, unmolested in their persons. Nor shall their houses or goods be burnt or otherwise destroyed, nor their cattle taken, nor their fields wasted, by the armed force into whose power, by the events of war, they may happen to fall; but if the necessity arise to take anything from them for the use of such armed force, the same shall be paid for at an equitable price. All churches, hospitals, schools, colleges, libraries, and other establishments for charitable and beneficent purposes, shall be respected, and all persons connected with the same protected in the discharge of their duties, and the pursuit of their vocations.

     (2) . -In order that the fate of prisoners of war may be alleviated all such practices as those of sending them into distant, inclement or unwholesome districts, or crowding them into close and noxious places, shall be studiously avoided. They shall not be confined in dungeons, prison ships, or prisons; nor be put in irons, or bound or otherwise restrained in the use of their limbs. The officers shall enjoy liberty on their paroles, within convenient districts, and have comfortable quarters; and the common soldiers shall be dispose( in cantonments, open and extensive enough for air and exercise and lodged in barracks as roomy and good as are provided by the party in whose power they are for its own troops. But if any office shall break his parole by leaving the district so assigned him, o any other prisoner shall escape from the limits of his cantonment after they shall have been designated to him, such individual, officer, or other prisoner, shall forfeit so much of the benefit of this article as provides for his liberty on parole or in cantonment. And if any officer so breaking his parole or any common soldier so escaping from the limits assigned him, shall afterwards be found in arms previously to his being regularly exchanged, the person so offending shall be dealt with according to the established laws of war. The officers shall be daily furnished, by the party in whose power they are, with as many rations, and of the same articles, as are allowed either in kind or by commutation, to officers of equal rank in its own army; and all others shall be daily furnished with such ration as is allowed to a common soldier in its own service; the value of all which supplies shall, at the close of the war, or at periods to be agreed upon between the respective commanders, be paid by the other party, on a mutual adjustment of accounts for the subsistence of prisoners; and such accounts shall not be mingled with or set off against any others, nor the balance due on them withheld, as a compensation or reprisal for any cause whatever, real or pretended Each party shall be allowed to keep a commissary of prisoners, appointed by itself, with every cantonment of prisoners, in possession of the other; which commissary shall see the prisoners as often a he pleases; shall be allowed to receive, exempt from all duties a taxes, and to distribute, whatever comforts may be sent to them by their friends; and shall be free to transmit his reports in open letters to the party by whom he is employed.

     And it is declared that neither the pretense that war dissolves all treaties, nor any other whatever, shall be considered as annulling or suspending the solemn covenant contained in this article. On the contrary, the state of war is precisely that for which it is provided; and, during which, its stipulations are to be as sacredly observed as the most acknowledged obligations under the law of nature or nations.


     This treaty shall be ratified by the President of the United States of America, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof; and by the President of the Mexican Republic, with the previous approbation of its general Congress; and the ratifications shall be exchanged in the City of Washington, or at the seat of Government of Mexico, in four months from the date of the signature hereof, or sooner if practicable.

     In faith whereof we, the respective Plenipotentiaries, have signed this treaty of peace, friendship, limits, and settlement, and have hereunto affixed our seals respectively. Done in quintuplicate, at the city of Guadalupe Hidalgo, on the second day of February, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty-eight.

     N. P. TRIST


     Article IX was modified and Article X were stricken by the US Congress. Here are the original articles.

     In addition, there is an explanation or agreement of why the articles where stricken which is known as the protocol of Querétaro


     The Mexicans who, in the territories aforesaid, shall not preserve the character of citizens of the Mexican Republic, conformably with what is stipulated in the preceding Article, shall be incorporated into the Union of the United States, and admitted as soon as possible, according to the principles of the Federal Constitution, to the enjoyment of all the rights of citizens of the United States. In the mean time, they shall be maintained and protected in the enjoyment of their liberty, their property, and the civil rights now vested in them according to the Mexican laws. With respect to political rights, their condition shall be on an equality with that of the inhabitants of the other territories of the United States; and at least equally good as that of the inhabitants of Louisiana and the Floridas, when these provinces, by transfer from the French Republic and the Crown of Spain, became territories of the United States.

     The same most ample guaranty shall be enjoyed by all ecclesiastics and religious corporations or communities, as well in the discharge of the offices of their ministry, as in the enjoyment of their property of every kind, whether individual or corporate. This guaranty shall embrace all temples, houses and edifices dedicated to the Roman Catholic worship; as well as all property destined to it’s [sic] support, or to that of schools, hospitals and other foundations for charitable or beneficent purposes. No property of this nature shall be considered as having become the property of the American Government, or as subject to be, by it, disposed of or diverted to other uses.

     Finally, the relations and communication between the Catholics living in the territories aforesaid, and their respective ecclesiastical authorities, shall be open, free and exempt from all hindrance whatever, even although such authorities should reside within the limits of the Mexican Republic, as defined by this treaty; and this freedom shall continue, so long as a new demarcation of ecclesiastical districts shall not have been made, conformably with the laws of the Roman Catholic Church.


     All grants of land made by the Mexican government or by the competent authorities, in territories previously appertaining to Mexico, and remaining for the future within the limits of the United States, shall be respected as valid, to the same extent that the same grants would be valid, to the said territories had remained within the limits of Mexico. But the grantees of lands in Texas, put in possession thereof, who, by reason of the circumstances of the country since the beginning of the troubles between Texas and the Mexican Government, may have been prevented from fulfilling all the conditions of their grants, shall be under the obligation to fulfill the said conditions within the periods limited in the same respectively; such periods to be now counted from the date of the exchange of ratifications of this Treaty: in default of which the said grants shall not be obligatory upon the State of Texas, in virtue of the stipulations contained in this Article.


     The foregoing stipulation in regard to grantees of land in Texas, is extended to all grantees of land in the territories aforesaid, elsewhere than in Texas, put in possession under such grants; and, in default of the fulfillment of the conditions of any such grant, within the new period, which, as is above stipulated, begins with the day of the exchange of ratifications of this treaty, the same shall be null and void.



     In the city of Queretaro on the twenty sixth of the month of May eighteen hundred and forty-eight at a conference between Their Excellencies Nathan Clifford and Ambrose H. Sevier Commissioners of the United States of America, with fuil powers from their Government to make to the Mexican Republic suitable explanations in regard to the amendments which the Senate and Government of the said United States have made in the treaty of peace, friendship, limits and definitive settlement between the two Republics, signed in Guadalupe Hidalgo, on the second day of February of the present year, and His Excellency Don Luis de la Rosa, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Mexico, it was agreed, after adequate conversation respecting the changes alluded to, to record in the present protocol the following explanations which Their aforesaid Excellencies the Commissioners gave in the name of their Government and in fulfillment of the Commission conferred upon them near the Mexican Republic.



     The american Government by suppressing the IXth article of the Treaty of Guadalupe and substituting the III article of the Treaty of Louisiana did not intend to diminish in any way what was agreed upon by the aforesaid article IXth in favor of the inhabitants of the territories ceded by Mexico. Its understanding that all of that agreement is contained in the IIId article of tile Treaty of Louisiana. In consequence, all the privileges and guarantees, civil, political and religious, which would have been possessed by the inhabitants of the ceded territories, if the IXth article of the Treaty had been retained, will be enjoyed by them without any difference under the article which has been substituted.



     The American Government, by suppressing the Xth article of the Treaty of Guadalupe did not in any way intend to annul the grants of lands made by Mexico in the ceded territories. These grants, notwithstandjng the suppression of the article of the Treaty, preserve the legal value which they may possess; and the grantees may cause their legitimate tities to be acknowledged before the american tribunals.

     Conformably to the law of the United States, legitimate titles to every description of property personal and real, existing in the ceded territories, are those which were legitimate titles under the Mexican law in California and New Mexico up to the 13th of May 1846, and in Texas up to the 2d March 1836.


     The Government of the United States by suppressing the concluding paragraph of article XIIth of the Treaty, did not intend to deprive the Mexican Republic of the free and unrestrained faculty of ceding, conveying or transferring at any time (as it may judge best> the sum of the twelve [sic] millions of dollars which the same Government of the United States is to deliver in the places designated by the amended article.

     And these explanations having been accepted by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Mexican Republic, he declared in name of his Government that with the understanding conveyed by them, the same Government would proceed to ratify the Treaty of Guadalupe as modified by the Senate and Government of the United States. In testimony of which their Excellencies the aforesaid Commissioners and the Minister have signed and sealed in quintuplicate the present protocol.

[Seal] A. H. Sevier
[Seal] Nathan Clifford
[Seal] Luis de la Rosa


NNR 74.049 July 26, 1848 act regulating position of officers and awarding extra pay to disbanded troops

            The following is a copy of the Bill which passed both Houses of Congress on Tuesday, 18th inst., regulating the position of certain officers of the Army, and awarding three month’s extra pay to the disbanded troops:

AN ACT to amend an act entitled "An act supplemental to an act entitled 'An act providing for the prosecution of the existing war between the United States and the Republic of Mexico,'" and for other purposes.

            Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the proviso of the first section of an act approved the eighteenth day of June, one thousand eight hundred and forty-six, in the following words: "That when the war with Mexico shall be terminated by a definitive treaty of peace, duly concluded and ratified, the number of major generals in the army shall be reduced to one, and the number of brigadier generals shall be reduced to two; and the President of the United States is authorised and directed to select from the whole number which may then be in office, without regard to the date of their commissions, the number to be retained, and cause the remainder to be discharged from the service of the United States," be and the same is hereby repealed: Provided, That no vacancy happening in the grade of general officer shall be filled up until the number is reduced to one major general and two brigadier generals.

            SEC. 2. And be it further enacted, That so much of the existing law as requires the discharge, at the close of the war, with Mexico, of one additional major to each of the regiments of dragoons, artillery, infantry, and riflemen in the army of the United States, who were appointed or promoted under the third section of the act passed on the eleventh day of February, one thousand eight hundred and forty-seven, entitled "An act to raise for a limited time an additional military force, and for other purposes," be and the same is hereby repealed.

            SEC. 3. And be it further enacted, That so much of said act, passed on the eleventh of February, one thousand eight hundred and forty-seven, as requires the discharge, at the close of the war with Mexico, of two additional surgeons and twelve additional assistant surgeons, as authorised by the eighth section of said act: four quartermasters, and ten assistant quartermasters, as authorised by the tenth section of said act; and so much of the act of the third of March, eighteen hundred and forty-seven, as requires the discharge, at the close of the war with Mexico, of an assistant adjutant general, with the rank, pay, &c. of a lieutenant colonel of cavalry, and two assistant adjutants general, with the brevet rank, pay, &c. of a captain of cavalry, as authorised by the second section of the said act of the third of March, eighteen hundred and forty-seven; and the two deputy paymasters, as authorised by the twelfth section of the last mentioned act, and the two principal musicians allowed to each regiment of artillery by the eighteenth section of the said last mentioned act, be and the same is hereby repealed: Provided, That no vacancy happening under the provisions so repealed shall be filled up until further authorised by law: And provided further, That the ten additional paymasters appointed in virtue of the said foregoing act of the 3d March, 1847, shall be retained in service until the 4th day of March, 1849.

            SEC. 4. And be it further enacted, That all the officers of the old army who received appointments in any of the additional regiments raised for the war with Mexico shall be restored to their former regiments or corps and rank, as additional officers, of the respective grades to which they would have succeeded, and to which they shall now succeed, in virtue of their former commissions: Provided, That such officers so restored shall be reappointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate: And provided, That the next vacancy happening in such grade of such regiment or corps to which they succeed shall not be filled.

            SEC. 5. And be it further enacted, That the officers, non-commissioned officers, musicians, and privates engaged in the military service of the United States in the war with Mexico, and who served out the term of their engagement, or have been or may be honorably discharged; and first to the widows, second the children, third to the parents, and fourth to the brothers and sisters of such who have been killed in battle, or who died in service, or who, having been honorably discharged, have since died, or may hereafter die, without receiving the three months' pay herein provided for, shall be entitled to receive three months' pay: Provided, That this provision of this fifth section shall only apply to those who have been in actual service during the war. [TBW]

NNR 74.049-050 JUuly 26, 1848 arrival of troops from Veracruz at New Orleans

            The N. O. Delta of the 6th inst., announces the arrival of the following:

            Per ship Calcutta, from Vera Cruz--Companies A, B, D and G, 5th Tennessee Volunteers, under the command of Lieut. Col. Bounds, Captains Shaver, Thomason and Reese, Lieuts. Lillard, Sentu, Anderson, McCartney, Miller, Odell, Bramlett, Porter and Moreland, Actiong Assist't Surgeon Cameron, and 270 men. Lieut. King and Privates John Boling, of Co. D, and Archibald Murray, of Co. B, died on the passage. On the 3d inst. Wm. Cummings, a seaman, fell over board and was drowned.

            Per ship Harkaway, from Vera Cruz--Capts. Smith and Simms, 3d Kentucky Volunteers, Capt. Bardett, Lieuts. Hughes, Bibb, Chapline and Russell, 4th Kentucky Volunteers, and 36 men.

            Per ship Maid of Orleans, from Vera Cruz--Col. McClellan, Maj. Walker, Adjt. Fulkerson, Capt. R. D. Powell, A. C. S., Capts. Vaughan, S. Powell, Dill. O'Brien and Patterson, Lieuts. McSpadden, Brown, McConny, Gault, Lyons, Watterson, Lafferty, Collins, Sheldon, McCartey, Hinneger, Emmerst, Lacy, Boyde, Henley, Hall and Adams, Drs. Johnson and McGee, Acting Ass't. Surgeons, Mr. Oliver, Sutler, Capt. Freeman, 4th Tennessee Volunteers, and 543 men.

            Per ship Atlantic, from Vera Cruz--Colonel Williams, Lt. Col. Preston, Surg. Roberts, Adjt. Creel, Capt. Martin, A. C. S., Capt. Keating, McCreesey, Coon and Harding, Lieuts. Woodruff, Briston, Dorris, Carey, Talbott, White, Bush, Washburn, Massey, Watkins, Shackleford, and Cosby, Sergt. Maj. Kane, Quartermast. Bail, Com. Sergts. Smith and Strawbridge, and 314 men of the 4th Kentucky Volunteers.

            Per ship Palestine, from Vera Cruz--4 companies of the 3d Kentucky Volunteers--300 men.

           Per ship Suviah, from Vera Cruz--3 companies of Indiana Volunteers--285 men.

            Per ship Orphan, from Vera Cruz--Major Ward, Capts. Lair, Mayfield, Hardin and Cook, Lieuts. Gilmore, Cowen, Doner, Woodruff, Trabue, Wickliffe, Davis, Johnson, Barber, Snyder, and Egan, Assist. Surg. Steele, and 316 men of the 4th Kentucky Volunteers.

            Per schooner C. G. Stratton, from Tampico. Maj. Forsyth, Paymaster, U. S. A., Capt. Babbot, A. Q. M., Maj. Capers, Sutler, Capt. Wagstaff, Harbormaster at Tampico. The Stratton brought $70,000 in specie to the U. S. Government. [TBW]

NNR 74.054 July 26, 1848 progress of American troops toward Veracruz for embarkation

            By late arrivals from Mexico we learn that nearly all the Volunteers and the ten regiments had reached Vera Cruz, and were rapidly embarking on the transports bound for this and other ports of the United States.

            The revolutionary attempt made by Paredes and Jarauta had not disconcerted the government, which appears confident of quelling the insurgents.

            The Legislature of Tamaulipas had demanded two millions of dollars from the Federal Government as indemnity for the loss of territory beyond the Rio Grande by the Treaty of Guadaloupe.

            The Mexican government has appropriated $300,000 to the relief of Yucatan. Paredes had addressed the States for aid to the 8000 Yucatanese who took refuge in Merida and Campeachy, to escape the Indians.

            It is reported from Tampico, that the Mexican government had sent a force to take possession of Tampico, but that the citizens favor the revolutionary movement of Paredes and Jarauta. [TBW]

NNR 74.065 July 26, 1848 further arrival of returning troops at New Orleans

            ARRIVAL OF TROOPS.--The following vessels arrived at New Orleans, on the 18th ult., from Vera Cruz, with troops:

            Ship Isaac Newton and schr. Creole, with Companies C, E, F, G, H, I, K, (460 men) 1st regiment U. S. Infantry, under the command of Maj. Thompson Morris, and the following officers: Brevet Majors Miller and Backus; Captains King and Granger; Asst. Surg. Lamb; and Lieuts. Mumford, Arthur, Plummer, Denman, Gilbert, Turnley and Viele.

            Ship Masconomo, with six Companies of the 3d regiment U. S. Infantry--17 officers and 577 men.

            Brig Milaudon, with two Companies 7th U. S. Infantry.

            Steamer A. R. Hetzel, with two Companies of the Voltigeurs.

            Barque Leonora, with 160 Quartermaster’s men.

            Ship Suffolk, with five Companies 7th U. S. Infantry.

            ARRIVAL OF TROOPS.--The Brig Tasso, Capt. Gray, which arrived from Vera Cruz on the 9th ult., at New Orleans, brought over sixty-seven men, rank and file, of the Ordnance Department, under command of Lieut. Gorgus; and also one battery of mounted howitzers. The following passengers came over in her:

            Lieut. Reno, Ordnance Department; Lieuts. Walker, Leigh and Fry, of the Voltigeurs; Capt. Heagh, Q. M. Department; Asst. Surgeon Van Ever, and Passed Midshipman Townsend.

            The Barque Pario, having on board three companies U. S. Artillery, (180 in number,) arrived in Hampton Roads on Wednesday evening from Vera Cruz. Seven of the troops died on the passage.

            The James L. Day has also arrived and brought the following:

            Capt. S. P. Heitzman; Surgeon Jno. M. Cuyler, U. S. A.; 2d Lt. D. R. Jones, Adjt.; 1st Lt. Geo. C. Westcot, Quartermaster; Capt. H. W. Wessels; Rev. Jno. McCarty, Chaplain; Capt. Davis; 1st Lt. D. Davidson; 2d Lt. H. D. Hendershot; Lt. Jas. W. Sherman all belonging to the 2d Infantry, Col. Bondam, 1st Infantry; Major Gouge; Capt. Miller, Asst. Quartermaster; Capt. Churchill, Volt.: Lt. Martin, do.; Lt. Linn, 12th Infantry, with a battalion of the 2d Infantry, and 300 regulars.

            The steamship Jas. L. Day left at Vera Cruz on the 7th, barks Judah Touro, Bruno, and Leonora, and brig Mount Vernon, for this port on the 8th inst. Propellers Gov. Marcy and H. R. Thompson, and Stanton, and Steamers A. R. Hetzel, and Somers, uncertain.

            The Steamship Alabama arrived at New Orleans on the 19th ult., with Maj. Gen. Worth, and several officers, of the Inspection, Quartermaster’s, Commissary and Surgeon’s departments, and 430 non-commissioned officers and privates of the 6th Infantry.

            The Alabama reports that the 2d and 3d Artillery, sailed for the North direct on the 15th: 4th and 5th Infantry on the 16th for Pass Christian; 8th Infantry on the 16th, for Jefferson Barracks, via New Orleans.

            The Steamship Virginia, also arrived on the same day with the Voltigeur Regiment. Also, the Steamboat E. A. Ogden arrived with one company of Alabama Cavalry, [74 men) from the Brazos, and 87 discharged soldiers and Quartermaster’s men.

            The brig Tally-Ho, Capt. Elliot, from Brazos Santiago, arrived at Hampton Roads, on Saturday, with a portion of the North Carolina Regiment. [TBW]

NNR 74.068 August 2, 1848 From the Rio Grande, evacuation of Mexican territory

From the Rio Grande- The Schooner Maj. Barbour arrived on the 4d. inst. At New Orleans, from the Brazos. From the Delta, we take the following items of news brought by her:

In obedience to General Orders already published, our army is rapidly evacuating the Mexican territory on this line. On Wednesday, the 14th inst., the depot and encampment as Saltillo were finally broken up. The troops halted at Monterey, but the wagon train with stores and ordnance reached Camargo on the 18th inst. Monterey will have been evacuated before this time.

Two companies of the 1st Dragoons, under the command of Capt. Rucker, have left Monterey for Santa Fe, by way of Chihuahua.

Five companies of the 3d. Dragoons, under Col. Butler, left Mier on the 20th inst. For Matamoras, and will encamp at Palo Alto. Capt. Wilder’s Company, 10th Infantry, will remain at Mier until all the public stores can be withdrawn. Three companies of the 10th Infantry left on the 19th inst. For Matamoras.

A Court Martial convened at Mier on the 16th inst., for the trial of Capt. Petigru, of the 3d. Dragoons, upon various charges. Lieut. Col. Norvell, 10th Infantry, President; Asst. Surgeon Abadie, Judge Advocate. The Court adjourned on the 16th. Result not known.

A Military Commission, for the trial of various offenders, met at Camargo on the 21st instant, Col. Norvell, President.

The Mexican authorities at Camargo have an order ready for promulgation, requiring all Americans intending to remain in the place to register their names and occupations. Several American merchants will remain permanently in Camargo, and several in Monterey.

It is said the 2d Dragoons will be stationed along the Rio Grande, at different points up to the Paso del Norte. Should Congress retain the 3d Dragoons in service, there may be a change of destination in different corps. [KAS]

NNR 74.096 Aug. 9, 1848 complaints of the company of Saint Patrick

            MEXICO.--The New Orleans editors have received files of papers from the city of Mexico, to the 4th ult., inclusive. Nothing had been done by either Bustamente on one side, or Paredes on the other, to bring their respective forces in conflict, so as to decide the fate of the late revolutionary movement in Guanajuato.

            Letters had been received by Herrera’s government from Bustamente, date the 29th ult., apprising the authorities that a junction had been effected between him and General Cortazar, which had raised the number of troops under his command to 3000 men. On the 27th, a messenger had arrived in Bustamente’s camp, from Paredes, making the former various propositions, tempting him, as it appears, from his loyalty.--The reply to them was, that Bustamente would not deviate an iota from the letter of his instructions, and that he was firm in his adherence to the government.

            A private letter from Guanajuato, states that the movements of the rebels have been paralyzed by a tremendous fall of rain, which had deluged the roads, making them nearly impassable. They had not moved from the centre of the city, and Paredes had obtained no fresh accessions to his forces. The people of property at Guanajuato, feared that their houses would be pillaged by the leperos there, a considerable number of whom had been armed by the rebel officers. The letter adds that it is probable a collision had by that time, the 4th ult., taken place between the hostile forces, and expresses the hope, that he shall soon be able to announce the restoration of peace, order, and respect to the laws. Don Juan Cardenas, Deputy to the Legislature of Tamaulipas, has been appointed Governor of that State.

            Lieutenant Tilden, who is in prison in the city of Mexico, for offences committed against the public peace, has attempted suicide twice--first by hanging himself, and after, by throwing himself our of the window. It is recommended that he be conducted to the nearest seaport and sent out of the country.

            The Monitor says, we are aware that a resident Minister from the United States is in the capital, but has not presented his credentials; and it is inferred that they will not be verified until after an Envoy be nominated from Mexico to Washington.

            The Company of St. Patrick have made grave complaints against their commanders, Schafino and Moreno, and as the Monitor observes, these men, deserving a thousand considerations at the hands of the nation, their grievances should be immediately redressed.

            The Monitor expresses sanguine hopes that Paredes and Jarauta, between whom violent feuds exist, will soon be put down. The government is exhorted to punish them severely, in the event of their capture, and by the firmness and energy, thus strike a salutary terror into the breasts of all who meditate treason against the State. [TBW]

NNR 74.097 Aug. 16, 1848 Veracruz surrendered to Mexican authorities

            New Orleans dates of the 6th and 8th inst., contain the following intelligence:

            General Persifer F. Smith arrived on the 5th inst., in the Alabama, and was received on the 7th inst., by a grand demonstration of welcome.

            The City of Vera Cruz was surrendered to the Mexican authorities on the 1st. inst. Every thing passed off quietly.

            The intelligence from Vera Cruz is to the 2d inst., and from Mexico to the 31st ult.

            Paredes had still succeeded in eluding the pursuit of the officers of Government, who were endeavoring to arrest him.

            The citizens of Mexico were urging Government to recal Gen. Bustamente, to institute inquiries as to why Paredes was suffered to escape.

            The Cotton market was quiet, the Europa’s letters having been received--prices were full. Other articles remain unchanged. [TBW]

NNR 74.097 Aug. 16, 1848 number of troops departing Veracruz in six weeks

            According to an official statement published in the N. O. Picayune, the number of U. S. troops, quartermaster’s men, &c., which left Vera Cruz from the 30th May to the 14th of July, was 26,500 men. [TBW]

NNR 74.112 Aug. 16, 1848 Veracruz surrendered to the Mexicans

           FROM MEXICO.--Papers from New Orleans to the 2d, and telegraphic advices to the 6th, bring the following intelligence from Mexico.

           The Steamer Alabama, from Vera Cruz, arrived on the 5th, bringing dates from the Capital to the 29th ult.

           The city of Vera Cruz was fully surrendered to the Mexicans on the 1st inst. Gen. Smith and the rear guard of the army embarked on that day for the United States.

           Gen. S. arrived at New Orleans in the Alabama, and a brilliant public reception was to be given to him on the 7th.

           Official and private letters received in the city of Mexico by express from Guanajuato, announce that on the 18th ult. the troops of Bustamente gained an important triumph over the insurgents. Gen. Minon submitted a plan of attack, which was approved. The attack was made and the principal points, defended by the insurgents, carried.

           Father Jarauta was made prisoner, and in obedience to orders of the War Department he was immediately shot. When he was apprised of his approaching execution, he demanded an interview with Gen. Minon, in which he represented to him that Paredes had in his hands several prisoners, all of whom would be shot were the life of his second in command to be taken. He tried other means of saving his life, but the orders of the Department were too positive, and were carried rigidly into execution. It is represented that this act of justice has entirely disconcerted Paredes and his followers, but this comes to us from a government source. The official dispatches mention that the scoundrel Jarauta partook of the last sacraments of the church prior to his death with extreme fervor. His remains were buried with the honors of war due to his rank.

           Bustamente entered the city of Guanajuanto the evening of the 18th without encountering any resistance, as the forces of the insurgents were already dispersed, their leaders having concealed themselves as soon as they heard of the execution of Jarauta. A few prisoners were made but none of them of note, all the principals having escaped save Jarauta. The Government is urged to the most diligence to ferret out the fugitives, that they may be brought to strict account for their treason.

           The latest dispatch from Bustamente is dated the 19th. In it he says that Paredes, with a few attendants, fled early in the action, and that he had dispatched troops in pursuit of him. A body of troops had been ordered to Lagos and another to Aguas Calientes, to arrest Paredes if possible, and to hold in check any who might be disposed still to assist his waning fortunes. Capt. Scott, of the Fanny, informs us that when he left Vera Cruz a report was current there that Paredes had been taken and would be shot.

           We have before us Minon’s plan of attack and Bustamente’s dispatches, but our readers would derive little satisfaction from their perusal. They will be able to judge of the desperate nature of the conflict between the Government troops and the insurgents when we inform them that on the part of the former three men were killed and eight wounded.

           The papers of San Luis give accounts of successes obtained over the insurgent Indians near the hacienda of Tapauco on the 12th ult. A body of 400 were defeated with a loss of of 30 killed in battle, and some prisoners were made who were immediately shot.

           There is a letter in the Monitor from the Upper California, which represents that Territory as exceedingly flourishing, now that it has ceased to belong to Mexico.

           The Number of Deputies to the Congress in Mexico not being sufficient to constitute a quorum, the Government had resolved upon the substitutes to take the oaths of office.

           A letter from Durango, dated June 23d, says: "There are 800 soldiers here, and among them 300 or 400 American deserters. Gen. Urrea is commandant. There are 800 or 1000 Indians in the State who are inhabitants are much alarmed, the Indians having cut off communications by the road."

           The papers announce the death in the city of Mexico, on the 19th, of John Henderson, a British subject, who had resided there many years and accumulated a large fortune. [TBW]

NNR 74.114 Aug. 23, 1848 voltigeurs arrive at Fort McHenry

           The Regiment of Voltigeurs arrived at Fort McHenry on Thursday last.

            By the Palmetto, from Brazos at New Orleans, Capt. West, Capt. P. E. Connor, Lieut. Gardner, Dr. Talbot, all of the Watson Dragoons; C. Jenkins, Mr. Hughes, R. Watson, W. H. Gardner, Capt. Reed and lady, Messrs. Magee, T. Williams Colquhon, Eaton, Littleton, Staunoire, and 33 Watson dragoons, from Tampico, and 8 Quartermaster’s men. [TBW]

NNR 74.114 Aug. 23, 1848 arrivals of returning troops at New Orleans, at New York City

            At New York.--The Maid of Orleans arrived yesterday from New Orleans, with companies A, D, F, G, and a part of company E, all of the Ninth Infantry, consisting of three hundred and nine men, rank and file. The M. of O. was bound to Newport, but owing to head winds, she put into this port to land the troops, who will be forwarded to Newport by steamboat.

            The ship Rob Roy arrived last evening from Vera Cruz, having on board companies B, D, and K, of the 2d regiment of Artillery, numbering 226 men.--N. Y. Herald, 19th inst. [TBW]

NNR 74.115 Aug. 23, 1848 order respecting claims of volunteers


            Where the letters testamentary or of administration are legally granted, such legal representative will have preference. Where the sum due exceeds one hundred dollars, it will be paid to the legal representative alone, no matter who may be distributee.

            If the deceased died unmarried, payment will be made first to the father; second, to the mother; third to the brothers and sisters collectively, and lastly, to the heirs general; each class claiming where those preceding are dead.

            If the deceased had been married, then following will be the order of claim--first, the widow; second, child or children, (if minors, the guardian;) third, the father; fourth, the mother; fifth, the brothers and sisters collectively; and lastly, their heirs general.

            If there be more than one brother, or sister, or child, or heir general, should the money be due to one of those classes, letters of administration must in all cases be taken out. [TBW]

NNR 74.142 Aug. 30, 1848 ceremony of the surrender of Veracruz

            FROM MEXICO.--In the New Orleans papers of the 18th July, we find news from the capital of Mexico to the 6th, brought by the propeller Massachusetts, which left Vera Cruz on the 11th. We copy from the Picayune.

            The papers give no news of the military operations of the parties contending for power except that the forces of Bustamente and Cortazar had formed a junction and amounted in all to about three thousand wherewith to attack the insurgents in Guanajuato. Down to the 6th, neither the papers of the capital nor the government had received late dispatches from the seat of operations, and the government had complained of Bustamente’s remissness in keeping it informed, as he had been charged to do.

            Bustamente had been also censured for holding the least parley with Paredes. To this he answered that on the 27th June an envoy from Paredes had presented himself and submitted certain propositions. Bustamente’s reply was that he would depart in no particular from the literal tenor of the orders of his government, or in words to that effect. These orders are that the insurgents must submit unconditionally or the laws must take their course. This language is the proper one for a righteous government to hold with rebels, and looks dignified and confident on the part of President Herrera; but the silence of Bustamente is ill-boding. The latest dispatch from him is dated June 29, and five or six days later were due. There was a rumor in the city of Vera Cruz on the 11th that news had positively reached there that Paredes had overthrown the army of the government and was in full march upon the city of Mexico. This was the town talk in all quarters, our correspondent writes, and was so confidently repeated that he should feel himself constrained to believe it, did he not suppose that his own advices from the capital were as late as those of other people.

            Moreover he writes that on the night of the 10th inst. there did reach Vera Cruz positive news that Paredes was within one league of the city of Guadalajara, and that little or no resistance to his entrance there was anticipated. This seems extremely probable and is totally inconsistent with the other rumors, for Guadalajara is as far west of Guanajuato--the headquarters of Paredes--as the city of Mexico is east; the latter being about a hundred miles farther south than either of the others. Guadalajara is the capital of the large state of Jalisco, and is a rich and populous city.    It was the former home of Paredes, and here he nursed the revolution by which a few years ago he entirely prostrated the power of Santa Anna, when the latter’s was at its height. If Paredes found himself yet unable to march directly upon the capital, and give battle to the governmental troops, nothing seems more natural than this retrogade movement upon Guadalajara. He would thus gain time, other discontented spirits would join his standard, and his resources would be increased rather than diminished, for the government has too many difficulties to contend with in other quarters to give him vigorous pursuit.

            The custom-house at Vera Cruz was turned over to the Mexican authorities on the 11th inst. at noon. An order from the Mexican treasury department is published in the last number of the Arco Iris, the substance of which is as follows: As the ports are restored to Mexico, her revenue laws of 1845 will go at once into effect, and all vessels and cargoes arriving be liable to their pains and penalties. But in consideration of the interests of commerce which may suffer by the sudden change, all vessels with lawful cargoes arriving at ports of Mexico with three months of the date of the order (June 14th) without proper manifests and other necessary documents, instead of being seized, shall be allowed to enter and discharge, giving bonds with sufficient security to Mexican commissioners, to pay all duties and charges and abide the decision of the department in each case. And further, all contraband goods arriving within said three months, instead of being confiscated, may be re-exported upon the same vessel, (or any other leaving sooner,) upon giving proper security that such exportation be actually made and no abuse committed.

            The roads in Mexico, in every direction, seem to be swept by highwaymen. We open not a paper that does not record several scandalous robberies of coaches.

            The famous contra guerrillero, Roque Miranda, is in prison in Mexico. The notorious robber, La Chince is also in the hands of the government.

            The Titan sailed from Vera Cruz for Yucatan on the 17th inst. with $18,000, 500 guns, and 50,000 cartridges for the protection of the country from the Indians. The money was furnished by the Mexican government; the arms by a gentleman in Vera Cruz. [TBW]

NNR 74.142 Aug. 30, 1848 From Mexico, Bustamante censured for parley with Paredes, custom’s house in Vera Cruz turned over to Mexican authorities

From Mexico- In the New Orleans paper of the 18th July, we find news from the capital of Mexico to the 6th, brought by the propeller Massachusetts, which left Vera Cruz on the 11th. We copy from the Picayune.

The papers give no news of the military operations of the parties contending for power except that the forces of Bustamente and Cortazar had formed a junction and admitted in all to about three thousand wherewith to attack the insurgents in Guanajuato. Down to the 6th, neither the papers of the capital or the government had received late dispatches from the seat of operations, and the government had complained of Bustamente;s remissness in keeping it informed, as he had been charged to do.

Bustamente had been also censured for holding the least parley with Paredes. To this be answered that on the 27th June an envoy from Paredes had presented himself and submitted certain propositions. Bustamente’s reply was that he would depart in no particular from the literal tenor of the orders of his government, or in words to that effect. These orders are that the insurgents must submit unconditionally or the laws must taken their course. This language is the proper one for a righteous government to hold with rebels, and looks dignified and confident on the part of President Herrera; but the silence of Bustamente is ill-bonding. The latest dispatch from him is dated June 29, and five or six days later were due. There was a rumor in the city of Vera Cruz on the 11th that news had positively reached there that Paredes had overthrown the army of the government and was in full march upon the city of Mexico. This was the town talk in all quarters, our correspondent writes, and was so confidently repeated that he should feel himself constrained to believe it, did he not suppose that his own advices from the capital were as late as those of other people.

Moreover he writes that on the night of the 10th inst. there did reach Vera Cruz positive news that Paredes was within one league of the city of Guadalajara, and that little or no resistance to his entrance there was anticipated. This seems extremely probable and is totally inconsistent with the other rumors, for Guadalajara is as far west of Guanajuato-the headquarters of Paredes-as the city of Mexico is east; the latter being about a hundred miles farther south than either of the others. Guadalajara is the capital of the large state of Jalisco, and is a rich and populous city. It was the former home of Paredes, and here he nursed the revolution by which a few years ago he entirely prostrated the power of Santa Anna, when the latter’s was at its height. If Paredes found himself yet unable to march directly upon the capital, and give battle to government troops, nothing seems more natural than this retrograde movement upon Guadalajara. He would this gain time, other discontented spirits would join his standard, and his resources would be increased has too many difficulties to contend with in other quarters to give him vigorous pursuit.

The custom-house at Vera Cruz was turned over to the Mexican authorities on the 11th inst. at noon. An order from the Mexican treasury department is published in the last number of the Arco Iris, the substance of which is as follows: As the ports are restored to Mexico, her revenue laws of 1845 will go at once into effect, and all vessels and cargoes arriving be liable to their pains and penalties. But in consideration of the interests of commerce which may suffer by the sudden change all vessels with lawful ships. [KAS]

NNR 74.161 Sept. 13, 1848 arrival of troops at Fortress Monroe

            ARRIVAL OF TROOPS.--The bark Hahnemann, of this port, Hallett, arrived at Fortress Monroe, on Saturday morning last, 31 days from Brasos Santiago, with companies I and C infantry and artillery, under the command of Majors Webster and Scott, and Lieuts. Bowen and Pattison. Surgeon,--Seneca.--Norfolk Beacon. [TBW]

NNR 74.161 Sept. 13, 1848 detachment of First Artillery reaches New York

            The transport-ship IOWA, arrived at New York on Saturday from Vera Cruz, whence she sailed on the 1st inst., having on board a detachment of the First Regiment of U. S. Artillery, 246 men, commanded by Captain George Nauman. [TBW]

NNR 74.165 Sept. 13, 1848 comments of the "National Intelligencer" on the platform of the Buffalo convention

           The National Intelligencer, in commenting upon the platform adopted by the Buffalo Convention, says:--"It cannot escape the observation of any attentive reader, that these resolution, very positive and dogmatical about abstractions of comparatively small or at least remote consequence, carefully avoid any commitment upon the actual practical issues between the two great parties of the country; making no allusion even to the Mexican war for the acquisition of foreign territory within which they contrive to build up their abstractions; to the Executive usurpations which have sprung out of it; to the lust of dominion which has engendered; to the untold millions of money which it will be necessary to raise to pay the debt which it has created; to the twenty thousand valuable lives which have thus been sacrificed to a bad ambition, &c. What shall we say of a political creed in which all these and many other equal enormities of mis-government count for nothing?" [TBW]

NNR 74.192 Sept. 20, 1848 California quiet, Jose Castro promises to obey our laws

            CALIFORNIA.--We have received information from a reliable source, that a large emigration from China may be expected here. The Chinese would be especially invaluable for the introduction and manufacture of silk in this country.

            We are happy to be able to state that California continues to be perfectly quiet. Castro has returned and surrendered himself, promising to obey our laws. For more than a year no disorders have occurred. The native Californians are beginning to mingle with our people, and are gradually turning their attention to agriculture. [TBW]

NNR 74.192 Sept. 20, 1848 requisition for California volunteers to garrison Mexican ports

            Col. Mason, Governor of California, has issued a requisition for 1000 volunteers, to garrison Mazatlan and other Mexican ports in the South.

            Rains have been abundant, and the prospect for good crops is cheering throughout the country.

            One of the richest veins of silver are yet discovered, we are told, has been found in the valley of San Jose. [TBW}

NNR 74.193 Sept. 27, 1848 force of volunteers furnished by the several states

            The following table comprises the force furnished by the several States on the call of the War Department, during the late war with Mexico:--

Massachusetts 1 Regiment 930 men.
New York, 2 do. 1,690 do.
New Jersey, 1 Battalion, 420 do.
Pennsylvania, 2 Regts. and 3 comps. 2,117 do.
Ohio, 5 do., 3 do. 5,334 do.
Michigan, 1 do., 1 do. 970 do.
Indiana, 5 do. 4,329 do.
Illinois, 6 do., 1 do. 5,971 do.
Wisconsin, 2 Companies 146 do.
Iowa, 3 do. 229 do.
Maryland and D. Columbia, 14 do. 1,274 do.
Virginia, 1 Regiment 1,182 do.
North Carolina, 1 do. 895 do.
South Carolina, 1 do. 937 do.
Georgia, 1 do., 12 do. 1,987 do.
Alabama, 2 do., 13 do. 2,981 do.
Mississippi, 2 do., 1 bat. 2,235 do.
Louisiana, 7 do., 4 bat. & 1 co. 7,041 do.
Tennessee, 5 do. 5,090 do.
Kentucky, 4 do. 4,694 do.
Missouri, 69 Companies 6,441 do.
Arkansas, 16 do. 1,312 do.
Florida, 4 do. 288 do.
Texas, 99 do. 6,856 do.

Total 65,349

            Of these, 43,213 men were from the States south of Mason and Dixon’s line, and 22,136 from the free States;--difference in favour of the Southern States, 21,077 men, citizen volunteers. [TBW]

NNR 74.208 Sept. 27, 1848 account of the soldiers of the disbanded Saint Patrick company

            COMPANY OF ST. PATRICK.--Many of the soldiers of the disbanded company of St. Patrick are wandering about the country, and live by begging, or extortion, when the former does not avail. A certain number of them have been embodied with Mexicans in another corps, but they do not harmonize well together, from their mutual ignorance of each other’s languages. It is suggested that another exclusively American corps be organized. [TBW]

NNR 74.240 Oct. 11, 1848 funeral for victims of the war at Mexico City

            On the 17th instant the funeral ceremonies of the victims in the late war with the United States, celebrated with great solemnity in the city of Mexico. [TBW]

NNR 74.240 Oct. 11, 1848 extreme destitution of the Saint Patrick deserters

            We are informed that many of the San Patricio deserters are wandering about Vera Cruz in a state of extreme destitution, neither Americans nor Mexicans being willing to aid them. Lieut. Tilden was a passenger on the steamer. He had a passport for Havana from the Mexican Government, and took passage for that port, but refused to land there. He came on and landed at Pass Christian, and is supposed to have come to this city in the Mobile boat. [TBW]

NNR 74.243 Oct. 18, 1848 the record of the Cyane in the war against Mexico

            THE CYANNE.--This sloop of-war, just arrived from Valparaiso, after a short passage of sixty-two days, has had an active and brilliant cruise. Her crew have been distinguished throughout the war. They assisted at the taking of Monterey, and were in the fights of Com. Stockton, at the Mesa and the Rio Gabriel.    They destroyed the gun-boats of the enemy at Guaymas, cut up their shipping in the Gulf of California, blockaded the ports of San Blas and Mazatlan, and were with Com. Shubrick when he took that place. They were in several other engagements. Among the rest, it was the boats of the Cyane that cut out the enemy’s brig Condor, in the port of Guaymas, under the fire of their musketry. They have been in seven fights on the shore, and their loss has been one officer and one man killed in battle, with a large number wounded. The Cyanne left the United States in August, 1845. [TBW]

NNR 74.259-260 Oct. 25, 1848 proceedings of citizens of Santa Fe in relation to duties on merchandise exacted

            SANTA FE.--The Santa Fe Republican, of the 12th of August, contains the proceeding of merchants and citizens of Santa Fe, in relation to the illegal duties exacted on goods imported into New Mexico. Wm. S. Messervy acted as President, and Lewis D. Street, as Secretary. Samuel Weatherhead, jr., Sol. P. Sublette, Henry O'Neil, Robert Brent, and George H. Estes, were appointed a committee to report upon the subject before the meeting.

            At this and subsequent meetings, a memorial was adopted, and signed by all the merchants and citizens of Santa Fe, in which they ask to be relieved from the payment of the onerous duty. The memorial embodies a resolution, in which the citizens declare "that since New Mexico is an integral portion of the United States, and was such at the time of the introduction of a portion of merchandise into said territory this year, that the recovery of six per centum ad valorem duty on such merchandise will be unjust, if not in violation of the spirit of the Constitution of the United States."

            This duty was imposed by an order of General Price, in which an impost duty of six per cent. ad valoerm was levied on all merchandise introduced into the territory of New Mexico from and after the 5th day of February, 1848. The memorialists, in their argument, claim that insomuch as there no longer exists a war to be supported, and the territory ceases to be an enemy’s country, the duty cannot hold upon goods introduced into the Territory of New Mexico since May 26th, 1848, at which time it became an integral part of the United States. They ask, therefore, to be relieved from the payment of this unequal and unconstitutional tax.

            To this communication, Brig. Gen. Price replies stating the circumstances under which the duty was imposed--that it was for the payment of the expenses of the civil government of the Territory--and subsequently submitted to, and approved by the President of the United States, with whom the matter now more properly belongs.

            "With this view of the matter, the General is not dispose, however much his private feelings might wish it, to modify or abrogate the existing order; more particularly as it is at present a generally conceived opinion that arrangements have already been perfected by the Government of the United States creating a civil governor for the country, who doubtless is vested with plenary powers for the extension and administration of the Constitution and laws of the United States over a territory which is believed to be an integral part of the United States."

            [The expectations of General Price, as well as the citizens of New Mexico, in relation to a civil government for that Territory are, it is know here, doomed to disappointment.]

            On the reception of this letter, another meeting of the citizens was called, and the correspondence submitted to them. Thereupon, the following preamble and resolutions was adopted:

            WHEREAS all bonds given to the present acting authorities of New Mexico, for the payment of the six per cent. ad valorem on merchandize introduced into the Territory of New Mexico from the United States, after said Territory had become an integral portion of the United States Territory, were given in ignorance of the fact that the said Territory of New Mexico was at the time of the execution of said bonds, a part of the United States territory, and subject to the general laws, and under the protection of the Constitution of the same:

            Therefore resolved, That, as American citizens, and on American soil, proud of our birthright, and conscious of our privileges, we will use all fair, and honorable means to resist the payment of what we believe to be unequal and unconstitutional taxation.--St. Louis Rep. [TBW]

NNR 74.306 Nov. 15, 1848 arrival of several companies at New Orleans

            The New Orleans Bee of the 1st. inst., announces the arrival at that city, on the U. S. Steamship Telegraph, from the Rio Grande, companies A and E of the first Artillery, and company E of the third Artillery, with the following officers, viz:--Brevet Maj. T. W. Sherman, Brevet Maj. J. F. Reynolds, third Artillery; Lieuts. James B. Ricketts and A. Doubleday, first Artillery; Lieut. Thos. J. Rodman, of the Ordnance; Lieut. J. A. Brown, fourth Artillery; Lieuts. D. M. Belzhoover and O. H. Tillinghast, first Artillery; and Lieut. J. C. Tidball, third Artillery.

            Company E, second Artillery, under Captain Garesche, went, by request, up the Rio Grande on the Steamer Col. Hunt, to aid the civil authorities in arresting some gangs of desperadoes that have been infesting the upper counties, and committing serious depredations.

            A company of the seventh Infantry, under the command of Major Gatlin, arrived at Baton Rouge, to be stationed there. Major Gatlin relieves Lieut. Dent from the command of that post--that latter going to Jefferson Barracks, Missouri.

            The fifth Infantry, under command of Col Miles, encamped opposite Little Rock on the 19th ult. This regiment is en route to Fort Smith, where two of the companies will be stationed; the others are to be detailed to garrison the various military posts on that frontier.

            The Fourth Regiment, Colonel Whistler commanding, is about to take post on our northern frontiers, head-quarters at Detroit. First Lieutenant Judah, with one company, will command at Oswego. We bespeak for the gallant Fourth, a warm welcome from all our citizens; they can inscribe on their colors the name of every battle field in Mexico, except Buena Vista, having been the first in and last out.

            Late intelligence from Texas informs us that six companies of the third Infantry were encamped near Port Lavacca. The greatest trepidation prevailed at Lavacca previous to the arrival of the troops, lest the Indians should attack and fire the town. Twenty-six murders had been committed by the Indians to that time. [TBW]

NNR 74.316 Nov. 15, 1848 size of the force used by the United States in Mexico

            OUR ARMY IN MEXICO.--Few persons have a correct idea of the enormous military force called out by our Government for the invasion of Mexico.

            The number of Volunteers called into service in the years 1846 and 1847, were in round numbers seventy-one thousand. Of these there were twelve companies of Ohio Volunteers, which were not marched to Mexico, and several regiments of Texas and Louisiana three months' volunteers, which did not get into Mexico. But more than sixty thousand volunteers were actually marched into Mexico, and shared in the invasion of that country. But if the number of volunteers was great, the number of regulars in proportion to the regular army was greater yet. In May, 1846, the regular army of the United States amounted, in round numbers, to 8,000. Of these 3,540 composed the army of Gen. Taylor on the Rio Grande. But from May, 1836, to January, 1848, 29,000 recruits were added to the army. Of the old soldiers about 6,000 were marched into Mexico; and of the recruits to fill the ranks of the old regiments or the new ones, 26,000 were marched into Mexico by January, 1848. There were in the regular army, enlisted soldiers from May, 1846 to January, 1848, 37,000 men. Of these 32,000 were marched into Mexico.

            The whole number of Regular soldiers enlisted, and Volunteers called out, amounted in two years to the number of 107,000. And of these ninety-two thousand were marched into Mexico. Such was the tremendous physical array of men, arms and skill, which the Government of the United States called into action to crush its neighbor in the South.--Atlas. [TBW]

NNR 74.384 Dec. 13, 1848 number of battles fought in the war

            There were sixty battles fought during the Revolutionary war; thirty-eight during the last war with Great Britain; and thirty-two, in all, during the later war with Mexico. [TBW]

NNR 74.386 Dec. 20, 1848 awards to private soldiers for distinguished service

            DISTINGUISHED PRIVATES.--The Adjutant General of the United States' army has published a list of private soldiers of the army, numbering 191, whose recommendations have been received since the publication of "General Orders" No. 32, of June 26, 1848, and on whom the President has been pleased to confer "certificates of merit," pursuant to the provisions of the 17th section of the act approved March 3, 1847, for distinguished services in Mexico, in the battles of Cerro Gordo, Chapultepec, Contreras, Molino del Rey, Churubusco, &c. The list includes privates of companies A, B, C, F, I, K, of 2d dragoons, company F of mounted riflemen, company H of 3d artillery, companies A, B, C, F, H, I, of 4th infantry, companies A, B, C, E, F, G, H, I, K, of 5th infantry, and Wendle Hull, Sap. and Miner engineers.

            The extra pay of $2 per month, in virtue of the certificate of merit, will commence at the date of the battle or engagement in which the certificate was won, and continue while the soldier is in service, unless promoted to the rank of a commissioned officer. The certificates of deceased soldiers will be held for the benefit of their heirs, and of discharged soldiers, until claimed by them. A deserter forfeits all claim to certificate of merit. [TBW]

NNR 74.402 Dec. 27, 1848 regulars and volunteers in service at close of the war with Mexico

            THE U. S. ARMY.--The official report of the Adjutant General of the United States, shows the authorized number of troops of the line, consisting of cavalry, artillery, and infantry, (fifteen regiments,) to be 8,787 non-commissioned officers and men. The actual force in service, non-commissioned officers, and men, is 8,458--leaving a deficiency of 329 to be recruited. The number of commissioned officers is 865, without including seventeen military storekeepers. The number of mechanics and laborers belonging to the ordnance department, and now in service, is 495. The accompanying returns show the number of regulars and volunteer troops in service at the termination of the late war, as follows:

Commissioned officers 1,338
Non-commissioned officers and men 22,695
Aggregate regulars
Commissioned officers 1,527
Non-commissioned officers and men 21,590
Aggregate volunteers,
Aggregate regulars and volunteers,

Of the regular force in service at the close of the war, (enlisted men,) 9,418 were recruited for five years, and 13,277 for the period of the war.

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