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NILES' NATIONAL REGISTER
Vol. 73, November-December 1847


July 1844-April 1846 May-July 1846 August-October 1846 November-December 1846 January-February 1847 March-April 1847
May-June 1847 July-August 1847 September-October 1847 November-December 1847 January-March & July December 1848



Index

NNR 73.147 smuggling

NNR 73.147 example of expenditure in the war

NNR 73.148 resolution of Whigs of New Hampshire, Whig state convention of Vermont, Gov. Horace Eaton's message

NNR 73.150 protest of the city council of Mexico City

NNR 73.151 resolution of synod of New School Presbyterians

NNR 73.151 practical view of war

NNR 73.151 Gen. Winfield Scott's general order no. 287 declaring martial law

NNR 73.152 revolt of the Massachusetts regiment at Veracruz over uniforms

NNR 73.152 Gen. Joseph Lane's advance without adequate ammunition

NNR 73.152 Lt. Robert M. Morris' appeal to the Marines

NNR 73.152 account of Capt. G. White's escort of a train to the National Bridge

NNR 73.152 arrival of the Baltimore light artillery at Veracruz

NNR 73.152 expedition against guerrillas, attack by guerrillas on a company of Texas Rangers

NNR 73.153 burning of Santa Anna's hacienda

NNR 73.152 account of the camp at Veracruz, difficulties of soldiers at the hospital

NNR 73.152 general order for opening the line of communication from Veracruz to the interior

NNR 73.152-NNR 73.153 Mexican official reports on termination of the armistice

NNR 73.153 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's summons to Col. Thomas Childs, reply, the siege, Santa Anna deserted by his troops

NNR 73.153-154 desertion of Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's troops, rumors of his departure from Mexico

NNR 73.154 guerrilla warfare, character the war assumes, incidents on the route

NNR 73.155 everything quiet in California

NNR 73.155 comment on the "slanders" against Gen. Sterling Price

NNR 73.155 hubbub and confusion among troops at Santa Fe, confusion and disorder in the territory

NNR 73.155 seizure of a British ship freighted with merchandise for a merchant in California

NNR 73.156 letter from a participant in actions against the Mexicans in California

NNR 73.156-157 account of the New York California regiment in California

NNR 73.160 "what is to be done with Mexico? her voice is still for war!", subjugation contemplated

NNR 73.160 heavy northers

NNR 73.160 operations fof Gen. Joseph Lane's division

NNR 73.160 Taylor's camp quiet and healthy

NNR 73.160 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna at Huamantla

NNR 73.160 Capt. Jack Hays' rangers and the guerrillas

NNR 73.160 yellow fever in Vera Cruz

NNR 73.160 Mariano Paredes y Arillaga at Tulansingo, preaching monarchy

NNR 73.167-171 official documents concerning the dispute between Gen. Stephen Watts Kearny and Col. John Charles Fremont

NNR 73.173-.174 account of the leperos

NNR 73.174 description of the penetration of the fortress of Chapultepec

NNR 73.174 letter from Capt. John B. Magruder on his experiences in Mexico

NNR NNR 73.176 account of the fighting at Huamantla, death of Capt. Samuel Walker

NNR 73.176 Gen. Robert Patterson's command to leave Veracruz

NNR 73.176 Gen. Persifor Frazer Smith appointed governor of Mexico City

NNR 73.176 health of the Army in the valley of Mexico, rumors of peace
NNR 73.176 Col. William Selby Harney to supervise train from Mexico City
NNR 73.176 letter from an English house at Puebla about American movements and Mexican guerrillas

NNR 73.176 deaths of various officers noted

NNR 73.176 account of the fighting at Huamantla, death of Capt. Samuel Hamilton Walker

NNR 73.176 Atixco taken, Orizaba believed taken

NNR 73.176 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna suspended as head of the Army

NNR 73.177 Gen. Winfield Scott's dispatches reach Washington, "Union"'s notice of them

NNR 73.177 Nicholas Philip Trist said to have invited the Mexican government to a conference

NNR 73.177 re-capture of American deserters at Nassau

NNR 73.177 quiet at Santa Fe, reports of assembling of Mexicans, attacks by Indians

NNR 73.177 Gen. Zachary Taylor's request for a leave of absence

NNR 73.178 President James Knox Polk overrules Gen. John Ellis Wool and restores Lts. Singletary and Pender

NNR 73.178-179 Com. Robert Field Stockton's return from California, his quarrel with Gen. Stephen Watts Kearny over authority

NNR 73.179 California tranquil, activities and distribution of troops

NNR 73.180 difficulties of raising volunteers in Loco-Foco Alabama

NNR 73.180 skirmish at the National Bridge

NNR 73.180 incidents and actors in the campaign

NNR 73.181 voting for governor among Pennsylvania volunteers at Perote in Mexico

NNR 73.181-184 Gen. Winfield Scott's force at Mexico, his official report on the battles of Contreras and Churubusco

NNR 73.184 Gen. Winfield Scott's report on the Battle of Molino del Rey

NNR 73.184-186 Gen. Winfield Scott's report on the taking of the city of Mexico

NNR 73.186-188 Gen. Gideon Johnson Pillow's official report on the actions of the forces in his command

NNR 73.188-189 Gen. William Jenkins Worth's official report of action at Churubusco and before the gates of Mexico

NNR 73.189 killed and wounded

NNR 73.189-190 Henry Clay's resolutions at Lexington

NNR 73.192 letter describing the fighting at Huamantla and the death of Capt. Samuel Walker

NNR 73.192 list of killed and wounded

NNR 73.192 US money market affected by shipments of specie to Europe and to Mexico

NNR 73.192 conflicts on the route from Puebla to Veracruz, the Mexican spy company

NNR 73.192 fight among the Mexican guerrillas
NNR 73.192 progress of Gen. Robert Patterson's train

NNR 73.192 remarks on Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's destiny, his whereabouts

NNR 73.192 delay in a quorum for the Congress at Queretaro, Paredes y Arrillaga's suggestion of a monarchy for Mexico

NNR 73.195 need for a loan if the war with Mexico procrastinates

NNR 73.195 account of the battle at Huamantla
NNR 73.195 operations and incident, affairs at Huamantla and death of Capt. Samuel Hamilton Walker

NNR 73.195-73.196 list of killed and wounded during the siege of Puebla

NNR 73.196 proclamation of Col. Thomas Childs as military governor of Puebla

NNR 73.196-73.197 official account of the siege of Puebla

NNR 73.197 Capt. Robert Bronaugh killed near Puebla

NNR 73.197-73.200 Henry Clay's speech at Lexington

NNR 73.200-73.201 Gen. David Emanuel Twiggs' official report on the battles at Contreras and Churubusco

NNR 73.201 Gen. John Anthony Quitman's report concerning the reserves during the recent battles before the city of Mexico

NNR 73.201-73.202 Gen. James Shields' report on operations of August 20

NNR 73.202 Col. William Selby Harney's report on his operations at Mexico

NNR 73.202-73.204 Gen. Persifor Frazer Smith's report on his operations of 19 and 20 August

NNR 73.204 Gen. John Anthony Quitman's report of taking the capital

NNR 73.206 Gen. David Emanuel Twiggs' report concerning the assault at Mexico City

NNR 73.206-73.207 Maj. Edwin Vose Sumner's report on the attack on the foundry near Chapultepec

NNR 73.207 Capt. Benjamin Huger's report

NNR 73.207 Col. William Selby Harney's report about his operations against Chapultepec and the city of Mexico

NNR 73.207 Capt. P.B. Riley's report

NNR 73.209 inspection by Gen. Zachary Taylor of forts from Monterey toward the Rio Grande

NNR 73.209 tariff of duties imposed on Mexico

NNR 73.213 arrival of officers in the United States from the seat of the war

NNR 73.213 captured documents from Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

NNR 73.213 Mexican Congress assembles at Queretaro

NNR 73.213 question of the election of a Mexican president

NNR 73.213 position of the several corps of troops
NNR 73.213 arrival of officers in the United States from the seat of the war
NNR 73.213 train from Mexico City arrives at Veracruz

NNR 73.213 publications of Senor Otero

NNR 73.213 Gen. Antonio Canales reported dead

NNR 73.213 Capt. Robert H. Taylor's Rangers sent to rectify a theft against a Mexican

NNR 73.213 Squire Collins
NNR 73.213 Thomas H. O'S. Addicks
NNR 73.213 departure of parties from Buena Vista for Santa Fe and San Antonio

NNR 73.213 guerrilla attack

NNR 73.213 trial of Mexican prisoners accused of murder

NNR 73.213 unsuccessful revolution at Guadalajara on behalf of Valentin Gomez Farias against the sacerdotal party

NNR 73.213 Gen. Mariano Paredes y Arillaga pronounces in favor of plan of Iguala

NNR 73.213 Mexican war spirit unallayed

73.213 Gen. Rea waiting at Orizaba to attack a train

NNR 73.213 Michael Leonard the teamster executed

NNR 73.214 council of war at Puebla between Nicholas Philip Trist and Gen. Winfield Scott, debate over use of the "three million"

NNR 73.214 death of an American sailor aboard the transport ship Empire

NNR 73.214 "revelling in the halls of the Montezumas"

NNR 73.214 divisions among parties in Mexico, exactions on the clergy

NNR 73.215 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's manifesto to the Mexican nation

NNR 73.216 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's decree that Gen. Jose Joaquin de Herrera and Gen. Nicholas Bravo should exercise executive power in case of his fall, Rosa orders Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna to trial and divests him of command

NNR 73.216 Atlixco taken, a Mexican account

NNR 73.216-73.217 manifesto of Gen. Mariano Paredes y Arillaga

NNR 73.217 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's farewell address, items, Mexican force in the field, affairs in the capital

NNR 73.218 liberty of the press restored in Mexico City

NNR 73.222 official report on the actions of the first regiment of US volunteers of New York in the storming of Chapultepec and the advance on Mexico City

NNR 73.222 Gen. Joseph Lane's report on the relief of Puebla

NNR 73.222-73.223 Gen. Joseph Lane's official report of the engagement at Huamantla

NNR 73.223 Gen. Joseph Lane's report on the battle of Atlixco

NNR 73.235-73.239 address of Albert Gallatin to the people of the United States on the subject of the war with Mexico

NNR 73.239 terms of peace suggested

NNR 73.241 ravages of the war on the second regiment of Pennsylvania volunteers

NNR 73.256 "Revelling in the Halls of the Montezumas;" murder and disease at Mexico City

NNR 73.256 list of deaths of officers of the Gulf Squadron in the last year

NNR 73.256 official order for levying contributions on Mexico by collecting export duties and taxes

NNR 73.256 account of troops in and around Santa Fe

NNR 73.256 American troops moving against Chihuahua or Mexicans at El Paso

NNR 73.260 resolution of New Hampshire legislature on the Wilmot Proviso

NNR 73.272 Pedro Maria Anaya elected provisional president, his cabinet

NNR 73.272 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's pronunciamento against proceedings at Queretaro

NNR 73.272 arrest of Gen. Gideon Johnson Pillow, Gen. William Jenkins Worth, and Col. James Duncan

NNR 73.272 Gen. Robert Patterson's train leaves Jalapa

NNR 73.272 execution of two American teamsters and two guerrilla officers

NNR 73.272 Padre Martin captured

NNR 73.272 Otero's proposition to forbid alienation of Mexican territory rejected, guerrilla affairs near Veracruz


NNR 73.147 Nov. 6, 1847 smuggling

Smuggling powder to Vera Cruz- Jose Maria Carabajal, the Mexican who was arrested at New Orleans on the 4th inst. for shipping powder, invoiced as "cigaritos."to Vera Cruz, has been discharged from a criminal prosecution, the case not being embraced in the statute. He was required to five bail, however in the sum of $3200, for violating the city municipality, which, not being able to give, he was committed to jail.
[KAS]


NNR 73.147 6 NOV 1847 example of expenditure in the war

      War Expenditures- The secretary of the treasury, since the first of January lst, has sent upwards of twelve million of dollars to N. Orleans, on account of army disbursements.

      A letter to the New Orleans Bee, from the Rio Grande, says: “Two hundred government horses were sold at auction, a few days ago, at an awful sacrifice, not averaging more that ten dollars a head. They probably cost each ten times the same.”

      This reminds us of the transaction of the Florida war, when steamboat wood was furnished to the government at fifty dollars per cord, and bacon which cost the government twelve cents a pound was sold at two and three cents, and bought up by contractors to be again sold to Uncle Sam. When we see the items in the account of this Mexican war, this sale of horses will, by comparison, prove to be a mere circumstance. Many large fortunes will be made by government favorites at he expense of the people of the United States. There are a class of men in this country who if consulted, would never have the country in a state of peace; not that they fight the battles of the country, or are inspired by the ambition to win a name. NO such idea enters into their heads. They stay at home and make money. Jobs and contracts are the fields of their ambition, and the greater the expense incurred by the country the wider is the field of their exploits. [Petersburg Int.
[MDT]


NNR 73.148 6 NOV 1847 resolution of Whigs of New Hampshire, Whig state convention of Vermont, Gov. Horace Eaton's message

      New Hampshire- The Whigs have nominated Nathaniel S. Berry for governor- Gov. Colby having declined a nomination for re-election.

      A whig county convention lately held in the state of N.H. lately adopted the following resolution:

      That, as citizens of a free country, we claim and shall exercise the right at all times in a candid but fearless manner, of expressing our opinions of the acts whether of the state or national administration, and whether those acts relate to peace or war; and that we regard the attempt of the president of the United States in his last message to brand as traitors all those citizens of the republic who do not yield a blind obedience to his will, and approve his conduct in the unconstitutional commencement of the present war with Mexico, as an insult to freemen, and fit only to emanate from one who rules over slaves.

      The war is to be avoided at all times as a great calamity, especially by this country, as not congenial to the spirit of our institutions, or the feelings that should animate us in our intercourse with the nations of the earth; but that we regard the present war with Mexico as doubly hateful, inasmuch as it was unconstitutionally commenced by the act of the president, in disregard of the rights of congress, and as it is waged for the dismemberment of a sister republic, upon pretexts that are false, and for a purpose that is abhorrent to all feelings of humanity and justice; and that, although we award to the officers and men engaged in that war all the praise that is due to skill, energy, and courage, yet we regard the glory acquired by our arms as an inadequate compensation for the blood that has been shed, the treasure that has been wasted, and the indelible stain that has been cast upon our national character by the prosecution of a war of conquest and ambition, the first, as we hope it may be that last, in the history of the republic.

      That is the duty of the whigs of the country, by all exertion in their power, to extricate the country from the condition into which it has been plunged by the madness of its rulers, and to procure a peace with Mexico as soon as it can be done consistently with the true honor and dignity of the American name, and, by the termination of the war, set an example of justice and magnanimity that shall reflect as much honor upon the character of the American people for exercise of the moral virtues as they have acquired by the display of those of a military and heroic kind.

      Vermont- Gov. Eaton’s message, transmitted to the legislature of the 16th ult., is brief and in good taste. HE recommends a good law for the protection of the property of married women, similar to that which has been enacted in other states. The public schools are in a flourishing condition. The geological survey of the state is nearly completed. Ex governor Paine and MR. Marsh have been appointed to correspond with Hiram Powers respecting the statue of Ethan Allen and T. Crittenden, to be placed in the capital.

      On national affairs, the governor says:

      “I believe that the position of Vermont is distinctly understood in regard to all these great questions of national policy which are from time to time agitating the national councils, and in which Vermont, in common with other states of the Union, has so deep an interest, it affords occasion for the most profound regret that the unhappy war with a neighboring republic has not yet been terminated, but on the contrary, is making still greater and greater demands upon the blood and treasure of the nation. It is believed that Vermont has seen nothing in the progress of the contest: to change her sentiment, either in regard to the insufficiency of the grounds on which the war was commenced, or the unworthiness of the purposes for which it has been waged. She cannot recognize the general government as committed to any career of conquest, nor will she regard any unaccomplished schemes of territorial aggrandizement as presenting an obstacle to the speedy adjustment of existing difficulties. Peace she unequivocally and earnestly desires, and asks for no territory, whether slave or free, as a condition of its establishment and security.”

      A Whig state convention was held at Montpelier on the 21 ult., Hon. Carlos Coolidge, presiding. Hons. Solomon Foote and Horace Everett were appointed delegates at large to the national convention to nominate a president, and A.P. Lyman, H. Cutts, H.E. Royce and Portus Baxter, delegates from the several districts.

      Resolutions were adopted denouncing the war, approving of the Wilmot proviso, objecting tot he acquisition of territory by conquest.
[MDT]


NNR 73.150 6 NOV 1847 Protest of the city council of Mexico City

Protest of the city council of Mexico

      The city council of Mexico, in the most solemn manner, in the name of their constituents, and in the face of the world, and of the commander in chief of the army of the United States, protest.-That though the chances of war have reduced the city of Mexico under the forces of the United states, is has never entered their mind to submit voluntary to any chief, person or authority, unless such as are recognized by the federal constitution, and sanctioned by the government of the republic of Mexico, whatever be the length of time for which the foreign power may continue its existence de facto. Resolved in the deliberation hall of the city council of Mexico, September 13th, 1847, at 11 o’clock, P.M. Signed by Manuel R. Veramendi and sixteen other members.

      Next we have the propositions submitted by them to Gen. Scott, on his entrance into the city, which the general good naturedly told them he would take into consideration, and would assure them all the protection which the welfare of his command and the requirements of the war would permit. The propositions, considering the source whence they come, leave one in doubt whether to laugh at their folly or grow angry at their insolence.

      First proposition-The churches and monasteries of both sexes, hospitals, and archives, colleges, and schools, private dwellings, and in general every species of property, movable and immovable, whether belonging to the commonwealth, to corporations or to individuals, shall be individually respected; nor shall the desecration, violation or occupation of any of them, by the forces of the United states, or by the chiefs and privates who compose them, be in any case allowed.

      Second- The city shall be governed by the existing laws, and it will enjoy, as theretofore, its privileges; nor shall the forces of the United States, and their respective chiefs, in any case, enjoin upon it the observance of any enactment; which , in its nature, should belong to the legislative order.

      Third- The administration of justice, in civil and criminal matters, shall be strictly carried on by the respective authorities of the country, and in accordance with the provisions of the federal constitution of the republic of Mexico.

      Fourth- Should a vacancy occur in the government of the district, the members of the council will fill it up according to the requirements of law, without the direct or indirect interference of the armed forces in the designation of the individual who may be selected to fill such vacancy.

      Fifth-Any vacancies or absences, among the judges of first, second, and third instance, shall be temporarily supplied, by the district governor, upon due submission by the municipal body.

      Sixth- the forces of the United States shall not affect the municipal rents, nor the manner of their collection; but they will allow the free administration thereof and of the direct taxes, paid to the municipal body, whose duty it will be to apply them to the branches with which they are charged, and to the speedy and full dispensation of justice.

      Seventh-The city council shall be permitted to keep up such armed force as may be necessary to maintain the security of the jails and the domestic peace of the community, upon agreement, with the general in chief of the forces of the United States, as to the number of said force,and the nature of the arms to be used for the objects in view.

      Eighth- The national standard shall be kept flying over the municipal buildings.

      Ninth- The forces of the United States shall be quartered in such places as may, on agreement with the general in chief, be assigned to them. Said officers will be pleased to forbid them any unnecessary rambling through the streets of the city, particularly at night; especially are they to be cautioned against entering into any political discussions, or indulging in any mention of the campaign, with the inhabitants of the city.

      Tenth- The general and chief of the army of the United States will be pleased not to allow counter guerrillas or the rangers to enter the city.

      Eleventh- The council will retain, for public purposes under its direction, the timbers, materials, and other appliances, which were used to maintain the war.

      Twelfth- This agreement shall be religiously observed on the part of both the general in chief and the council of the city.

Hall of deliberation, of the city council of Mexico,
September 13, 1847.
(signed) Manuel R. Veramendi and sixteen others.

[MDT]


NNR 73.151 6 NOV 1847 resolution of synod of New School Presbyterians

      Preamble and Resolutions just adopted by the Synod of the New School Presbyterian Church of New York and New Jersey

      The synod of New York and New Jersey, considering the tendency of war to impede the progress of the gospel, by putting the innings of men in a state unfavorable to the influence of truth and the Holy Scripture, deem it proper and seasonable, in view of the fact that our country is now engaged in war with a neighboring nation, which, as far s it has proceeded, has been unusually sanguinary and disastrous, to express their solemn convictions in the following resolutions:

      Resolved, That the synod regard this war both as an exhibition of human wickedness and as a dreadful scourge from the hand of God, which should lead the Church of Christ to great searching of heart, to deep humiliation and [prosination] of spirit, and to earnest supplication before the Thorne of Mercy.

      Resolved, That it be recommended to all the ministers of the word belonging to this synod to labor, by prayer, preaching, and all other appropriate means, to impress the minds of men with a sense of the sinfulness and the evils of war, and especially of the existing war with Mexico.

      Resolved, That the synod express the earnest desire that all the people, see eye to eye in reference to the present and prospective evils of the existing war, and the desirableness of its speedy termination.
[MDT]


NNR 73.151 6 NOV 1847 practical view of war

      Practical View of the War- If there is any subject of the present day on which it is unnecessary to do more than give a plain statement of facts, in such a manner as may carry it home practically, to the minds of our readers it is the war in which this country is now engaged. The method by which the president and his party have secured to themselves an immense amount of patronage and pecuniary benefits, by virtually mortgaging their country, is a fearful instance of power wrongfully usurped. The cost so far as it can be calculated in dollars and cents is a very small portion of the evils incurred. Nothing of this kind can convey an idea of the value of the twenty thousand American lives already said to have been expended during this war. Men of all parties are tired of the war. The bloody triumphs of the battle field are heard now rather as alleviations of anxiety that as gratifying from their glory. Men are inclined to count their cost. Up to the third day of this month the expenses were more than one hundred and sixty seven millions of dollars. The calculations given below, are based upon the supposition that 120000000 are all that have been thus expended. Buffalonians are congratulating themselves upon the intended expenditure of 150000 in improving our harbor. Let us see what a portion only of the debt so recently contracted in war would have done for the country it invested in peaceable objects:

      With $120000000 a school house and church might crown every hill top from the Penobscot to the Rio Grande, and teachers of knowledge and righteousness might do their mission of good without money or price for any one.

      With $120000000, we might connect every town in our land by railroad; and the magnetic telegraph might be made to stretch its magic wires alone every thoroughfare, from the Atlantic to the Pacific.

      With $120000000, we might build such a navy as the world never saw, and carry on such a commerce as Venice, in the palmiest days, never dreamed of; our flag might float on every breeze, our sails whiten every sea, and our name be heard and feared in every house between the poles.

      With $120000000, we might feed every poor man, clothe every beggar, and relieve every distress, not only once, but always, as long as the population of the globe did not exceed 950000000. Starvation, poverty and famine need never find a foothold on earth.

      And more, with $120000000 we might give the Bible and tell the tidings of our holy faith to Heathen lands, to every foreign nation and to every human soul.

      The government complains that the post office department is a heavy tax upon the treasury, on account of the low rates of postage. Devote four months interest of the Mexican war debt to this end, and our people would never hear the word “ postage.”

      The government doles out with a miser’s hand, and a miser’s spirit, trifling, pitiful sums, for harbors in our western rivers and lakes. Devote two months interest of the Mexican war debt to this end, and no more petitions for appropriations would come from the people of the west.

      This is the way to calculate the cost of the war; and these are not idle fancies. Let no reader be satisfied, until he works, with his pencil, each one of these statements. Figures will verify them all. Is our country able to squander money in this wise? IS gold a matter of such little concern, as to be disposed of in this summary manner? What says the farmer, whose taxed lands help to heap up these hoards of wasted money? What says the mechanic, whose taxed “occupation” aids in amassing this squandered treasure? What say the people, who pay for it, in their clothes, food, books, houses, furniture, and property? Can we afford it? We might be doing good with it, such as no country has ever done.

      Is this, then, the much boasted destiny of our great country-to tax her people, collect and borrow an immense sum, and spend it in shedding blood and killing men. [North American
[MDT]


NNR 73.151 6 NOV 1847 Gen. Winfield Scott's general order No. 287 declaring martial law

      The general in chief republishes his order No. 2 of 19th February 1847, declaring martial law, with important additions.

      1. It is to be feared that many grave offenses may be committed by or against the persons composing the armies engaged in the present war between the two republics, which are not provided for in the act of congress “establishing rules and regulations for the government of the armies of the United States,” approved the 10th April, 1806. Those offences are here alluded to, which, it committed in the United States, or in their organized territories, would be tried and severely punished by the ordinary civil tribunals of the country.

      2. The following offences are meant: assassination, murder, poisoning, rape, or the attempt to commit either of these crimes; violent assaults, theft or robbery, the profanation of temples, cemeteries or other sacred places; the interruption of religious ceremonies, or the destruction of public or private property without the express order or a superior officer.

      3. For the welfare of the military service, for the interest of humanity, and for the honor of the United states, it is absolutely essential that all the crimes above mentioned should be severely punished.

      4. But the code commonly called the “rules and articles of war,” does not provide any punishment for he said crimes, not even in case they are perpetrated by individuals in the army against the persons and property of the same, except in the very restricted case in Apr. 9; and they are only partially referred to in Arts. 51, 52, and 55, when committed by individuals of the army against the person and property of a hostile people; and the said code does not refer to the injuries which may be committed by individuals of a hostile country in violation of the laws of war upon the person and property composing the army.

      5. It is evident that Article 99, independent of any reference to the restriction in Art. 87, is entirely nugatory and does not reach these capital crimes.

      6. Therefore, a supplementary code, covering the crimes mentioned in the second paragraph of this order, whether committed on, by, or against the army, is absolutely necessary.

      7. This unwritten code is simply martial law, and is an addition to the military code prescribed by congress in the "“rules and articles of war,” and all armies in a hostile country should adopt the martial law, not only for their own security, but for the protection of the peaceful inhabitants and their property from detriment on the part of the army in violation of the laws of war.

      8. In consequence of this overpowering necessity, martial law is declared as a supplemental code, and it will be observed in and about all posts, cities, villages, camps, hospitals, and other places which may be occupied by portions of the army of the United States in Mexico; and it will be equally observed in the columns, escorts, convoys, guards, and detachments of said army, during the present war with that republic, and while it shall remain in the same.

      9. Consequently all the crimes mentioned in the second paragraph, whether perpetrated, 1st. BY a Mexican citizen, inhabitant of or sojourner in this republic, against the persons or property of those belonging to or following said army of the United States of America; or 2 nd. By any individual belonging to or following said army, against the persons or property of the citizens or inhabitants of , or sojourners in this country; or 3rd. By any individual belonging to or following said army, against the persons or property of any persons appertaining to the same shall be judged and punished under the supplemental code.

      10. For this purpose it is ordered, that every delinquent in the above mentioned cases shall be promptly arrested, and notice thereof given, that he may be tried before a military commission, which shall be convoked in conformity with that fellows.

      11. Every military commission under this order shall be named, governed, and conducted, as far as practicable, in accordance with articles 65,66 and 67 or the rules and articles of war, and the proceeding of the said commission shall be duly recorded in writing, revised, and corrected, approved or disapproved, and the sentences executed, so far as practicable, in conformity with the proceeding and sentences of court martial, under the following limitations: NO military commission shall have jurisdiction in any case that may be properly tried by a court martial, and no sentence of any military commission shall be executed against any person belonging to the American army, unless the nature and grade of his offence be established by evidence, and then he shall be punished in the same manner that similar cases are punished in any state of the United States.

      12. The sale, waste, and loss of warlike stores, horses, arms, clothing, and provisions of soldiers, shall be punished by law under the Nos. 37 and 38 of the articles of war, and whatever Mexican, whether a resident or a transient person, who shall buy from any soldier, arms, ammunition, provisions, or clothing, horses, or their trappings, shall be tried and severely chastised by a military commission.

      13. The administration of justice, both civil and criminal, shall be meted out in all the established courts throughout the country, without the slightest interruption or hindrance from the officers or soldiers of the American army, excepting the following cases: 1st. In case the person be an officer, soldier, agent, servant, or other person following the North American army. 2d. IN political cases, that is to say, suits against other individuals, in which it is alleged that friendly information, protection or kind reception, has been given to American army.

      14. For the convenience and protection of both parties, in all cities and towns occupied by the American army, a body of Mexican police shall be established and organized to act in concert with the military police of the said army.

      15. This beautiful capital, its churches and its religion, its convents, and monasteries, its inhabitants and their property, are placed under the especial safeguard of the good faith and honor of the American army.

      16. As a consideration for the aforesaid protection, a contribution of $150000 is levied on the capitals, payable in four payments, at the rate of $37500 per week, commencing on Monday next the 20th instant, and terminating on Monday, the 11th of October.

      17. The ayuntamiento, or municipal council, of this city, is especially charged with the collection and payment of these sums.

      18. From the entire contribution which is to be paid to this army, $ 20000 shall be appropriated for the purchase of some very necessary supplies for the wounded and sick in the hospital; $90000 to purchase blankets and shoes, which shall be distributed gratuitously amongst the soldiers of the army, and $40000 shall be retained for other military wants.

      19. This order shall be read to and circulated amongst all the companies of the American army now in service in Mexico, and shall be translated into Spanish for the information of the Mexicans.

      By order of the commander in chief,
H.L. SCOTT, A.A.A. Gen.

[MDT]


NNR 73.152 6 NOV 1847 revolt of the Massachusetts regiment at Veracruz over uniforms

Revolt of the Massachusetts regiment over uniforms

      The Massachusetts Regiment- The other day it became necessary to clothe the Massachusetts regiment anew; their old grey uniform having become seriously dilapidated. Grey clothing could not, of course be produced here, and the United States blue (the best soldier’s clothing in the world) was substituted for it. The regiment accepted the clothing, with the exception of one company, the members of which positively refused, on the ground that it was disgraceful for them to wear the national uniform! They could not clothe themselves in any thing else; they were becoming ragged, and were on the point of marching to the interior, where there is no clothing at all. General Cushing ordered them out of ranks and sent them to the castle to perform laborer’s duty.

      Yesterday the prisoners were marched from the camp to the castle, under charge of Captain Carr’s company, 11th infantry. On reaching the mote some fifteen of them endeavored to beg off, saying that if they were permitted to return to duties they would wear the blue cloth, but it was too late.

      Major Webster arrived at N. Orleans on the 25th, on his way to join his regiment, the Massachusetts, in route from Vera Cruz to the interior, with the train under Gen. Patterson. [letter from Vera Cruz.
[MDT]


NNR 73.152 6 NOV 1847 Gen. Joseph Lane's advance without adequate ammunition

Gen. Lane’s Advance without Adequate Ammunition

      The fact that Gen. Lane had to halt his command on reaching the Governor’s Bridge, and send Capt. Cook for ammunition for his forces, has been already noticed. In reference to this, the writer quoted above says: “I have previously stated that Gen. Lane’s command left here with forty rounds of ammunition. All the facts of the case are not yet known. ON his arrival at the National Bridge, he had an average of eight rounds. The amount that he started with from here is not known. If he started with less than forty rounds, the usual quantity, then the general is responsible, for the act was neglectful; but if he started with the full complement, then his men are also inexcusable, they for divesting themselves, he for allowing it.
[MDT]


NNR 73.152 6 NOV 1847 Lt. Robert M. Morris' appeal to the Marines

Lieut. Morris’ appeal to the Marines

Lieut. Morris of the rifles- It happened soon after Maj. Twiggs, of the marines, was killed, that Lt. Morris, of the rifles, was ordered to make a charge in order to attain a certain point. Deeming his own men too few for the undertaking, and seeing the marines without an officer, he ordered them to help him. They replied, that he was no officer of theirs, and refused-he remonstrated, and they still refused. Finding authority and remonstrance of no avail, he shouted to them-“Marines, I am the son of Commodore Morris-if you have any veneration for his memory, follow me.” This appeal was irresistible; their sailor hearts were touched, and with a cry, as of joy, they pounded forward, and shared his dangers and his perils, until success was obtained.
[MDT]


NNR 73.152 Nov. 6, 1847 Baltimore light artillery

Capt. Tilghman's company of light artillery. Amongst the late arrivals of troops at Vera Cruz, is Captain Tilghman's company of Baltimore light artillery. They are a fine looking set of men, and their uniform remarkably tasteful and neat, though almost too fine for the rough usage it will be subject to in a campaign. They have been supplied with excellent horses, and six beautiful pieces of cannon, forges, caissons, &c., in proposition. [KAS]


NNR 73.152 Nov. 6, 1847 expedition against guerrillas

The Genius of Liberty of the 15th inst., gives an account of an expedition against the guerrillas, sent out by Gen. Patterson, in which several parties of bandits were encountered and destroyed, and a large amount of arms of all kinds were captured.

Some excitement was occasioned at Vera Cruz on the 18th by the arrival of an express from a company of Texas Rangers, announcing that they had been attacked about twelve miles from Vera Crux by a large guerrilla force, that they had lost one man killed and about eighteen were missing. The report was current that the whole command, excepting two had been cut off and the immediate departure of the rangers at full speed induced the citizens to believe that the report was true.
[KAS]


NNR 73.152 Nov. 6, 1847 Burning of Santa Ann's Hacienda

A Vera Cruz correspondent of the New Orleans National insists that Captain Lewis of the Louisiana volunteers was justifiable in destroying the seat of the Mexican commander, as it had been made the headquarters of a band that were infesting the line of communication between Vera Cruz and Gen. Scott's army.

The latest dates received here from the National Bridge, by a letter from Major Kenly, informed us that Santa Anna's hacienda was permanently occupied by Col. Hughes and his staff, and how it could have been the resort of guerrillas, we are at a loss to conceive.
[KAS]


NNR 73.152 6 NOV 1847 account of the camp at Veracruz, difficulties of soldiers at the hospital

Correspondence of the New Orleans Picayune
Vera Cruz, October 16, 1847

      This city and camp Bajara present the most interesting scenes at this time. At the latter place are some 35000 troops encamped-say the 13th infantry, Massachusetts regiment, new Ohio regiment, two Florida companies, Captain Stapp’s Illinois mounted men, ninety recruits for the 1st dragoons, two companies of the 11th infantry, sixty voltigeur recruits, and last (though by no means the least) Capt. Tilghman’s magnificent light artillery battery. About half a mile beyond this camp are four companies of Texan Rangers.

      Gen. Patterson has put his shoulder to the wheel in earnest, first, to put an end to certain abuses that have been too long overlooked here, and practiced by officers going up in the several columns that have left for the interior. For instance, a large number of men, belonging to both regular and volunteer forces, have been sent into the general hospital here by their officers without descriptive rolls. Numbers of these poor fellows have remained in hospital six and eight months, some have died, and many are still suffering, who, for want of this light duty on the part of their officers, cannot by honorably discharged or paid. To send them off sick, without pay, and with no papers by which they can claim their land bounty, or perhaps pension, would by treating them badly indeed, and the surgeons will not do it. The pay and board of those who die in hospital are lost to their heirs, if the officers under whom they have served have been so criminal as to neglect to furnish the hospital surgeon with their descriptive rolls and clothing accounts. TO prevent a recurrence of this evil Gen. Patterson has issued orders that every officer who shall send men to the hospital without the proper papers shall be arrested and tried. Other healthy orders have been issued and are stringently executed, and the general is determined that the guerrillas, as well in this vicinity as on the road, shall feel the weight of our power.

      Day before yesterday he dispatched two companies of Texas rangers and some other mounted men to scour the country between the Jalapa and Orizaba roads, where guerrillas were known to be quartered and arms and ammunitions to be stored. A few miles about Santa Fe a party of rangers came upon a ranch, and then discovered, by the numerous explosions, that loaded firearms were concealed there. In the vicinity of Medellin, another party discovered large quantities of arms and ammunition, and killed some sixty guerrillas.

      Whilst, however, the mounted men are employed in ferreting out and destroying guerrillas and guerrilla depots, the general does not forget to protect the innocent and defenseless. The following general order will show his policy in this respect.
[MDT]


NNR 73.152 6 NOV 1847 general order for opening the line of communication from Veracruz to the interior

Headquarters Volunteer Division
Vera Cruz, Mexico, October 12, 1846

      Orders, No. 5.- The commanding General of the division being charged with the duty of opening the line of communication with the main army in the interior of Mexico, directs that:

      1. The commanders of all corps, detachments, and posts under his command, or left by him on the line from Vera Cruz to the headquarters of the army, shall protect from injury and insult all unarmed and peaceable inhabitants.

      2. NO private property shall be taken, except by the order of the commanding officer of the corps, detachment, or post, and then only for the use of the troops, for which, in all cases when the owner can be found, a reasonable compensation shall be paid.

      3. The frequent robberies and murders committed by guerrillas and other banditti, who live by plundering Mexican as well as Americans, thereby rendering life and property insecure, and interrupting trade and intercourse with the interior, requiring a prompt remedy, no Mexican will be allowed to bear arms, except by the written permission of the commander of a department of war.

      4. Commanders of all armed parties will apprehend armed Mexicans found without proper authority, and should they resist they will be shot.

      By orders of Maj. Gen. Patterson:

      J.J.Abercrombie, Lt. Col. And A.A.A.g.

      Among the other arrangements a depot is to be immediately established at the National Bridge. This is certainly a most judicious measure. The army will probably move to the interior in about a week.
[MDT]


NNR 73.152-73.153 6 NOV 1847 Mexican official reports on termination of the armistice

      The Matamoros Flag, furnishes the following translation of Mexico officials, issued upon the termination of the armistice and the renewal of hostilities. The first is the Mexican secretary’s letter to Gen. Urrea-the second is Urrea’s announcement to the governor of the province of Tamaulipas.

      Excellent sir-It is probable that tomorrow at 12 pm. the enemy will commence hostilities, in consequence of the refusal of the supreme government to precede to advise you of this event. The first magistrate of the nation has never had the power, nor has he wished to make concessions derogatory to the rights, and honor of the republic-and he has therefore, during the time the negotiations were pending, fanned the flame of national spirit and reorganized the army. HE is therefore, to day, in an attitude to rebel force by force, which seems to be the only title of the enemy to acquisitions which the supreme government never could concede, much less admit stipulations which has their origin in the law of force. Your excellency may rest assured, that whatever may be the success of arms, the government will always sustain at all costs, the independence and honor of he republic. God and liberty!

ALCORTA
     Mexico, Sept. 6,1847.

[MDT]


NNR 73.153 6 NOV 1847 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's summons to Col. Thomas Childs, reply, the siege, Santa Anna deserted by his troops

Santa Anna’s Demonstration At Puebla.

      Summons to surrender, dated

      Headquarters- Mexican Army I have taken possession of this city with the army under my command, for the purpose of operating upon the several points fortified and occupied by your excellency, and also with the view of liberating its inhabitants from the dominion of the forces of ht United States, from whom they have already suffered too much. But before commencing any operations of a military character, I have considered it my duty to act in obedience to the impulses of humanity, and consequently request that your excellency will please evacuate this city within a certain and peremptory space of time, it being known to you at the same time that you can depart with all the honors of war, either to form a junction with General Scott, or the forces of your country at Perote, according as it best suits your pleasure. But should this courteous request of mine be unheeded by your excellency, then, although to me it is a painful alternative, I shall commence to assault your positions the consequences of which act will be felt by your garrison, because there exists in the vicinity of your excellency 8000 men who are determined that the rights of their nation shall be maintained and respected.

God and liberty, headquarters in Puebla, September 25th 1847.
ANTONIO LOPEZ DE SANTA ANNA.

To Senior Col. D. Thomas Childs, commander of the United States army, situated in Loreto.


Col. Childs Reply.

Headquarters, City of Puebla, Mexico
September 25, 1847.

      TO his excellency, D Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, General in chief of the Mexican army in front of this city.

      Sir- I had the honor of receiving, at 2 o’clock this afternoon, your excellency’s letter of this date. In it you were pleased to notify me of the fact that you had taken possession of this city, for the purpose as you declare, of restoring to the full enjoyment of their liberty its citizens who have hitherto suffered so much from the U.S. army. You likewise were pleased to offer certain stipulations to this garrison, provided that it would, within a fixed time, abandon the point of defense which it now occupies. With regard to the assertion of your Excellency, which implies that the inhabitants of Puebla have been maltreated by the US troops, I wholly deny it. ON the contrary, I assure you that the property and privileges of all have been maintained and respected with the greatest scrupulousness, indeed, so much so has it been done, that its parallel cannot be found in the annals of war. And I would most willingly leave it to the most intelligent and impartial portion of the population of the city to decide, from which of the two contending parties they have received the most injury and molestation; whether it is from their own countrymen or the troops of the United States.

      With regard to that particular part of your excellency’s letter which demands the surrender, within a fixed time, of all the positions now occupied by the troops under my command, I can only say in reply, that having been honored with the duty of guarding and protecting them, it is equally my greatest wish and paramount obligation to preserve them to the last; and I am fully satisfied that I shall be able to defend all the resources essential to its full and complete accomplishment.

      With considerations in the highest degree respectful, I have the honor to be your excellency’s most obedient servant,

Thomas Childs, Col. U.S. Army
Civil and military governor.

[MDT]

      The Genius of Liberty furnishes the following sequel to the above correspondence

      Puebla, 28th-At 5 in the evening of yesterday the point of San Juan de Dios, Santa Rosa and Santa Monica commenced a heavy cannonade upon the American works. The letter immediately began to throw cannon shot, bombs and grenades into the centre of the city, which suffered in consequence some considerable injury.

      Don Mariano del Rio, was standing with his wife on the back balcony of his house was struck dead by a cannon ball. About 8 P.M. the cannonade deceased, but command again at the dawn of the following day.

      Puebla 29th-By order of Santa Anna a body of troops was yesterday posted in the convent of Santa Teresa, at one of the corners of which a breastwork of cotton bales was erected. Four hundred cotton bales have already been demanded of the house of Velasco for the defense of the city. TO prevent the completion of this work the Americans from the fork of San Jose kept up a continual fire upon the workmen, which being stoutly returned by the Mexicans, the discharge of bombs and grenades from the American lines greatly increased. At this moment a considerable number of private citizens went to Santa Anna, who was at Carmen, and requested of him a piece of artillery, which being granted, together with a small body of men for its management, they quickly marched for the Convent Santa Rosa and opened a will directed fire upon the American works. We were in the greatest construction, but night at last supervening, everything became quiet.

      Puebla, Sept. 30- Today partial tranquility reigns in the city. Now and then can be heard the report of a cannon, and the explosion of some grenades thrown in the direction of San Juan del Rio, in the rear of whose church Gen. Rea last night concluded a battery, with which he intends to open on San Jose. Our soldiers are complaining very much, and say they are ready die of hunger, not having received anything in the shape of provisions for some considerable time. The greatest enthusiasm against the Americans prevails throughout the entire city.

      Puebla, Oct. 2- Since Santa Anna’s departure the cannonading has totally slackened off. The cotton store house of Velasco took fire last night, and was burned down to the ground-and 200 bales of the same article were totally consumed in the convent of Santo Domingo, without any one’s being able to account for the mode in which they were fired. The inhabitants hearing the ringing of bells which announced the incendiarism, were very much alarmed, believing that the Americans had left their entrenchments, and were storming the city.
[MDT]


NNR 73.153-73.154 6 NOV 1847 desertion of Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's troops, rumors of his departure from Mexico

Nov. 6, 1847

Santa Anna Deserted

      From the same source we derive the following narrative of events subsequent to those above detailed. Santa Anna is evidently reduced to great straits:

      On the 1st of the present month Gen. Santa Anna, at he head of 2000 cavalry and infantry and three pieces of artillery, sailed out of Puebla, intending to attack the American train which left Jalapa on the 1st, and reached Perote on the 4th . But before arriving at Tepeyahualeo the designs of the commander in chief of the Mexican forces where wholly frustrated, all his men, with the exemption of 130 hussars of his personal guard, having pronounced against him. As an excuse for this proceeding the officers and privates alleged that hey were firmly convinced that their further continuance at the disposal and under the orders of the ex president would only be followed by their complete sacrifice; and that withal, their country would not derive the slightest benefit for it.

      They attributed the unfortunate events of the war, and their want of success in their battles against the invaders, to his incapacity and unskillfullness. Even some of them fondly declared him to be a traitor, and consequently to be unworthy of holding any command in the Mexican army. The greater part of these transactions took place at Nopalucan

      Santa Anna having got to Tepeyahualea with his 130 hussars, he received an order from the government at Queretaro directing him to proceed thither at once with all the troops under his orders. But the general did not deem it convenient to comply with the mandate of his government and took up his line of march for Oaxaca, whither by the latest account he was wending his way. He publicly declared that his intentions in going to Oaxaca were to see whether he could raise there another army, with which he might return to renew the combat with the enemies of he republic.

      All the letters from the interior coincide in saying that Gen Santa Anna, conscious of his impotency to effect anything more either in carrying on of the war, or of adjusting the terms of peace, is making his way towards Guatemala, for the purpose of leaving the republic of Mexico forever, and that his march to Oaxaca is only a pretext tot he quiet accomplishment of his designs.

      The reports that Gen Santa Anna was endeavoring to reach Guatemala, and that Gen Scott had given him a passport to embark free from Vera Cruz if he should think it best, is denied by La Voz de la Patria, a Mexican newspaper which we find extensively copied in the Arco Iris. HE is resolved, say La Voz, not to abandon the cause of the country, and to continue the war without respite upon the enemies of Mexican independence and religion.

      The genius of Liberty says that Senor Pena y Pena is discharging the duties of recognize as his associate in power, the individuals nominated and appointed by Santa Anna. He proposes that congress shall take upon itself the office of selecting men to that important and high office.
[MDT]


NNR 73.154 Nov. 6, 1847 Guerrilla Warfare

A letter from the army, dated Buena Vista, Aug. 20, says:

"A ranger is missed; search is made for him by his comrades; his body is perhaps found, perhaps not. The nearest Mexicans to the vicinity of his disappearance are required to account for him; they will not, or cannot. The bowie knife is called upon, and deliberately every male Mexican in that rancho is speedily done for, guilty or not guilty. But this is not enough to make an effort for the life of a Texan. Another rancho receives the fearful visit, and again blood flows. The number killed on some occasions in this way has been fearfully great, and has been gathered from what fell from the Texans, but no one but themselves knew about it, as a report of any such doings to the nearest commanding officer, would only be followed by a ten-fold retaliation on the nearest 'customers.' This is all horrid, it is true, but it has had the salutary tendency of causing the well disposed and honest Mexicans to ferret out and inform of those who practice murder and robbery. Going about at some distance from camp is considered much more safe."
[KAS]


NNR 73.155 6 NOV 1847 comment on the "slanders" against Gen. Sterling Price

      General Price.- The Glasgow News says, that Gen. Price has applied to the war department for permission to raise a company of mounted men, to act as an escort for him across the plains to Santa Fe.

      The same paper says, that “the slanderers of this officer are very quiet since his return from Santa Fe.” We do not know who are meant by this term “slanderers” but if reference be had to the truths which have been published in regard to his military command in New Mexico, the want of subordination and discipline in his camp, and the dissolute conduct of those whom he ought to have controlled, and over whom he had full authority, we must says that his presence has not prevented the publication of the facts. Gen. Price proposes, it is said, a visit to Washington. IF he feels himself aggrieved, let him ask a court of inquiry, with full power to investigate his military conduct in New Mexico, and witnesses will not be wanting to prove his total unfitness for the station which he occupied, his failure to preserve anything like military subordination in his camp, and the licentiousness which he encouraged, by suffering his men to do very much as they pleased. Gen. Price is now a military man, and if he has anything of the chivalry of an officer about him, he will not willingly rest under accusations which are ringing against him from one end of the state to the other.     [St. Louis Repub 4th Oct.
[MDT]


NNR 73.155 6 NOV 1847 hubbub and confusion among troops at Santa Fe, confusion and disorder in the territory

Santa Fe, New Mexico, Aug, 13, 1847

      All is hubbub and confusion here, discharged volunteers are leaving, drunk, and volunteers not discharged are remaining drunk. B company 1st dragoons arrived here escorting a train of wagons with 350000 in specie, on the 6th. Col. Price will give up the command and depart early next week. There will only be left here for the government of this territory, which has a population of 90000, 250 troops. None of the newly enlisted volunteers have arrive yet.     [N.Y. Cour & Enq.
[MDT]


NNR 73.155 6 NOV 1847 seizure of a British ship freighted with merchandise for a merchant in California

      Affairs in the Pacific.- Capture and condemnation of a British merchantman.-Despatches have been received in Washington from Com. Biddle, dated on aboard the line of battle ship Columbus, on the 10th of April last, giving an account of the seizure by the squadron, of a British merchant vessel, of light tonnage, freighted with merchandise of an English merchant resident in Mexico.

      There had been organized in California by Gen. Kearney, at the instance of Com. Biddle, a court of admiralty to adjudicate in such cases. This court took cognizance of this seizure, and condemned the vessel as a lawful prize, on the principle that a merchant permanently residing in Mexico, no matter of what power he may be a subject, is to be treated in time of war as a citizen of the country in which he resides and done business.

      This decision is sustained by the practice of the British admiralty courts during the war between France and England, and also during the war of 1812 and ’15, between the U. States and Great Britain.     [NY Herald.
[MDT]


NNR 73.156 Nov. 6, 1847 letter from a participant in actions against the Mexicans in California

           Events in California – A Late Springfield Journal contains a long letter from California, written by Wm. S. Todd, Formerly of Springfield, from which we make the following extract.

           When I wrote to you in January last, I expected to leave this country this spring, but I was so long detained in the army, under Fremont, that I am compelled to alter my intention, and even if I had got off in time, seeing the opportunities I now do of making something to repay me for coming to the country, I doubt whether I should leave. The country has just passed through a war of then months, and is beginning to recover from the evil effects of that war, although military despotism still governs it. General Kearney is the governor of the country, and governs it with martial law.

           In January, 1847, the foreign residents here became disgusted with the tyrannical and unprincipled acts of the men in power in this country, and raised a revolution against them. The authorities has commenced by declaring that all Americans should leave the country, or “their bones should bleach upon the plains of California,” and were preparing a force to carry out the threat, but the Americans took the start and seized the fortress of Sonoma, with several pieces of cannon, small arms, ammunition, &e ; and at the same time General Vallejo, Salvador Vallejo, and Captain De la Torre crossed the bay of San Francisco with near one hundred men.—We whipped them and drove them back over the bay, and then prepared to march against General Castro.

           On our march down, an express overtook us, stating that Com. Sloat, Had taken position of Monterey and San Francisco, and had hoisted the American flag. Fremont (who had joined us a few days before we left Sonoma,) … our leader, hoisted the starts and stripes over out camp. From that time until the retaking of Pueblo, in the month of January last, I have been in the service of the United States, I may say, until the 6th of March last, when I was discharged. There were many others, who, like myself served during the whole war, and were discharged at that same time. In November last, Commodore Stockton came to San Diego, and there told us that we must enlist as common soldiers or remain as prisoners on board the Congress until he could send us home. After the retaking of Pueblo we were promised our immediate discharge, and our pay, by Commodore Stockton; but we obtained neither of them. Some two or three weeks after out term of service has expired, Col. Fremont consented to discharge us, and did so on the 6th of March - paying us but twenty dollars each to purchase horses, saddles and provisions, to take us home – a distance of 800 miles!
[ATT]


NNR 73.156-73.157 Nov. 6, 1847 account of the New York California regiment in California

THE NEW YORK CALIFORNIA REGIMENT AT HOME

           The Northampton Gazette, says:  A young gentleman of Worthington, in this county, who became enamored of them western regions, by the representations which he gathered from this reading, and who connected himself with the 7th regiment of New York volunteers, under the famous Colonel Stevenson, and sailed fro California last autumn, writes to his friends from San Francisco, under date of May, in which he gives rather an unfavorable color to the destines of that command, and of the country, so much eulogized by hose desires of a… our national domain. A few extracts will show pretty clearly the disappointed feelings of those who were looking for a western paradise. He says:

           “The land here is very poor, not a vegetable is raised. All it is fit for is grass, and that all dries up in summer and blows away. There is no rain from May to September. Not a tree grows within twenty miles of this. A few scrub bushes are seen, and they hardly furnish wood enough to cook with. All I can say about the land here, .. make within a circuit of twenty miles, is, that it is one large sand bank, where vegetation starts-up in the spring then dries up and blows away. If there is any with you that wish to emigrate, let them go to any other place in the world than California. Never way any taken in so bad as was the 7th regiment of New York volunteers. We expected to find it almost a paradise, and here we are, poor dogs, living on sea biscuit, pork and beans, in face of an enemy, exposed to wind, weather, and bullets rattling among us,  and all for seven dollars a month. Blue coasts, red patches, stripes and death, perhaps – a gloomy prospect, indeed.”

           These are the deluded men, who consented, upon the representation of the government adventurers, to be discharged at the expiration of the war, where-ever they may be, and find their way home as they may, or spend their lives in California. Not a very enviable condition truly.

           Another member of the regiment, a correspondent of the Troy N. York Whig, writes as follows:

Santa Barbara, Alta California, May 19, 1847.

           Entertaining an idea that there are doubtless many who would like to know the whereabouts of one, who in former days “danced and sang a …song,” and who was most familiarly known to the good citizens of his birth place; who, perhaps, think him in another world, as he doubtless would have had not fortune smiled most favorably upon him. I am alive and well, never more so, and may if I meet with no pull-backs, see you again some time in the course of then years if we can satisfy these cursed Mexicans, and make them come to terms. Ere this you must have heard of our arrival and the distribution of our regiment if you have not, Major Harde is stationed with three companies, G, H & K. at the Presidio at St. Francisco; Lieut. Col. Barton with three companies at this place, having arrived here on 7th April; and Col. Stevenson at Monterey with four companies, C. D. E. & … within the last week. Col. C. has been ordered to the “Puebla des los Angelos” with two companies G & E., 90 miles below this, where there are some 400 Mormon soldiers, and once company U.S. dragoons, engaged in throwing up a breast work preparatory not having occasion to use it, as they expect to have hot work soon. Lieut. C. Burton with two companies A. & B. is ordered down the coast, (place unknown) out a short distance this side of Mazatlan, to take position of the country. We sail next week. We may possibly meet General Wool’s division and join him; what’s next will for low is all speculation. Capt. Naglee from Philadelphia in command of company D has mounted his company, and is out in the mountains scouting. Capt. Brackett of company C is stationed at Sonoma, 60 miles up the Sacramento from St. Francisco, the balance being in quarters, ready at a moments notice for any emergency. We have had two alarms here, … calling every man to his post in less than a minute. Never did I see men obey a call quicker than on those occasions, it was remarkable by Col. Barton, an old campaigner, that during all his fighting in the Florida war he never saw much promptness in falling into ranks before. Some were without shoes, some without caps, and some without coats, but every man had his musket and his 20 rounds of cartridge in his cartridge box. The alarm was caused by some Indians lurking around the camp, and one of them coming too near the sentry, and not obeying his orders to “stand,” he fired upon and killed him – of late things have worn a more peaceful appearance.

           The men are contented, having provided for them most comfortable quarters, and a braver set of men I do not believe ever went into the field; they are composed of those careless, reckless d-ls, (yet of good heart) from the Bowery and East River side, that are the terror of the N. York police. They are in good discipline, always respectful and obedient, and the only thing they want is to have a chance of fighting. They occasionally get a fight up on a small scale; pounding an Indian or Californian who does not exactly think as they do, most unmercifully. They love their commander (Col. B.) and well they may, for he is very attentive to their wants, and they in return try to please him in every thing. Santa Barbara is a pleasant little town with a population if some 1,00 inhabitants, and a jurisdiction extending to over 3,000; it is built upon a beautiful piece of table land, situated between  lofty ranges of mountains on its side and rear, with its front opening to the sea. Fruits during the summer season may be had in abundance, and out table of late groans under the weight of delicious dishes, fruits and wine, sent us as presents from the fair hands of the many beautiful Senoritas; while we in return guard and protect them  from the hostile Indian depredations. Fandangos’ we have almost nightly, rich treats they are. The waltz is the same as out own; but the other dances wholly different. A native stands a poor chance for a partner, when there are enough “Americanos” present. I’m worst feature in the whole case is my morality to reply to their beautiful lingo , I never felt the disagreeable reality before of wanting to talk, and not being able to. Ideas rush in from all sources, but I have to check them or only utter them in most miserable Spanish.

           The horsemen of the Californians cannot be surpassed; children from 6 to 8 years of age, rise with much ease and grace as out grown people do at home, and it is not uncommon, occurrence to see them strapped on, riding as the races. Visiting, business, and every thing else is done on horseback, they being to lazy to walk. Daily may be seen from six to a dozen at different corners of the streets seated on their horses all day long, and it they are fortunate enough to get any thing to eat, it is devoured while seated on their horses. The length of the race never exceeds is a quarter of a mile, and the time is never made as we can make it home, an American betting $50 on a race is looked at with surprise, that amount being too large for the Californian’s pocket. Their betting is from $5 to $10, and side betting from $4 upwards is not that heavy. Horses that we would willing pay from $100 to $150, you can purchase here for $15, $20 and $25, once more I am again the owner of a horse!  Each part of the command which was left  in New York when we sailed have arrived, and joined their respective companies; the… belonging to the companies stationed here joined yesterday. We have received news from the states as late as the 24th No. files of the New York Herald and Courier and Enquirer. Eagerly do we scan the proceedings and doings of those at home, and trust provision may be… rising of troops for five years… and those men who wish to remain in the service belonging to the 7th regiment may not be forgotten. It is a general feeling among the officers and as we are already here, would it not be much easier and cheaper fir the United States to muster us for that time. I hope that Congress and the secretary of war will have an eye open favorably for us. – General Kearney, Col. Fremont, and one or two others whose names I forget, leave during this month for the states. Col. F must feel very much chagrined in being obliged to return to the states with Gen. K. after having stood out against him so long, disobeying all orders which have been given him before you will before this reaches you have learned after consequently unnecessary to repeat here. Cornel Mason will be in command of the forces as soon as the general leaves, which will much dampen the spirits of our gallant. French leaving taking colonel From the others on board his ship I learn that he had made all his appointments from secretary of state down, and intended carrying them out upon arrival, but on his arrival, he having learned that Col. Mason was here, never did man’s… hopes change more suddenly than was duplicated in the countenance and bearing of Col. Stevenson. Hard stories are told of the colonel during the passage, and many a time and oft’ does he catch a drubbing from some luckless wight who has been most shamefully wronged. It is the prevailing wish that he may be dislodged from command, recalled home, and the command given to Lieut. Col. Barton, a gentleman and soldier, and a man beloved by all officers and men. On the 22nd we give a grand ball, now it will terminate if I have time, I will let you now in another letter  My remembrance to the good people, and oblige. Frank
[ATT]


NNR 73.160 Nov. 6, 1847 "what is to be done with Mexico? her voice is still for war!", subjugation contemplated 

“What’s to be done with Mexico?”

           Whilst the British government are embarrassed with the difficult questions of “What is to be done with Ireland,” our own government is occupied with a no less perplexing question as to what is to be done with out southern neighbor. The views of the cabinet being but imperfectly and unofficially shadowed forth by the official organ, leaves the scores of “letter writers” full latitude for their occupation, which is improved accordingly. The decided tone of such of those as are well known to occupy stations that afford opportunities for being well informed, is scarcely to be misunderstood.

           “X.” the Washington correspondent of the Baltimore Sun, on the 31 st wrote: “The papers, as you will perceive, hint at the revolution in public sentiment which has been effected in Mexico since our seizure of the capital – private letters confirm the same, and there is no doubt but that the true friends of peace, who always consider the continuation in power of Santa Anna worse to the state than the loss of half a dozen provinces, will make a vigorous effort to bring about some kind of an arrangement, especially if they learn that henceforth they must pay for all the expenses of the war, instead of getting money from us, and that in lieu of pay they must lose other provinces in proportion to the duration of the war. Should there be any such revolution in public sentiment, Mr. Trist, I opine, may yet figure as commissioner; but he will listen, not make propositions on his part.

           “The Mexican tariff, as soon as Gen. Patterson and Col. Jack Hays shall have established a permanent safe communications with the interior, will yield a handsome revenue, especially if a few slight alterations in its present rates of duty shall be ordered, such as experience has shown to be beneficial to out merchants, producers, and manufacturers. Such alterations, I believe, are in progress of preparation.”

           “Ion,” another correspondent of the same paper, writes of the same date: “In my letter of the 26th inst., I said “sufficient intimation had been thrown out in regard to the orders recently sent to General Scott, to convince me” that those orders were so and so. I have had ample reason since, to believe that I have fallen into no error in regard to the policy of the government on this subject. Others may have arrived at different conclusions as to the course which the executive will purse, and no one assumes to speak upon authority in relation to it – not even the editor of the Union.

           “What are the “intimations thrown out” by the “Union” in the article of the 27th, and in previous articles?  They fully confirm my own convictions, as forced upon me by information derived from other sources. “What now remains?” says the Unions – “Subjugation and occupation.”  If others have not been able to foresee, or, it seeing, do not choose to state, the means by which the end in view is to be accomplished, it does not follow that my references, and those, I may ass, of the most intelligent and judicious observers here, are imaginary.

           “I do not suppose that the cabinet is unanimous in their views, either as to these ends or these means. We shall know something about both, five weeks hence. In regard to Gen. Scott’s future relations towards the fluttering shadow of the supreme government, lately supposed to be at Queretaro, I stated that his orders were “to leave it undisturbed.” – That I am correct in this suggestion has been made apparent. It is the hope of some – I do not say of every one of the cabinet – that the government at Queretaro will sue for peace. It is a vain hope, in my opinion. But I was perfectly aware, and so stated in, my second, that Gen, Scott was to deal tenderly with Santa Anna’s multitude at Queretaro and with the fugitive congress, which may or may not assemble there. I said that Gen Scott was to “leave that shadow of a government undisturbed.”  Am I not correct in this?  Is it not confirmed by your own correspondent, “X?” and I need go no further for evidence of its correctness.

           “AS to the first proposition, every one knows that I was correct, for the “Union” has repeatedly announced that the late armistice was unauthorized, and I know that the rumored movements of General Scott in favor of peace, since the capture of Mexico, were met with disappointment by this government. Gen. Scott, I repeat, is to enter into no more armistices, nor truces, until Mexico has ratified a treaty.

           “Next comes the  proposition that Gen. Scott is to occupy and pacificate the country. It is the sole object of the reinforcements lately sent to him to enable him to do this. The thirty thousand troops are there for that purpose, and no other; and, for the same purpose, twenty thousand more are to be asked for from congress, at the next session, if need be.

           “There remain but two more propositions, to with that Gen. Scott is to disarm the Mexicans found in arms; and that he is to levy contributions on the Mexican states, cities, and people. Here again I have an authority, representing at least a portion of the cabinet, for this assertion. But all this is no more than Gen. Scott is now actually doing under previous discretionary orders, and from necessity.

           “I dismiss the matter by asserting that my five propositions have not been and cannot be denied by authority, nor disproved by facts.”

           “I stated them, the other day, only as my own convictions. I now repeat them as well known, authentic, and indisputable facts – startling as they may be to those who are yet unprepared to meet the responsibility for the state of things which they have contributed to produce.”

           A letter to the N. Orleans National, from Vera Cruz. Dated October 11, says:

           The Mexican “voice is still for war.”  Let our people no longer flatter themselves with the hope of an early peace; but let the next congress prepare for a long war; for Mexican obstinacy and false pride is aroused, and so long as they can resist they will do it – even unto their own destruction. There is but one course left to attain a speedy peace, and that is by virtue of fear.

           The Washington correspondent of the Charleston Mercury wrote on the 7th ult: “There is no good reason to believe that congress will be disposed to limit the appropriations for war, still less to withhold them. Besides, the government will take at once, or before congress shall act, such measures as will lead to vast expenses, and congress cannot undertake to repudiate them. It is a matter of doubt, too, how far congress can exercise any supervision order the conduct of the war. If the war be carried on at all it must be by the executive.”

           On the 15th October, the correspondence of the Baltimore Sun wrote-

           I have ascertained, since my last, that there remains as yet uncalled for, the sum of six millions and one hundred thousand dollars for the last loan. This sum will, together with the accruing revenue from customs and lands, be ample to carry on the operations of the war, and to meet the ordinary expenses of the government till next spring. There is no danger that the war will lag for the want of means. Whatever may be the delay of action in congress, the operations of the war will go on, and after expenses have been incurred, we shall see how many members will vote their repudiation.”

           On the 30th August, before the late renewal of hostilities, the “trusted friend and organ of the administration,” the Washington correspondent of the Philadelphia Ledger wrote-

           “I alluded, in one of my letters to the Ledger, the fact that the programme of the administration is now completed, and that, through the “union” as yet forbears to save a word, it is intended to prosecute the war, if need be, to the entire subjugation of Mexico , if she persists in rejecting our offers of peace. Connected with this resolution is the determination to oppose the Wilmot proviso, ex officio, as utterly useless and impractical, and only calculated to distract parties,”

           Another letter to the Charleston Mercury says-

           The result of the late election in Pennsylvania is hailed as an administration triumph, and as a strong evidence that Pennsylvania is in favor of acquiring, by war, the whole territory of Mexico. As Mr. Buchanan and Mr. Dallas are rivals, in that state, for the support of the democracy, in the next presidential contest, their respective friends now vie with each other in claiming for them all the advantages to result from their advocacy of territorial extension. It is therefore rumored, and indeed asserted, that Mr. Trist’s treaty project was not Mr. Buchanan’s ultimatum; and that Mr. B. had sent to Mr. Trist instructions which he has not received at the date of the armistice, to demand the 26th parallel of latitude as the boundary.

           The Augusta Constitutionalist has the following paragraph:

           “The rights of the Mexican republic exist now only in the sic volo, sic jubeo of the American people. Their will is the law of the case.

           The Washington correspondent of the N. Y Journal of Commerce writes on the 25th ult:

           The Government sends frequent messages to General Scott. A messenger left this morning this dispatches for him. I learn, from various sources, that the administration has given such orders to General Schott as will prevent him from again offering to accepting an armistice, or inviting the Mexican government to make peace. The day has gone by, too, for offering any pecuniary inducements to the Mexican rulers, or compensation for territory.
[ATT]


NNR 73.160 Nov. 6, 1847 heavy northers

           Mexico – Latest – The steamer Alabama, at New Orleans, left Vera Cruz on the 20th, Tampico on 22nd off Brazos the 24th, and Galveston the 25th. Experienced a heavy northern all the way, which prevented her from communicating with Brazos. She brings from Galveston fifteen cabin passengers and fifty discharged soldiers that had reached Galveston in… in the U.S. propeller Ashland, which put in there in distress. The Alabama brings dispatches from General Scott for government.

           Gen. Patterson was expected to start with reinforcements from Vera Cruz, on the 24th.

           City of Mexico dates to the 7th October left all quiet.

           Congress had met at Queretaro on the 5th. Santa Anna is reinvested with executive power and the command of the Army.
[ATT]


NNR 73.160 Nov. 6, 1847 operations of Gen. Joseph Lane's division

Gen. Lane’s division, advancing on the 11th October so suddenly entered the town of Huamantla, situated half way between Perote and Puebla, that Santa Anna has barely time to escape, leaving two pieces of artillery which were taken by Gen. Lane. La Vega, and a son of Iturbide were made prisoners.
[ATT]


NNR 73.160 Nov. 6, 1847 - General Taylor's camp, all quiet

From Gen. Taylor's and Gen Wool's headquarters we have dates to the 4th Oct. All quiet-troops healthy.
[KAS]


NNR 73.160 Nov. 6, 1847 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna at Huamantla

           Santa Anna left Huamantla at the head of 1,000 horses, and was joined soon after by 1,500 men, Under command of Gen. Reyes, and together they re-entered Huamantla as soon as General Lane left it, and following the Americans, killed seventy men and took twenty prisoners. They had two pieces of artillery with them, and contrived to be very annoying. A considerable force that left Puebla under Reyes was waiting Lane’s approach at El Pinal, a few miles south of Huamantla.
[ATT]


NNR 73.160 Nov. 6, 1847 Capt. Jack Hays' rangers and the guerrillas

A dozen of Hays’ Texan rangers, on the 18th, had quite and affair with about 200 guerrillas that charged twice upon them between Vera Cruz and Santa Fe. Rifles first, and then Colt’s revolvers were used, with effect. The Texans arrived all safe.
[ATT]


NNR 73.160 Nov. 6, 1847 yellow fever in Vera Cruz

Yellow fever still claims its victories. Lieut. Jenkins, 1 st dragoons, died of it at Vera Cruz on the 19th . Capt. Wm. H. Churchill, 31 artillery died at Point Isabel on the same day, also of the fever which was prevailing at Matamoros.
[KAS]


NNR 73.160 Nov. 6, 1847 Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga at Tulancingo, preaching monarchy

           Paredes is in Tulancingo, still preaching monarchy – Valencia is rusticating at his hacienda. Bravo is on parole at Mexico. The other leading men and generals have gone for the most part to Cuernavaca, in the terra caliente, a town seventeen leagues south of the city of Mexico, on the road to Acapulco.

           Peace is as far off as ever; the feelings of the people are still said to be most strenuously opposed to any compromise with the North Americans; in fact the hostility which exists against us in the interior towns, cites and villages, is reported to be of the most bitter kind.
[ATT]


NNR 73.167-171 Nov. 13, 1847 official documents concerning the dispute between Gen. Stephen Watts Kearney and Col. John Charles Fremont

Army Court Martial. Trail of Col. Fremont.

           Second Day

           It being ascertained that Major McCall was detained from attending the court by indisposition, the president of the court applied to the war department to detail another officer to serve in his place, and suspended the proceedings until, about midday, Col. Hunt of the quartermaster’s department, appeared as a substitute for Maj. McCall.

           The court was then organized by the members taking the prescribed oaths, &c.

           The accused was then called upon to object, as of the right he might, to any member of the court. He signified that he has no objection to make.

           The judge advocate (Capt. J. F. Lee) then proceeded to read the charges.

           Charges against Lieutenant Colonel John C. Fremont, of the regiment of mounted riflemen, United States army.

           Charge I.-Mutiny.

           Specification 1. – In this, that he, Lieutenant Colonel John C. Fremont, of the regiment of mounted riflemen, United States army, being in command of a battalion of volunteers, organized in California for the United States service, having received the lawful command of his superior officer, Brigadier General S.W. Kearney, in the following words, to wit:

           “Headquarters Army of the West,

           Cuidad de los Angeles, January 16, 1847.

           “By direction of Brigadier General Kearney, I send you a copy of a communication to him from the secretary of war, dated June 18. 1846, in which is the following” ‘These troops, and such as many be made in the organized in California, will be under your command.’  The general directs that no charge will be made in the organization of your battalion of volunteers, or officers appointed to it, without his sanction or approval being first obtained.

           “Very respectably,    WM. H. Emory,
                      Lieut. And Acting Assistant Adj. Gen.

           “To Lieut. Col. J. C. Fremont, mounted riflemen, commanding battalion California volunteers.”

           And having received with this order a copy of instructions from the war department to Gen. Kearney, in the following words, to wit:

           “War department Washington, June 19, 1846.

           “Sir **** I have nothing if importance to add to the dispatches which have been already forwarded to you.

           “Since my last letter it has been determined to send a small force around Cape Horn to California.

           “The arms, cannon, and previsions to be sent to the Pacific will be accompanied by one company of artillery of the regular army. Arrangements are not on foot to send a regiment of volunteers by sea.

           “These troops and such as may be organized in California will be under your command.

           More than common solicitude will be felt here in regard to the expedition committed to you, and it is desired that you should avail yourself of all occasions to inform the government of your progress and prospects.

           “The president desires your opinion, as early as you are in a situation to give it, of the practicability of your reaching California in the course of this autumn or in the early part of the next winter. I need no repeat the expression of his wishes that you should take military possession of that country as soon as it can be safely done.

           “I am, with great respect, your ob’t sev’t,
                      “W.L. Marcy, Secretary of war.

           “To Col. S. W. Kearney”

           Did reply to General Kearney and his order aforesaid in a written answer, in the following words, to wit”

“Ciudad de los Angeles, Jan. 17, 1847.

           “Sir: I have the honor to be in receipt of your favor of last night, in which I am directed to suspend the execution of orders which, in my capacity of commandant of this territory, I had received from Commodore Stockton, governor and commander –in-chief in California.

           “I avail myself of an early hour this morning to make such a reply as the brief time allowed for reflection will enable me.

           “I found Commodore Stockton in possession of the country, exercising the functions of military commandant and civil governor, as early as July of last year; and shortly thereafter I received from him the commission of military commandant, the duties of which I immediately entered upon, and have continued to exercise to the present moment. I found also on my arrival at this place, some three or four days since, Commodore Stockton still exercising the functions of civil and military governor, with the same apparent deference to his rank on the part of all officers ( including yourself) as he maintained and required when he assumed in July last.

           “I learned also in conversation with you that, on the march from San Diego recently to this place, you entered upon and discharged duties implying an acknowledgement of your part of supremacy to Commodore Stockton.

           “I fell myself therefore, with great deference to your professional and personal character, constrained to say that, until you and Commodore Stockton adjust between yourself the question of rank, where I respectfully thin the difficulty belongs, I shall have to report an receive orders as heretofore from the commodore.

           “With considerations of high regard, I am, sir, your ob’t serv’t, J.C. Fremont
           “Lt. Col. U.S. army, and military commandant of the territory of California.

           “To Brig. Gen S.W. Kearney, U.S. Army.”

           And did thereby refuse to obey the aforesaid lawful command of his superior officer Gen Kearney, or to receive and obey any other order from him; but did declare himself to be the military commandant of the territory of California; thereby resisting and throwing off the authority of his superior officer. This at Ciudad de los Angeles, California, on the seventeenth of January, eighteen hundred and forty-seven, officially reported his battalion to Brigadier General Kearney, by writing, in words following, to wit”

                      “On the March, January 13, 1848.

           Dir Sir:  I have the honor to report to you my arrival at this place with 400 mounted riflemen and six pieces of artillery, including among the latter two pieces lately in the possession of the Californians. Their entire force, under the command of Don Andre Pico, Have this day laid down their arms and surrendered to my command.

           “Very respectfully, your ob’t serv’t,
                      J.C. Fremont,
           “Lt. Col. U.S. army, and military commandant of the territory of California.

           “To Brig. Gen S.W. Kearney, Commanding
U.S. forces, Pueblo de los Angeles.”

           Specification 2.-In this, that he, Lieutenant Colonel John C. Fremont of the regiment of mounted riflemen, United States army, being in command of a battalion of volunteers, organized in California, which were placed by the aforesaid orders of the secretary of war of June eighteenth, eighteen hundred and forty-six, under command of Brigadier General Kearney, did issue an order to Captain J. K. Wilson, at Angeles, January twenty-five eighteen hundred and forty-seven, in the following words, to wit:

           “Angles, January 25, 1847.

           “To Capt. J. K. Wilson, light artillery.

           “Sir: You are hereby authorized and directed to raise a company of men to constitute the second company of artillery in the California service, and for that purpose are detached from your present command.

           “You will please report the number you may be able to enlist with as little delay as possible. You are authorized to enlist the men for three months and to promise them as compensation twenty-five dollars per month.

           “Respectfully, J.C. Fremont
           “Lt. Col. Commanding California forces in the U.S. Service.”

           Thereby raising and attempting to raise troops in violation and contempt of the lawful command aforementioned of his superior officer, Brigadier General Kearney, of date January sixteenth, eighteen hundred and forty-seven, and thereby acting openly in defiance of and in mutiny against the authority of his superior officer aforesaid, by raising and attempting to raise troops, and by proclaiming himself to be and assuming to act as the commander of the United States forces in California.

           Specification 3. – In this, that he, Lieutenant Colonel John C. Fremont, of the regiment of mounted riflemen, United States army, being in command of a battalion of mounted riflemen organized in California for the United States service, which was placed by orders aforesaid from the secretary of war of June eighteenth, hundred and forty-six, under command of Brigadier General Kearney, did, at Ciudad de los Angeles, California, on the fifth day of February, eighteen hundred and forty-seven, issue an order to Louis McLane, a passed midshipman in the United States nay, in the following words, to wit:

Ciudad de los Angeles, February 5, 1847.

           “Sir, I feel it my duty, as the representative of the United States government in California, to instruct you to proceed forthwith north, as far as in your discretion may seem necessary, and exercise your best efforts in enlisting troops for the term of six months, compensation to be $- per month, to be employed in the service of the United States and at such points in the territory of California as in my judgment they are most required. Your are further more instructed to proceed as far as the town of Yerba Buena, on the San Francisco Bay, and examine diligently into the state of the navel or military defense of that town, and particularly to inquire into the best means of fortifying the mouth of the bay, against the ingress of all enemies, and I particularly recommend to you to cause to be forthwith commenced the erection of a fort or battery on White Island, calculated when completed to prevent the entrance of any ship or vessel that may be forbidden to do so by the United States.

           “To enable you to carry into effect the foregoing instructions, you are hereby authorized and required to call on all officers under my command to extend to you any assistance of money, men, or property that in your judgment may be necessary fully to accomplished the same

“In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and affixed my seal, at the capital of California, this date before written

           “J.C. Fremont,
           Governor of California.

           “Attest: Wm H Russell, Secretary of State.

           “To Major Louis McLane,
          U.S. Army, California regiment.”

           Thereby raising and attempting to raise troops in violation and contempt of the aforesaid lawful command of his superior officer, Brigadier Gen. Kearney, dated January sixteenth, eighteen hundred and forty-seven; and thereby acting in defiance of the authority and in mutiny against his superior office aforesaid, in raising and attempting to raise these troops, and in proclaiming himself to be and in assuming to act as the governor of California.

           Specification 4.-In this, that he, Lieutenant Colonel John C. Fremont, of the regiment of mounted riflemen, United States army, being in command of a battalion of mounted riflemen organized in California for the United States service, and which was placed by orders aforesaid from the secretary of war of June eighteenth, hundred and forty-six, under command of Brigadier General Kearney, did, at Ciudad de los Angeles, California, on the seventh day of February, eighteen hundred and forty-seven, write to Commodore Shubrick, commanding the United States naval forces in the Pacific, a letter in words following, to wit:

          

“Ciudad de los Angeles, February 7, 1847.

           “Sir:  I had the honor, at a late hour last night, to receive your favor of the 25th ultimo, and, fully coinciding with your opinion that you express, that a co-operation of our respective commands, as a precautionary measure at least, is of primary importance, I hasten to acknowledge its receipt, and signify to you my earnest desire to see you and consult on the measures calculated in our judgments to be most certain of making out labors conduce the interest of out government.

           “Not having had, as you remarked, and communication since your arrival on this coast with Commodore Stockton, you seem not to have been made acquainted with the fact that, by a commission from the commodore, I have been placed in command of the territory as the civil governor, which I beg leave herewith to communicate to you.

           “It is also proper to advise you that Gen. Kearney, who comes to California with instructions from the secretary of war, dated as early as June last – designed for a state of affairs which he by no means found, to wit, the country still unconquered, and which of course being intended for very different circumstances, cannot have application here – claims himself to have supreme command in California; which position I felt it is my duty to deny him, and, in language respectful but decisive of my purpose, communicated to him.

           “The subjoined reasons led me to the conclusion I adopted:  The conquest of California was under taken and completed by the joint efforts of Commodore Stockton and myself, in obedience to what we regarded paramount duties from us to our government. That done, the next necessary step in order was the organization of a civil government, designed to maintain the conquest, by the exercise of mild and wholesome civil restraints over the people rather than by the iron rule of a military force.

           “The result of our labors- which were precisely what were contemplated by the instructions of Gen. Kearney– were promptly communicated to the executive of the Union by an express, which has not yet brought back the approval of disapproval of the government. General Kearney’s instructions being, therefore, to the letter fully anticipated by others, I did not fell myself at liberty to yield a position so important to the interests of my country until after a full understanding of all the grounds, it would be the pleasure of my government that I should do so.

           “I trust the foregoing explanation will fully satisfy you that position I take is an incident to the extraordinary circumstances surrounding me, and is borne out by rigid adherence to the line of duty.

           “The insurrection which broke out here in September last, and which required a considerable force and large expenditure of money to put down, has left me in rather an embarrassed condition for funds to redeem my men, and to cancel the necessary obligations created by the quartermaster and commissariat department of the command. If, therefore, you can at and early day advance me a considerable sum of money it will tend greatly to subserve the interests of the country and relive an embarrassment which, as an officer of the government, heavily presses me.

           “I start, simultaneously with this, a courier to the United States with important dispatches, but thinking that perhaps you might with to avail yourself of so good an opportunity of forwarding dispatches, I have ordered him to remain on the boarder of the settlements until the return of my courier from you. The precise point where my courier will remain recruiting his animals being at this time unknown to me, you will please send your dispatches by the return courier to me, and I will forward them to the party homeward bound.

           “With considerations of high respect, I am, sir, your ob’t ser’y, J.C. Fremont
                     Governor of California

           “To Commodore W. Branford Shubrick,
           Commanding U.S. navel forces in the Pacific ocean, Bay of Monterey.”

Thereby continuing and reasserting his resistance of the lawful authority of his superior officer, Brigadier General Kearney, assuming to be governor of California, and endeavoring to persuade the said naval commander to support and countenance him in his mutiny against his said superior and commanding officer.

Specification 5. – In this, that he, Lieutenant Colonel John C. Fremont, of the regiment of mounted riflemen, United States army, being in command of a battalion of mounted riflemen organized in California for the United States service, and under command of Brigadier General Kearney by aforesaid orders from the war department, dated June 18, 1846, did, at Angeles, on the 11th of February, 1847, write to Willard O. Hall, in the following words, to wit:

                      “Government house, Angeles, Feb. 11, 1847.

           “To Hon. Willard P. Hall.

           “Sir: The position I occupy as the chief representative of the United States government in California renders it an imperative duty on me that I should prudently but with energy exert all the power with which I am clothed to retain the conquest with have made, and strengthen it all by all means possible.

           “The executive office of California, which I understand, centers supreme, civil and military command in the territory, was actually assigned me as early as September last, and my entering on the duties of the same was postponed only in consequences of an insurrection that broke out in this portion of the territory, which it took some months to quell; that done, I assumed the office of governor, as had been previously arranged.

           “I learn with surprise and mortification that Gen. Kearney, in obedience to what I cannot but regard as obsolete instructions from the secretary of war, means to question my right, and , viewing my position and claim clear and indisputable, I cannot, without considering myself derelict to my trust, and unworthy the station of an American officer, yield or permit myself to be interfered with by an other, until directed to do so by the proper authorities at predicated on full and ample dispatches that I forwarded to Washington as early as August of last year.

           “I require the co-operation, with a view to the important object of preserving the peace and tranquility of California, of every American citizen and solider in the territory, and must expressly inhibit from all quarters all arguments and intimidations that may trend to weaken my authority, by inducing the belief that my weaken my authority, by inducting the belief that my present position is an act of usurpation, unjust and will no be sanctioned by my government.

           “Intimidations, not perhaps susceptible of positive proof, have reached me that you were using your talents and high character as a member of the American congress, in your intercourse with the citizens of this place and the troops under my immediate command, to raise doubts, if not questioning altogether the legitimacy of validity of my tenure of office.

           “I feel myself constrained therefore, in obedience to the behest and high interests of my government, as well as respects I cherish for the position you occupy, to inquire of you in frankness whether the intimations alluded to have any foundations in fact or truth.

           “Cherishing a confident belief that you must, on reflection, concur with me in thinking that at this juncture any move calculated to weaken me, or embarrass, must be inexpedient and improper, I trust a negative answer from you will dissipate my doubts, and admonish me that the inquiry I have made was altogether unnecessary.

           “With considerations of high respect, I am your obedient servant,  J.C. Fremont

                                                                             Governor of California

           Thereby avowing and justifying his resistance and mutiny against his superior officer, Brigadier Gen. Kearney, and endeavoring to persuade and… the said Hall a person of influence in California, to aid and abet him therein, and to prevent said Hall from supporting the lawful authority of Brigadier Gen. Kearney

           Specification 6. –In this, that the, Lieutenant Colonel John C. Fremont, of the regiment of mounted riflemen, U.S. army, did, at Ciudad de los Angeles, on the second of March, eighteen hundred and forty-seven, in contempt of the lawful authority of his superior officer, Brigadier General Kearney, assume to be and to act as governor of California, in executing a deed or instrument of writing in the following words, to wit:

           “In consideration of Francis Temple having conveyed to the United States of North America a certain island, commonly called White or Bird island situated near the mouth of San Francisco Bay, 1, J.C. Fremont, governor of California, and in virtue of as the legal representative of the United States, and my successors in office, to pay the said Francis Temple, his heirs, or assigns, the sum five thousand dollars, ($5,000) to be paid as early a day as possible after the receipt of funds from the United States.

           “In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand, and have caused the seal of the territory of California to be affixed, at the Ciudad de los Angeles, the capital of California, the 2nd day of March, A. D. 1847.

                      J.C. Fremont,
                      Governor of California.

           “Attest: Wm H, Russell, secretary of state”

           Specification 7. – In this, that he Lieutenant Colonel John C. Fremont, of the regiment of mounted riflemen, U.S. army, being in command of a battalion of volunteers organized in California for the United States service, which by aforesaid orders from the war department, dated June eighteenth, eighteen hundred and forty-six, were placed under command of Brigadier General Kearney, and having been officially informed by W. Branford Shubrick, as commander-in-chief of the naval forces in the Pacific, in a letter dated U.S. ship Independence, Monterey, February twenty-three, eighteen hundred and forty-seven, in the following words, to wit: “General Kearney, I am instructed, is the commanding military officer in California, and invested by the president with the administrative functions of government over the people and territory;” and having received, on the eleventh of March, eighteen hundred and forty-seven, from Gen. Kearney, by the hands of Capt. H. S. Turner, U.S. army, a circular proclamation, in the following words, to wit:

                      Circular.

           “To all whom it may concern: Be it known, that the president of the United States, desirous to give secure to the people of California a share of the good government and happy civil organization enjoyed by the people of the United States, and to protect them at the same time from the attack of foreign foes and from internal commotions, has invested the undersigned with separate and distinct powers, civil and military, a cordial co-operation in the exercise of which, it is hoped and believed, will have the happy results desired.

           “To the commander-in-chief of the naval forces the president has assigned the regulation of the import trade; the conditions on which vessels of all nations, our as well as foreign, may be admitted into ports of the territory; and the establishment of all port regulations

           “To the commanding military officer the president has assigned the direction of the operations on land, and has invested him with administrative functions of government over the people and territory occupied by the forces of the United States.

           “Done at Monterey, capital of California, this first day of March, A.D. 1847.

                      “W. Banford Shubrick,
                                 Commander in chief of the navel forces,

                      “S. W. Kearney,
                                 Brigadier General U. States Army,
                                            And Governor of California

And having at the same time, on the eleventh day of March, eighteen hundred and forty-seven, received from Brigadier General Kearney, by the hands of Captain H.S. Turner, the following order, in terms to wit:

                      “Orders, No. 2.

                      Headquarters 10th Mil. Department,
                                 Monterey, March 1, 1847.

“I. With a view to regular payment, it is necessary that the battalion of California volunteers, now under the command of Lieut. Colonel Fremont, of the army, and stationed at Ciudad de los Angeles, if not originally mustered under the law of May 13th, and the supplement law of June 18th, 1846, should now be mustered into service under those laws. This muster will be made at once by Lieutenant Colonel Fremont. Should any men of that battalion be unwilling to continue in service under the above named laws, they will be conducted by Lieut. Colonel Fremont to Yerba Buena, via Monterey, and be there discharged.

           “III. Lieutenant Colonel P. St. G. Cooke, now in the command of the Mormon battalion, is entrusted with the supervision of the southern military district, for the protection and defense of which he will make the necessary provision, posting his command (to consist of company C, first dragoons, the Mormon battalion, and the California volunteers) at such places as he may deem most eligible.

“By order of Brig. Gen. S.W. Kearney,

“H.S. Turner,
Captain, A.A.A. General.”

Did, at Ciudad de los Angeles, on the fifteenth day of March, eighteen hundred and forty-seven, issue orders to Captain Richard Owens, in the words following, to wit:

“Ciudad de los Angeles, March 15, 1847.

“Sir: In the performance of a portion of my official duties it becomes necessary that I should visit in person the northern district of the territory, where I shall probably be detained some fifteen or twenty days, and the better to possess you of my views in my absence, and to render your authority in the mean time undoubted, I have considered it proper to issue the following orders:

“1st. You will continue with the entire battalion as San Gabriel, observing order, valiance, and exercising as much discipline as in your discretion can be prudently enforced.

2d. You will make no move whatever from San Gabriel in my absence unless to repel an actual invasion, or obey the order of any officer that does no emanate from me.

3d. You will take the best possible care of the public arms and munitions belonging to the command, and turn them over to no corps without my special order.

           4th. The general police of the garrison and strict regard to the public interest will of course, as commandant ad interim , constantly engage your best efforts.

“Very respectably, your obedient serv’t.,
           “J.C. Fremont
           Lieutenant Colonel U.S. Army, and Commander of California battalion

           To Capt. Richards Owens,
                     Acting commandant of California battalion.

Thereby himself resisting the authority and disobeying the orders of Brigadier General Kearney, as conveyed to him in the aforesaid order No. 2 of the 10th military department, by continuing in service the entire California battalion contrary to said orders; and by ordering the battalion to remain at San Gabriel, contrary to the said orders from Brigadier General Kearney to march them to Yerba Buena. – Thereby further inciting and ordering said Captain Owens, with the force of this battalion which he had placed under said Owen’s command, to disobey the order and resist the authority of any officer but himself, and specially ordering him not to surrender the arms and munitions of the battalion. In obedience to which order from Lieutenant Colonel J.C. Fremont, said Owens did , at Ciudad de los Angeles , on the 24th of March, 1847, refuse to submit to the authority of Lieut. Col. P. St. G. Cooke, appointed in the aforesaid department orders by Brigadier Gen. Kearney to command the district in which his battalion was stationed; did refuse to surrender to said Lieutenant Col. Cooke, or to permit Lieut. Col. Cooke to take possession of two howitzers, brought by the 1st dragoons from Fort Leavenworth and then at San Gabriel; which said mutiny and resistance of lawful authority by said Capt. Owens was the incitement and positive order as aforesaid of Lieutenant Colonel J. C. Fremont; not withstanding he, Lieutenant Colonel J.C. Fremont, had officially informed Captain Turner, at Pueblo de los Angeles, on the 12th day of March, 1847, that he would obey and execute the said orders of Brigadier General Kearney, to wit: 10th military department order No. 2, dated March 1, 1847.

           Specification 8. -  In this, that he, Lieut. Col. John C. Fremont, of the regiment of mounted riflemen, United States army, being in command of a battalion of volunteers organized in California for the United States service, having on the 11th day or March, 1847, received the lawful order of his superior officer, Brigadier General Kearney, to wit, the aforesaid orders No. 2, dated headquarters 0th military department, Monterey, March 1, 1847, whereby he was ordered to march such part of said battalion as refused to be mustered into service to Yerba Buena, there to be discharged, did refuse to obey said order, and did make known his refusal to Lieutenant Colonel Cooke, commanding the district in which his battalion was serving by a written communication in terms to wit:

Ciudad de los Angeles, March 16, 1847.

           “Sir: I am directed by Gov. Fremont to acknowledge a few moments since the receipt of your communication of the 14th instant, and in reply to say that the volunteers constituting the California battalion decline, without and individual exception, to be mustered into the United States service conformable to order No. 2 of the 10th military department referred to by you.

           “The Governor considers it unsafe at this time when rumor is rife with a threatened insurrection, to discharge the battalion, and will decline doing so; and, whilst they remain in service, he regards its forces quite sufficient for the protection of the artillery and ordnance stores of the mission at San Gabriel. “I am, with considerations of respect, your obedient servant,

                      WM H. Russell,
                      Secretary of State.

“To P. St. George Cooke,
           Lt. Col. Commanding mission San Louis Reg.”

Therein still assuming to be and act as governor of California, retaining in service an armed force contrary to the order of his superior officer, Brig. Gen. Kearney, and refusing  to march them according to his orders.

           Specification 9. – In this, that he, Lieutenant Col. John C. Fremont, of the regiment of mounted riflemen, United States army, being in command of a battalion of volunteers organized in California for the United States service, and under the lawful command of Brigadier General Kearney; and, having received, on the 11th of March, 1847, at Ciudad de los Angeles, as set out in the seventh specification to this charge, due and official notification from Brigadier General Kearney, and Commodore Shubrick that the president of the United States had invested General Kearney with the military command in California, and with the administration functions of government over the people and territory occupied by the forces of the United States, did, nevertheless, at Ciudad de los Angeles, on the 21st day of March, 1847, issue the following order to the collector of the port of San Pedro, in terms, to wit:

“Ciudad de los Angeles, March 21, 1847.

           Sir: Your are hereby ordered and permitted, in the case of F. Huttman, to receive government paper in payment of his customs house dues, Very Respectfully,

           J.C. Fremont
 Governor of California

                      By William H Russell
                                 Secretary of State

To David W. Alexander,
           “Collector of the Port of San Pedro.”

Thereby assuming to be and to act as governor of California, in contempt of the authority and in usurpation of the power of his superior officer; whereby the collector aforesaid did receive payment of customs the certificates of the staff officers of his battalion of Californian volunteers, to the amount of seventeen hundred and thirty-one dollars forty-one and a half cents, which paper was purchased by the holder from whom the collector was ordered to receive it at a discount of thirty per cent.

           Specification 10.- In this, the he, Lieutenant Col. John C Fremont, of the regiment of mounted riflemen, U. States army, after he had been duly informed by his superior officer, Brigadier General Kearney, that he, General Kearney, had been invested by the president of the United States with the command of the troops in California, by exhibiting to him, Lieutenant Colonel Fremont, on the 16th day of January, 1847, at Ciudad de los Angeles, the aforesaid orders from the war department, dated June 18th, 1846, did, notwithstanding, disregard and set aside the lawful authority of said superior officer, and did himself usurp and exercise the functions of said  superior officer in the following official acts and matters, to wit:

           First. In ordering a general court martial at Ciudad de los Angeles, on the 24th of January, 1847, by his own authority, and in the order proclaiming himself to be and assuming to act as “the military commander in-chief of California.

Second. In publishing a general order at Ciudad de los Angeles, on the 25th  day of January, 1847, in which he, Lieutenant Colonel John C. Fremont, is styled “the military commander-in chief of California.”

Third. In approving, at Ciudad de los Angeles, on the 27th of January, 1847, the proceedings of a general court martial, called as aforesaid by his order of January 24, 1847, by which court martial private George Smith, of the California volunteers, was sustenance to twenty-two months at hard labor, and Lieut. Roch sentenced to be cashiered; and in declaring himself to be, and in assuming said proceedings, as “the governor of California.”

Fourth. In accepting, by a general order published at Angeles, on the 13th of February, 1847, the resignation of the following commissioned officers of the California battalion of volunteers, to wit: Capt. H. L. Ford, Captain Samuel Gibson, Capt. Winham Findlay, Lieutenants W. Baldridgem Rhensaw, W. Blackburn, J. Scott, J. R. Barton, and J. M. Hadspeth, in contempt and violation of the aforesaid order, dated 16th of January, 1847, which he had received from Brig. Gen. Kearney, at Ciudad de los Angeles, on the 16th day of January, 1847.

           Specification 11. – In this, that he, Lieutenant Col. John C. Fremont, of the regiment of mounted riflemen, United States army, did fail to obey the order of Brig. General Kearney, to repair to Monterey, as communicated to him verbally by Brig. Gen. Kearney, on the 26tg day of March, 1847, and repealed to him in writing on the 28th of March, 1847, in the words following, to wit:

           “Headquarters 10th Military Department,

                      Monterey, California, March 28th, 1847.

           “Sir: This will be handed to you by Col. Mason, 1st dragoons, who goes to the southern district clothed by me, with full authority to give such orders and instructions in that section of country as he may deem proper and necessary. Any instructions he may give to you will be considered as coming from myself.

           “I deem it proper to suggest to you that, should there be at Pueblo any unsettled accounts or demands against the government, incurred by your orders or approval, which you may not have already authenticated and completed for the action of the disbursing officers, you at once do so, as it may be necessary for you to proceed from here to Washington city; and should there be any of the party which accompanied you from Missouri still with you, and under pay from the Topographical department, you will cause them to come to… place, that they may be returned, and discharged, and be of no further expense to the United States, unless they prefer being discharged at once in the country.

           “In twelve days … volunteers at San Pedro… you in this place.

           “Very respectfully, your obedient serv’t
                                 S.W. Kearney,
                      Brig. Gen. and Governor of California

“Lieut. Col. J.C. Fremont,
           Regiment of mounted riflemen,
                      Commanding battalion of California volunteers.”

But did remain at Ciudad de los Angeles, until after the arrival there of Brig. Gen. Kearney, on the 9th of May, 1849, and till the order was then there verbally repeated to him.

Charge II. – Disobedience of the Lawful Commands of His Superior Officer.

           Specification 1. – In this, that he, Lieut. Colonel John. C. Fremont, of the regiment of mounted riflemen, United States army, being in command of a battalion of volunteers, organized in California for the United Stated service, having received the lawful command of his superior officer, Brigadier General S. W. Kearney, in the following words, to wit:

Headquarters Army of the West,

Ciudad de los Angeles, January 16, 1846.

           “By direction of Brigadier General Kearney, I send you a copy of a communication to him from the secretary of war, dated June 18, 1846, in which is the following: “These troops, and such as many be organized in California, will be under your command.”  The general directs that no change will be made in the organized in your battalion of volunteers, or officers appointed in it, without his sanction or approval being first obtained.

           Very respectfully, WM. H. Emory
                      Lieut. And acting assistant Adjt. General.

           “To Lieut. Col J. C. Fremont,
                      Commanding battalion of California volunteers.”

And having received with this order a copy of instructions from the war department to Gen. Kearney, in the following words, to wit:

                      War Department Washington, June 18, 1846.

           “Sir: *** I have nothing of importance to ass to the dispatches which have been already forwarded to you.

           “Since my last letter it has been determined to send a small force around Cape Horn to California.

           “The arms, cannon, and previsions to be sent to the Pacific will be accompanied by one company of artillery of the regular army. Arrangements are not on foot to send a regiment of volunteers by sea.

           “These troops and such as may be organized in California will be under your command.

           More than common solicitude will be felt here in regard to the expedition committed to you, and it is desired that you should avail yourself of all occasions to inform the government of your progress and prospects.

           “The president desires your opinion, as early as you are in a situation to give it, of the practicability of your reaching California in the course of this autumn or in the early part of the next winter. I need no repeat the expression of his wishes that you should take military possession of that country as soon as it can be safely done.

           “I am, with great respect, your ob’t sev’t,
“W.L. Marcy, Secretary of war.

           “To Col. S. W. Kearney”

           Did reply to General Kearney, and his order aforesaid, in a written answer, in the following words, to wit:-

Ciudad de los Angeles. January 17, 1847.

           “Sir: I have the honor to be in receipt of your favor of last night, in which I am directed to suspend the execution of orders which, in my capacity of military commandant of this territory, I have received from Com. Stockton, governor and commander in chief of California.

           “I avail myself of an early hour this morning to make such a reply as the brief time allowed for reflection will enable me.

           “I found Commodore Stockton in possession of the country, exercising the functions of military commandant and civil governor, as early as July of last year; and shortly thereafter I received from him the commission of military commandant, the duties of which I immediately entered upon, and have continued to exercise to the present moment. I found also on my arrival at this place, some three or four days since, Commodore Stockton still exercising the functions of civil and military governor, with the same apparent deference to his rank on the part of all officers (including yourself) as he maintained and required when he assumed in July last.

           “I learned also in conversation with you that, on the march from San Diego recently to this place, you entered upon and discharged duties implying an acknowledgement of your part of supremacy to Commodore Stockton.

           “I fell myself therefore, with great deference to your professional and personal character, constrained to say that, until you and Commodore Stockton adjust between yourself the question of rank, where I respectfully thin the difficulty belongs, I shall have to report an receive orders as heretofore from the commodore.

           “With consideration of high regard,

I am sir your obedient servant,
      “J.C. Fremont, Lieut. Col.
      U.S. Army, and military commandant of the territory of California

“To Brigadier General S.W. Kearney, U. States Army.”

And did thereby refuse to obey the aforesaid lawful command of his superior officer, Brigadier General Kearney, and did thereby refuse to receive and obey any other order from him. This at Ciudad de los Angeles, on the 17th day of January, 1847, notwithstanding he had on the 13th January, 19847, officially reported his battalion Brig, General Kearney, by writing, in words following in wit:

“On the march, January 13, 1846.

           “Dear Sir: - I have the honor to report to you my arrival at this place with four hundred mounted riflemen and six pieces of artillery, including among the latter two pieces formally in the possession of the Californians.

           “Their entire force, under the command of D Andre Pico, have this day laid down their arms, and surrendered to my command.

“Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
J.C. Fremont
Lieut. Col. U.S. army and military commandant of the territory of California.

“Brig. Gen S.W. Kearney

com’g, U.S. forces Pueblo de los Angeles.”

           Specification 2.- In this, that he, Lieutenant Colonel John C. Fremont, of the regiment of mounted riflemen, U.S. army, being in command of a battalion of volunteers organized in California, which were placed by the aforesaid orders of the secretary of war, of June 18, 1846, under the command of Brigadier General Kearney, did issue and order to Capt. J.K. Wilson, at Angeles, January 25, 1847, in the following words, to wit:

“Angeles, January 25, 1847.

“Capt. J.K. Wilson, light artillery:

           Sir:- Your are hereby authorized and directed to raise a company of men to constitute the second company of artillery in the California service, and for that purpose are detached from your present command.

           “You will please report the number you may be able to enlist with as little delay as possible.

           “You are authorized to enlist the men for three months, and to promise them as compensation twenty-five dollars per month. Respectfully,

                      “J.C. Fremont,

           Lieut. Col. Commanding California forces in the U.S. service.”

           And did thereby disobey the aforesaid lawful command of his superior officer, Brig. General Kearney, dated January 16, 1847.

           Specification 3.- In this, that he, Lieutenant Colonel John C. Fremont, of the regiment of mounted riflemen, U.S. army, being in command of a battalion of volunteers organized in California, which were placed by the aforesaid orders of the secretary of war, of June 18, 1846, under the command of Brigadier General Kearney, did at Ciudad de los Angeles, California, on the 5th day of February, 1847, issue an order to Louis McLane, a passed midshipman in the United States navy, in the following words, to wit.

Ciudad de los Angeles, February 5, 1847.

           “Sir, I feel it my duty, as the representative of the United States government in California, to instruct you to proceed forthwith north, as far as in your discretion may seem necessary, and exercise your best efforts in enlisting troops for the term of six months, compensation to be $- per month, to be employed in the service of the United States and at such points in the territory of California as in my judgment they are most required. Your are further more instructed to proceed as far as the town of Yerba Buena, on the San Francisco Bay, and examine diligently into the state of the navel or military defense of that town, and particularly to inquire into the best means of fortifying the mouth of the bay, against the ingress of all enemies, and I particularly recommend to you to cause to be forthwith commenced the erection of a fort or battery on White Island, calculated when completed to prevent the entrance of any ship or vessel that may be forbidden to do so by the United States.

           “To enable you to carry into effect the foregoing instructions, you are hereby authorized and required to call on all officers under my command to extend to you any assistance of money, men, or property that in your judgment may be necessary fully to accomplished the same

“In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and affixed my seal, at the capital of California, this date before written

           “J. C. Fremont,
           Governor of California.

           “Attest: Wm H Russell, Secretary of State.

           “To Major Louis McLane,
           U.S. Army, California regiment.”

And did thereby disobey the aforesaid lawful command of his superior officer, Brigadier General Kearney, dated January 16, 1847.

           Specification 4.- In this, that he, Lieutenant Colonel John C. Fremont, of the regiment of mounted riflemen, U.S. army, being in command of a battalion of volunteers organized in California, which by aforesaid orders, from the war department, dated June 18, 1846, were placed under the command of Brigadier General Kearney, and having been officially informed by W. Branford Shubrick, as commander-in-chief of the navel forces in the Pacific, in a letter dated U.S. ship Independence, Monterey, February 23, 1847, in the following words, to wit: “General Kearney, I am instructed, is the commanding  military officer in California, and invested by the president with the administrative functions of government over the people and territory;” and having received, on the 11th March, 1847, from Gen. Kearney, by the hands of Captain H.S. Turner, U.S. army, a circular proclamation in the following words, to wit:

                      “Circular.

“To all whom it may concern: Be it known, that the president of the United States, desirous to give secure to the people of California a share of the good government and happy civil organization enjoyed by the people of the United States, and to protect them at the same time from the attack of foreign foes and from internal commotions, has invested the undersigned with separate and distinct powers, civil and military, a cordial co-operation in the exercise of which, it is hoped and believed, will have the happy results desired.

           “To the commander-in-chief of the naval forces the president has assigned the regulation of the import trade; the conditions on which vessels of all nations, our as well as foreign, may be admitted into ports of the territory; and the establishment of all port regulations

           “To the commanding military officer the president has assigned the direction of the operations on land, and has invested him with administrative functions of government over the people and territory occupied by the forces of the United States.

           “Done at Monterey, capital of California, this first day of March, A.D. 1847.

“W. Banford Shubrick,
Commander in chief of the navel forces,

“S. W. Kearney,
Brigadier General U. States Army,
And Governor of California

And having at the same time, on the eleventh day of March, eighteen hundred and forty-seven, received from Brigadier General Kearney, by the hands of Captain H.S. Turner, the following order, in terms to wit:

“Orders, No. 2.
Headquarters 10th Mil. Department,
Monterey, March 1, 1847.

“I. With a view to regular payment, it is necessary that the battalion of California volunteers, now under the command of Lieut. Colonel Fremont Of the army; and stationed at the Ciudad-de los Angeles, if not originally mustered under the law of May 13, and the supplemental law of June 18, 1846, should be now mustered into service under those laws. This muster will be made at once by Lieut. Col. Fremont. Should any men of the battalion be unwilling to continue in service under the above named laws, they will be conducted by Lieut. Col. Fremont to Yerba Buena, via Monterey, and be there discharged.

           “III. Lieut. Col. P. St. G. Cooke, no in command of the Mormon battalion, is entrusted with the supervision of the southern military district, for the protection and defense of which he will make the necessary provision, posting his command (to consist of company C 1st dragoons, the Mormon battalion, and the California volunteers) at such places as he may deem for eligible.

“By of Brig. Gen. S. W. Kearney,
“H.S. Turner,
Captain A. A. A. General”

Did, at Ciudad de los Angeles, on the 15th day of March, 1847, issue orders to Captain Richard Owens, in the words following, to wit: “Ciudad de los Angeles, March 10, 1847

“Sir: ”In the performance of a portion of my official duties, it becomes necessary that I should visit in person the northern district of the territory, where I shall probably be detained some fifteen to twenty days; and the better to possess you of my views in my absence, and to render you authority in the mean time undoubted, I have considered it proper to issue the following orders:

           “1st. You will continue, with the entire battalion at San Gabriel, observing order, vigilance, and exercising as much discipline as in your discretion can be prudently enforces.

           “2d. You will make no move whatever from San Gabriel in my absence, unless to repel an actual invasion, or obey the order of any officer that does not emanate from me.

           “3d. You will take the best possible care of the public arms and munitions belonging to the command, and turn them over to no corps without my special order.

           “4th. The general police of the garrison, and strict regard to the public interest will, of course, as commandant ad interim, constantly engage your best efforts.

           “Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

                                                                                                              J. C. FREMONT,

                                                                             Lieut. Col. U.S. army and

                                            Commandant of California battalion.

           “To: Capt. RICHARD OWENS,

                                 Acting Commandant California Battalion.”

           And did, thereby disobey the lawful command of his superior officer, Brigadier General Kearney, as conveyed to him in the aforesaid order No. 2, of the 10th military department, by continuing in service the whole California battalion contrary to said orders, and by ordering the battalion to remain at San Gabriel, contrary to said orders from Brigadier Gen. Kearney to march them to Yerba Buena, notwithstanding he, Lieut. Col. John C. Fremont, Had officially Captain Turner, at Pueblo de los Angeles on the twelfth of March, eighteen hundred and forty-seven, that he would obey and execute the said orders of Brig. Gen. Kearney, to wit: Order No. 2 of the 10th military department, dated March one, eighteen hundred and forty-seven.

           Specification 5. -In this, that he, Lieut. Colonel J. C. Fremont, of the regiment of mounted riflemen, U.S. army, being in command of a battalion of volunteers organized in California for the U. States service, having, on the eleventh day of March, eighteen hundred and forty-seven, received t he lawful order of his superior officer, Brig. Gen. Kearney, to wit: the aforesaid orders, No. 2, dated headquarters 10 military department, Monterey, March first, eighteen hundred and forty-seven, whereby he was ordered to march such part of said battalion as refused to be mustered into service to Yerba Buena, there to be discharged, did refuse to obey said order, and did make known his refusal to Lieut. Colonel Cooke, commanding the district in which his battalion was serving by a written communication in terms, to wit:

                                            “Ciudad de los Angeles, March 16, 1847

“Sir:  I am instructed by Gov. Fremont to acknowledge a few moments since the receipt of your communication of the 14th instant, and to say, in reply, that the volunteers constituting the California battalion declining, without an individual exception, to be mustered into the U. States service conformable to Order No. 2 of the 10th military department, referred to by you.

           “The governor considers it unsafe at this time, when rumor is rife with a threatened insurrection to discharge the battalion, and will decline doing so; and, whilst they remain in service, he regards his force quite sufficient for the protection of the artillery and ordnance stores at the mission of San Gabriel.

           “I am, with considerations of respect, you obedient servant.

                                 “WM. H. RUSSELL, Secretary of state.

           “To P. St. Geo. Cooke.

                      Lieut. Col. Com’g Mission San Louis Reg.”

Specification 6. –In this, Lieutenant Colonel John C. Fremont, of the regiment of mounted riflemen, U.S. army, after he had been duly informed by his superior officer, Brigadier General Kearney, that he, Brigadier General Kearney, had been invested by the president of the United States with the command of the troops in California, by exhibiting to him, Lieut. Col. John C. Fremont, on the sixteenth of January, eighteen hundred and forty-seven, at Ciudad de los Angeles, the aforesaid orders from the war department dated June eighteen, eighteen hundred and forty-six; and after he had duly received, on the sixteenth of January, eighteen hundred and forty-seven, the aforesaid lawful command of his superior officer, Brigadier General Kearney, on that day, to make no changes in the organization of his battalion or officers appointed in it, except with the approval of said Brigadier General Kearney, did, notwithstanding, disobey said lawful command of his superior officer, by accepting, in a general order, published at Angeles, on the thirteenth of February, eighteen hundred and forty –seven, the resignation of the following commissioned officers of the California battalion of volunteers, to wit:  Captains H. L. Ford, Samuel Gibson, Wm. Findlay,

And Lieutenants W. Baldridge Rhensaw, W. Blackburn, J. Scott, J. R. Barton, and J. M. Hudspeth.

Specification 7 –In this, that he, Lieutenant Colonel John C. Fremont, of the regiment of mounted riflemen, U.S. army, did fail to obey the order of Brigadier General Kearney, to repair to Monterey, as communicated to him verbally by said Brigadier General Kearney, on the twenty-sixty of March, eighteen hundred and forth-seven, and repeated to him in writing on the twenty-eight of March, eighteen hundred and forty-seven, in words following, to wit:

Headquarters, 10th Military Department

“Monterey, California, March 28, 1847.

           “Sir:  This will be handed to you by Col. Mason, 1st dragoons, who goes to the southern district clothed by me with full authority to give such orders and instructions upon all matters, both civil and military, in that section of country, as he may deem proper and necessary. Any instructions he may give to you will be considered as coming from myself.

           “I deem it proper to suggest to you that should there be at the Pueblo any unsettled accounts or demands against the government, incurred by your orders or approval, which you may not have already authenticated and completed for the action of the disbursing officers,” that you at once do so, as it may be necessary for you to proceed from here to Washington city, and should there be any of the party which accompanied you from Missouri still with you, and under pay from the topographical department, you will cause them to come to this place, that they may be returned home and discharged, and be of no further expense to the United States, unless they prefer being discharged at once in this country.

           “In twelve days after you have embarked the volunteers at San Pedro, I desire to see you in this place.

           “Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

                                                                                                              “S. W. Kearney,

                                            “Brig. Gen. and Governor of California,

           “Lieut. J.C. Fremont, reg’t of mounted riflemen, commanding battalion California volunteers, Ciudad los Angeles.”

But did remain at the Ciudad de los Angeles, until after the arrival there of Brig. Gen. Kearney, on the 8th of May, 1847, and till the order was then and there verbally repeated to him.

CHARGE III---CONDUCT TO THE PREJUDICE OF GOOD
ORDER AND MILITARY DISCIPLINE

           Specification 1. –In this, that he, Lieut. Col. John C. Fremont, of the regiment of mounted riflemen, United States army, being in command of a battalion of mounted riflemen, organized in California for the United States service, and placed, by orders aforesaid from the secretary of war of June 8th 1846, under command of Brig. Gen. Kearney, did at Ciudad de los Angeles, California, on the 7th February, 1847 write to Commodore Shubrick, commanding the United States naval forces in the Pacific, a letter in words as hereinbefore recited in the 4th specification to the 1 st charge, thereby officially informing said naval commander that he had refused to acknowledge the lawful authority of his superior officer, Brig. Gen. Kearney, and endeavoring to persuade said naval  commander to support and countenance him therein. This to the prejudice of good order and military discipline.

           Specification 1 –In this, that he, Lieut. Col. John C. Fremont, of the regiment of mounted riflemen, United States army, being in command of a battalion of volunteers organized in California for the U. States service, and placed under command of Brig. Gen. Kearney by aforesaid orders from the war department, dated June 18, 1846, did, at Angeles, on t he 11th of February, 1847, write to W. P. Hall in words as hereinbefore recited in the 5th specification to the 1st charge, thereby avowing his resistance of the authority of his superior officer, Brig. Gen. Kearney, and endeavoring to prevent said Hall from supporting the lawful authority of Brig. Gen. Kearney  This to the prejudice of good order and military discipline.

           Specification 3 –In this, that he, Lieut. Col. John. C. Fremont, of the regiment of mounted riflemen, United States, army, did, at Ciudad de los Angeles, on the 2d of March, 1847, in contempt of the lawful authority of his superior officer, Brig. Gen. Kearney, assume to be and act as governor of California, in executing a deed or instrument of writing in words as hereinbefore recited in the 6th specification to the 1st charge, thereby assuming and exercising the functions and authority of his superior officer, Brig. Gen. Kearney, to the prejudice of good order and military discipline.

           Specification 4 –In that, that he, Lieut. Col. John C. Fremont, of the regiment of mounted riflemen, United States army being in command of a battalion of volunteers organized in California for the U. States service, which, by aforesaid orders from the war department, Dated June 18, 1846, were placed under command of Brig. Gen. Kearney, and having been officially informed by W. Branford Shubrick, and commander-in-chief of the naval forces in the Pacific, in a letter dated U.S. ship Independence, Monterey, February 23, 1847, in the following words, to wit: “Gen. Kearney, I am instructed, in the commanding military officer in California, in invested by the president with the administrative function of government over the people and territory.” And having received on the 11th of March, 1847, from Gen. Kearney, by the hands of Capt. H. S. Turner, United States army, a circular proclamation in words as hereinbefore recited in the 7th specification to the 1st charge, did, notwithstanding, at Ciudad de los Angeles, on the 15th of March, 1847, issue written orders to Capt. Richard Owens, of the California battalion, in words as hereinbefore recited in the 7th specification to the 1st charge, thereby ordering said Owens not to obey the orders of any officer but himself. This to the prejudice of good order and military discipline.    

           Specification 5 –In this, that he, Lieut. Col. John C. Fremont, of the regiment of mounted riflemen, United States army, after he had been dully informed by his superior officer, Brig. Gen. Kearney, that he, Gen. Kearney, had been invested by the President of the United States with the command of the troops in California, by exhibiting to him, Lieut. Col. Fremont, on the 6th of January, 1847, at Ciudad de los Angeles, the aforesaid orders from the war department, dated June 18, 1846, did notwithstanding, disregard the lawful authority of said superior officer, and did himself usurp and exercise the functions of said superior officer in the several official acts and matters, to wit, as heretofore recited in the 10th specification to the 1st charge; that is to say, in ordering a general court martial at Ciudad de lost Angeles on the 24th of January, 1847, and approving at Ciudad de los Angeles, in the 27th of January, 1847, the proceedings of the court; and in accepting at Angeles, on the 13th of February, 1847, the resignations of officers in the California battalion:  all this being in usurpation of the functions and authority of his superior officer, Brig. Gen. Kearney, and to the prejudice of good order and military discipline.

           The reading of the charges being finished, the accused was called upon to plead to them.

           “Not guilty,” was the response.

           He was informed that it was his privilege to except any particular charge.

           Col. Fremont them asked to read the court the following paper.

“Mr. President: In preferring the usual request to be allowed counsel in the case, I wish to state that it is no part of my intention or desire to make deference on any legal or technical point, but only to have friendly assistance in bringing out the merits of the case in lucid and proper order, and in obtaining a full trial on the merits, in the shortest time, and with the least amount of the trouble to the courts. With this view, no objection can be made to the relevancy or legality of any question proposed by the prosecution, the court, or any member of the court: not to any question which goes to show my motives, either by words or acts, in aggravation of the offences alleged against me; not to the authenticity of any evidence, written or printed, which I know or believe to be authentic; not will any question be proposed, or motion made, on my part, knowingly, of a nature to give just ground of objection on the part of the prosecution, or to cause delay in the trial, or give trouble to the court. But this waiver of proof to authenticity of papers is made on the express condition that all the persons brought from California by Gen. Kearney as witnesses, and listed as such, with the charges, and summoned, shall be sworn on the part of the prosecution, so as to save to me my right of cross-examination.

           “In this way I hope to facilitate the progress of the trial, to get at once into the merits, to spare this court, the most unpleasant part of an unpleasant duty, and enable them the sooner to obey the feelings which call them to a very different duty.

           “I was named as the counsel asked to be allowed me the two friends who accompany me, Thomas H. Benton and William Carey Jones, Esquires.”

           The Judge Advocate here brought forward for the decision of the court applications on the part of several reporters for the press to be allowed to take notes with a view to the publication of the proceedings in the trial. Whereupon the accused offered the subjoined paper:

           “Mr. President: So far as a prohibition to publish the proceeding of the court is intended for the benefit of the accused, I do hereby renounce and waive all such benefit, and agree to the publication of everything.”

           The president now ordered the court-room to be cleared, with a view to consulting on the application submitted. This being done, the court remained with closed doors for about an hour. At it re-opening, a paper was ready by the judge advocate, in which the court, though declaring that its proceeding were open to the public, declined to take any such order as that asked for by the application, or in any matter to sanction or approve the publication of the evidence which might be disclosed in the course of the trial.

           It being now too late (near 3 o’clock PM) to enter into examination of evidence, the court was adjourned until 10 o’clock A.M. next day.
[ATT]


NNR 73.173-73.174 Nov. 13, 1847 account of the leperos

           Leperos – “nobody can tell the lepero’s occupation; God only knows how he lives. He has [the rest of this paragraph and article is too poorly microfilmed to transcribe] 
[ATT]


NNR 73.174 Nov. 13, 1847 description of the penetration of the fortress of Chapultepec

           Capt. John E. Howard, of the Voltigeurs. – It will be exceedingly gratifying to the many relatives and friends id the young and gallant officer to learn, that he has passed through the fiery ordeal of the recent terrible conflicts, and around in the city of Mexico with safety - and not only so, but with distinguished credit to himself and to his native sate, Maryland.

           Nothing has been heard directly from Capt. Howard himself, but a brother officer in the same regiment has written to his relatives in this state, from which the following short extracts have been kindly permitted to be taken. They are from a description of the storming of the Hill and Castle of Chapultepec, one of the most gallant and probably the most perilous and sanguinary contests in the whole war.

           “We rose to the crest of the hill and, amid the most weathering fire of grape and canister and the musketry of near two thousand Mexicans, planted the ladders and, with a cheer, mounted. The first man who entered alive was Captain Howard – he was followed instanter,” &c., &c.

          “The first then or fifteen inside the works met some resistance, as they fell back into the building that in the center of the works, but we charged then and there, Captain Howard of Baltimore, with his own hand killed three, and by the time, the poor devils were calling for quarters,” &.

           Well may Maryland be proud of her sons. The name and fame of one of the most distinguished soldiers of the Revolution, Col. John E. Howard, have descended upon a grandson, if whom he might well be proud and who is able to uphold both. The laurels gathered by the ancestor at Cowpens, and at Entaw, will but bloom with fresh and renewed… by the side of those plucked by his chivalrous descendants at Chapultepec and Mexico.

           The gallantry of Lieut. Tilton also of the Voltigeurs, was no less conspicuous. When about seizing the colors of his regiment, as they were falling from the hands of the mortally wounded standard bearer a partially spent ball struck him in the face, prostrating him instantly, so that all thought he was killed. In a moment, or two, however he recovered, and springing forward, after Howard, was the fifth man who entered the almost impregnable fortress alive.

           General Pillow, who was in the van, but had just been wounded severely, at the distance of a few yards, was witness to the courage and conduct of both these daring young officers.

           To those desirous of forming some idea of the nature of the fortress of Chapultepec, the Mexican West Point, and of the difficulties to be overcome in an assault upon it, we would mention that a small oil painting, taken in 1837, may be seen at the Patriot office.
[ATT]


NNR 73.174 Nov. 13, 1847 Letter from Capt. John B. Magruder

Capt. John Magruder-The Charlottesville, (Va.) Advocate, publishes the subjoined extract of a letter from the gallant Capt. J.B. Magruder, who married in Baltimore, where his family now reside. Capt. M. is a native of Port Royal, Caroline County, (Va.) The Charlottesville Jeffersonian says, that Capt. Geo A. Magruder, of the U.S. Navy, a brother of an army officer, is now in that town on a visit to his relatives, having just returned from service in the Gulf of Mexico, where he has been in command of the bomb brig Vesuvius, and was stationed at Laguna as the governor of that Island. he was also engaged in the attack of Tuxpan and Tobasco, where he distinguished himself by his bravery and efficient services.

Extract of a letter from Capt. J.B. Magruder.

I was engaged in the 8th , 10th , 12th , and 13th of September, with the enemy. On the 13th , I was struck four times-knocked off my horse by a grape shot which struck me in the neck, but wounded me very slightly-enough, however, to make me faint-but I recovered in a few moments and went on in the action. I was afterwards wounded in the hand by a musket ball, but can now write. I had two horses shot, though not killed, under me, and my battery under my immediate command, repulsed five charges of the enemy's calvary and infantry. My health is pretty good, though I am thinner than usual.

We want reinforcements dreadfully.

Let us regulate the tariff of this country here and we can support our army without costing the United States a cent. Every battle we have fought, from Palo Alto to the last, has been a forlorn hope. The Mexicans cannot make peace with a corporal guard. They are ashamed to do it, and hence them smallness of out army encourages the war; we will get no peace; less now than ever. I have not heard from home for two months. here we never part with our swords and pistols for a moment as assassinations are in every corner and in every house.
[KAS]


73.176 Nov. 13, 1847 Health of the Army

LATEST FROM MEXICO.

The steamship New Orleans, Capt. Auld, arrived at N. Orleans on the 4th inst. having left Vera Cruz on the 1 st .

The British courier arrived at Vera Cruz on the 31 st of October, having left Mexico on the 29th , to which date we have letters and papers.

Gen. Lane entered Puebla on the 13th Oct. with 3,000 men and six pieces of artillery--so says a dispatch of Santa Anna. The latter could effect nothing against him on the Pinal.

Gen. Patterson's command was to leave Vera Cruz on the 2d inst. It will be composed of at least 5,000 men. The Texan Rangers go up with him.

Gen. Smith has been appointed governor of the city of Mexico. Gen. Quitman is about to return to the U. States. Gen. Shields, Capt. Philip Kearney, Captain Davis, Lieut. Kiger and other officers, will accompany him.

From the Durango Journal, of the 14th ult., is derived the information that the U.S. frigate Portsmouth arrived in the waters of Mazatlan on the 22d of September, from Monterey, in California.--The United States squadron, consisting of the frigates Congress, Deale, the Cyane, and a transport, left Monterey on the 1 st of September, for Mazatlan and San Blas, and for those of Guaymas and Acapulco.

The health of the army is far from being good--The climate of the valley of Mexico is not, as it appears, congenial to the constitutions of the south. It is just as enervating and fatal to our southern, as is that of Vera Cruz to the northern constitutions. The effective force of the entire army is reduced ten or fifteen per cent.

The city of Mexico was filled with rumors of peace. It was said that a quorum had met at Queretaro, and that the majority decided in favor of an amicable adjustment of difficulties.

The train which is to come down will be under the command of Col. Harney. A great number of wounded officers are to accompany.

Major Gaines, Capt. Cassius M. Clay, Capt. Heady, Maj. Borland, Capt. Danley and Midshipman Rogers come home, and we are happy to add our associate, Mr. Kendall.

Mr. Bankhead, the British minister, arrived at Vera Cruz on the 30th ult., and was received with military honors.
[JNA]


NNR 73.176 Nov. 13, 1847 Deaths, death of Capt. Walker, Huamantla, guerrillas

Deaths-Lt. E.B. Daniels, 2d. art. of wounds; Lt. Steen, of South Carolina regiment, of wounds, Capt. Huddleston 11th inf. of a bowel complaint on the 11th ; Col. Roberts, assist. surg. 5th inf. of wound received at King's Mill died on 12th ; sergeant Sutliffe, of riffles, assassinated on the 15th , assistant surgeon Treadwell, of vomito at Vera Cruz on 24th .

A long list of officers have received leave of absence and will shortly have returned to the U. States.

Death of Capt. Walker.-Gen. Lane having arrived at Perote was there joined by Capt. Walker and his command, and both advance together on the Puebla road until they reached the town of Vreves.

At this place Capt. Walker, by order of the commanding General, took up his line of march to Huamantla. On his arrival at Huamantla a sanguinary engagement ensued in the streets, between the forces of Capt. Walker, consisting of 250 men, and that of the Mexicans numbering 1,600, the result of which was the total expulsion of the enemy from the town, and its occupation by our valiant little army.

But the gallant Walker, after performing prodigies of valor and feate of the most daring character, fell in a single combat, pierced by the spear of an enraged father, who, goaded to actual frenzy by the death of this son, whose fall beneath the arm of Capt. Walker he had just witnessed, rushed forward, heedless of all danger, to avenge his death, and attacking the captain with almost irresistible violence, plunged his spear into his body, and slew him almost instantly.

The Mexicans last two hundred mean and three pieces of artillery. The latter were thrown into a gullery in the rear of the town by the visitors, who, after the achievement of their object, the dispersion of the guerrillas, for which they were dispatched to Huamantla, evacuated the place, and directed their course towards Pinal, on the Puebla road, which they reached without any opposition, and there meeting with Gen. Lane again, the combined American force continued its march upon Puebla.

Into this city, which was in a state of insurrection, it entered in platoons, delivering at ever step a constant and well directed fire of musketry, which ceased not until the enemy retreated and order was restored in every quarter.

Gen. Rea, of whom we have heard so much of late, fled with 400 guerrillas towards Atlixco. Gen. Santa Anna was, by last accounts, at Tehuacan de las Grandes, having been deserted by all his followers except about 200.

The Delta also says: "Our correspondent, writing at a later date than the 25th ult. gives the following account of the death of Capt. Walker: "The death of Capt. Walker is fully confirmed by a later arrival. It is stated that he was shot by a cannon ball from a masked battery, about 12 miles from the main road, at a point 16 leagues from Puebla. The ball also killed Capt. Loyall, of the Georgia mounted company, and eleven men are also reported to have been killed in the same action."

Atlixco has been taken possession of by 1,000 of our forces. This large city has wisely yielded, without the least resistance. Orizaba is, also, by this time, in possession of the American forces.

The Mexican government has superceded Santa Anna in the command of the army. Gen. Rincon has been appointed to that office. Santa Anna loudly protested against the violation of his rights as the first magistrate of the nation, and, refusing obedience to the government, retires Tehuacan. Gen. Scott and staff have lately visited the city of Guadalupe. Gen. Almonte reached Queretaro on the 7th ult.
[KAS]


NNR 73.176 Nov. 13, 1847 Gen. Robert Patterson's command to leave Veracruz

           Gen. Patterson’s command was to leave Vera Cruz on the 2nd inst. It will be composed of at least 5,000 men. The Texan Rangers go up with him.
[ATT]


NNR 73.176 Nov. 13, 1847 Gen. Persifor Frazer Smith appointed governor of Mexico City

          Gen. Smith has been appointed governor of the city of Mexico. Gen Quitman is about to return to the U. States. Gen Sheilds, Capt. Philip Kearney, Captain Davis, Lieut. Kiger and other officers, will accompany him.
[ATT]


NNR 73.176 Nov. 13, 1847 deaths of various officers noted

          Deaths – Lt. E. B. Daniels, 2d art. Of wounds; Lt. Steen, of South Carolina regiment, of wounds, Capt. Huddleston 11th inf. Of a bowel complaint on the 11th; Col. Roberts, assit. Surg. 5th inf. Of wound received at Kings Mill died on 12th; Sergeant Suthffe, of riles, assassinated on the 15th, assistant surgeon Treadwell, of vomito at Vera Cruz, on the 24th.
[ATT]


NNR 73.176 Nov. 13, 1847   account of the fighting at Huamantla, death of Capt. Samuel Hamilton Walker

          Death of Captain Walker. – Gen. Lane having arrived at Perote was there joined by Capt. Walker and his command, and both advanced together on the Puebla road until they reached the town of Vreves.

           At this place Capt. Walker, by order of the commanding General, took up his line of march to Huamantla, by way of the towns of San Francisco and Guapastla. On his arrival at Huamantla a sanguinary engagement ensued in the streets, between the forces of Capt. Walker, consisting of 250 men, and that of the Mexicans, numbering 1,660, the result of which was the total expulsion of the enemy from the town, and its occupation by our valiant little army.

           But the gallant Walker, after performing prodigies of valor and feats of the most daring character, fell into a single combat, pierced by the spear of an enraged father, who, goaded to actually frenzy by the death of his son, whose fall beneath the arm of Capt. Walker he had just witnessed, rushed forward, heedless of all danger, to avenge his death, and attacking the captain with almost irresistible violence, plunged his spear into his body, and slew him almost instantly.

           The Mexicans lost two hundred men and three pieces of artillery. The later were thrown into a gully in the rear of the town by the victors, who, after the achievement of their object, the dispersion of the guerrillas, for which they were dispatched to Huamantla, evacuated the place and directed their course towards Pinal, on the Puebla road, which they reached without any opposition, and there meeting with Gen. Lane again, the combined American force continued its march upon Puebla.

           Into this city, which was in a state of insurrection, it entered its platoons, delivering at every step a constant and well directed fire of musketry, which ceased not until the enemy retreated and order was restored in every quarter.

           Gen. Rea, of whom we have heard so much of late, fled with 400 guerrillas toward Atlixco. Gen. Santa Anna was, by last accounts, at Tehuacan de las Granades, having been deserted by all his flowers except about 200.

           The Delta also says:  “Our correspondent, writing at a later date than the 25th ult., gives the following account of the death of Capt. Walker:  “The death of Capt. Walker is fully confirmed by a later arrival. It is stated the he was shot by a cannon ball from a masked battery, about 12 miles from the main road, at a point 16 leagues from Puebla. The ball also killed Capt. Loyall, of the Georgia mounted company, and eleven men are also reported to have been killed in the same action.
[ATT]


NNR 73.176 Nov. 13, 1847 Atlixco taken, Orizaba believed taken

          Atlixco has been taken possession of by 1,000 of our forces. This large city has wisely yielded, without the least resistance. Orizaba is, also, by this time, in possession of the American forces.
[ATT]


NNR 73.176 Nov. 13, 1847 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna suspended as head of the Army

          The Mexican government has superceded Santa Anna in the command of the army. Gen Rincon has been appointed to that office. Santa Anna loudly protested against the violation of his rights as the first magistrate of the nation, and, refusing obedience to the government, retires to Tehuacan.
[ATT]


NNR 73.177 Nov. 20, 1847 Gen. Winfield Scott's dispatches reach Washington, "Union"'s notice of them

          General Scott’s Official Dispatches. We commence in this number the publication of dispatches at length, received at Washington from the commander-in-chief of our armies in Mexico, detailing the operations before, and the final capture of the city of Mexico.

           The Washington “Union” of the 13th, from which the first order of these dispatches are extracted, publishes a letter from Mr. Penn, the postmaster at New Orleans, which says: “The channel through which the dispatches arrived at New Orleans is not understood. No dispatches were received though the same mail by the other departments, nor have the other reports referred to by Gen. Scott in his letter, reached the adjutant general.”

           The Union adds: “By this mail I forward you some public documents which I believe to be important from the army in Mexico. They were brought to this city by Mr. Hays, one of the editors of the Delta. It seems they were forwarded to Vera Cruz by some private conveyance, and brought by him from that place to New Orleans. The editors of the Delta deserve the thanks of the government.”

           The Union of the 15th, in which the subsequent package of dispatches appears, appends the following editorial:

           “The official dispatches. We lay before our readers the second budget of dispatches which have been forwarded by Gen. Scott, and received by the secretary of war, on Friday night, with the exception of four reports Cols. Harney and Riley, Maj. Summer, and Captain Huger, and the list killed and wounded. These we shall layover for the “Union” of to-marrow evening.

           “In addition to these dispatches, a very late letter ( being a duplicate sent the 29th of October) from Gen. Scott to the secretary of war, dated “Headquarters of the army, Mexico, October 27,” was received on Saturday evening. It is very brief. He states that he encloses “two very interesting reports made to (him) from below: 1. From Col. Childs, governor and commander at Puebla, dated the 13th distant, detailing the defense of that place, which, though highly arduous, gallant, and triumphant, has not exceeded what was expected at the hands of that excellent commander, his officers and men. 2. from Brig. Gen. Lane, dated at Puebla, the 18th, giving a brief account of a brilliant and successful affair between him and a body of the enemy at Huamantla.”  These reports, however, have not… on to the war department.

           “The general adds: ‘After establishing the new . . . below, as indicated in my circular letter of instructions, (of October 13,) I hope to have the means of occupying Atlixco, some 18 miles from Puebla, and Toluca, the state capital of Mexico, 40 miles hence, and perhaps Orizaba; but probably shall not attempt anymore distant expedition without further reinforcements, or until I shall have received the views of the department of the plans submitted in my report.’

           “The last reports in the newspapers are, that the general has taken the three places indicated above, and it is also certain that he has received further reinforcements.” 
[ATT]


NNR 73.177 Nov. 20, 1847 Nicholas Philip Trist said to have invited the Mexican government to a conference

          A letter, said to be from a very respectable house in the city of Mexico, dated 29th October, 1847, says:  Mr. Trist has again invited our government to new conferences. May God grant that the result of them may be peace, which we so much desire.” [We doubt Mr. Trist having so done. – Editor Nat. Reg.] 
[ATT]


NNR 73.177 Nov. 20, 1847 Re-capture of American deserters at Nassau

DESERTERS. The Nassau (New Providence) Gazette , of the 3d November, says:  "Several of the American soldiers recently wrecked have since their arrival here, made their escape to the shore and deserted. The police force have however been on the alert, and have succeeded in recapturing two of them, for which they have received sixty dollars, the amount made payable by the U.S. government, being $30 a head for each one who may be caught. We have no doubt, that those who are still on shore will be also captured by the now efficient and active police body.";
[JNA]


NNR 73.177 Nov. 20, 1847 quiet at Santa Fe, reports of assembling of Mexicans, attacks by Indians

          Santa Fe. Mr. McCoons, of St. Louis, brings Santa Fe dates to the 19th October, at which time all was quiet there, but numerous reports were in circulation of the forces assembling at El Paso and Chihuahua.

           The Indians continue to attack parties on the route. Mr. McC. Furnished details of several skirmishes. There is a great scarcity of grass on the plains and prairies, which have been burnt over as far as the eye could reach. Fire was seen every night on the Semerone. He also experienced snow storms on the route. Great suffering on the part of the men and the teams on the route are apprehended.
[ATT]


NNR 73.177 Nov. 20, 1847 Gen. Zachary Taylor's request for a leave of absence

          General Taylor. The Washington Union says.

                      It is understood that Gen. Taylor – who has been absent from his family and private business for more than two years and a half, and during the whole of that time has been engaged in the most important and arduous duties – has asked for leave of absence to return to the United States for six months.

           His letter to that effect was received by the adjutant general yesterday evening; in the course of which, Gen Taylor states that he thinks, in consequence of the present character of the war, his services may not be wanted at this time. He purposes to remove to Matamoras early this month, where he awaits the answer of the government, and expresses a desire to be in New Orleans by the 1st of Dec.

           We understand the leave of absence has been granted to him; and we have no doubt that, if events should arise to call for his services on that frontier, he will fly to place himself at the head of his gallant army.
[ATT]


NNR 73.178 Nov. 20, 1847 President James Knox Polk overrules Gen. John Ellis Wool and restores Lts. Singletary and Pender

           The Lieutenants Reinstated. - Lieuts. Singletary and Pender, who were “dishonorably discharged” by General Wool for being concerned in the late mutinous occurrences in the North Carolina regiment at Buena Vista, have been restored to their commands by order of president Polk. The Standard  quotes the words : “The order of the president in this case makes General Wool’s order of discharge null and void, and Lieut. Singletary is considered as never having been out of service.”  And a similar order has of course been given as to Lieut. Pender.

           The Raleigh Register, after a testimony to the chivalrous personal qualifications of Lieut. Singletary has the following remarks:

           “But certainly, the president has acted most improperly about this affair. We do not question his power in the premises, for as he can remove, we take it for granted that he can also restore. But would any other president have reversed the order of an officer, so high in rank as General Wool, who was on the spot at the time of the occurrences, which led to Lieut. Singletary’s discharge, and must therefore be presumed to have acted on information satisfactory to his own mind – would, we say, any other president have interfered in the matter without examining into the facts if the case, or consulting with Gen. Wool?  Mr. Polk’s conduct in this business, is a second edition, “revised and enlarged,” as we printers say, of his high handed assumption of power with regard to the mutiny in the Mecklenburg Rowan companies, last winter. It appears to us perfectly folly, to expect subordination in the army, when the president by his mere sic volo, sic jubeo, thus over rides all military rule and etiquette, and proclaims from the house tops- “I am the state!

           “We know not what steps Gen. Wool may deem it proper to take, to rebuke this interference by the executive, but we are confident Col. Paine will promptly resign his command, and return home.” 
[ATT]


NNR 73.178-179 Nov. 20, 1847 Com. Robert Field Stockton's return from California, his quarrel with Gen. Stephen Watts Kearney over authority

          California. – Return home of Commodore Stockton. The squabble for authority – and for such laurels as the conquest of California has afforded, is likely to prove edifying to the people of this republic. A trial is progressing at the seat of government which every day develops incidents worthy of attention, and for which we regret not having room in out columns for a more detailed report. The path of what passes will be given. Meantime another Richmond enters the field. Commodore Stockton, and suite reached St. Louis Mo. On the 4th inst., by an over land route from California, having been one hundred days in performing the journey. He met with some detention owing to his men being attacked by measles, but finally they arrived all in good health. On their route the Indians were occasionally troublesome. – one occasion received a slight wound from an arrow, said to have been a poisoned arrow, but no serious injury resulted.

           On arriving at St. Joseph, an invitation was given to the commodore to accept a public dinner which was declined. He embarked the day of his arrival at St. Louis, for his residence, Princeton, N. J.

           The St. Louis Republican of the 5th says:

           In a conversation with the commodore, we learned from him his determination to demand, on his arrival at Washington a full and complete investigation of all the occurrences in California, involving the conquest of that country, and the official regulations of Commodore Stockton, General Kearney, and other functionaries. As our readers are aware, many and very contradictory statements have been presented in relation to public affairs in California, and nothing but a full investigation, sifting error from misstatement, and giving to each officer the credit which his acts deserve, is likely now to satisfy the public. For this reason, we hope that the demand will be acceded to, at and early day. The conduct of out public officers in California has been strangely misrepresented and misconceived, at home, under wrong imputations of charges of official misconduct.

           Com. Stockton speaks unreservedly of his public course in California. It will be seen, by a communication which he has addressed to us, and which we publish below, that he claimed for himself the office of “commander in chief of the forces,” taking issue, on this question, with a writer in the “Californian” newspaper, who had spoken of Gen. Kearney in this relation. In regard to this publication, and to the reply of Com. Stockton, it is explained to us, that the letter from Com. Stockton was sent to the press before Gen. Kearney’s departure from California – that it was withheld from the public by the editor on the representations of Gen. Kearney; that afterwards, and when that officer had left the country, it was proposed by the editor that the letter should appear in his columns, but that Com. Stockton would not yield to his suggestion, and that it was after he had left for the states, and in opposition to his desire, that the publication was actually made.

           Com. Stockton, in the conquest of California, acted upon his own responsibility before the arrival of General Kearney, and this being the case, that the conditional powers vested in Gen. Kearney were inoperative, and that he had no authority to act as “commander in chief” in California. He assures, that Gen. Kearney, on his arrival at San Diego, did acknowledge him as commander in chief, and offered his services and aid. That after the arrival of Gen Kearney at San Diego, Com Stockton repeatedly proffered him the command of the expeditionary against Los Angeles, which Gen. Kearney declined – preferring to serve as second to Com. Stockton. That, during the expedition, in the battle of San Pasqual, and for several days after their arrival in the city of Los Angeles, General Kearney continued to recognize the commodore as commander in chief. It is even stated, that General Kearney, by letter, requested the permission of the commodore, as commander in chief, to employ a portion of the troops on a particular duty. Some days following this, Gen Kearney set up the claim of being himself the military and civil commander of the Californians. In the correspondence which followed, the commodore denied this authority, and suspended General Kearney  He asserts, that the government at Washington has sustained his view of his powers, in as much as he of major general, and that of General Kearney was only brigadier general.

           Whatever may have been the origin of the difficulties which unquestionably have attended the exercise of power in California, it is due alike to each of the officers concerned that the full inquiry should be made into all their public acts in that region, and that the people should be made acquainted with them. The necessity is the more obvious, as differences of opinion exist now which cannot be reconciled, which justice to anybody, without explanations which can only be derived from a full investigation.

                      Steamboat Meteor, Nov. 3, 1847.
           To the Editors of the Missouri Republican:

           Gentlemen: I have not yet seen the papers, but I am informed that it has been stated in yours, as well as other newspapers in the United States, that I was not “commander-in chief” of the United States forces in California, on their march from San Diego to the Ciudad de los Angeles, in January last.

           The same attempt to deprive me of that responsibility was made in California. My reply to the editor of the Californian, whom  it turned out was  the mere cat’s paw, with the accompanying letter, signed by all the staff officers then in California, settled the matter there.

           I now send the same papers to you, and request that you publish them, in the hop that they will produce the same result here.

           My respect for the government and the people of the United States, will not permit me to characterize such unworthy attempts in the manner they deserve; but those who have been guilty of misrepresentation, will not go unwhipped of justice.

           I have been forced, quite unwillingly, before the public, in self defense; and if it should be that the misstatements by which the second in command has been converted into “commander in chief”, have not arisen from any “malus animus”, but simply from a confusion of ideas on the field of battle nevertheless, I will be excused for having written on this letter without further information on the subject, because I wish that the people of Missouri, who have treated me with so much consideration and kindness, should be informed that I have nailed one falsehood to the counter, and that I intend to back up all I have said or written, or that others have said or written by my authority.

                      Faithfully, your obedient servant
                                 R.F. Stockton.
From the Californian, July 17, 1847.

                  U.S. Frigate Congress
                  Harbor of San Diego, March 10th, 1847
                 To the Editors of the Californian, Monterey
:

           Gentlemen:: In an editorial article in the Californian of the 13th February, you may find the following paragraph:

           “Commodore Stockton announced to the officers that the whole expedition was placed under the command of Gen. Kearney, himself holding his station as commander in chief of California, and the General Kearney did command the whole expedition.”

           I take the first opportunity to say to you, that the above paragraph is not true in any one of its important particulars. It is not true that I placed the whole expedition under the command of Gen. Kearney, nor did I so announce it.

           On the request of Gen. Kearney, and with the consent of Lieut. Rowan,(to whom with the consent of Lieut. Minot, who had previously held it, I had given the command only the night before,) I appointed Gen. Kearney to command the troops, and so announced it; at the same time stating distinctly, that I still retained my position as commander in chief – the word California did not pass my lips upon that occasion.

           Now Messrs. Editors, if you say that I delegated or intended to delegate my duty or authority as the director of the expedition or commander in chief of the forces, or that Gen. Kearney, or any other person but myself, exercised, or pretended to exercise, any such power or authority, from the time we left San Diego until we arrived at the Ciudad de los Angeles, there I must say to you that all such statements are false.

           But, Messrs, Editors, it id quite true that “Com. Stockton did leave San Diego at the head of the forces of his command,” and marched into the Ciudad de los Angeles in the same way.

           There are other most glaring misstatements in the editorial referred to, which no doubt in due season will be corrected. In the meantime, go on.

                      “Sic itur ad astra.”
           Your obedient servant, R.F. Stockton

P.S. This communication has been delayed, in the hope that I could be at Monterey before this time.

                      San Diego, 9th March, 1847

           Sir: In answer to your letter from the 8th inst, we the Ciudad de los Angeles, was conceived and fitted out by Commodore Stockton, and commanded by cogence from its conception, to its successful termination at the Ciudad de los Angeles.

           Commodore Stockton gave all orders and directions during the march, compartting with dignity of commander in chief, and all flags of truce were referred to him (Commodore Stockton) as commander in Chief and Governor of California.

           We considered Gen. Kearney as second in command of the time we left San Diego to the termination of the expedition, and we believe he was so considered by all of the officers of the expedition.

           With the highest regard
S.C Rowan, Lieut. U.S.N
and Major George Minor, Lieut U.S.N,
and Q.M J. Zeilin, 1st Lieut. and Brevet Captain, and Adj’t of the battalion.

           W. Speiden, Purser U.S.N. and com’y

           I beg leave further to add that the tactics used in this expedition, were the same as those introduced and practiced on the first march from San Pedro for Gen. Castro’s camp, in August last, when California was conquered by the forces under the command of Commodore Stockton. J.Zeilin, 1st Lieut. and Brevet Captain, and Adj,t U.S. Forces.

           We certify that the above is true copy of the original,
                      T.P. Green, Lieut.
                      S. Mosely, Surgeon

           I fully concur in the above statement, as I know them all to be true from my own personal knowledge, having carried orders from commodore Stockton, as commander in chief, to Gen. Kearney, as second in command; besides, during our march from San Diego to the Ciudad de los Angeles, Gen. Kearny told me himself, that he considered Com. Stockton as commander in chief.

Archi H. Gillespie
1st Lieut. Marine corps., late Major California Battalion of Mounted Riflemen.

[ATT]


NNR 73.179 Nov. 20, 1847 California tranquil, activities and distribution of troops

          A Letter to the editor of the Albany Argus, from and officer in Col. Stevenson’s regiment, dated Pueblo des los Angeles, California, June 22, 1847, represents the country as being tranquil, and that nothing of importance had transpired there if importance since Gen. Kearny had left there for the U. States. Some of the Californians who had left there for Sonoria, were returning, with deplorable accounts of the condition of the country, in consequence of which, says the writer, many respectable families at Sonoria were making arrangements to remove to California, from a conviction that they will be sure of a permanent and good government under the American flag. The letter says:

           “We have now at this post nearly completed a strong fortress. It has been erected by the troops on a hill that commands the town and the surrounding country. This, of course, will effectually suppress any attempt at insurrection, as every effort must inevitably involve all engaged in it, in a common calamity.

           The Mormon force here and at San Diego, consists of about 360 men. Their term of service expirers on the 16th of July. They have been invited to re-enter the service for another year. But at present there is not much prospect of their doing so. – This is extremely to be regretted, for they are a… , quiet and peaceable set of men, submitting without resistance or a murmur to the severest discipline, and altogether a most useful and efficient body of men.

           The regiment of New York volunteers is now very much scattered – being distributed among different posts from Sutter’s Settlement, on the Sacramento, to La Paz, in lower California – a distance of 1509 miles. The regiment will never probably be together again while in service. They will dearly earn all they receive from the government. The… of American industry and enterprise is plainly to be seen wherever our troops are stationed. Brieks are burned, ovens chimneys erected, saw-mills put in operation, and comfortable houses constructed wherever timber can be had. Watchers and… too, are sent to these stations from a distance of 50 miles, to be repaired; cloths brought to be made into clothing, leather to be made into boots and shoes – and at one of the posts, a tannery has been established – and at Monterey two of the N.Y. volunteers, who are employed by the commissary, have opened a stall at which beef, lamb, veal, and mutton can be purchased, dressed in Fulton market style. – They are doing remarkably well, and even the inhabitants who have been in the habit of slaughtering a bullock in the streets for their own use are abandoning the habit and patronizing the New York brothers.

           These are specimens of what is going forward here in the way of civilization and improvement under the sway of the United States government and its arms. …do well here who choose to help themselves and become useful. But I have no more time to write.

          Position of the troops &c.- We find the following statements as reported by those arrived overland with Commodore Stockton.

           At Sonoma- Capt. Brackett’s company, Stevenson’s regiment.

           At San Francisco – Maj. Hardin commanding, with two companies of Col. Mason military and civil governor – company F., 3d regiment of artillery. Lts. Sherman, Loeson, and Minor. Capts. Naglee and Shannon’s companies of N.Y. volunteers, Stevenson’s.

           At Santa Barbra, Capt. Lippe’s company N. York volunteers.

           At the Crudad de los Angeles, Col. Stevenson and two companies of his regiment; company c, 1st dragoons, Lieut. Smith commanding, Lieuts. Davidson and Stevenson. And Asst’t. Surgeon John Griffin.

           Four companies of Mormon volunteers were discharged July 16th . A considerable number then were passed by Com. Stockton’s party on their return to the United States for their families to take them to the new settlement at Salt Lake. At San Diego, one company of Mormon volunteers; since discharged.

           One bastion of the fort at Monterey was early done, then guns were mounded, and on the 4th of July a salute was fired from it.

           The country quiet. Few merchants were upon the coast with goods, a supply was much wanted, particularly coffee, tea, sugar, dry goods, and tools for agriculture

Te Louisville Journal says: “Com. Stockton arrived at St. Joseph, Mo., on the 26th ult., with and escort of 45 men, commanded by Major Gillespie; left Sacramento valley July 19th; journey across very pleasant, had but two days rain; saw many Indians upon the road from California to the Missouri; met large numbers of emigrants for Oregon and California; 1,172 wagons passed Fort Laramie for the west, 140 of which were Mormons on their road to the new Zion, at the Great Salt Lake.”

In the commodores’ suit we find named Lieut. Wm. H. Thompson, U.S.N., Major Arch’d. H. Gillespie, and Capt. Saml. J. Hensley, Mr. J. Parker Norris, and Mr. Wm. Simmons. They accompany the commodore on to the seat of government.
[ATT]


NNR 73.180 Nov. 20, 1847 difficulties of raising volunteers in Loco-Foco Alabama

          Alabama. - Proclamation - Gov. Martin has just issued his third proclamation calling on the war patriots to volunteer and fill up the five companies required of that state some six months ago. Only one company has yet been raised in that thorough loco-foco state, from which it seems that the locofocos greatly prefer to talk against Mexico to fighting against her. Where are the locofoco editors and demagogues of Alabama who have written and talked so much of the justice of this war, and of the duty of all patriots to volunteer their service in it? – There are enough of them to form a regiment, but these persons refuse to enlist, not withstanding it is their duty to do so according to their own doctrine.
[ATT]


NNR 73.180 Nov. 20, 1847 Skirmish at the National Bridge

WAR WITH MEXICO.

SKIRMISH AT THE NATIONAL BRIDGE, SPET. 9.

A letter from a member of the Maryland regiment, dated National Bridge, Oct. 19th says:

"When within four hundred yards of the fort, we at once commenced throwing round shot and shells. Just before our cannon made a break at them,  the Mexicans could be seen waving their swords from the ramparts. They left, however, very suddenly the moment the first shell struck near him. Just at this time an order passed down the line for Captains Brown, Barry and Dolan's companies to take position upon the left. Headed by mjor Kenley, we soon entered the chaparral, and after tugging and climbing the rocks and grape vines for about three hours, we obtained our position, and were soon formed into line of battle. An order was then given to charge. Our men did so with a tremendous shout, and soon gained the ramparts, in time to see the enemy scampering over the hills with the utmost precipitancy. The hill upon which the fort is situated is about 600 feet from the base.

"I see it stated in one of the Baltimore papers that Gen. Lane took possession of this place. Such is not the fact. Gen. Lane did not arrive till we had been there three weeks. He reviewed us several times and then moved on."

Officers--In another part of his letter the writer remarks:--"The appointment of Lt. Col. Hughes as colonel of the regiment has just been read to us on parade. I presume Major John R. Kenly will be made lieut. Colonel. A more popular appointment with the regiment could not be made. The major is the most popular man out here, and the officers of the regiment all go in for him. It is thought that we will leave for Jalapa in the course of two weeks."[JNA]


NNR 73.180-181 Nov. 20, 1847 Incidents and actors in the campaign

INCIDENTS AND ACTORS IN THE CAMPAIGN.A father's life saved by his son.--Among the deserters tried and sentenced to be hung at Mexico, was a man named Edward McHenry, of the 4th artillery. Gen. Scott, as commander-in-chief-, had the power to approve or disapprove the sentence of the court. In passing on that of McHenry, the general made these remarks:  "A like remission [from hanging] is made in the case of Edward McHenry, company G, out of consideration for a son, a private in the same company, who has remained faithful to his colors."[JNA]


NNR 73.181 Nov. 20, 1847 voting for governor among Pennsylvania volunteers at Perote in Mexico

          Pennsylvania election at Perote . - By a late act of the Pennsylvania legislature, the volunteers from that state, now serving in Mexico, are entitled to vote for state officers at the time of a general election. – On the 12th of October, a poll was opened at Perote, and the Pennsylvania volunteers, in garrison there, exercised the right to suffrage, at the close of the vote stood for governor: Francis R Shunk, 66; James Irwin, 20. For canal commissioner: Morris Longstreth, 66, G. W. Patton, 19; Robert H. Morton, 1. [ATT]


NNR 73.181-184 Nov. 20, 1847  Gen. Winfield Scott's force at Mexico, his official report on the battles of Contreras and Churubusco

Battles of Contreras and Churubusco

Report of Major General Scott

[No. 31]
Headquarters of the Army
San Augustin, Acapulco Road,
9 miles from Mexico, August 19, 1847

           Sir:  Leaving a competent garrison at Puebla, this army advanced upon the capital as follows: -Twiggs’s division preceded by Harney’s brigade of cavalry, the 7th; Quitman’s division of volunteers, with a small detachment of United States marines, the 8th ; Worth’s division, the 9th; and Pillow’s division the 10th -all in the month. On the 8th I overtook and then continued with the leading division. The crops were at no time beyond five hour or supporting distance apart; and, on descending into the basin of the capital, (seventy-five miles from Puebla, (they became more closely approximated about the head of Lake Chalco, with Lake Tescueo a little in front and to the right. On the 12th and 13th we pushed reconnoisssances upon the Penon, an isolated mound, (eight miles from Mexico) of great height, strongly fortified to the top, (three tiers of works,) and flooded around the base by season of rains and sluices from the lakes. This mound, close to the national road, commands the principal approach to the city from the east. No doubt it might have been carried, but at a great and disproportionate loss, and I was anxious to spare the lives of this gallant army for a general battle, which I knew we had to win before capturing the city or obtaining the great object of the campaign-a just and honorable peace.

           Another reconnaissance was directed (the 13th) upon Mexicalcingo, to the left of the Penon, a village at a fortified bridge across the outlet or canal leading from Lake Jochimilco to the capital-five miles from the latter. It might have been easy (masking the Penon) to force the passage; but on the other side of the bridge, we should have found ourselves four miles from this road, on a narrow causeway, flanked to the right and left by water or boggy grounds. Those difficulties, closely viewed, threw me back upon the project, long entertained, of turning the strong eastern defenses of the city by passing around south of Lakes Chalco and Jocuimilco, at the foot of the hills and mountains, so as to reach this point, and hence to manoeuvre on hard ground, though much broken, to the south and southwest of the capital, which has been more or less under our view since the 10th instant.

           Accordingly, by a sudden inversion-Worth’s division, with Harney’s cavalry brigade, leading-we marched on the 15th instant. Pillows and Quitman’s divisions followed closely and then Twigg’s division which was left till the next day, at Ayotia, in order to threaten the Penon and Mexicalcingo, and to deceive the enemy as long as practicable.

           Twiggs, on the 16th, marching from Ayotia towards Chalco, (six miles, met a corps of more than double his numbers-cavalry and infantry-under General Valencia. Twiggs halted, deploying into line, and by a few rounds from Captain Taylor’s field battery, dispersed the enemy, killing or wounding many men and horses. No other molestation has been experienced except a few random shots from guerrilleros on the heights; and the march of twenty-seven miles, over a route deemed impracticable by the enemy, is not accomplished by all the corps-thanks to their indomitable zeal and physical prowess.

           Arriving here, the 18th, Worth’s division and Harney’s cavalry were pushed forward a league to reconnoitre and to carry or to mask San Antonio on the direct road to the capital. This village was found strongly defended by field works, heavy guns, and numerous garrison. It could only be turned by infantry, to the left, over a field of volcanic rocks and lave; for, to our right the ground was too boggy. It was soon ascertained by the daring engineers, Capt. Mason and Lieuts. Stevens and Tower, ‘that the point could only be approached by the front, over a narrow causeway, flanked with wet ditches of great depth. Worth was ordered not to attack, but to threaten and to mask the place.

           The first shot fired from San Antonio (the 18th) killed Captain S. Thornton, 21 dragoons, a gallant officer, who was covering the operations with his company.

The same day a reconnoissance was commenced to the left of San Augustin, first over difficult mounds, and farther on, over the same field of volcanic rocks and lava which extends to the mountains, some five miles, from San Antonio, towards Magdalena. This reconnoissance was continued to-day by Captain lee, assisted by Lieutenants Beauregard and Tower, all of the engineers; who were joined in the afternoon b Major Smith of the same cops. Other diversions coming up, Pillow’s was advanced to make a practicable road for heavy artillery, and Twiggs’s thrown farther in front, to cover that operation; for, by the partial reconnoissance of yesterday, Captain Lee discovered a large corps of observation in that direction, with a detachment of which his supports of cavalry and foot, under Captain Kearny and Lieut. Col. Graham, respectively, has a successful skirmish.

           By three o’clock this afternoon the advanced division came to a point where the new road could only be continued under the direct fire of 22 pieces of the enemy’s artillery, (most of them of large caliber) placed in a strong entrenched camp to oppose our operations, and surrounded by every advantage of ground, besides immense bodies of cavalry and infantry, hourly reinforced from the city over an excellent road beyond the volcanic field, and consequently entirely beyond the reach of our cavalry and artillery.

Arriving on the ground an hour later, I found that Pillow’s and Twigg’s divisions ad advanced to dislodge the enemy, picking their way (all officers on foot) along his front, and extending themselves toward the road from the city and enemy’s left. Captain Magruder’s field battery of mounted howitzers and rockets, had also; with great difficulty, been advanced within range of the entrenched camp. These batteries, most gallantly served, suffered much in the course of the afternoon from the enemy’s superior metal.

           The battle, though mostly stationary, continued to rage with great violence until night fall. Brevet Brig. Gen. P.F. Smith’s and Brevet Col. Riley’s brigades, (Twiggs’s division,) supported by Brig. Generals Pierce’s and Cadwallader’s brigades, (Pillow’s division,) were more than three hours under a heavy fire of artillery and musketry, along the almost impassable ravine in front and to the left of the entrenched camp. Besides the 22 pieces of artillery, the camp and ravine were defended closely by masses of infantry, and these again supported by clouds of cavalry, at hand and hovering in view. –Consequently no decided impression could be made by day light on the enemy’s most formidable position, because independent of the difficulty of the ravine, our infantry, unaccompanied by cavalry and artillery, could not advance in column without being mowed down by the grape and canister of the batteries, no advance in line without being ridden over by the enemy’s numerous cavalry. All our troops, however, including Magruder’s and Callender’s last batteries, not only maintained the exposed positions early gained, but all attempted charges upon them respectively, particularly on Riley’s, (twice closely engaged with cavalry in greatly superior numbers,) were repulsed and punished.

           From an eminence, soon after arriving near the scene, I observed the church and hamlet of Contreras, (or Ansalda,) on the road leading up from the capital, through the entrenched camp, to Magdalena, and seeing at the same time the stream of reinforcements advancing by the road from the city, I ordered (through Maj. Gen. Pillow) Col. Morgan, with his regiment, the 15th, till then held in reserve by Pillow, to move forward and occupy Contreras (or Ansalda) being persuaded, if occupied, it would arrest the enemy’s reinforcements and ultimately decide the battle.

           Riley was already on the enemy’s left, in advance of the hamlet. A few minutes later, Brig. Gen. Shields, with his volunteer brigade, (New York and South Carolina regiments, Quitman’s division,) coming up under my orders from San Augustin, I directed Shields to follow and sustain Morgan. – These corps, over the extreme difficulties of ground, partially covered with a low forest, before described, reached Contreras, and found Cadwallader’s brigade in position, observing the formidable movement from the capital and much needing the timely reinforcement.

           It was already dark, and the cold rain has begun to fall in torrents upon our unsheltered troops; for the hamlet, though a strong defensive position, can only hold the wounded men, and, unfortunately, the new regiments have little or nothing to eat in their haversacks. Wet, hungry, and without the possibility of sleep, all our gallant corps, I learn, are full of confidence, and only wait for the last hour of darkness to gain the positions whence to storm and carry the enemy’s works.

           Of the seven officers dispatched, since about sun down, from my position opposite the enemy’s centre, and on this side of the field of rocks and lava, to communicate instruction to the hamlet, no one has succeeded in getting through those difficulties, increased by darkness. They have all returned. But the gallant and indefatigable Capt. Lee, of the engineers, who has been constantly with the operating forces, just in from Shields, Smith, Cadwallader &t, to report as above, and to ask that a powerful diversion be made against the centre of the entrenched camp towards morning.

           Brig. Gen. Twiggs, cut off, as above, from the part of his division beyond the impracticable ground, and Capt. Lee, are gone, under my orders, to collect the forces remaining on this side, with which to make that diversion about five o’clock in the morning.

           And here I will end this report, commenced at its date; and, in another, continue the narrative of the great events which them impended.

           I have the honor to be, sir, with high respect, your most obedient servant,

Winfield Scott

Hon. Wm. L. March, Secretary of War

[NO. 32]

Headquarters of the Army

Tacubaya, at the gates of Mexico,
August 28, 1847

           Sir:  My report No. 31, commenced in the night of the 19th instant closed the operations of the army with that day.

           The morning of the 20th opened with one of a series of unsurpassed achievements, all in view of the capital, and to which I shall give the general name-battle of Mexico.

In the night of the 19th, Brigadier Generals Shields, P.F. Smith, and Cadwallader, and Colonel Riley with their brigades, and the 15th regiment under Colonel Morgan, detached from Brigadier General Pierce, found themselves in and about the important position – the village, hamlet, or hacienda, called, indifferently, Contreras, Ansalda, San Geronimo, half a mile nearer to the city then the enemy’s entrenched camp on the same road, towards the factory of Magdalena.

           That camp has been, unexpectedly, our formidable point of attack the afternoon before, and we had not to take it, without the aid of cavalry or artillery, or to throw back our advanced corps upon the road from San Augustin to the city, and thence force a passage through San Antonio.

           Accordingly, to meet contingencies, Major General Worth was ordered to leave, early in the morning of the 20th, on of his brigades to mask San Antonio, and to march, with the other, six miles, via San Augustin, upon Contreras. A like destination was given to Major General Quitman and his remaining brigade in San Augustin-replacing, for the moment, garrison of that important depot with Harney’s brigade of cavalry, as horse could not pass over the intervening rocks, &t. to reach the field of battle.

A diversion for an earlier hour (daylight) had been arranged the night before, according to the suggestion of Brigadier General Smith, received through the engineer, Captain lee, who conveyed my orders to our troops remaining on the ground opposite the enemy’s centre-the point for the diversion or a real attack, as circumstances might allow.

Guided by Captain lee, it proved the latter, under the command of Colonel Ransom, of the 9th, having with him that regiment and some companies of three others-the 3d, 12th, and rifles.

Shields, the senior officer at the hamlet, having arrived in the night, after Smith had arranged with Cadwallader and Riley the plan of attack for the morning, delicately waived interference; but reserved to himself the double task of holding the hamlet with his two regiments (South Carolina and New York volunteers) against ten times his numbers on the side of the city, including the slopes to his left, and, in case the camp in his rear should be carried, to face about and cut off the flying enemy.

           At 3 o’clock A.M. the great movement commenced on the rear of the enemy’s camp, Riley leading, followed successively by Cadwallader’s and Smith’s brigades, the latter temporarily under the order of Major Dimick, of the 1st artillery-the whole force being commanded by Smith, the senior in the general attack, and whose arrangements, skill, and gallantry always challenge the highest admiration.

The march was rendered tedious by the darkness, and mud; but about sunrise, Riley, conducted by Lieut. Tower, engineer, had reached an elevation behind the enemy, whence he precipitated his columns; stormed the entrenchments; planted his several colors upon them, and carried the work-all in seventeen minutes.

           Conducted by Lieut. Beauregard, engineer, and Lieutenant Brooks, of Twiggs’s staff-both of whom like Lieut. Tower, had, in the night, twice reconnoitered the ground-Cadwallader brought up to the general assault two of his regiments-the voltigeurs and the 11th and the appointed time, Col. Ransom, with this temporary brigade, conducted by Captain, Lee, engineer, no only made the movement to divert and to distract the enemy, but, after crossing the deep raving in his front, advanced, and poured into the works and upon the fugitives many volleys from his destructive musketry.

           In the mean time Smith’s own brigade, under the temporary command of Major Dimick, following the movements of Riley and Cadwallader, discovered, opposite and outside of the works, a long line of Mexican cavalry, drawn up as a support. Dimick, having at the head of the brigade the company of sappers and miners, under Lieut. Smith, engineer, who had conducted the march, was ordered by Brigadier General Smith to form line faced to the enemy, and in a charge, against a flank, routed the cavalry.

           Shields, too, by the wise disposition of his brigade and gallant activity, contributed much to the general results. He held masses of cavalry and infantry, supported by artillery, in check below him, and captured hundreds, with one General (Mendoza) of those who fled from above.

           I doubt whether a more brilliant or decisive victory-taking into view ground, artificial deference, batteries, and the extreme disparity of numbers- without cavalry or artillery on our side-is to be found on record. Including al our corps directed against the entrenched camp, with Shield’s brigade at the hamlet, we positively did not number over 4500 rank and file; and we knew by sight, and since more certainly by many captured documents and letters, 7000 men, with at least 12,000 more hovering with sight and striking distance-both on the 19th and 20th. All, not killed or captured, now fled with precipitation.

Thus was the great victory of Contreras achieved: on road to the capital opened; 700 of the enemy killed; 813 prisoners, including, among 88 officers, 4 generals; besides many colors and standards; 22 pieces of brass ordnance-half of large caliber; thousand of small arms and accoutrements; and immense quantity of shot, shells, powder, and cartridges, 700 pack mules, many horses, &t. -all in our hands.

It is highly gratifying to find that, by skillful arrangement and rapidity of execution, our loss, in killed and wounded, did not exceed, on the spot, 60; among the fore the brave Captain Charles Hanson, of the 7th infantry-not more distinguished for gallantry than for modesty, morals and piety. Lieut J. P. Johnston, 1st artillery, serving with Magruder’s battery, a young officer of the highest promise, was killed the evening before.

           One of the most pleasing incidents of the victory is the recapture, in the works, by Captain Drum, 4th artillery, under Major Gardner, of the two brass six pounders, taken from another company of the same regiment, though without loss of honor, at the glorious battle of Buena Vista-about which guns the whole regiment had mourned for so many long months!  Coming up, a little later, I had the happiness to join in the protracted cheers of the gallant 4th on the joyous event; and, indeed, the whole army sympathizes in its just pride and exultation.

           The battle being won before the advancing brigades of Worth’s and Quitman’s divisions were in sight, both were ordered back to their later positions-Worth to attack San Antonio in front with his whole force, as soon as approached in the rear by Pillow’s and Twiggs’s divisions, moving from Contreras through San Angel and Coyoacan. By carrying San Antonio we knew that we should open another-a shorter and better road to the capital for our siege and to other trains.

           Accordingly, the two advanced divisions and Shield’s brigade marched from Contreras, under the immediate orders of Major Gen. Pillow, who was now joined by the gallant, Brig. Gen. Pierce, of his division, personally thrown out of activity late in the evening before by a severe hurt received from the fall of his horse.

After giving necessary orders on the field, in the midst of prisoners and trophies, and sending instructions to Harney’s brigade of cavalry, left at San Augustine, to join me. I personally followed Pillow’s movement.

           Arriving at Coyoacan, two miles by a cross road, from the rear of San Antonio, I first detached Capt. Lee, engineer, with Cap. Kearney’s troop (1st dragoons,) supported by the rifle regiment under Major Loring, to reconnoitre that strong point; and next dispatched Major General Pillow, with one of his brigades, (Cadwallader’s) to make the attack upon it, in concert with major General Worth, on the opposite side.

           At the same time, by another road to the left, Lieutenant Stevens, of the engineers, supported by Lieutenant G.W. Smith’s company of sappers and miners, of the same corps, was to reconnoitre the strongly fortified church or convent of San Pablo in the hamlet of Churubuseo-one mile off. -Twiggs, with one of brigades (Smith’s-less the rifles) and Captain Taylor’s field battery, were ordered to follow and to attack the convent. Major Smith, senior engineer, was dispatched to concert with Twiggs the mode and means of attack, and Twiggs’ other brigade (Riley’s) I soon ordered up to support him.

Next (but all n ten minutes) I sent Pierce (just able to keep the saddle) with his brigade (Pillow’s division) conducted by Captain Lee, engineer, by a third road, a little farther to our left, to attack the enemy’s right and rear, in order to favor the moment upon the convent, and cut off the retreat towards the capital. And, finally, Shields, senior brigadier to pierce, with the New York and South Caroline volunteers, (Quitman’s division,) was ordered to follow Pierce, closely, and to take the command of our left wing. All these movements were made with the utmost alacrity by our gallant troops and commanders.

Finding myself at Coyoacan, from which so many roads conveniently branched, without escort or reserve, I had to advance, for safety, close upon Twiggs’ rear. The battle now raged from the right to the left of our whole line.

           Learning, on the return of Captain Lee, that Shields, in the rear of Churubuseo, was hard pressed, and in danger of being out flanked, if not overwhelmed, by greatly superior numbers, I immediately sent, under Major Sumner, 24 dragoons, the rifles (Twiggs’ reserve) and Capt. Sibley’s troop, 24 dragons, then at hand, to support our left, guided by the same engineer.

           About an hour earlier, Worth had by skillful and daring movements upon the front and right, turned and forced San Antonio-its garrison, no doubt, much shaken by out decisive victory at Contreras.

           His second brigade (Colonel Clarke’s) conducted by Captain Mason, engineer, assisted by Lieutenant Hardcastle, topographical engineer, turned the right flank and by a wide sweep came out upon the high road to the capital. At this point the heavy garrison (3,000 men) in retreat was, by Clarke, cut in the centre, one portion, the rear, driven upon Dolores, off to the right; and the other upon Churubuseo, in the direct line of our operations. The first brigade (Colonel Garland’s) same division, consisting of the 2d artillery, under Major Galt, the 3d artillery, under Lieutenant Colonel Belton, and the 4th infantry, commanded by Major Lee, with Lieutenant Colonel Duncan’s field battery (temporarily) followed in pursuit through the town, taking one general prisoner, the abandoned guns, (five pieces,) much ammunition, and other public property.

           The forcing of San Antonio was the second brilliant event of the day.

           Worth’s division being soon reunited in hot pursuit, he was joined by Maj. Gen. Pillow, who marching, from Coyoaean and discovering that San Antonio had been carried, immediately turned to the left, according to my instructions, and though much impeded by ditched and swamps, hastened to the attack of Churubuseo.

           The hamlet of scattered houses, bearing this name, presented, besides the fortified convent, a strong field work (tete de pont) with regular bastions and curtains, at the head of a bridge over which the road passes from San Antonio to the capital.

           The whole remaining forces of Mexico-some 27,000 men-cavalry, artillery, and infantry, collected from every quarter-were not in, on the flanks or within supporting distance of, those works, and seemed resolved to make a last and desperate stand; or if beaten here, the feebler defenses at the gates of the city-four miles off-could not, as was well known to both parties delay the victors an hour. -The capital of an ancient empire, now of a great republic; or an early peace, the assailants were resolved to win. Not an American-and we were less than a third of the enemy’s numbers-had a doubt as to the result.

           The fortified church or convent, hotly pressed by Twiggs, had already held out about an hour, when Worth and Pillow-the latter having with him only Cadwallader’s brigade-began to manoeuvre closely upon the tete de pont, with the convent at half gunshot to their left. Garland’s brigade, (Worth’s division,) to which had been added the light battalion under Lieut. Col. Smith, continued to advance in front, and under the fire of a long line of infantry, off on the left of t he bridge; and Clarke, of the same division, directed his brigade along the road or close by its side. Two of Pillow’s and Cadwallader’s regiments, the 11th and 14th, supported and participated in this direct movement: the other (the voltigeurs) was left in reserve. Most of these corps-particularly Clark’s brigade-advancing perpendicularly, were made to suffer much by the fire of the tete de pont, and they would have suffered greatly more by flank attacks from the convent, but for the pressure of Twiggs on the other side of that work.

           This well combined and daring movement at length reached the principal point of attack, and the formidable tete de pont was, at once, assaulted and carried by the bayonet. Its deep wet ditch was first gallantly crossed by the 8th and 5th infantry, commanded, respectively, by Maj. Waite and Lieut. Colonel Scott followed closely by the 6th infantry (same brigade) which had been so much exposed in the road-the 11th regiment, under Lieut. Col. Graham, and 14th, commanded by Col. Trousdale, both of Cadwallader’s brigade, Pillow’s division. About the same time, the enemy, in front of Garland, and after a hot conflict of an hour and a half, gave way, in a retreat towards the capital.

The immediate results of this third signal triumph of the way were: three field pieces, 192 prisoners, much ammunition and two colors, taken in the tete de pont.

           Lieut. J. F. Irons, 1st artillery, aid-de-camp to Brigadier Gen. Cadwallader, a young officer of great merit and conspicuous in battle on several previous occasions, received in front of the work, a mortal would. (Since dead.)

           As the concurrent attack upon the convent favored, physically and morally, the assault, upon the tete de pont, so, reciprocally, no doubt, the fall of the latter contributed to the capture of the former. The two works were only some 450 yards apart; and as soon as we were in possession of the tete de pont, a captured four pounder was turned and fired-first by Captain Larkin Smith, and next by Lieutenant Snelling, both of the eighth infantry-several times upon the convent. In the same brief interval, Lieutenant Colonel Duncan, (also of Worth’s division,) gallantly brought two of his guns to bear, at a short range, from the San Antonio road, upon the principal face of the work, and on the tower of the church, which, in the obstinate contest, had been often refilled with some of the best sharp-shooters of the enemy.

           Finally, twenty minutes after the tete de pont had been carried by Worth and Pillow, and at the end of a desperate conflict of two hours and a half, the church, or convent-the citadel of the strong line of defense along the rivulet of Churubuseo-yielded to Twiggs’ division, and threw out, on all sides, signals of surrender. The white flags, however, were not exhibited until the moment when the 3d infantry, under Captain Alexander, had cleared the way by fire and bayonet, and had entered the work. Captain J. M. Smith and Lieutenant O. L. Shephered, both of that regiment, with their companies, had the glory of leading the assault. The former received the surrender, and Captain Alexander instantly hung out, from the balcony, the colors of the gallant 3d. Major Dimick, with a part of the 1st artillery, serving as infantry, entered nearly abreast with the leading troops.

           Captain Taylor’s field battery, attached to Twiggs’ division, opened its effective fire, at an early moment, upon the out works of the convent and the tower of its churches. Exposed to the severest fire of the enemy, the captain, his officers, and men, won universal admiration; but at length much disabled in men and horses the battery was by superior, orders, withdrawn from the action thirty minutes before the surrender of the convent.

Those corps, excepting Taylor’s battery, belonging to the brigade of Brig. Gen. Smith, who closely directed the whole attack in front, with his habitual coolness and ability; while Riley’s brigade-the 2d and 7th infantry, under Capt. T. Morris and Lieut. Col. Plympton, respectively-vigorously engaged the right of the work and part of its rear. At the moment, the rifles, belonging to Smith’s were detached in support of Brig. Gen. Shields’ on our extreme left; and the 4th artillery, acting as infantry, under Maj. Gardner, belonging to Riley’s brigade, had been left in charge of the camp, trophies, &c., at Contreras. Twiggs’ division, at Churubuseo, has thus been deprived of the services of two of its most gallant and effective regiments.

The immediate results of this victory were-the capture of 7 field pieces, some ammunition, one color, three generals, and 1,261 prisoners, including other officers.

           Captains E.A. Capron and M.J. Burke, and Lieut. S. Hoffman, all of the 1st artillery, and Capt. J.W. Anderson and Lieut. Easley, both of the 2d infantry-five officers of great merit-fell gallantly before this work.

           The capture of the enemy’s citadel was the fourth great achievement of our arms in the same day.

It has been stated that, some two hours and a half before, Pierce’s followed closely by the volunteer brigade-both under the command of Brigadier General Shields--—d been detached to our left to turn the enemy’s works;-to prevent the escape of the garrisons, and to oppose the extension of the enemy’s numerous corps, from the read, upon and around our left.

                      Considering the inferior numbers of the two brigades, the objects of the movements were difficult to accomplish. Hence the reinforcements (the rifles, &c.,) sent forward a little later.

In a winding march of a mile around to the right, this temporary division found itself on the edge of an open wet meadow, near the road from San Antonio to the capital, and in the presence of some 4,000 of the enemy’s infantry, a little in the rear of Churubuseo, on that road. Establishing the right at a strong building, Shields extended his left, parallel to the road, to outflank the enemy towards the capital. But the enemy extending his right, supported by 3,000 cavalry, more rapidly (being favored by their ground) in the same direction, Shields concentrated the division about a hamlet, and determined to attack in front. The battle was long, hot, and varied; but, ultimately, success crowned the zeal and gallantry of our troops, ably directed by their distinguished commander, Brig. Gen. Shields. The 9th, 12th , and 15th regiments, under Col. Ranson, Captain Wood, and Col. Morgan, respectively, of Pearce’s brigade, (Pillow’s division) and the New York and South Carolina volunteers, under Cols. Burnett and Butler, respectively of Shields’ own brigade, (Quitman’s division) together with the mountain howitzer battery, now under Lieut. Reno, of the ordnance corps, all shared in the glory of this action-our fifth victory in the same day.

Brigadier General Pierce, from the hurt of the evening before-under pain and exhaustion-fainted in the action. Several other changes in command occurred on this field. Thus Colonel Morgan being severely wounded, the command of the 15th infantry devolved on Lieutenant Colonel Howard; Colonel Burnett receiving a like wound, the command of the New York volunteers fell to Lieutenant Colonel Baxter; and, on the fall of the lamented Colonel P. M. Butler- earlier badly wounded, but continuing to lead nobly in the hottest of the battle-the command of the South Carolina volunteers devolved-first of Lieutenant Colonel Dickenson, who being severely wound (as before in the siege of Vera Cruz) the regiment ultimately fell under the orders of Major Gladden.

Lieuts. David Adams and W.R. Williams of the came corps; Capt. Augustus Quarles, and Lieut. J.B. Goodman of the 15th, and Lieut. E. Chandler, New York volunteers-all gallant officers, nobly fell in the same action.

Shields took 380 prisoners, including officers; and it cannot be doubted that the rage of the conflict between him and the enemy just in the rear of the tete de pont and the convent had some influence on the surrender of those formidable defenses.

           As soon as the tete de pont was carried, the greater part of Worth’s and Pillow’s forces passed that bridge in rapid pursuit of the flying enemy. These distinguished generals, coming up with Brigadier General Shields, now also victorious, the three continued to press upon the fugitives to within a mile and a half of the capital. Here, Col. Harney, with a small part of his brigade of cavalry, rapidly passed to the front, and charged the enemy up to the nearest gate.

           The cavalry charge was headed by Captain Kearney, of the 1st dragoons, having in squadron, with his own troop, that of Captain McReynolds, of the 3rd-making the usual escort to general headquarters; but being early in the day detached for general service, was now under Col. Harney’s orders. The gallant captain now hearing the recall that had been sounded, dashed up to the San Antonio gate, sabreing, in his way all that resisted. Of the seven officers of the squadron, Hearney lost his left arm, McReynolds and Lieut. Lorimer Graham were both severely wounded, Lieut. R.S. Ewell, who succeeded to the command of the escort, had two horses killed under him. Major F.D. Mills, of the 15th infantry, a volunteer in this charge, was killed at the gate.

So terminated the series of events which I have but feebly presented. My thanks were by freely poured out on the different fields-to the abilities and science of generals and other officers-to the gallantry and prowess of all-the rank and file included. But a reward infinitely higher-the applause of a grateful country and government-will, I cannot doubt, be accorded, in due time, to so much merit, of every sort, displayed by this glorious army, which has now overcome all difficulties-distance, climate, ground, fortifications, numbers.

If has a single day, in many battles, as often defeated 32,000 men; made about 3,000 prisoners, including eight generals (two of them ex-presidents) and 205 other officers; killed or wounded 4,000 of all ranks-besides entire corps dispersed and dissolved; captured 37 pieces of ordinance-more than trebling our siege train and field batteries with a large number of small arms, a full supply of ammunition of every kind, &t., &t.

           These great results have overwhelmed the enemy.

           Our loss amounts to 1,052 –killed 139, including 16 officers; wounded 876, with 60 officers. The greater number of the dead and disabled were of the highest worth. Those under treatment, thanks to our very able medical officers, are generally doing well.

I regret having been obliged, on the 20th, to leave Major General Quitman, an able commander, with a part of a division-the fine 2d Pennsylvania volunteers and the veteran detachment of U. States marines-at our important depot, San Augustin. It was there that I had place our sick and wounded; the siege, supply, and baggage trains. If these had been lost, the army would have been driven almost to despair; and considering the enemy’s very great excess of numbers, and the many approaches to the depot, it might well have become, emphatically, the post of honor.

After so many victories, we might, with but a little additional loss, have occupied the capital the same evening. But Mr. Trist, commissioner, &co. as well as myself, had been admonished by the bet friends of peace-intelligent neutrals and some American residents-against precipitation; lest, by wantonly driving away the government and others-dishonored-we might scatter elements of peace, excite a spirit of national desperation, and thus indefinitely postpone the hope of accommodation. Deeply impressed with this danger, and remembering our mission-to conquer a peace-the army very cheerfully sacrificed to patriotism-to the great wish and want of our country-the eclat that would have followed an entrance-sword in hand-into a great capital.-Willing to have something to this republic-of no immediate value to us-on which to rest her pride, and to recover temper-I halted our victorious corps at the gates of the city, (at least for a time,) and have them now cantoned in the neighboring villages, where they are still sheltered and supplied with all necessaries.

On the morning of the 21st, being about to take up battering or assaulting positions, to authorize me to summon the city to surrender, or to sign an armistice with a pledge to enter at once into negotiations for a peace- a mission came out to propose a truce. Rejecting its terms, I dispatched my contemplated not to president Santa Anna-omitting the summons. The 22d commissioners were appointed by the commanders of the two armies; the armistice was signed the 23rd, and ratifications exchanged the 24th.

           All matters in dispute between the two governments have been thus happily turned over to their plenipotentiaries, who have now had sever conferences, and, with I think, some hope of signing a treat of peace.

           There will be transmitted to the adjutant general reports from divisions, brigades, &c., on the foregoing operations, to which I must refer, with my hearty concurrence in the just applause bestowed on corps and individuals by their respective commanders. I have been able-this report being necessarily a summary-to bring out, comparatively, but little of individual merit no lying directly in the way of the narrative. Thus I doubt whether I have, in express terms, gibe my approbation and applause, to the commanders of division and independent brigades; but left their fame upon higher grounds-the simple record of their great deeds and the brilliant results.

           To the staff, both general and personal, attached to the general headquarters, I was again under high obligations for services on the field, as well as in the bureaux. I add their names, &c.; Lieut. Col. Hitchcock, acting inspector general; Major J.L. Smith, Captain R. E. Lee, (as distinguished for felicitous execution as for science and daring) Captain Mason, Lieuts. Stevens, Beauregard and Tower-all of the engineers; Major Turnbull, Capt. McClellan and Lieut. Hardcastle, topographical engineers; Captain Huger and Lieut. Hagner, of the ordinance; Captains Irwin and Wayne, of the quartermaster’s department; Capt. Grayson, of the commissariat; Surgeon General Lawson, in his particular department: Captain H. L. Scott, acting assistant adjutant general; Lieut. Williams, aide de-camp, and Lieut. Lay, military secretary. Lieut. Schuyler Hamilton, another aid de-camp, had a week before, been thrown out of activity by a severe wound received in a successful charge of cavalry against cavalry, and four time times his numbers; but on the 20th, I have the valuable services, as volunteer aids, of Majors Kirby and Van Buren, of the pay department, always eager for activity and distinction; and of a third, the gallant Major J. P. Gaines, of the Kentucky volunteers.

           I have the honor to be, sir, with high respect, your most obedient servant,

WINFIELD SCOTT.

[ATT]

NNR 73.184 Nov. 20, 1847 Gen. Winfield Scott's report on the Battle of Molino del Rey

Section 31

To hon. Wm. L. Marcy secretary of War

Reports of Major Generals Pillows and Worth

Tothe Commander-in-Chief

Headquarters third Division

Mixcoac
August, 24, 1847

Captain:  In compliance with the order of the general in-chief, I moved with my division, consisting of the 9th, 11th, 12th, 14th, and 15th infantry, and the voltigeur regiment, and the field battery of Captain Magruder and the howitzer battery under Lieutenant Callender, early on the morning of the 13th instant, and, opened the road over the mountain on the route indicated by Captain Lee of the engineer corps, assisted by Lieutenants Beauregard, Stephens, Tower, Smith McClellan, and Foster. -Brigadier General Twiggs, with his division, reported to me for duty, under instructions from the general-in-chief, whilst my own division was moving over the mountain.

Perceiving that the enemy was in large fore on the opposite side of the valley, with heavy batteries of artillery commanding the only roll, through a vast plain of broken volcanic lava, rent into deep chasms and fissures, effectually preventing any advance except under his direct fire, I resolved to give him battle. For this purpose I ordered General Twiggs to advance with his finely disciplined division, and with one brigade to assault the enemy’s works in front, and with the other to let in his left flank, and assail it in reverse. Captain Magruder’s fine field battery and Lieutenant Callender’s howitzer battery (both of which constitute part of my division) were placed at the disposal of Brig. Gen. Twiggs.

This officer, in executing my order of attack, directed Brevet Brig. General Smith to move with his brigade upon the enemy’s from, whilst Colonel Riley, with his, was ordered to turn to his left and assail him in rear. To sustain the movements, Brig. General Cadwallader was ordered to advance with his brigade and support Colonel Riley, and Brigadier General Pierce, with his command, to support the column moving upon the enemy’s front, under Brigadier Gen. Smith. This last command was soon closely engaged with the enemy, as were also the batteries of Captain Magruder and Lieutenant Callender.

Col. Riley’s command, having now crossed the case broken up plain of lava, passing the village on the right, and whilst in t he act of turning the enemy’s left, was confronted by several thousand lancers who advanced to the charge, when a well directed fire from the brigade twice compelled them to fall back in disorder, under cover of their artillery. About this time, Brigadier General Cadwallader’s command has also crossed the plain, when some 5.000 or 6,000 troops of the enemy were observed moving rapidly from the direction of the capital to the field of action. Colonel Morgan, with his large and fine regiment, which I had caused to be detached from the rear of Pierce’s brigade, was now ordered to the support of Cadwallader by direction of the general-in-chief, who had now arrived upon the field.

This general, having discovered this large force moving upon his right flank and to the rear, with decided military tact and promptitude threw back his right wing and confronted the enemy, with the intention to give him battle, notwithstanding the overwhelming force.

This portion of the enemy’s force moved steadily forward until a conflict seemed inevitable, when Col. Morgan’s regiment having reached this part of the field. Presented a front so formidable as to induce the enemy to change his purpose, and draw off to the right and rear of his former position.

During all this time, the battle raged fiercely between the other portions of the two armies, with a constant and destructive fire of artillery. Magruder’s battery, from its prominent position, was much disabled by the heavy shot of the enemy, as were also Callender’s howitzers. A part of the enemy’s artillery has been turned upon Riley’s command, whilst actively engaged with large bodies of lancers; but even the combined attacks could only delay the purpose of the gallant old veteran and his noble brigade.

The general-in-chief having arrive upon the field with General Shields’s brigade of volunteers-consisting of the New York and S.Carollina regiments-ordered them to move up to the support of the forces under Brigadier General Cadwallader; but it had now grown so late in the evening that Gen. Shields did not get into position until after dark. Night having com on(*but not until entire dark.) this fierce conflict was suspended, to be renewed on the morrow.

The battle all this day was conducted under by immediate orders, and within my view; a short time before sunset, having previously engaged in the fight all the forces at my disposal, myself and staff started to cross the plain, to join in the terrible struggle on the immediate field of action.

On my way hither I was joined by Brig. General Twiggs and staff; but the darkness of the light, rendered by more obscure by a heavy rain, caused us to miss our way thought the broken up lava, and to wander to the close neighborhood of the hordes of the enemy; and it was not until the shrill blasts of his bugles apprized us of our position, that we became satisfied we could not reach, during the night. [ATT]


NNR 73.184-186 Nov. 20, 1847 Gen. Winfield Scott's report on the taking of the city of Mexico

Battles of Mexico-Capture of the City

Report of Major General Scott

[No. 34]

Headquarters of the Army

National Palace of Mexico
September 18, 1847

           Sir:  At the end of another series of arduous and brilliant operations of more than forty-eight hours continuance, this glorious army hoisted, on the morning of the 14th, the colors of the U. States on the walls of this palace.

           The victory of the 8th, at he Molinos del Rey, was followed by daring reconnoissances on the part of our distinguished engineers-Capt. Lee,  Lieuts. Beauregard, Stevens, and Tower, Major Smith, Sr., being sick, and Captain Mason, third in rank, wounded. –Their operations were directed principally to the south-towards the gates of the Piedad, San Angel, (Nino Perdido,) San Antonio, and Pasco de la Viga.

           This city stands on a slight swell of ground, near the centre of an irregular basin, and is girdled with a ditch in its greater extent-a navigable canal of great breadth and depth-very difficult to bridge in the presence of an enemy, and serving at once for drainage, custom0house purposes, and military defenses; leaving eight entrances or grates, over arches-each of which we found defended by a system of strong works, that seemed to require nothing but some men and guns to be impregnable.

Outside and within the cross fires of those gates, we found to the south other obstacles but little less formidable. All the approaches near the city are over elevated causeways, cut in many places (to oppose us) and flanked, on both sides, by ditches, also of unusual dimensions. The numerous crossroads are flanked, in like manner, having bridges at the intersections, recently broken. The meadows thus checkered, are moreover, in many spots, under water or…, for, it will be remembered, we were in the midst of the wet season, though with less rain than usual, and we could not wait for the fall of the neighboring lake and the constant drainage of the wet grounds at the edge of the city-the lowest in the whole basin. After a close personal survey of the southern gates, covered by Pillow’s division and Riley’s brigade of Twiggs’-with four times our number concentrated in our immediate front-I determined on the 11th, to avoid that network of obstacles, and to seek, by a sudden inversion, to the southwest and west, less unfavorable approaches.

           To economize the lives of our gallant officers and men, as well as to insure success, it became indispensable that this resolution should be long, masked from the enemy; and again, that the new movement, when discovered should be mistaken for a feint, and the old as indicating our true and ultimate point of attack.

Accordingly, on the spot, the 11th, I ordered Quitman’s division from Coyoacan, to join pillow, by day-light, before the southern gates, and then that the two major generals, with their divisions, should by night, proceed (two miles) to join me a Tacubaya, where I was quartered with Worth’s division, Twiggs, with Riley’s brigade and Captains Taylor’s and Steptoe’s field batteries-the latter of twelve pounders was left in front of those gates, to manoeuvre, to threaten, or to make false attacks, in order to occupy to deceive the enemy. Twigg’s other brigade (Smith's) was left at supporting distance, in the rear, at San Angel, till the morning of the 13th, and also to support of general depot is Miscoac. The stratagem against the south was admirably executed throughout the 12th and down to the afternoon of the 13th, when it was too late for the enemy to recover from the effects of his decision.

The first step in the new movement was to carry Chapultepec, a natural and isolated mound, of great elevation, strongly fortified at its base, on it activities and heights. Besides a numerous garrison, here was the military college of the republic, with a large number of sub-lieutenants and other students. Those works were within direct gun-shot of the village of Tacubaya, and until carried, we could not approach the city on the west, without making a circuit too wide and too hazardous.

           In the course of the same night (that of the 11th) heavy batteries within easy ranges were established. No.1, on our right, under the command of Capt. Drum, 4th artillery, (relieved later next day, for some hours, by Lieutenant Andrews, of the 3 rd,) and No. 2 commanded by Lieutenant Hagner, ordinance-both supported by Quitman’s division, Nos. 3 and 4, on the opposite side, supported by Pillow’s division, were commanded, the former by Captain Brooks and Lieut. S.S. Anderson, 2d artillery,  alternately; and the latter by Lieut. Stone, ordinance. The batteries was traced by Capt. Hagner, and Capt. Lee, engineer, and constructed by them, with the able assistance of the young officers of those cops and artillery.

To prepare for an assault, it was foreseen that the play of the batteries might run into the second day; but recent captures had not only trebled our siege pieces, but also our ammunition, and we knew that we should greatly augment both, by carrying the place. I was, therefore, in no haste in ordering an assault, before the works were well crippled by our missiles.

           The bombardment and cannonade, under the direction of Captain Huger, were commenced early in the morning of the 12th. Before nightfall, which necessarily stopped our batteries, we had perceived that a good impression had been made on the castle and its outworks, and that a large body of the enemy had remained outside, towards the city, from an early hour, to avoid, our fire, and to be at hand on its cessation, in order to reinforce t he garrison against an assault. The same outside force was discovered the next morning, after our batteries had re-opened upon the castle, by which we again reduced its garrison to the minimum needed for the guns.

           Pillow and Quitman had been in position since early in the night of the 11th. Major Gen. Worth was now ordered to hold his division in reserve, near the foundry, to support Pillow; and Brig. General Smith, of Twiggs’s division, had just arrived with his brigade from Piedad, (w miles) to support Quitman. Twiggs’s guns, before the southern gates again reminded us, as the day before, that he, with Riley’s brigade and Taylor’s and Steptoe’s batteries, was in activity, threatening the southern gates, and there holding a great part of t he Mexican army on the defensive.

           Worth’s division furnished Pillow’s attack with an assaulting party of some 250 volunteer officers and men, under Captain McKenzie, of the 2d artillery and Twiggs’s division supplied a similar one, commanded by Capt. Casey, 2d infantry, to Quitman. Each of those little columns was furnished with scaling ladders.

           The signal I had appointed for the attack was the momentary cessation of fire on the part of our heavy batteries. About 8 o’clock in the morning of the 13th, judging that the time had arrived, by the effect of the missiles we had thrown, I sent a aid-de-camp to Pillow, and another to Quitman, with notice that the concerted signal was about to be given. Both columns now advanced with an alacrity that gave assurance of prompt success. The batteries, seizing opportunities, threw shots and shells upon the enemy over the heads of our men, with good effect, particularly at every attempt to reinforce the works from without to meet our assault.

Major General Pillow’s approach, on the west side, lay through an open grove, filled with sharp shooters, who were speedily dislodged; when, being up with the front of the attack, and emerging into open space, at the foot of a rocky acclivity, that gallant leader was struck down my an agonizing wound. The immediate command devolved on Brigadier General Cadwallader, in the absence of the senior brigadier (Pierce) of the same division-an invalid since the events of August 19. On a precious call of Pillow, Worth had just sent him a reinforcement-Col. Clark’s brigade.

           The broken acclivity was still to be ascended, and a strong redoubt midway, to be carried, before reaching the castle on the heights. The advance of our brace men, led by brace officers, though necessarily slow, was unwavering, over rocks, chasms, and mines, and under the hottest fire of cannon and musketry. The redoubt now yielded to resistless valor, and the shouts that followed announced to the castle the fate that impended. The enemy were steadily driven from shelter to shelter. The retreat allowed not time to fire a single mine, without the certainty of blowing up friend and foe. Those who at a distance attempted to apply matched to the long trains, were shot down by our men. There was death below, as well as, above the ground. At length the ditch and wall of the mail work were reached, the scaling ladders were brought up and planted by the storming parties; some of the daring spirits first in the assault were cast down-killed or wounded, but a lodgment was soon made; streams of heroes followed; all opposition was overcome, and several of our regiment colors flung out from the upper walls, amidst long continued shouts and cheers, which sent dismay into the capital. No scene could have been more animating or glorious.

           Major General Quitman noble supported by Brig. Generals Shields and Smith (P. F.) his officers and men, was up with the part assigned him. Simultaneously with the movement on the west, he had gallantly approached the southeast of the same works over a causeway with cuts and batteries, and defended by an army strongly posted outside, to the east of the work.

           Those formidable obstacles Quitman had to face, with but little shelter for his troops or space for maneuvering. Deep ditches, flanking the causeway, made it difficult to cross in either side into the adjoining meadows, and these again were intersected by other ditches. Smith and his brigade had been early thrown out to make a sweep to the right, in order to present a front against the enemy’s line, (outside) and to turn two intervening batteries near the foot of Chapultepec. This movement was also intended to support Quitman’s storming parties, both on the causeway. The first of these furnished by Twiggs’s division, was commanded by succession by Capt. Casey, 2d infantry, and captain Paul, 7th infantry, after Casey had been severely wounded; and the second, originally under the gallant Major Twiggs, marine corps, killed, and then Capt. Miller, 2d Pennsylvania volunteers. The storming party now commanded by Capt. Paul. Seconded by Capt. Roberts of the rifles, Lieut. Stewart, and other of the same regiment, Smith’s brigade, carried the two batteries in the road, took some guns, with many prisoners, and drove the enemy posed behind in support. The New York and South Caroline volunteers (Shield’s brigade) and the 2d Pennsylvania volunteers, all on the left of Quitman’s line, together with portions of his storming parties, crossed the meadows in front, under a heavy fire, and entered the outer enclosure of Chapultepec just in time to join in the final assault from the west.

Besides Major Generals Pillow and Quitman, Brigadier Generals Shields, Smith, and Cadwallader, the following are the officers and corps most distinguished in those brilliant operations: The voltigeur regiment, in two detachments, commanded respectively by Col. Andrews and Lieut. Colonel Johnstone-the latter mostly in the lead, accompanied by Major Caldwell, Captains Barnard and Biddle, of the same regiment-the former the first to land a regimental color, and the latter among the first in the assault; -the storming party of Worth’s division under Capt. McKenzie, 2d artillery, with Lieut. Seldon, 8th infantry, early on the ladder and badly wounded; Lieut. Armistead, 6th infantry, the first to leap into the ditch to play a ladder; Lieut. Rodgers of the 4th, and J. P. Smith of the 5th infantry-both mortally wounded; -the 9 infantry, under Col. Ranson, who was killed while gallantly leading that gallant regiment; the 15th infantry under Lt. Col. Howard and Major Woods, with Capt. Chase, whose company gallantly carried the redoubt, midway up the acclivity; Col. Clarke’s brigade, (Worth’s division) consisting of the 5th , 8th, and part of the 6th regiment of infantry, commanded respectively, by Cap. Chapman, Major Montgomery, and Lieut. Edward Johnson-the latter specially noticed, with Liets. Longstreet (badly wounded-advancing-colors in hand) Picket and Merchant-the last three of the 8the infantry; -portions of the United States marines, New York, South Carolina, and 2d Pennsylvania volunteers, which delayed with their division (Quitman’s) by the hot engagements below, arrived just in time to participate in the assault of the heights-particularly a detachment, under Lieut. Reid, New York volunteers, consisting of a company of the same, with one of the marines; and another detachment, a portion of the storming party (Twiggs’ division serving with Quitman) under ST. Steele, 2d infantry-after the fall of Lieut. Ganit, 7th infantry.

           In this connexion, it is but just to recall the decisive effect of the heavy batteries, Nos. 1,2,3, and 4, commanded by those excellent officers-Capt. Drum, 4th artillery, assisted by Lieuts. Benjamin and Porter of his own company; Capt. Brooks, and Lieut. Anderson, 2d artillery; assisted by Lieut. Russell, 4th infantry, a volunteer; Lieuts. Hagner and Stone, of the ordinance and Lieut. Andrews, 3d artillery-the whole superintended by Captain Huger, chief of ordinance with this army-an officer distinguished by every kind of merit. The mountain howitzer battery, under Lieut. Reno, of the ordinance, deserves, also, to be particularly mentioned. Attached to the voltigeurs, to follow the movements of that regiment, and again it won applause.

In adding to the list of individuals of conspicuous merit, I must limit myself to a few of the many names which might be enumerated: Capt. Hooker, assistant adjutant general, who won special applause, successively, in the staff of Pillow and Cadwallader; Lieut. Lovell, 4th artillery, (wounded,) chief of Quitman’s staff; Capt. Page, assistant adjutant general, (wounded,) and Lieut. Hammond, 3d artillery, both of Shields’ staff, and Lt. Van Dorn, (7th infantry,) aid-de-camp to Brig. Gen. Smith.

           Those operations all occurred on the west, south-east, and heights of Chapultepec. To the north, and at the base of the mound, inaccessible on that side, the 11th infantry, under Lieut. Col. Herbert, the 14th, under Col. Trousdale, and Capt. Magruder’s field battery, 1st artillery-one section advanced under Lieut. Jackson-all of Pillow’s division-had, at the same time some spirited affairs against superior numbers, driving the enemy from a battery in the road and capturing a gun. In these, the officers and commander, though twice, wounded, continued on duty until the heights were carried.

           Early in the morning of the 13th I repeated the orders of the night before to Major Gen. Worth, to be, with his division, at hand, to support the movement of Major Gen. Pillow from our left. The latter seems to have word for the entire division, standing, momentarily in reserve, and Worth sent him Col. Clark’s brigade. The call, if not unnecessary, was a least, from the circumstances, unknown to me at the time; for, soon observing that the very large body of the enemy, in the road, in from of Major Gen. Quitman’s right, was receiving a half to the east-I sent instructions to Worth, on our opposite flank, to turn Chapultepec with his decision, and to proceed, cautiously, by the road at it northern base, in order, of not met by very superior numbers, to threaten or attack, in rear, that body of the enemy. The movement, it was also believed, could not fail to distract and to intimidate the enemy generally.

           Worth promptly advanced with his remaining brigade-Col. Garland’s-Lieut. Col. C.F. Smith’s light battalion, Lieut. Col. Duncan’s field batter-under Major Sumner, which I had just ordered up to join in the movement.

Having turned the forest on the west, and arriving opposite to the north centre of Chapultepec, Worth came up with the troops in the road, under Colonel Trousdale, and aided by a flank movement of a part of Garland’s brigade in taking the one gun breastwork, then under the fire of Lieutenant Jackson’s section of Captain Magruder’s field battery. Continuing to advance, division passed Chapultepec attacking the right of the enemy’s line resting on that road, about the moment of the general retreat consequent upon the capture of the castle phrase and its outworks.

Arriving some minutes later, and ascending to the top of the castle, the whole field, to the east lay plainly under my view.

There are two routes from Chapultepec to the capital-the one on the right entering the same gate, Belen, with the road from the south, vie Piedad; and the other, obliquing to the left, to intersect the great western, or San Cosme road, in a suburb outside of the gate of San Cosme.

Each of the routes (an elevated causeway) presents a double roadway on the sides of an aqueduct of strong masonry, and great height, resting on open arches and massive pillars, which, together, afford fine points both for attack and defense. The side-ways of both aqueducts are, moreover, defended by many strong breastworks at the gates, and before reaching them. As we had expected, we found the four tracks unusually dry and solid for the season.

Worth and Quitman were prompt in pursuing the retreating enemy-the former by the San Cosme aqueduct, and the latter along that of Belen. Each had now advanced some hundred yards.

Deeming it all important to profit by our successes, and the consequent dismay of the enemy, which could not be otherwise than general, I hastened to dispatch from Chapultepec-for Clarke’s brigade, and then Cadwallader’s, to the support of Worth, and gave orders that the necessary heavy guns should follow. Pierce’s brigade was at the same time, sent to Quitman and in the course of the afternoon I cause some additional siege pieces to be; added to his train. Then, after designating the 15th infantry, under Lieutenant Colonel Howard-Morgan, the colonel, has been disabled by a wound at Churubuseo-as the garrison of Chapultepec, and giving directions for the care of the prisoners of war, the captured ordinance and ordnance stores, I proceeded to join the advance of Worth within the suburb, and beyond the turn at the junction of the aqueduct with the great highway from the west to the gate of San Cosme.

At this junction of roads, we first passed one of those formidable systems of city defenses, spoken of above, and it had not a gun! -a strong proof-1. That the enemy had expected us to fail in the attack upon Chapultepec, even if we meant any more than a feint; 2. That, in either case, we designed in his belief, to return and double our forces against the southern gates-a delusion dept up by the active demonstrations of Twiggs and the forces posted on that side, and 3. That advancing rapidly from the reduction of Chapultepec, the enemy had not time to shift gun-our previous capture had left him, comparatively, but few-from the southern gates.

With those distinguished works, I found our troops engaged in a street fight against the enemy posted in gardens, at windows, and on house tops-all flat, with parapets. Worth ordered forward the mountain howitzer of Cadwallader’s brigade, preceded by skirmishers and prisoners, with pick-axes and crowbars, to force windows and doors, or to burrow through walls. The assailants were soon in an equality of position fatal to the enemy. By I o’clock in the evening, Worth had carried two batteries in this suburb. According to my instructions, he here posted guards and sentinels, and places his troops under shelter for the night. There was but one more obstacle-the San Cosme gate (custom house) between him and the great square in front of the cathedral and palace-the heart of the city; and that barrier, it was known could not, by daylight, resist our siege guns thirty minutes.

I had gone back to the foot of Chapultepec, the point from which the two aqueducts begin to diverge, some hours earlier, in order to be near that new depot, and in east communication with Quitman and Twiggs as well as with Worth.

From this point I ordered all detachments and stragglers to their respective corps, then advance; sent to Quitman additional siege guns, ammunition, entrenching tools; directed Twiggs’ remaining brigade (Riley’s) from Piedad, to support Worth and Capt. Steptoe’s field battery, also at Piedad, to join Quitman’s division.

I had been, from the first, well aware that the western, or San Cosme, was the less difficult route to the centre and conquest of the capital, and therefore, intended that Quitman should only maneuver and threaten the Belen or southwestern gate, in order to favor the main attack by Worth-knowing that the strong defenses at the Belen were directly under the guns of the much stronger fortress, called the citadel, just within. Both of theses defenses of the enemy were also witting easy supporting distance from the San Angel (or Nino Perdido ) and San Antonio gates. Hence the greater support, in numbers, given to Worth’s movement as the main attack.

Those views I repeatedly, in the course of the day, communicated to Maj. Gen. Quitman; but, being in hot pursuit-gallant himself, and ably supported by Brigadier Gens. Shields and Smith-Shields, badly wounded before Chapultepec, and refusing to retire-as well as by all the officers and men of the column-Quitman continued to press forward, under flank and direct fires; - carried an intermediate battery of two funs, and then the gate, before two o’clock in the afternoon, but no without proportionate loss, increased by his steady maintenance of that position.

There, of the heavy battery-4th artillery-Capt. Drum and Lieut. Benjamin were mortally wounded and Lieut. Porter, its third in rank, slightly. The loss of those two most distinguished officers the army will mourn. Lieutenants J.B. Morange and Wm. Canty, of the South Carolina volunteers, also of high merit, fell on the same occasion-besides many of our bravest non-commissioned officers and men-particularly in Captain drum’s veteran company. I cannot, in this place, give names of numbers; but full returns of the killed and wounded of all corps, in their recent operations, will accompany this report.

Quitman, within the city-adding several dew defenses to the position he had won, and sheltering his corps as well as practicable-now awaited the return of daylight under the guns of the formidable citadel yet to be subdued.

At about 4 o’clock next morning (sept.4) a deputation of the ayuntamiento (city council) waited upon me to report that the federal government and the army of Mexico had fled from the capital some three hours before, and to demand terms of capitulation in favor of the church, the citizens and the municipal authorities. I promptly replied, that I would sign no capitulation; that the city had been virtually in our possess from the time of the lodgments effected by Worth and Quitman the day before; that I regretted t he silent escape of the Mexican army; that I should levy upon the city a moderate contribution, for special purposes, and the that American army should come under no terms, not self-imposed-such only as its own honor, the dignity of the United States, and the spirit of the age, should, in my opinion, imperiously demand and impose.

For the terms so imposed I refer the department to subsequent general orders. Nos. 287, and 289, (paragraphs 7,8, and 9 of the latter,) copies of which are herewith transmitted.

At the termination of the interview with the city deputation, I communicated, about daylight, order to Worth and Quitman to advance slowly and cautiously (to guard against treachery) towards the heard of the city and to occupy its stronger and more commanding points. Quitman proceeded to the great plaza or square, planted guards and hoisted the colors of the United States on the national palace, containing the halls of congress and executive apartments of federal Mexico. In this grateful service Quitman night have been anticipated by Worth, but for my express order halting the latter at the head of the Alameda -a green park-within three squares of that goal of general ambition. The capital, however, was not taken by any one or two corps, but by the talent, the science, the gallantry, the prowess of this entire army. In the glorious conquest, all had contributed-early and powerfully-the killed and wounded, and the fit for duty-at Vera Cruz, Cerro Gordo, Contreras, San Antonio, Churubuseo-three battles-The Molmos del Rey and Chapultepec-as much as those who fought at the gates of Belen and San Cosme.

Soon after we entered, and were in the act of occupying the city, a fire was opened upon us from the flat roofs of the houses, from the windows and corners of the streets, by some 2,000 convicts, liberated the night before by the flying government, joined by perhaps as many Mexican soldiers, who has disbanded themselves and thrown off their uniforms. This unlawful war lasted more than twenty four hours, in spite of the exertions of the municipal authorities, and was not put down till we had lost many men, including several officers, killed or wounded, and punished the miscreants. Their objects were to gratify national hatred; and in the general alarm and confusion to plunder the wealthy inhabitants, particularly the deserted houses. But families are now generally returning; business of every kind had been resumed, and the city is already tranquil and cheerful under the admirable conduct-with exceptions very few and trifling-of our gallant troops.

This army has been more disgusted than surprised that, by some sinister purpose on the part of certain individuals at home, its numbers have bee, generally almost trebled our public papers-beginning at Washington.

Leaving, as we all feared, inadequate garrisons at Ver Cruz, Perote, and Puebla-with much larger hospitals; and being obliged most reluctantly from the same cause-general paucity of numbers-to abandon Jalapa, we march [August 7-10.] from Puebla, with only 10,738 tank and file. This number includes the garrison of Jalapa, and the 2,429 men brought up by Brig. Gen. Pierce Aug. 6.

At Contreras, Churubuseo, &t., [Aug. 20,] we had about 8,497 men engaged-after deducting the garrison of San Augustin, (our general depot) the intermediate sick and the dead; at the Molinos del Rey (Sept. *) but three brigades, with some cavalry and artillery, making in all 3,251 men-were in the battle; in the day days Sept12 and 13-out whole operating force, after deducting, the recent killed, wounded, and sick, together with the garrison of Miscoae (the then general depot) and that of Tatcubaya, was but 7.180; and finally, after deduction the new garrison of Chapultepec, with the killed and wounded of the two days, we took possession-Sept. 14-of this great capital with less than 6.000 men! And I reassert, upon accumulated and unquestionable evidence, that, in not one of those conflicts was this army opposed by fewer than three and a half times its numbers-in several of them, by yet greater excess.

I recapitulate our losses since we arrived in the basin of Mexico:

August 19, 20-Killed 137, including 14 officers. Wounded 877, including 62 officers. Missing (probably killed) 38 rank and file. Total 1,052.

Sept. 8-Killed 116, including 9 officers. Wounded 665, including 49 officers. Missing 18, rank and file. Total 780.

Sept. 12, 13, 14. -Killed 130, including 10 officers. Wounded 703, including 68 officers. Missing 20 rank and file. Total 862.

Grand total of losses, 2,703, including 383 officers.

On the other hand, this small force has beaten on the same occasions, in view of their capital, the whole Mexican arms, of (at the beginning) thirty odd thousand men-posted, always, in chosen position, behind entrenchments, or more formidable defenses of nature and art; killed or wounded of that number, more than 7,000 officers, and men, taken 3,730 prisoners, on-seventh officers, including 13 generals, of whom 3 had been presidents of this republic; captured more than 20 colors and standards, 75 pieces of ordnance, besides 57 wall –pieces, 20,000 small arms, an immense quantity of shot, shells, powder, &t., &t.

Of that enemy, once so formidable in numbers, appointments, artillery, &t., twenty odd thousand have disbanded themselves in despair, leaving, as is known, not more than three fragments-the largest about 2,500-now wandering in different directions, without magazines a military chest, and living at free quarters upon their own people.

Gen. Santa Anna, himself a fugitive, is believed to be on the point of resigning the chief magistracy and escaping to neutral Guatemala. A new president, no doubt, will soon be declared, and the federal congress is expected to re-assemble at Queretaro, 125 miles north of this on the Zacatecas road, some time in October. I have seen and given safe conduct through the city to several of its members. The government will find itself without resources, no army, no arsenals, no magazines, and but little revenue, internal or external. Still, such is the obstinacy, or rather infatuation, of this people, that it is very doubtful whether the new authorities will dare to sue for peace on the terms which in the recent negotiations, were made known by our minister…

In conclusion, I beg to enumerate, once more, with due commendation and thanks, the distinguished staff officers, general and personal, who, in our last operations in front of the enemy, accompanied me, and communicated orders to every point and through every danger. Lieut. Col. Hitchcock, acting inspector general; Major Turnbull and Lieut. Hardcastle, topographical engineers; Major Kirby, chief paymaster; Capt. Irwin, chief quartermaster; Copt. Grayson, chief commissary; Capt. H.L. Scott, chief in the adjutant general’s department; Lieut. Williams, aid-de-camp; Lieut. Lay, military secretary, and Maj. J. P. Gaines, Kentucky cavalry, volunteer aide-de-camp. Captain Lee, engineer, so constantly distinguished, also bore important order from me (Sept. 13) until he fainted from a wound and the loss of two night’s sleep at the batteries. Lieuts. Beauregard, Stevens, and Lower, all wounded, were employed with the division, and Lieuts. G.W. Smith and G. C. McClellan with the company of sappers and miners. Those five lieutenants of engineers, like their captain, won the admiration of all about them. The ordnance officers, Capt. Huger, Lieuts. Hagner, Stone, and Reno were highly effective and distinguished at the several batteries; and I must add that Capt. McKinstry, assistant quartermaster, at the close of the operations, executed several important commissions for me as a special volunteer.

Surgeon Gen. Lawson, and the medical staff generally, were skilful and untiring in and out of fire, in ministering to the numerous wounded.

To illustrate the operations in the basin, I enclose two beautiful drawing prepared under the direction of Major Turnbull, mostly from actual survey.

I have the honor to be, sir, with high respect, you most obedient servant.

                                                                                                                                           WINFIELD SCOTT
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NNR 73.186-188 Nov. 20, 1847 Gen. Gideon Johnson Pillow's official report on the actions of the forces in his command

Headquarters Third Division
Mixcoac
August, 24, 1847

Captain:  In compliance with the order of the general in-chief, I moved with my division, consisting of the 9th, 11th, 12th, 14th, and 15th infantry, and the voltigeur regiment, and the field battery of Captain Magruder and the howitzer battery under Lieutenant Callender, early on the morning of the 13th instant, and, opened the road over the mountain on the route indicated by Captain Lee of the engineer corps, assisted by Lieutenants Beauregard, Stephens, Tower, Smith McClellan, and Foster. -Brigadier General Twiggs, with his division, reported to me for duty, under instructions from the general-in-chief, whilst my own division was moving over the mountain.

Perceiving that the enemy was in large fore on the opposite side of the valley, with heavy batteries of artillery commanding the only roll, through a vast plain of broken volcanic lava, rent into deep chasms and fissures, effectually preventing any advance except under his direct fire, I resolved to give him battle. For this purpose I ordered General Twiggs to advance with his finely disciplined division, and with one brigade to assault the enemy’s works in front, and with the other to let in his left flank, and assail it in reverse. Captain Magruder’s fine field battery and Lieutenant Callender’s howitzer battery (both of which constitute part of my division) were placed at the disposal of Brig. Gen. Twiggs.

This officer, in executing my order of attack, directed Brevet Brig. General Smith to move with his brigade upon the enemy’s from, whilst Colonel Riley, with his, was ordered to turn to his left and assail him in rear. To sustain the movements, Brig. General Cadwallader was ordered to advance with his brigade and support Colonel Riley, and Brigadier General Pierce, with his command, to support the column moving upon the enemy’s front, under Brigadier Gen. Smith. This last command was soon closely engaged with the enemy, as were also the batteries of Captain Magruder and Lieutenant Callender.

Col. Riley’s command, having now crossed the case broken up plain of lava, passing the village on the right, and whilst in t he act of turning the enemy’s left, was confronted by several thousand lancers who advanced to the charge, when a well directed fire from the brigade twice compelled them to fall back in disorder, under cover of their artillery. About this time, Brigadier General Cadwallader’s command has also crossed the plain, when some 5.000 or 6,000 troops of the enemy were observed moving rapidly from the direction of the capital to the field of action. Colonel Morgan, with his large and fine regiment, which I had caused to be detached from the rear of Pierce’s brigade, was now ordered to the support of Cadwallader by direction of the general-in-chief, who had now arrived upon the field.

This general, having discovered this large force moving upon his right flank and to the rear, with decided military tact and promptitude threw back his right wing and confronted the enemy, with the intention to give him battle, notwithstanding the overwhelming force.

This portion of the enemy’s force moved steadily forward until a conflict seemed inevitable, when Col. Morgan’s regiment having reached this part of the field. Presented a front so formidable as to induce the enemy to change his purpose, and draw off to the right and rear of his former position.

During all this time, the battle raged fiercely between the other portions of the two armies, with a constant and destructive fire of artillery. Magruder’s battery, from its prominent position, was much disabled by the heavy shot of the enemy, as were also Callender’s howitzers. A part of the enemy’s artillery has been turned upon Riley’s command, whilst actively engaged with large bodies of lancers; but even the combined attacks could only delay the purpose of the gallant old veteran and his noble brigade.

The general-in-chief having arrive upon the field with General Shields’s brigade of volunteers-consisting of the New York and S. Carolina regiments-ordered them to move up to the support of the forces under Brigadier General Cadwallader; but it had now grown so late in the evening that Gen. Shields did not get into position until after dark. Night having come on, (but not until entirely dark.) this fierce conflict was suspended, to be renewed on the morrow.

The battle all this day was conducted under by immediate orders, and within my view; a short time before sunset, having previously engaged in the fight all the forces at my disposal, myself and staff started to cross the plain, to join in the terrible struggle on the immediate field of action.

On my way hither I was joined by Brig. General Twiggs and staff; but the darkness of the light, rendered by more obscure by a heavy rain, caused us to miss our way through the broken up lava, and to wander to the close neighborhood of the works of the enemy; and it was not until the shrill blasts of his bugles apprized us of our position, that we became satisfied we could not reach, during the night, our destination. We then returned and reported to the general-in-chief.

During the night Brigadier Gen. Smith disposed the forces present to renew the action at daylight, and complete the original order of attack; before dark, however, the enemy had placed two pieces of artillery on a height nearly west of Cadwallader’s position which had opened with several discharges upon his forces. Brig. General Smith, just before daylight, moved a portion of the forces up the ravine to the rear of the enemy’s position, so as to be within easy turning distance of his left flank, leaving Col. Ransom with the 9th and 12th infantry to make a strong diversion in front. The day being sufficiently advanced, the order was given by Brig. Gen. Smith for the general assault; when, Gen. Smith’s command upon the left and Colonel Riley with his brigade upon the right, supported by General Cadwallader with his command, moved up with the utmost gallantry, under the furious fire from the enemy’s batteries, which were immediately carried; a large number of prisoners were taken, including four generals, with twenty-three out of the original twenty-eight original twenty-eight pieces of artillery, and a large amount of ammunition and public property.

The retreating enemy was compelled to pass through a severe fire, both from the assaulting forces and Cadwallader’s brigade as well as Shields’s Command, who had remained at the position occupied by the former General the previous night with the purpose of covering the movement upon the battery. -The forces of the enemy engaged at this place, including the reinforcements of the preceding evening constituted a force of about 126,000 men, 5,000 of whom were cavalry; the whole were under the immediate command of General Santa Anna in person, assisted by Gens. Valencia, Salas, Blanco, Mendoza, Garcia, and others; the last four mentioned were taken prisoners.

Our forces, consisting of my division, Generals Twiggs’ and Shields’ commands, amounted to about 4,500 men. The loss of the enemy, as nearly as I can ascertain, was between 21,500 and 2,000 killed and wounded, and eight hundred prisoners, including the four generals previously mentioned, four colonels, thirty captains, and many officers of inferior grades.

The reports of t he different corps engaged in this part of the battle, which were temporarily under my command, being properly made to their respective chiefs, and not have come before me, I am unable to give our loss. Though many brave and gallant souls have fallen, it is believed, however, when the strength of the enemy’s position, his enormously heavy artillery, and his superior forces are considered, our loss is comparatively small. It is a matter of just pride and exultation that amount the guns captured in the batteries were the two pieces taken by the Mexican army at Buena Vista, belonging to Captain Washington’s battery, (at that battle under the immediate command of Capt. O’Brien,) and it is no less remarkable than gratifying that the good fortune and honor or recapturing them belong to the 4th regiment of artillery, of which Captain Washington’s company forms a part.

Throughout this engagement every corps engaged the enemy wherever he was met, with the most determined resolution, and behaved with a degree of gallantry rarely equaled, certainly never surpassed in any engagement known to the American arms-Brig. Gen. Twiggs, next in command to myself, and charged with the immediate execution of my order of battle, was distinguished by the judgment, promptitude, and courage displayed by him throughout the engagement.

Brigadier General Smith, the senior officer who remained across the plain, and disposed the forces for the final assault, deserved and will doubtless received the thanks of the army and the honor due to the constancy of purpose and daring which distinguished his conduct on this great occasion. Brig. Gen. Cadwallader displayed great judgment and high military skill and heroic courage in the manner in which he met the sudden and trying emergency, when all parties were in great anxiety for the safety of his comparatively small command, when about to be assailed by the overwhelming reinforcement of the enemy on the preceding evening; and also in the manner in which he brought up his command to the support of the gallant Riley. This veteran officer distinguished himself no less by the manner in which he contended almost single-handed with greatly superior numbers on the first day, then his gallant and successful charge upon the works of the enemy on the second.

Brigadier General Pierce, though badly injured by the fall of his horse while gallantly leading his brigade into the thickest of the battle on the 19th, did not quit the field, but continued in command of his brigade, two regiments of which-the 9th and 12th, under the immediate command of the gallant Colonel Ransom and Lieut. Colonel Bonham on the 19th, and Captain Woods on the 20th -assailed the enemy’s works in front at daylight, with great intrepidity, and contributed much to the glorious consummation of the work so handsomely commenced on the preceding day.

The commanders of regiments and inferior officers all behaved with gallantry no less distinguished, though in subordinate positions to those named above as commanding divisions and brigades; but the space proper for this report will not admit of further details.

In justice, however, to officers of this class, I beg to call the attention of the commander-in-chief to the detailed reports of the officers of the several corps engaged in this action. It is due to Capt. Magruder and Lieut. Callender, who have no other organization than as parts of my division, to testify to their great gallantry and daring, the proof of which is found in their losses, and in the fact that both of their batteries were much cut up by the terrible fire of the enemy’s heavy guns. During the cannonade, Lieut. T. P. Johnston, whilst gallantly serving the advanced section of Magruder’s battery, fell mortally wounded; and Lieut. Callender, in command of the howitzer, at nearly the same time received so severe a wound as to disable him from commanding his pieces, which consequently devolved upon Lieut. Reno, of the ordnance corps, who for the remainder of the battle, conducted the service of his battery with equal gallantry and judgment.

I cannot in justice omit to notice the valuable services of Captain Lee, of the engineer corps, whose distinguished merit and gallantry deserve the highest praise, and who, in the execution of his duties, was ably assisted by his assistants previously mentioned. They were important aids in the combination of elements brought to bear with success, no less triumphant than glorious to our arms, upon the most powerful collection of artillery (supported by a forces of four to one of our forces) every successfully assailed in any battle upon this continent.

Having myself crossed the plain and reached this bloody theatre as the last scene of the conflict was closing, as soon as suitable dispositions were made to secure the fruits of the victory I resolved upon pursuing the discomfited enemy, in which I found that Brigadier Generals Twiggs and Smith had already anticipated by having commenced the movement. At the same time a appraised the general-in –chief of my advance, and requested his authority to proceed with all the forces still under my command, and sweep around the valley, and attack the strong works at San Antonio in the rear, and requested the cooperation of Gen. Worth’s division, on an assault of that work in front, which the general-in-chief readily granted and directed accordingly-having, as I learn, upon being advised of the victory, previously given the order. I had moved rapidly forward in execution of this purpose until I reached the town of Coyoacan, where the command was halted to await the arrival of the general-in-chief, who I was informed was close at hand. Upon his arrival the important fact was ascertained that the enemy’s forces at San Antonio, having perceived that the great battery had been last and the total defeat and rout of their forces at Contreras, by which their rear was opened to assault, had abandoned the work at San Antonio, and fallen back upon their strong entrenchments in rear at Churubuseo.

Upon the receipt of this information the general-in-chief immediately ordered Brig. General Twiggs’ division to move forward and attack the work on the enemy’s right, and directed me to move with Cadwallader’s brigade and assault the tete du pont on its left. Moving rapidly in execution of this order, I had great difficulty in passing the command over some marsh fields and wide and deep ditches, filled with mud and water. I was compelled to dismount in order to cross the obstacles, which were gallantly overcome by the troops, when the whole force gained the main causeway; at which place I met General Worth, with the advance is his division, moving upon the same work. It was then proposed our united divisions should move on to the assault of the strong tete du pont, which with its heavy artillery enfolded the causeway. This being determined upon, the troops of the two divisions moved rapidly to attack the work on its left flank, and notwithstanding the deadly fire of grape and roundshot from the work, which swept the roadway with furious violence, on and onward the gallant and noble troops moved with impetuous valor and terrible and long was the bloody conflict. But the result could not be doubted. At length the loud and enthusiastic cheer of the Angle Saxon soldier told that all was well and the American colors waved in triumph over the bloody scene.

The larger portion of General Worth’s veteran division was engaged in this fierce conflict, together with the 11th and 14th regiments of infantry, constituting a part of my division, under the commands respectively of Lieut. Colonel Graham and Colonel Trousdale. To the 14th infantry belongs the honor of capturing a flag on this fort, and taking a large number of prisoners in the fort, among whom was the body of deserters.

The voltigeur regiment, then under command of Lieutenant Colonel Johnston, had been leg on by my adjutant general, Captain Hooker, to the assault of the strong fortification on the right, with which General Twiggs’s division was hotly engaged; but finding the artillery of the enemy, as well as his small arms, bore directly on his advance, which was entirely uncovered, the regiment was placed in rear of a church, where it remained until it received an order from myself in person to move to the assault in conjunction with the lively play of Duncan’s battery. This fine regiment was rapidly executing this order now under Colonel Andrews, and led by General Cadwallader, when that work surrendered, and was taken possession of by General Twiggs’s division.

General Worth, (to whose great gallantry during the action it affords me pleasure to bear witness,) with his division, and myself with the 11th and 14th regiments of my command, pressed rapidly on in pursuit of the flying enemy, until we had arrived with our commands nearly under the fire of the guns of the enemy, planted in the suburbs of the capital, where we were overtaken by an order from the general-in-chief to call off our troops from further pursuit. During this movement I met with Colonels Ransom’s and Morgan’s regiments, 12th infantry under Captain Wood, and the howitzer battery under Lieutenant Reno, parts of my division, forming General Pierce’s brigade, which had been moved by order of the general-in-chief, under command of General Pierce, against a large body of the enemy to the right and rear of the main work, where they had been, in conjunction with Gen. Shields’s brigade, engaged in a fierce open field fight with a large force.

Brig. Gen. Pierce, though still suffering severely from his injury of the preceding day, had nevertheless been on duty, and in command of this brigade during the day, and until a few moments before, when he had fainted from pain and exhaustion, and had been carried from the field. In the last engagement, the gallant Col. Morgan was wounded severely, when the command of the 15th regiment devolved on Lieut. Col. Howard.

During this long-continued battle, which lasted nearly two days, every part of the army in the field participated in the engagement. The consequence was, that all share justly in the honor and glory of the brilliant victory. I cannot distinguish between the conduct of the commanders of regiments in my division: they all acted a distinguished part, as did their field and company officers; though the circumstances of battle caused Ransom’s, Morgan’s Graham’s and Trousdale’s regiments, and the 12th infantry, under command of Lieut. Colonel Bonham of the 19th and of Captain Wood on the 20th, to be selective engaged. My division was composed entirely of recruits whom the exigencies of the service had not allowed time to become well disciplined; but they emulated in the deeds of valor and constancy the veterans of the old divisions; and I am proud to testify to the general-in-chief my high appreciation of their good conduct.

I cannot withhold the expression of my sense of the deep obligations I am under for the success and honor due to my command and my two gallant brigadier generals, whose promptitude, skill, and daring were equal to every emergency, and who, in the absence of discipline in their commands, met and overcame every obstacle and led on their brigades to honor and distinction.

I will be pardoned, I trust, by the general-in-chief for travelling beyond the legitimate bounds of a report to notice becomingly the patriotic conduct of the pious chaplain of Col. Clarke’s brigade. Whilst the battle raged furiously, my column had great difficulty in crossing a deep ditch without damaging their ammunition. The worthy chaplain, besides encouraging the passing soldiers to their work, actively set the example of filling the excavations, so as to enable the troops to press onward to the assault. My medical staff (particularly Surgeon Jordon, though infirm and aged, and Surgeon Slade) distinguished themselves by their great activity and energy in keeping with the column throughout the action, and attending to the wounded and dying on the spot where they fell, as did also the entire medical staff of my division.

During the arduous duties of my command on the 19th, my personal staff being all engaged on duty, I was compelled to make use of the services of some of my friends my civil life among these, I am indebted to Mr. Kendall for his assistance in promptly bearing and delivering orders; also to Paymaster Burns I express my indebtedness for his valuable services; to Capt. O’Hara, chief of the quartermaster’s department of my division, I am especially under obligations for his assistance, as well as to Lieutenant Davis, of the 14th regiment, acting ordnance officer.

My personal staff-Captain Hooker, my adjutant general and chief of my staff; Lieutenant Rams, 4th artillery, and Lieutenant Ripley, 2nd artillery, aids-de-camp; and Passed Midshipmen Robt. C. Rodgers, volunteer aid-de-camp-greatly distinguished themselves by their fearless and gallant conduct, as well as by their judgment and skill in leading forward my different commands and placing them in position for effective service throughout these long and desperate conflicts. I trust the general-in-chief will deem their conduct worthy in his special notice.

I must also notice the extraordinary activity and gallant conduct of Lieutenant Irons, 1 st artillery, aid-de-cam to Gen. Cadwallader, who received a wound, probably mortal, whilst in the discharge of his duties.

Lieutenant Caldwell, of the marines, on duty with my division as senior officer of the commissary department, rendered invaluable services in his department, as well on the long march to this place as during the long-continued action. Lieutenant Reno, in command of the howitzer battery on the 20th , rendered valuable services under the orders of Brigadier General Pierce in his engagements with the enemy.

Generals Pierce and Cadwallader speak in the highest terms of the good conduct and gallantry of the officers of their respective staffs; and, concurring fully in their expression of opinion, I beg to call them to the special notice of the general-in-chief.

Captain Mason, of the engineer corps, rendered me important services in indicating position for portions of my command, during the action of the 20th at Churubuseo. Lieut. Rams, my aid-de-camp, was stunned, by the fragments of stone thrown from a wall by a cannon shot-at the same place.

Captain Kearney, of 1st dragoons, commanding a squadron composed of his own and Captain McReynolds’s companies, was on duty with my division during the action, and made his way with great difficulty across the wide and marshy fields and deep ditches. Seeing no field for the action of his fine squadron until the tete do pont was carried, I held him in reserve. I them let him loose. Furious was his charge upon the retreating foe, dealing death with the unerring sabre until he reached the very suburbs of the city, and drew from the enemy’s batteries at the garita a heavy and destructive fire, by which the gallant captain lost his left arm. Lieut. J.L. Graham, of 10th infantry, serving with Capt. Kearney, was wounded in the left arm; and Captain McReynolds, 3d dragoons, who nobly sustained the daring movements of his squadron commander, was also wounded in the left arm. Both of these find companies sustained severe losses in their rank and file also.

By detachments to secure prisoners taken in the first engagements at Contreras, and captured public property, my force was reduced to about 1,800 men. My total loss in killed, wounded, and missing, is 211 officers and privates. The loss of the enemy in this last section I have no means of ascertaining. The whole field and road for miles was covered with the dead and dying. In these engagements, constituting one continued battle, the enemy himself estimated his loss in killed, wounded, and missing, at about 7,000. This includes prisoners taken by our forces.

Among the many gallant officers whose loss we have to deplore is the brace Major Mills, of the 15th infantry, who, after having participated most actively in the fierce struggle in which that regiment had its colonel wounded and one-third of its force cut down, joined Capt. Kearney’s squadron in pursuit of the enemy, and was killed by the fire of the enemy’s artillery at the very garita of the city.

Attended is a list of killed and wounded of my division.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient serv’t,

GID. J. PILLOW,
 MAJOR GEN. UNITED STATES ARMY

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NNR 73.188-189 Nov. 20, 1847 Gen. William Jenkins Worth's official report of action at Churubusco and before the gates of Mexico

Report of Major General Worth.
Headquarters First Division

Tacubaya, August 23, 1847

           Sir:  In obedience to the instructions of the General in chief, I have the honor to report that the first division took position on the 18th inst. On the cause way leading from San Antonio, distant fifteen hundred yards from its well fortified front, which by means of heavy guns, commanded the approach through the whole length and at various angles of the direct route.

           A glance discovered the impracticability of assault in front without battering in breach, and the secondary means of scaling ladders, fascines, &c. Reconnoissance was immediately commenced, and continued on the 19th, to determine a route for turning the whole system of defence by the enemy’s right. This accomplished, with satisfactory results, acting under the general instructions and discretion granted by the general in chief, a movement, delayed by the necessary temporary withdrawal of one brigade to sustain the division occupied in the direction of Contreras, was commenced at 11 o’clock a. m., as follows:  The 2d brigade, composed of the 5th, 6th, and 8th infantry, commanded by colonel Clarke, 6th , supported by the light battalion, composed of two companies from the 2d artillery, and one from each of the 5th and 8th regiments of infantry, under Brevet Lieut. Col Smith; the whole under the guidance of Captain Mason, corps of engineers, assisted by Lieut. Hardcastle, topographical engineers—moved to the left and divergent from the causeway, taking such a direction as to strike the high road from San Antonio, with the double object of enveloping the right of the enemy’s position, and at the same time cutting off his retreat towards the capital. Lieut. Col. Duncan’s artillery (light battery) and the 1st brigade, composed of the 2d and 3d artillery and 4th infantry, commanded by Brevet Colonel Gartland, was advanced to an angle in the causeway which partially marked it from the enemy’s direct fire, and held in readiness for a rapid direct movement when the 2d brigade should become engaged, and have attracted attention to that quarter. Subsequently the 4th infantry was placed on the left of the causeway, and instructed to move by a flank, under guidance of Assistant Adj’t General Mack H, between that route and the 2d brigade, either to sustain the latter, or, if opportunity offered, rush upon one of the batteries. Discovering these dispositions, and particularly the movement of the 2d brigade, and doubtless somewhat influenced by the operations going on in the direction of Contreras, the enemy sent troops to check out the advance of our left, and commenced an evacuation of the works. After having brushed away the troops in the front, Col Clarke’s command approached a point on the high road occupied by the enemy’s retreating column, and by a rapid movement, particularly of two companies of th 5th infantry, under Captains Morrill and M. Phail, commanded by Lieut. Colonel Scott, guarded by Captain Mason, cut this column nearly in the center; advanced portion of it moving upon Churubusco; (where we shortly afterwards discovered the enemy’s main array of battle,)and the remainder, about two thousand in number, under General Bravo, with four pieces of artillery, retreated upon Dolores. The instant Clarke’s fire opened, Garland was instructed to advance rapidly in column and attempt a direct assult, previously detaching a company in advance; which, by drawing the enemy’s fire, might discover the magnitude of his batteries in that quarter; but it appeared that the guns at that point had been hastily withdrawn, in the hope of getting them away. Garland’s column was soon in, unresisted, and rapidly passed through the works, and on the high road to the capital. Some six hundred yards beyond the works the division was reunited and, disregarding the force retreating upon Dolores, the whole moved rapidly and in good order to the higher object. Approaching Churubsco—that place being on the left and near the road—it was discovered to be strongly occupied with troops, and protected by batteries and infantry defences. Further in advance was discovered a regular field work, garnished with heavy guns, and crowded with troops. Between the two, a continuous line of infantry; and on the left and rear of the work. (tete de point,) a dense line of infantry as far as the eye could reach. On getting within cannon shot, and so of musketry, the enemy opened with effect upon the head of the battalion. Garland’s brigade was now thrown promptly to the right of, and in line of columns obliquely to the road; which order would, in its advance and deployment, strike the enemy’s line at a like angle; the light battalion on its right. The 2d brigade was ordered to move also to the right (except the 6th infantry,) and by a flank parallel to the road, while the 6th infantry was directed to advance by the high road and storm the tete de pont in front. The field to the right was filled with standing corn, while masked large bodies of th enemy, and from whose tire, in consequence, every command suffered greatly in the first instance. Running over these, Garland’s brigade was soon engaged with their more regular lines and masses. Clarke’s, as soon as it could be got in the position above described—and it came at double quick time—became engaged in like manner. The 6th regiment of infantry moved with a steadiness worthy of its established reputation, to assault the work in front, as directed; but being exposed to a combined fire of grape, cannister, and musketry, which raked the road, it was of necessity, momentarily checked.

           Meantime, the 8th and 5th of Clarke’s brigade, more favorably situated to effect results, but under a terrible fire, dashed past the deep and wet ditch that entirely surrounded the work, carried it by the bayonet, and as quickly as thought, turned the captured cannon upon that portion of the enemy stationed in the town, and which was combating out troops approaching from the direction of Contreras, occasionally reversing their fire upon our left flank. Previous to this period, and when in the act of giving direction to the battalions, I was joined by Major Gen. Pillow, who came in from the left with three regiments of his division—Cadwalladers brigade—having with great difficulty made his way through the marshes; thence, to the close of the day, I had the pleasure of his gallant association and assistance. Lieut. Col. Duncan’s battery of light artillery, which had been directed to be masked, being unable to counter batter the heavier metal in front, and the intersected character of the ground rendering it impossible to move it from the high road, was now rapidly advanced by its gallant commander, and opened at a position some two hundred yards distant from the work around the church of San Paolo, situated in and constituting the key of that portion of the enemy’s defences; seizing up the prolongation of a principal face, in a space of five minutes, by a fire of astonishing rapidity, the enemy was driven from his guns in that quarter, and the infantry from their entrenchments; the body taking refuge in the church and under cover of its yard walls. The fire was then turned upon the church, and, after a few rounds, several white flags were thrown out by the enemy, the fire ordered to cease, and an officer dispatched to accept the surrender of the place. To this period there had been no perceptible abatement from the fire from the town in the direction of our troops attacking the opposite face. Immediately there after, our troops in the vicinity pushed on to the point where portions of Garland’s and Clarke’s brigades ere yet engaged in hand to hand conflicts with the masses of infantry on the left and rear of the captured field work first referred to; but, under the triple influence of our musketry, the capture of the tete de pont, and the silencing of the fire in the town, (directed upon the other division of our army,) the main body of the enemy was soon discovered to be in full and confused retreat. Pressing along the highway in pursuit of the enemy, the division was soon intersected by the brigade of Gen. Shields approaching from the left, with the remainder of his brave command, consisting of the South Carolina and New York regiments, and also by the arrival of Lieut. Col. Graham wit the small remains of his battalion of the 11th regiment of infantry; these were a portion of the main army assulting, in the opposite direction of the town, the right and reserve of th enemy, under the immediate direction of the general in chief. The pursuit of the enemy by the 1st division, acting in concert and cordial co-operation with these forces, was continued to within a mile and half of the gate of Mexico, (La Candelaria). At this point, ignorant first of the magnitude of the defences of the garita, and secondly with Major Gen. Pillow and Brig. General Shields.

           Col. Harney coming up at this instant with two squadrons of cavalry, was permitted to make a dash at the rear of the enemy’s retiring forces. In the eager pursuit, the head of the column pressing on too closely, and disregarding or not hearing their commander’s recall, came under fire of the battery, and suffered severely. The ground on which the troops operated, off the high road, is remarkably intersected; loose soil, growing grain, and at brief intervals, deep ditches for the purpose of drainage and irrigation. These ditches vary from six to eight feet in depth, and about the same width, with from three to four feet of water—the reserve banks lined with the enemy’s light troops.

           When I recur to the nature of the ground, and the fact that the division (2,600 strong of all arms) was engaged from two to two and a half hours in a hand to hand conflict with from 7,000 to 9,000 of the enemy, having the advantage of position and occupying regular works—which our engineers will say were most skilfully constructed—the mind is filled with wonder and the heart with gratitude to the brave officers and soldiers whose steady and indomnitable valor has, under such circumstances, aided in achieving results so honorable to our country; results not accomplished, however, without the sacrifice of many valuable lives.   The little professional skill the commander may have possessed was intensely exerted to spate the met; and yet, with the utmost care, we have to mourn the loss, in killed and wounded, of thirteen officers and three hundred and thirty six rank and file. Our country will lament the fate and honor he memory of these brave men!  A list of captured ordinance has already been handed in, as also of prisoners, from generals down to privates.—Of prisoners we paused to make but few; although receiving the surrender of many, to disarm and pass them was decided sufficient. Among them, however are secured twenty seven deserters from our own army; arrayed in the most tawdry Mexican uniforms. These wretches served the guns, the use of which they had been taght in our own service and with fatal effect, upon the persons of their former comrades!

           And now, in closing this report, hastily and inconveniently prepared, comes the pleasing and yet difficult task of bringing more particularly to the notice of the general in chief and government the behaviour of the officers and men under my command. Every officer of every grade, and every soldier, from chief of brigade, through rank and file, to the humblest, have bravely and nobly done their duty; and the delicacy is felt in full force of distinguishing, even by a separation of one from the other; and yet those in whose path fortune threw her special favors are entitled to the benefit.

           As least exceptionable, corps will be referred to in order of formation, and persons in connexion with their corps.

           1st. Brevet Lieut. Col. Duncan commanded and directed the light artillery, with the zeal and gallantry, judgment and effect which have so often distinguished and presented him to the notice of his general in chief and the government.

           2d. Brevet Lieut. Col. Smith commanded and directed his light battalion with characteristic gallantry and ability.

           3d. Brevet Col. Garland (Lieutenant Colonel 4th infantry) commanded the 1st brigade, conspicuous in many fields in the present war; in this last great combat, by skill, conduct, and courage, he has greatly added to an already established reputation for patriotism and soldiership. Of his brigade, Maj. Galt commanded and gallantry led the 2d artillery, [acting as infantry;] Lieut. Col. Belton, the 3d artillery, [also acting as infantry;] and Major Lee, the 4th infantry. The chief of the brigade speaks in terms of commendation of each of these commanders.

           A list of officers engaged, as also of non commisioned officers and privates in each regiment, will be found in the regimental reports, to which reference is respectfully made.

           4th.Col. Clarke’s commanding the 2d brigade—a veteran of the war of 1812, and heretofore distinguished by zeal and intelligence in this war, was while gallantly leading his brigade into battle, struck from his saddle and disabled for several hours, whereupon the command devolved upon Brevet Col. McIntosh [Lt. Colonel 5th infantry,] who led on with the pressige of many well fought fields, and acquitted himself, as always, with high courage and devotion. The command of the 5th infantry devolved, in turn, upon Brevet Lieut. Col. Scott, and the mantle could not have fallen upon a better or braver soldier; he most gallantly led the regiment to its assigned work, and, in doing, came to the close support and joint action with the corps to whose lot it fell to carry with the bayonet the main work. One wing of the 6th infantry, a portion of which was under the gallant lead of Captain Hoffman, did all that it was in the power of men to do to carry the tete de pont, by direct attack on the main road. The 8th infantry, although from its position coming up last, but the zeal and energy of its commander, Major Waite, and by the circumstances of the ground, which impeded the advance of other and proximate corps, found itself in position to … most gallant and effective service. The companies of Captain James Bomford and Larkin Smith, under the direction of Brevet Maj. Wright, preceded by Adjutant Longstreet, colors in hand, were led on most bravely to the assault of the tete de pont; crossing the ditch under a heavy fire of musketry, they mounted the rampart, and finished the work with the bayonet, closely supported by the 5th and detachments of other corps. The regimental reports of this brigade are also respectfully referred to. The medical corps, consisting of Surgeons Satterlee (senior) and Wright, Assistant Surgeons Simpson, DeLeon, Simons, Holden, Roberts, and Deyerle, presents claims to especial thanks and admiration—ever among the most fearless and indifferent to hazard during the conflict. It is after the battle, when others seek repose, that they are found skilfully and noiselessly fulfilling the duties of their  high vocation, in administering comfort to the crushed and sorrowful soldier.

           The following named officers and noncommissioned officers are conspicuously presented by commanders: Staff 1st brigade—Brevet Capt. Nichols, A. A. A. Gen.; Lieut. Thorn, aide de camp. 2d brigade—Lieut. Burwell, aid de camp; Lieut. Kirkham, A. A. A. Gen. Light battery—Lieuts. Hung, Hays, Clark, and Sergeant Platt. Light battalion—Lieuts. Elzey, Peck, company A and Serg’t Mickek, company K, 2d artillery; Capt. E. K. Smith, Lieut. Fakely, Serg’ts Updegraff, Argher, and Flynn, company H, 5th infantry; Capt. Reeve, Lieuts. Holloway and Pitcher, 8th infantry. 2d Artillery—Capts. McKensie and Brooks, Lieuts. Shackelford and Daniels. 3rd artillery—Capt. Burke, Brevet Capt. Avres, and Serg’t Heck. 4th infantry—Lieut. Adj. Prince and Brevet Maj. Buchanan. 5th infantry—Capt. Merrill and McPhail; Lieuts. Rossell, Fowler, and Adjutant Lugenbeel; Serg’ts Golding, Dudley, Johnson, Cartman, and O’Brion. 6th infantry—Capts. Hoffman and Walker; Lieuts. Armstead, Buckner, and Adj’t Ernst; Serg’t Maj. Thompson, Batallion Serg’t Maj. Owens, Color Sergeant McCam. Serg’ts Staniker, Williams McIntyre, Crossy, and Downs. 8th infantry—Brev. Maj. Wright, Capts. Bomford and Smith, Adj’t Longstreet and Lieut. Selden, (the latter present at many battles, honorably wounded at Resaea, and not behind the foremost in zeal and courage here.) color bearer Sergeant Maj. Pink, Serg’t Ford, and Serg’t Edward Bortram. Injustice would be done to the whole division in failing to bring to the notice of the general in chief the praiseworty—if he will pardon the expression—the courageous conduct of the Rev. Mr. McCarty, Chaplain to the 2d brigade. That excellent man and christian was seen in the midst of the conflict administering comfort and consolation to the stricken, and patriotically encouraging the soldier in his forward path of duty.

           The division commander cannot forego the opportunity presented to acknowledge his obligations and express his admiration of the gallant bearing of Maj. Gen. Pillow and Brig. Gens. Shields, Cadwallader and Pierce, with whom he had the gratification of concert and co-operation at various critical periods of the conflict. And it may now, in closing, be permitted to speak of the staff of the division, general and personal. The subordinate reports will be found to speak with one sentiment of Capt. Mason, of engineers; but these are not to debar my testimony and warm acknowledgements of the intelligent and gallant services of this accomplished officer; in the estimation of all, he has won higher rank. Lieut. Hardeastle, topographical engineers, has been distinguished by zeal, intelligence, and gallantry, in his particular department, as also in combat. To Surgeon Satterlee, senior medical officer, the highest praise is due. Capt. Myers, division quartermaster, has highly distinguished himself by energy and devotion in his particular department, and by gallantry in combat. Lieut. Armstrong, division commissary, is also highly distinguished for energy and devotion in his particular department, and by gallantry in combat. Of the gallantry and efficient assistance of Capt. Mackall, assistant adjutant general, (but in a different relation,) of Brevet Capt Pe…ton and Lieut. Wood, aids de camp, it has been my pleasing duty heretofore to speak under similar circumstances. On this occasion each member of the staff has fulfilled every duty of his station to the entire satisfaction of their chief, and established new claims to professional distinction and reward. To Lieut. Semmes, of the navy, volunteer aid decamp, the most cordial thanks of the general of the division are tendered for his uniform gallantry and assistance; and the general in chief is respectfully requested to present the conduct of this accomplished and gallant officer to the special notice of the chief of his distinguished branch of the public service—our glorious navy.

           I have the honor to present to the general a national standard, a trophy secured from the enemy by the 1st division.

           Herewith are reports:

           1st—Of commanders and brigades, regiments, and corps, lettered from A to N.

           2d—Tabular report of killed and wounded.

           3d—Report of killed and wounded by name.

           4th—Map exhibiting the operations of the 1st division, executed by Lieut. Hardcastle from a survey jointly by Captain Mason and himself.

           Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                                            W. J. WORTH
                                 Brevet Major Gen. U. S. A.

Capt. H L Scott, A A A G
          [350 men were absent on baggage, train, and other guards.]
[ATT]


NNR 73.189-190 Nov. 20, 1847 Henry Clay's resolutions at Lexington

Mr. Clay’s Resolutions.

           A grand whig mass meeting was held at Lexington, Ky., on Saturday the 13th November. It having been publicly announced that Mr. Clay would attend and address the meeting and submit resolutions for their consideration, the concourse was immense. The Lexington Observer and Reporter, of 13th, says:

           “The anxiety to hear the Sage of Ashland was intense. Among those present were individuals who had travelled over a thousand miles. I never witnessed a deeper feeling. All ages participated—the father as well as the son—all classes and conditions of society. And no wonder. The announcement had gone forth that Henry Clay—the patriot—the statesman—the sage—was about to address his countrymen on the most important topic of the day—the war with Mexico, its origin and its objects!  Surely such an announcement was calculated to excite the minds and move the hearts of men—and not only of immediate residents of Lexington and its vicinity, but of every American citizen—of all who love their country and feel pride in its honor and prosperity.

           Precisely at the hour named, the distinguished orator mounted the platform amidst the shouts of the assembled thousands. It had rained all the morning, and every thing looked Novemberish. The fourth estate represented by a gentleman from Louisville, and the writer hereof had obtained comfortable seats at a table on the platform, with pens, ink, and paper, all ready, when Mr. Clay came forward, and stated that he was opposed to any report of his speech being taken, as he ad been so frequently misrepresented; and that he intended to have it printed under his own supervision, and would furnish copies then to all. In vain we remonstrated and offered to allow him to revise our notes. The fiat had gone forth, and he declared that if we persisted in reporting, he would not speak. I mention these circumstances in order that you ma account for the slight sketch only which I have deemed it proper to give.

           Gen. Leslie Coombs called the meeting to order, and hoped that perfect silence might be observed as it was probably the last time that the illustrious individual now before them, would ever address a populous assembly, and he had resolved to do it on this occasion, from a high sense of duty to himself and the country. The momentous question now presented to the American people, of annexation by conquest or purchase, immense foreign territory inhabited by millions of people of different races and colors, and placing them on an equal footing with the free white citizens of this republic, permitted no man who loved his country to remain silent, and Henry Clay would have been unworthy of his past history, if he had allowed any selfish considerations to palsy his tongue. He had “rather be right than be president.”

           On motion of Gen. Coombs, the hon. W. Robinson was appointed president, with a long array of vice presidents and secretaries.

           Mr. Clay then rose and submitted the following resolutions. They are of the deepest interest and importance, as they imbody the text or principles of this great speech.

RESOLUTIONS

Submitted by the hon. Henry Clay at the public meeting held in Lexington, Ky., Nov. 13, 1847.

1st. Resolved, As the opinion of this meeting, that the primary cause of the present unhappy war existing between the United States of America, and the United States of the Republic of Mexico, was the annexation of Texas to the former, and the immediate occasion of hostilities between the two republics, arose out of the order of the President of the United States, for the removal of the army under the command of Gen. Taylor, from its position at Corpus Christi, to a point opposite to Matamoros, on the east bank of the Rio Bravo, within the territory, claimed by both republics, but then under the jurisdiction of Mexico, and inhabited by its citizens—that the order of the president for the removal of the army to that point, was improvident and unconstitutional, it being without the concurrence of congress, or any consultation with it, although it was in session; but that congress, having by subsequent acts recognized the war thus brought into existence with out its previous authority or consent, the prosecution of it became thereby national.

2d. Resolved . That in the absence of any formal and public declaration by congress of the objects for which the war ought to be prosecuted, the President of the United States, as chief magistrate, and as the commander in chief of th army and navy of the United States, is left to the guidance of his own judgement to prosecute it to such purposes and objects as he may deem the honor and interests of the nation to require.

3d. Resolved , That, by the constitution of the U. States, congress being invested with powers to declare war and grant letters of marque and reprisal, to make rules concerning captures on land and water, to raise and support armies, to provide and maintain a navy, and to make rules for the government of the land and naval forces, has the fullest complete war-making power in the United States, and so possessing it has a right to determine upon the motives, causes, and objets of war, when once commenced, or at any time during the progress of its existence.

4th. Resolved. As the further opinion of the meeting, it is the duty of congress to declare by some authentic act to what purpose and object the existing war ought to be further prosecuted, that it is the duty of the president, in his official conduct to conform to such a declaration of congress; and if after such declaration the president should decline or refuse to endeavor, by all the means, civil, diplomatic, and military, in his power, to execute the announced will of congress, and in defiance of its authority should continue to prosecute the war for purposes and objets other than those declared by that body, it would become the right and duty of congress to adopt the most efficacious measures to arrest the further progress of the war, taking care to make ample provision for the honor, the safety, and the security of our arms in Mexico in every contingency; and if Mexico should decline or refuse to conclude a treaty with us, stipulating for the purposes and objects so declared by congress, it would be the duty of the government to prosecute the war, with the utmost vigilance, until they were attained by a treaty of peace.

5th. Resolved, That we view with serious alarm, and are utterly opposed to any purpose of annexation of Mexico to the United States, in any mode, and especially by conquest—that we believe the two nations could not be happily governed by one common authority, owing to their great difference of race, law, language, and religion, and the vast extent of their respective territories, and large amount of their respective populations—that such a union against the consent of the exasperated Mexican people, could only be effected and preserved by large standing armies, the constant application of military force, in other words, by despotic sway exercised over the Mexican people in the first instance, but which there would be just cause to apprehend might in process of time be extended over the whole people of the United States—that we deprecate, therefore, such a union as wholly incompatible with the genius of our government, and with the character of our free and liberal institutions, and we anxiously hope that each nation may be left in the undisturbed possession of its own labors, language, cherished religion, and territory, to pursue its own happiness according to what it may deem best for itself.

6th. Resolved, That considering the series of splendid and brilliant victories achieved by our brave armies and their gallant commanders during the war with Mexico, unattended by a single reverse, the United States, without any danger of their honor suffering the lightest tarnish, can practise the virtues of moderation and magnanimity toward their discomfitted foe; we have no desier for the dismemberment of the republic of Mexico, but only the just and proper fixation of the limits of Texas.

7th. Resolved, That we do positively and emphatically disclaim and disvow any wish or desire on our part to acquire any foreign territory whatever, for the purpose of propagating slavery, or of introducing slavery from the United States into such foreign territory.

8th. Resolved, That we invite our fellow citizens of the United States, who are anxious for the restoration of the blessings of peace, or if the existing war shall continue to be prosecuted, desirous that its purposes and objects shall be defined and known, who are anxious to avert present and further perils and dangers with which it may be fraught, and who are also anxious to produce contentment and satisfaction at home, and to elevate the national character abroad, to assemble together in their respective communities, and to express their views, feelings, and opinions.

We refrain from inserting the outlines of Mr. Clay’s speech as given by the reporter, preferring to wait for his own report. [ATT]


NNR 73.192 Nov. 20, 1847 US money market affected by shipments of specie to Europe and to Mexico

Money Matters

The current specie is now setting towards Europe on one hand and towards Mexico, for support of our armies, on the other, in such forces as to affect the money market. Boston, New York and Philadelphia papers mention the comparative rates for discounts as considerable higher and the difficulty of obtaining them as far greater within the last ten days.

That specie would be shipped to Europe in any considerable amount at the present rates for exchanges, was stoutly disputed by most of the commercial journals. Facts are stubborn things however.

The exports of specie from New York and Boston, within a few days past are thus stated—

By Steamer Caledonia,

By Steamer Washington,

By Ship John R. Skiddy, for Liverpool,

By Ship Fidelia,

By Ship Burgundy, for Havre,

By Ship Wellington, for London,

By Ship Mendoza, for Rio,

$662,500

190,000

195,000

242,000

80,000

100,000

32,000


__________

$1,501,500

The agents of the steamer Washington had an application to carry out a further sum of $150,000, but were unable to agree with the proposed shippers on the terms.

The total exports of specie from the United States for the month of November, it is believed, will not fall short of two millions of dollars, and will, of course, produce a corresponding effect on the money markets and operations of the banks.

Besides the above we see notices are shipments by several of the other packet ships to a considerable amount.

Treasury notes, have fallen below par. Considerable amounts have been disposed of …99.. The banks no longer receive them in payment except for the accommodation of such of their customers as have duties or other payments to make to the sub-treasurers. So long as treasury notes remains at or below par, they will of course be paid, instead of specie, for public dues. The amount of specie in sub treasury notes at New York, on Thursday last, was, it is said, about $1,500,000. The payments into the custom house about $40,000 per day,--of which from $5,000 to $7,000 was in treasury notes. Should treasury notes continue to decline, very little specie will be received as long as they are in the market. [ATT]

NNR 73.189 Nov. 20, 1847 Killed and wounded

1st Brevet Lieut. Col. Dinenn commanded and directed the light artillery, with the zeal and gallantry, judgment and effect which have so often distinguished and presented him to the notice of his general in chief and the government.

2d. Brevet Lieut Col. Smith commanded and directed his light battalion with characteristic gallantry and ability.

3d. Brevet Col. Garland (Lieutenant Colonel 4th infantry) commanded the 1 st brigade, conspicuous in many fields in the present war; in this last great combat, by skill, conduct, and courage, he has greatly added to an already established reputation for patriotism and soldiership. Of his brigade, Maj. Galt commanded and gallantry led the 2d artillery, [acting as infantry;] Lieut. Col. Belton, the 3d artillery, [also acting as infantry;] and Major Lee, the 4th infantry. The chief of the brigade speaks in terms of commendation of each of these commanders.

A list of officers engaged, as also of non commissioned officers and privates in each regiment, will be found in the regimental reports, to which reference is respectfully made. [JNA]


NNR 73.192 Nov. 20, 1847 Letter describing the fighting at Huamantla

BATTLE OF HUAMANTLA--We have seen a letter from a member of the late Captain Walker's company to his wife in this city, from which we make a few extracts.--Speaking of the entrance of Captain Walker's command into the town of Huamantla, he says:

"We scoured the streets, and took several prisoners. Among them were Col. La Vega, brother to Gen. La Vega, and Major Iturbide, son of a former emperor of Mexico, and a nephew of General Herrera. The later conversed with us in very good English, and recognized several of our men, particularly Frederick Crey, with whom he had been associate at St. Mary's College."

The writer thus describes the manner in which the intrepid Walker was killed:

"Captain Walker moved out of the gateway of the church yard, in which we were drawn up in line, for the purpose of giving orders, when he was fired upon from the right of the street. One ball entered his back, and came out through his breast. He immediately fell, and some men ran out and carried him in. His last words were to this effect--"Boys, fight to the last; I am dying; do not lose time in attending to me; go and tell Capt. Lewis not to surrender this place as long as there is a man breathing."  He expired in a few moments, the service losing an invaluable officer, and we a brave and good commander.

"The body of Capt. Walker was conveyed, after the fight, with military honors, to a carriage supposed to belong to Gen. Santa Anna, escorted by the Pennsylvania regiment, under the command of Col. W.F. Wynkoop. This officer, who had been at variance with Capt. W., burst into tears on looking at the body of the deceased, and exclaimed, "I would have given six years of my existence if I could have spoken to Capt. Walker before he died."

"Our dead and wounded were--Capt. Walker, killed; corporal J.E. Merriken,do.; privates B. Hughmen, do.; Tarbos, do.; sergeant Thos. Goslin, missing; privates Sam McClay, do.; R. Dement, do.; Darlington, Richards, do.; and John Collins; corporal Glanding, wounded severely, since dead; privates Raborg, wounded severely; Meacham, do. Wayne, do.; Scott, do; slightly, Myers, do; McGill, do.; and the sergeant major of the battalion, severely wounded. David, Capt. Walker's servant, was killed."[JNA]


NNR 73.192 Nov. 20, 1847 remarks on Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's destiny, his whereabouts

Santa Anna’s Whereabouts?

The Mexican child, puzzles alike politicians and generals. Romance and fiction are distanced—his movements are more in the style of eastern fable than of veritable history. First dexterously cajoling the invaders of his native country, we find him availing of a free pass through their close blockade, throwing himself upon the country from which a few months before he had narrowly escaped, denounced as a traitor and hunted as a fugitive. A few weeks only elapsed, and we find him received by that country, elevated to the chief executive power, and without either money or credit, raising as if by magic an army five and twenty thousand men—organizing and disciplining them, and what was more wonderful, without resources of any kind, without adequate munitions or even provisions, we see him marching this army over a desert region which has arrested the advance of our own armies—and precipitating apparently an overwhelming force upon the most exposed and vulnerable point of our whole time of approach. Miracles alone saved the army under Gen. Taylor. All the ingredients requisite for certain victory, even to that of desperation of circumstances which must follow defeat, were combined in Santa Anna’s enterprize upon that occasion. All was unavailing however, against General Taylor and his men. Santa Anna’s best generalship and his best troops were doomed to such an overwhelming defeat, as left him apparently in the most hopeless flight, beyond retrieve. His disciplined army was annihilated here.

The forces that he subsequently mustered in his conflicts with Gen. Scott, were hurriedly huddled together on the spur of the moment, without either organization or discipline. An effective scientific was is not the creation of a bugle blast. The difference between a disciplined army and an undisciplined crowd, is told in the issue of the campaign.

Santa Anna had the double task on his hands, of controlling contending and distracting factions and of defending, as well as he could, from invading armies. We find him by turns obliged to march his fragment of forces one day to the capital, to restore something like order, and the next day wheeling them about to encounter the approaching fires under Gen. Scott. Each movement is by turns denounced as being desperate as well as treasonable, both by his enemies and his countrymen.

The battle of Cerro Gordo again doomed Santa Anna to the severest fate to which a defeated general could well be subjected—the suspicion of treason—as well as the total loss of his army and munitions.

Once more we see him surmounting all difficulties making a most formidable defence of the capital. Whatever may be said of the superiority of his positions and numbers that he evinced courage and generalship seldom surpassed, is a fact that will be duly authenticated whenever the true history of the siege and capture of Mexico shall be written. Our armies and our generals had brave and able men to encounter and to overcome, in achieving their victories. It was no child’s play.

Once more defeated—expelled the capital—officially denounced by his own second officer as a coward and traitor, and by his own civil officers also, we find Santa Anna emerging from utter prostration, as if by magic. The accounts say that at the battle of Huamantla, in which the gallant Walker fell, Gen. Santa Anna himself charged the American forces in the place at the head of 2,500 cavalry.

Defeat seems to have been his destiny. Again he is said to have been deserted by his forces—even to his life-guard. After spending his last dollar, he is now, according to one of the latest letters from Vera Cruz, a prisoner of one of the opposing factions of his own countrymen and to be tried for his life. According to another letter, he has made his escape from Mexico and has got on board the British mail steamer which left Vera Cruz on the 1st of November, by means of a craft from near Tampico. The latter account we place little confidence in.

Santa Anna, fairly considering the difficulties he has had to contend with, has done more than it would seem possible for any one man to have accomplished. [ATT]


73.192 Nov. 20, 1847 letter describing the fighting at Huamantla and the death of Capt. Samuel Hamilton Walker, list of killed and wounded

Battle of Huamantla

We have seen a letter from a member of the late Captain Walker’s company to his wife in the city, from which  we make a few extracts—Speaking of the entrance of Captain Walker’s command into the town of Huamantla, he says:

[Balt. Amer.

“We scoured the streets, and took several prisoners. Among them were Col. La Vega, brother to Gen. La Vega, and Major Iturbide son of a former emperor of Mexico, and a nephew of General Herrera. The latter conversed with us in very good English, and recognized several of our men, particularly Frederick Crey with whom he had been associated at St. Mary’s College.”

The writer thus describes the manner in which the intrepid Walker was killed:

“Captain Walker moved out of the gateway of the church yard, in which we were drawn up in line, for the purpose of giving orders, when he was fired upon from the right of the street. One ball entered his back, and came out through his breast. He immediately fell, and some of his men ran out and carried him in. His last words were to this effect—‘Boys, fight to the last; I am dying; do not lose time in attending to me; go and tell Capt. Lewis no to surrender this place as long as there is a man breathing.’  He expired in a few moments, the service losing an invaluable officer, and a brave and good commander.

“The body of Capt. Walker was conveyed, after the fight, with military honors, to a carriage supposed to belong to Gen. Santa Anna, escorted by the Pennsylvania regiment, under the command of Col. W. F. Wynkoop. This officer, who had been at variance with Capt. W. burst into tears on looking at the body of the deceased, and exclaimed, “I would have given six years of my existence if I could have spoken to Capt. Walker before he died.”

“Our dead and wounded were—Capt. Walker, killed; corporal J. E. Merriken, do.; privates B, Hughmen, do.; Tarbox, do.’ Sergeant Thos. Gosling, missing; privates Sam McClay, do.; R. Demert, do.; Darlington, Richards, do.; and John Collins; corporal Glancing, wounded severely, since dead; privates Raborg, wounded severly; Meacham, do. Wayne, do.; Scott, do.; slightly, Myers, do.; McGill, do.; and the sergeant major of the battalion, severely wounded. David, Capt. Walker’s servant, was killed.”  [ATT]


NNR 73.192 Nov. 27, 1847 delay in a quorum for the Congress at Queretaro, suggestion of monarchy

General Cushing, with his command, left Vera Cruz on the 30th, and General Patterson with the residue forces at Vera Cruz, marched for Puebla on the 31 st October. Between that period and the 5th November, some 1200 to 1500 additional troops had arrived at Vera Cruz from the U. States.

The Mexican congress would not be able to form a quorum at Queretaro before the 29th Oct., if then. Senor Pena y Pena had invited the governors of all the states to assemble at Queretaro to consult on affairs.

Paredes is said to have made himself rather ridiculous by again suggesting his scheme of monarchy. - He has made a long proclamation that only his great desire of serving his country had brought him to it. Said general having received an intimation from the government to go and wait orders at Teloloapan, (or Orizaba,) he answered that it was impossible for him to go there, as he was stuck and without resources, promising that wherever he might remain, the government might rest assured that he had no intention of disturbing the public tranquility. [RLLW]


73.192 Nov. 20, 1847 Fight among the Mexican guerrillas

WAR WITH MEXICO

Our latest dates from Vera Cruz are to the 5th inst., brought to N. Orleans by the steamer James L. Day. Amongst the passengers of the Day were Maj. Iturbide, prisoner of war, and Lieut. Sears, bearer of dispatches from Gen. Scott to the department at Washington. These dispatches left the city of Mexico between the 12th and the 15th October, escorted by a company of 100 Mexican lancers, under command of Col. Dominguez. The company left Puebla on the 19th . On the same night they were attacked by a strong force under General Torrejon, and shortly after by a party under Col. Vamos. In the two engagements they lost fifteen of their men, but, fighting as may be said, with halters round their necks, they of course fought furiously, and killed and wounded far more of the Mexicans. They returned to Puebla, and General Lane placed the dispatches in the hands of his adjustant general, Lieut. Sears, who came down with his Mexican escort to Vera Cruz, accompanied as far as Plan del Rio by the 1 st Pennsylvania regiment, under Col. Wynkoop, Capt. Loyall's mounted men, and three companies of artillery. The American portion of the escort halted at Plan del Rio, and were to return with Gen. Patterson.

The Mexican spy company is described as a rough looking set of men. They fight with ropes round their necks, as the saying is, and therefore fight gallantly. Col. Cominguez is thought to know the road intimately, from long experience upon the line in a different capacity. We understand that we have altogether about four hundred and fifty of this description of force in our pay.

Gen. Lane's command is quartered in the heart of Puebla, the general occupying the palace. He retains all the force he took up with him.

Gen. Scott orders a garrison of 750 men to be stationed at the National Bridge, 1200 at Jalapa, and 2000 at Puebla. Gen. Patterson assigns Gen. Cashing to the command of Jalapa. Gen. Patterson reached the National Bridge on the 4th , with the whole of the forces, unmolested on his route from Vera Cruz.

The guerrillas have had a fight between themselves, in which Jarauta's band killed some 20 or 30 of Cenobio's band, whom he has denounced as a traitor, aiding the Americans.

Santa Anna was at Tehuaca on the 26th Oct., having given up the idea of going to Orizaba.

From Mexico nothing material.

A report was in circulation oin the 15th ot Mexico, that another serious affair took place between a part of our troops and some Mexican inhabitants of Mexicalcingo.

Congress had not met at Queretaro on the 13th October.

The remains of the lamented Captain Walker, and his faithful servant David were in the Castle of Perote on the 5th --having been brought from Huamantla by order of Col. Wynkoop, and will be forwarded to the United States. [JNA]


NNR 73.195 Nov. 27, 1847 Killed and wounded.

Siege of Puebla. List of killed and wounded at San Jose, between the commencement and termination of the siege of Puebla:

First Pennsylvania battalion of volunteers.--Company A--Wounded, George Rusheberger, James McCutcheon, severely; John Hoover, David Lindsay, Henry Linch, Mansfield Mason, James Bowden, R. Wilson, John Donlan, slightly. Company C--Wm Eurick, killed; Charles Collison, John B. Herron, wounded. Company I--John Preece, killed; D.W. Yarlott, James Ellis, Sergeant Domminick Devanny, slightly wounded; Luke Floyd, severely. Company K--Corporal E.H. Jones, John C. Gilchrist, John H. Herrod, F.B. Johns, H. Krutzolman, Jas. Phillips, Wm. A. Phillips, S.D. Sewell, Wm. Smitz, D.S. Vernoy, F. Vandyke, Joseph Wilson, Samuel Troyer, killed; Capt. John Herron, Thomas B. Furnam, A. E. Marshall, W.C. Winebiddle, R. Reed, slightly wounded; John McLellan, James Lambert, severely. Missing--John Lonstaff, company K; M. Stemlar, company C.

Voltegeur regiment.--Private John H. Burgess, killed; John Wilson, company A, slightly wounded; David Ricketts, company F, do.

Mounted rifles.--Private Cornwell, 2d dragoons attached to mounted rifle detachment, private Smith, H, killed. Privates Blair, company D, Campbell, company B, wounded.

Company D, 3d dragoons.--Eli Stewart, wounded.

Quartermaster's department.--A.B. Duncan, Wm. Waddell, slightly wounded; Wm. Johnson, severely.

Guadalupe.--Wm. Patterson, company E, 2d artillery, severely wounded; Josiah Blair, mounted rifles, do; Samuel Houpt. Wm. Schultz, slightly.

General hospital.--J.P. Hardy, company G, voltigeurs, John H. Rowney, company K, 2d artillery, T. Russell, 2d regiment light dragoons, severely wounded.

Dr. Bunting's hospital.--Sergeant William Deal. John Biers, 2d Pennsylvania volunteers, and Wm. Curry, 2d artillery, severely wounded. Sergeant Diel's conduct is highly spoken of by Dr. Bunting. All the invalids of the hospital capable of firing a musket did good service from the roof of the building.

Spy company.--Officer John Mose, wounded; since killed. J. Gordero, two brothers Dominguez and Jose Servezo, wounded.

Servant to Col. Childs--Daniel Sims, wounded.

In the battle of Atlixco the enemy are said to have left two hundred dead on the road. The Flag gives the following as our loss:

Wounded--Bernard Rork, mortally, [since dead;] Mathas Rautler, slightly; Josiah Corwin, severely. All three men were attached to or serving with Capt. Ford's company (D) 3d dragoons. [JNA]


NNR 73.195 Nov. 27, 1847 need for a loan if the war with Mexico procrastinates

If the war with Mexico be procrastinated our government will probably require a considerable loan soon after congress assembles. [RLLW]


NNR 73.195 Nov. 27, 1847 account of the battle at Huamantla; operations and incident, affairs at Huamantla and death of Capt. Samuel Hamilton Walker

Battle of Humantla. Death of the brave Captain Walker.

The "Flag of Freedom" published at Puebla, of the 24th , contains the following details of the affair in which the gallant Walker fell. We have an official account of it since.

On the evening of October 8th, the train halted at a hacienda two and a half leagues from Nopaluca. Gen. Lane sent out a spy to the town of Huamantla that night, having received information that Gen. Santa Anna had gone thither during the day before. The next morning he returned and reported that the cavalry of the enemy had left town, leaving behind six pieces of artillery. Orders were immediately issued for the cavalry under Captain Walker, Col. Gorman's regiment, Major Lally's battalion, Col. Wyonkoop's regiment, Capt. Taylor's battery and Capt. Heitzelman's battalion to be in readiness to march for the town, leaving the train with about eleven hundred men and two pieces of artillery, under the command of Col. Brough.

At 11 o'clock the whole moved off in fine style. - The cavalry were ordered to keep some distance in advance. We had gone about two miles when Capt. Walker determined to push on at a gallop and surprise the enemy. For five miles the cavalry moved at a very rapid pace until we reached the outskirts of the town, when Capt. Walker gave orders to form fours and close up. He then entered a very narrow lane, both sides of which were lined with thick maguey, so narrow in many places that the sets of fours had to be broken and the column moved by twos. - One we went at a trot, until the lane opened into the main street leading to the plaza, when, in column of four, the order was given to draw sabres and charge. Then rose a wild yell, and such a charge! The flashing of the sabres, the thundering of the horses' feet over the paved streets, were enough to strike terror into the hearts of the enemy. Two of their cannon were pointed up the street, another pointed down a cross street, and the fuse was burning in it. The terrified artillerymen moved merely to the sides of the houses, at whom our men made their thrusts and right and left cuts, killing many in this manner. - The cavalry rushed over their cannon, the lancers (how many we did not know, but supposed there were three or four hundred) fled, and our men separated into small parties, pursuing them beyond the town, on the outskirts of which a good many were killed. Capt. Walker went beyond the town for the purpose of overtaking the artillery which had left the place. Capt. Lewis went in another direction for the same purpose. Capt. Besancon was ordered to follow the road to see if the artillery could be overtaken. In the mean time, most of our men having gone in pursuit, Capt. Loyall with a few men, assisted by Adj. Claiborne, secured some fifty or sixty prisoners at their quarters, together with their arms, &c. Lieut. Claiborne then proceeded to secure and bring up the plaza the cannon (three pieces) we had captured. Capt. Walker returned about this …[illegible]… brother of the general's,) and a lieutenant; these he delivered to Capt. Walker. Lieut. Claiborne, assisted by Corporal Hescock and private Myers and one or two others, limbered up the six pounder and brought it to the plaza; leaving it limbered up and the mules standing in it, and returning to get the four pounder, the lieutenant was in the act of bringing it up when he was forced to leave it by the appearance of all Santa Anna's cavalry, 2500 strong. Corporal Tilghman, of company C, (rifles,) brought up a small howitzer. Private Dusenbery, of company C, took a lieutenant of artillery prisoner and turned him over to Surgeon Reynolds. By this time a good many of our men had returned and were in the plaza in scattered groups, when the lancers charged them suddenly and unexpectedly. Our men received them with great bravery, and kept the plaza with the exception of a few under Capt. Walker, who retired by a street leading west from the plaza - the enemy close on them at a charge; he turned the next street to his left, while the enemy, seeing the 4 pounder, rushed to take it. It was fortunate for the few men with Capt. Walker they saw this piece, for at the very next corner a still larger force met him; he wheeled and dashing swiftly past the rear of those who had cut him off from the plaza, again entered it. Here the men dismounted and occupied the convent-yard, together with a large house on the corner of the square.

Capt. Lewis and Lieut. Waters, with some ten or twelve men, charged twice upon the enemy, who gave way, and were pursuing them, when they discovered they were being surrounded by a vast number of lancers. They gallantly forced their way to the plaza; Capt. Besancon barely returned in time to save himself.

Private Hugenen and Corporal Merrillen, of company C, rifles, being entirely surrounded, drove right into their midst, and fell covered with wounds.

Capt. Walker gave the orders promptly to form the men to receive the enemy, who now made their appearance on our right, in front, and on our left. - They had also run up the four pounder to open on us.

Lieut. Claiborne, assisted by Corporal Tilghman, unlimbered the six pounder and pointed it at the column on our left. Having no port fire, he prepared to fire it with a horse pistol; the enemy came nearer and nearer, until at about sixty yards off, when they halted. At this moment the lieutenant fired the pistol, but the fuse of the cannon would not catch, and being left alone in the plaza he retired to the corner house, and posted some riflemen to keep the piece from recapture.

At this juncture Capt. Walker, while examining the approach of the enemy, and looking at the four pounder on our right, was shot from behind, from a house that displayed a white flag. He sunk down immediately and was borne into the yard, the men bursting into tears as the cry spread among them, "Capt. Walker is killed."Capt. Walker directed that we should "never surrender," and died in about thirty minutes. Capt. Lewis made a detail of eight men, who sent out and brought the six pounder and placed it at the gate. The enemy menaced us a long time, and fired the four pounder six or eight times loaded with grape, one of which discharges shattered the leg of Frederick Raborg, Capt. W.'s interpreter, and a private of company C. Seeing the determination of our men they hesitated, faltered, and fell back. Capt. Lewis formed the men after Walker fell, and by his energy and address assisted materially to suppress disorder.

Lieut. Lilly distinguished himself by his daring. Surgeon Lamar was in the first charge by the side of Walker; was in the plaza when the charge was made, and was saved by the devoted act of Captain Walker's slave David, who caught at the lance aimed at him and received it himself. He died in a few minutes. He was honest and faithful, and a favorite of his noble master.";In death they were not divided."

The infantry came up as the enemy were retiring - Col. Gorman's being the only portion of the infantry that got a shot at the enemy. There is much praise due them for the gallant manner in which they strove to be with the cavalry. They ran themselves out of breath, and then ran on. Never were men more anxious to reach an enemy. They had discovered the immense body of cavalry that was making its way in a gallop by a parallel road to the town, and both tried to reach town first. When they got to town we had possession. Surgeon Reynolds behaved very gallantly, and his whole energies after the fight were bestowed upon the wounded.

The whole force of Capt. Walker's command did not exceed 195. The enemy dispersed on five hundred, and in the subsequent fight they were two thousand five hundred strong. Company C lost its gallant captain, whose fame needs no eulogy, and whose loss is irreparable. His valor, often tried, is appreciated by the whole of his countrymen. Peace to the ashes of he noble and gallant captain!

Killed-Corporal Merriken, privates Hugenen and Tarbox. Wounded - Corporal Glanding, [since dead;] Meachem [severely;] Raborg, [lost a leg;] Weich, Wayne, McGil, Scott, and Myers, slightly. Missing - Sergeant Goslin; privates Dement, Darlington, Collins, McCleary, and Richards, of company C, rifles. Capt. Lewis' company, private Murray wounded. Capt. Loyall's company, killed, private Richardson; slightly wounded, privates Fornely and Milton.

The enemy lost over one hundred men, two pieces of artillery, and large quantities of ammunition. - Most of prisoners escaped during the charge.

The whole command behaved in the most gallant manner, and received the highest praises from the commanding general. The whole force under Gen. Lane returned to camp last night. [RLLW]


NNR 73.196 Nov. 27, 1847 proclamation of Col. Thomas Childs as military governor of Puebla

Proclamation of Col. Childs, Military Governor of Puebla, after the evacuation of that place by the guerrillas:

Office of the Civil and Military Governor.

Proclamation. Order having been restored in the city of Puebla, and a force put at the disposal of the chief of police, it is fondly hoped that nor further acts of violence will occur.

The undersigned, in connection with his excellency the Prefect of Puebla, will use his best exertions to maintain the peace and quiet of the city.

The citizens are earnestly requested to open their stores and shops, under the positive assurance that they will be sent to their place of business, and every means taken to protect them.

Officers of the army are respectfully requested to assist in securing any person guilty of improper conduct that may come under their notice in passing through the streets.

THOMAS CHILDS, Col, U.S.A.,
Civil and Military Governor.

Alphonso De Wengierski secretary.
[RLLW]


NNR 73.196-73.197 Nov. 27, 1847 official account of the siege of Puebla

SIEGE OF PUEBLA - OFFICIAL ACCOUNT.

Report of Colonel Childs.

Headquarters military department of Puebla, Puebla, October 13, 1847.

Sir: I have the honor to report, that, after twenty-eight days' close investment, the enemy yesterday raised the siege, and left Atlixco.

I will avail myself in command of Capt. Ford's company of cavalry, 46 strong; Capts. Kendrick's and Miller's companies of artillery, numbering 100; together with six companies of the first Pennsylvania volunteers, commanded by Lieut. Col. Black - his total effective strength being 247 - and hospitals filled with 1,800 sick.

With this command, San Jose, the grand depot in the city, Loreto, and Guadalupe, were to be garrisoned, and held against the combined efforts of the military and the populace.

The isolated position selected for the hospitals compelled me to remove them within their protection of San Jose, on the first demonstration of hostility. This was not long in exhibiting itself, when I put myself, with such means as I had at my disposal, in the best possible state for defence, continuing my efforts to the squares immediately around San Jose; and from those points the enemy during the entire siege were not able to force in (but for a single moment) the sentinel.

No open acts of hostility, other than the murdering of straggling soldiers, occurred until the night of the 13th of September, when a fire opened from some of the streets. On the night of the 14th it recommenced, and from every street, with a violence that knew of no cessation for twenty eight days and nights.

The enemy with their numerous cavalry, succeeded in cutting off, at once, every kind of supply, and vainly attempted to change the current of the stream of water, that we might become more easy prey. The night, however, before the cattle and sheep disappeared from the vicinity, two well directed parties obtained 30 of the former and 400 of the latter.

The various points to be defended for the preservation of San Jose, on which the safety of the other posts depended, demanded the untiring vigilance of every officer and man.

The enemy augmented in numbers daily, and daily the firing was increased; and finally, on the 22 nd of September, General Santa Anna arrived with large reinforcements from Mexico, much to the delight of the besiegers, on which occasion a general ringing of bells took place, and was only stopped - as it had been several times before - by a discharge of shells and round shot from Loreto into the heart of the city.

On the 25th of September General Santa Anna demanded my surrender. A copy of his demand together with the reply, are herewith enclosed, marked A.

I here beg to pay a passing tribute to my gallant troops. So soon as I had dispatched my answer, I supposed not a moment would be lost by the general, who was to attack me at all points with his 8,000 troops. I rode to the different posts, and announced to the troops the demand, the force with which it was backed, and my reply. Their response convinced me that all was safe; that a hard and bloody battle must be fought ere the great captain of Mexico could overcome my little band.

The point of attack was San Jose, commanded by Lieut. Col. Black, with Captain Ford's company of cavalry, and Capt. Miller's company of 4th artillery, and four companies of his own regiment, and one hospital, the guard of which was in command of Capt. Rowe, of the 9th regiment of infantry.

The duty required of this command that I have before observed, in consequence of the various points to be defended, demanded an untiring effort on the part of every officer and soldier. A shower of bullets was constantly poured from the streets, the balconiee, the house tops, and churches, upon their devoted heads.

Never did troops endure more fatigue by watching night after night, for more than thirty successive nights, nor exhibit more patience, spirit, and gallantry. Not a post of danger could present itself, but the gallant fellows were ready to fill it. Not a sentinel could be shot, but another was anxious and willing to take his place. Officers and soldiers vied with each other to be honored martyrs in their country's cause. This is the general character of the troops I had the honor to command, and I was confident the crown of victory would perch upon their standard when the last great effort should be made. Their bold and determined front deprived them of what they anxiously desired.

On the 30th ult. Gen. Santa Anna had established his battery bearing upon San Jose, and opened with much spirit. Having anticipated this movement, I had thrown up a traverse on the plaza, and withdrawn a 12-pounder from Loreto, by which means I was enabled to answer his shot. Towards night his battery ceased, and on the next morning was withdrawn, together with from 3,000 to 4,000 of the besieging force, to meet the reinforcements then daily expected at Pinal.

On the 2 d inst. I availed myself of some reduction of the enemy's numbers to make a sortie against certain barricades and buildings, whose fire had become very annoying. One of the expeditions was confined to Captain Small, of the 1st Pennsylvania volunteers. Passing through the walls of an entire square with fifty men, he gained a position opposite the barricade, and drove the enemy with grewat loss, they leaving seventeen dead on the ground. The barricade, consisting of 150 bales of cotton, was consumed. In this affair, Capt. Small and his command behaved with great gallantry, and for twenty four hours were unceasing in their labors in accomplishing the object; when I saw Lieut. Laidley, of the ordnance corps, to blow up a prominent building, which was done by that excellent officer in good style; when the entire party was withdrawn, with few wounded.

At the same time Lieut. Morgan, of the 14th regiment, with a detachment of marines, and Lieut. Merrifield, of the 15th regiment, with a detachment of rifles, attempted to gain possession of certain buildings from which we were receiving a most galling fire. Lieut. errifield entered the building. - Lieut. Morgan was not so fortunate. The enemy being present in great force, I directed him to fall back, with the loss of one man killed. On the 5th inst. Capt. Herron was detached with his company to take possession of a building, from which the enemy had been enfilading the plaza. This he did in a very handsome manner, and to my entire satisfaction, with only a few men wounded.

Other minor sets of gallantry and good conduct were exhibited by officers and men at San Jose; and from Guadalupe one or two successful sorties were made upon the enemy, when engaged in their daily attacks on San Jose.

From Lieut. Col. Black, the immediate commander of San Jose, and his officers, I have received the most cordial support. Col. Black for more than thirty days was untiring in his efforts and zeal for the safety of that point. Officers and men were at their posts night and day, without regarding the pelting storm; and I cannot say too much in praise of the gallant colonel, his officers and men, before and during the siege.

Lieut. Laidley, of the ordnance corps, commanded the 12-pounder, the mountain howitzer, and four rocket batteries at the barricade, and there stationed himself night after night; and, as often as the batteries were opened, it was effect. Capt. Ford, commanding the cavalry, although no opportunity occurred, in consequence of the limited number of his troops, to engage the enemy, was at all times ready. Capt. Miller, of the 4th artillery, was particularly successful in managing the 12-pounder in one of the general attacks, and showed himself a good officer and skillful artillerist.

Major Gwynn, commanding Loreto, although not attacked, was vigilant, and his command was of great assistance to me. Several detachments from his post occupied exposed points, and received heavy fires from the enemy - especially detachments under Lieuts. Carroll and Moore, who for forty eight hours stood their guard, and were of essential service to me.

I cannot speak too highly of Capt. Kendrick and his management of his batteries. His shells and shot fell beautifully upon houses and churches, where the enemy were great in numbers. Wherever his shot took effect the firing soon ceased. The limited number of these missiles compelled us to use them with great caution. I am much, very much, indebted to Capt. Kendrick for his vigilance and exertions before and during the siege. I will take this occasion to mention Sergeant Owell, of company B 2d artillery, as a most skilful artillerist. I never saw shot thrown more accurately from his gun.

I take great pleasure in speaking of Capt. Morehead, commanding Guadalupe. The place and defences were in a most dilapidated condition. Capt. Morehead, with his bas command, succeeded in placing himself in a perfect state of defence, by great and constant labor. The enemy several times left him, but, finding him always on the alert, made no serious attack. By sorties upon the enemy, when attacking San Jose, he was of essential service to us, and killed many of them. I consider him an excellent and gallant officer. Lieut. Edwards, 2d artillery, in charge of the mountain howitzer, threw his shells with great accuracy, and commanded a successful sortie.

To Captain Rowe, of the 9th infantry, who commanded the guard of one of the hospitals, (a constant point of attack, both day and night,) I am greatly indebted for able defence of that position, and his gallant bearing before the enemy.

To Surgeon Mills, chief of the medical department, and to his assistants, great praise is due for their unwearied and laborious services. Left with 1,800 sick, and limited supplies, with buy six assistants, their utmost exertions were necessary to administer timely remedies to so many patients. Their attention to the wounded deserves my notice and thanks. These gentlemen were not only occupied in their professional duties, but the want of officers and men compelled me to make large requisitions for the defence of the hospitals on surgeons and invalids, and they were nightly on guard marshalling their men upon the roots and other points. To them I am greatly indebted.

Capt. Webster, A. Q .M., and Lieut. Rhett, A. C. S., rendered valuable services in defending their premises with men in their employ; and with men in the quartermaster's department I was enabled to occupy a position that was all important, and to which I had neither officers nor soldiers to send. - Messrs. Spencer and Brown were particularly active and of good service.

I should be unjust to myself, and the spy company under Capt. Pedro Arria, if I did not call the attention of the general in chief to their invaluable services. From them I received the most accurate information of the movements of the enemy, and the designs of the citizens; through them I was enabled to apprehend several officers and citizens in their nightly meetings to consummate their plans for raising the populace. The spy company fought gallantly, and are now so compromised, that they must leave the country when our army retires.

I have now only to speak of my A.A.A. General, Mr. Waelder, of the 1 st Pennsylvania volunteers, and my secretary, Mr. Wengierski. The gallant charge of Lieut. Waelder upon the enemy, although rash, exhibits him as an officer not to be intimidated by numbers. His duties have been arduous and dangerous, having daily to carry orders through the thickest fire. I take great pleasure in recommending him to the favorable notice of the general in chief.

To Mr. Wengierski, secretary and translator, I am much indebted for invaluable services. Mr. W., in addition to his appropriate duties, conducted the operations of the spy company, and through his suggestions and active exertions, I received much valuable information, and many successful expeditions of the spies into the city were made. Mr. W. commanded the detachment on the roof of my quarters, and was the first man wounded. From his efforts, his wound proved severe and painful; still he performed his various duties night and day, and is worthy of my approbation.

I regret that the health of Capt. De Hart, lieutenant governor, prevented him from taking an active part in the stirring scenes I have related, and in which he was anxious to participate. Until confined to his quarters by sickness, he was of great assistance to me in directing the defences of Guadalupe, and heading a command in the city to disperse the populace.

I herewith enclose a return of the killed and wounded, together with the sub reports.

Respectfully submitted,
Thomas Childs.
Col. U.S.A., civil and military governor.

To Capt. H.L. Scott. A. A. A. G.,
Headquarters of the army in Mexico. [RLLW]


NNR 73. 197 Nov. 27, 1847 Capt. Robert Bronaugh killed near Puebla.

Death of Capt. Bronaugh - We learn that Captain Bronaugh, formerly of the Baltimore battalion, was recently killed near Puebla, where he had been acting as postmaster. It appears that, before the siege of that place, 26 of them went on an expedition to retake a number of mules that had been capture by Mexicans. Soon after starting there were surrounded by a large body of lacers, and almost annihilated. Ten were killed on the spot, two or three severely wounded, and a few taken prisoners. A son of Captain Nones, of the U.S. revenue service, commanded the party, and was severely wounded, but has since recovered. [Balt. Clipper [RLLW]


NNR 73.197-200 Nov. 27, 1847 Henry Clay's speech at Lexington

SPEECH OF MR. CLAY

At the Mass Meeting in Lexington, KY, on Saturday November 13, 1847.

From the Lexington Observer .

After the organization of the meeting, Mr. Clay rose and addressed it substantially as follows: Ladies and Gentlemen:

The day is dark and gloomy, unsettled and uncertain like the condition of our country, in regard to the unnatural war with Mexico. The public mind is agitated and anxious, and is filled with serious apprehensions as to its indefinitely continuance, and especially as to the consequences which its termination may bring forth, menacing the harmony, if not the existence of the Union.

It is under these circumstances, I present myself before you. No ordinary occasion would have drawn me from the retirement in which I live; but whilst a single pulsation of the human heart remains, it should if necessary be dedicated to the services of one's country. And I have hoped that, although I am a private and humble citizen, an expression of the views and opinions I entertain, might form some little addition to the general stock of information, and afford a small assistance in delivering our country from the perils and dangers that surround it.

I have come here with no purpose to attempt to make a speech, or an ambitious oratorical display. I have brought with me no rhetorical bouquets to throw into this assemblage. In the circle of the year autumn has come, and the season of flowers has gone by, and I too am in the autumn of life, and feel the frost of age. My desire and aim are to address you, earnestly, calmly, seriously, and plainly, upon the grave and momentous subjects which have brought us together. And I am solicitous that not a solitary word may fall from me, offensive to any party or person in the whole extent of the Union.

War, pestilence, and famine, by the common consent of mankind, are the three greatest calamities which can befal our species; and war, as the most direful, justly stands foremost and in front. Pestilence and famine, no doubt for wise although inscrutable purposes, are inflections of Providence, to which it is our duty, therefore to bow with obedience, humble submission and resignation. Their duration is not long, and their ravages are limited. They bring indeed, great affliction whilst they last, but society soon recovers from their effect. War is the voluntary work of our own hands, and whatever reproaches it may deserve to be directed to ourselves. When it breaks out, its duration is indefinite and unknown - its vicissitudes are hidden from our view. In the sacrifice of human life, and in its burthens, it affects both belligerent nations, and its sad effects of mangled bodies, of death, and of desolation, endure long after its thunders are hushed in peace. War, unhinge society, disturbs its peaceful and regular industry, and scatters poisonous seeds of disease and mortality, which continue to germinate and diffuse their baneful influence long after it has ceased. Dazzling by its glitter, pomp and pageantry, it begets a spirit of wild adventure and romantic enterprise, and often disqualifies those who embark in it, after their return from the bloody fields of battle, from engaging in the industrious and peaceful vocations of life.

We are informed by statement which is apparently correct, that the number of our countrymen slain in this lamentable Mexican war, although it has yet been of only 18 months existence, is equal to one, half of the whole of the American loss during the seven years of the revolution! And I venture to assert that the expenditure of treasure which it has occasioned, when it shall come to be fairly ascertained and tooted up will be found to be more than half of the pecuniary cost of the war of our Independence. And this is the condition of the party whose arms have been every where and constantly victorious.

How did we unhappily get involved in this war? - It was predicted as the consequence of the annexation of Texas to the United States. If we had not Texas, we should have no war. The people were told that if the event should happen, war would ensue. They were told that the war between Texas and Mexico had not been terminated by a treaty of peace; that Mexico still claimed Texas as a revolted province and that, if we received Texas in our Union, we tool along with her, the war existing between her and Mexico. And the minister of Mexico formally announced to the government at Washington, that his nation would consider the annexation of Texas to the United States as producing a state of war. But all this was denied by the partizans of annexation. They insisted we should have no war, and even imputed to those who lore told it, sinister motives for their groundless prediction.

But, notwithstanding a state of virtual war necessary resulted from the fact of annexation of one of the belligerents to the United States, actual hostilities might have been probably averted prudence, moderation, and wise statesmanship. If General Taylor had been permitted to remain, at the point of Corpus Christi; and if a negotiation had been opened with Mexico, in a true spirit of amity and conciliation, war possibly might have been prevented. But, instead of this pacific and moderate course, whilst Mr. Slidell was bending his way to Mexico, with his diplomatic credentials, Gen. Taylor was ordered to transport his cannon, and to plant them, in a warlike attitude, opposite to Matamoros, on the east bank of the Rio Bravo, within the very disputed territory, the adjustment of which was to be the object of Mr. Slidell's mission. What else could have transpired but a conflict of arms?

Thus the war commenced, and the president, after having produced it, appealed to congress. A bill was proposed to raise 50,000 volunteers, and in order to commit all who should vote for it, a preamble was inserted falsely attributing the commencement of the war to the act of Mexico. I have no doubt of the patriotic motives of those who, after struggling to divest the bill of that flagrant error, found themselves constrained to vote for it. But I must say that no earthly consideration would have ever tempted or provoked me to vote for a bill, with a palpable falsehood stamped on its face. Almost idolizing truth, as I do, I never, never, could have voted for that bill.

The exceptionable conduct of the federal party, during the last British war, has excited an influence in the prosecution of the present war, and prevented a just discrimination between the two wars. That was a war of national defence, required for the vindication of the national rights and honor, and demanded by the indignant vote of the people. President Madison himself, I know, at first reluctantly and with great doubt and hesitation, brought himself to the conviction that it ought to be declared. A leading, and perhaps the most influential member of his cabinet, (Mr. Gallatin), was, up to the time of its declaration, opposed to it. But nothing could withstand the irresistible force of public sentiment. It was a just war, and its great object, as announced at the time, was, "Free Trade and Sailors Rights," against the intolerable and oppressive acts of British power on the ocean. The justice of the war, far from being dented or controverted, was admitted by the federal party, which only questioned it on considerations of policy.

Being deliberately and constitutionally declared, it as, I think, their duty to have given it to their hearty cooperation. But the mass of them did not. They continued to oppose and thwart it, to discourage loans and enlistments, to deny the power of the general government to march the militia beyond our limits, and to hold a Hartford Convention, which, whatever the real objects, bore the aspect of seeking a dissolution of the Union itself. They lost and justly lost the public confidence. But has not an apprehension of a similar late, in a state of a case widely different, repressed a fearless expression of their real sentiments in some of our public men?

How totally variant is this present war? This is no war of defence, but on unnecessary and of offensive aggression. It is Mexico that is defending her firesides, her castles and her altars, not we. And how different also is the conduct of the whig party of the present day from that of the major part of the federal party during the war of 1812! Far from interposing any obstacles to the prosecution of the war, if the whigs in office are reproachable at all, it is for having lent too ready a facility to it, without careful examination into the objects of the war. - And, out of office, who have rushed to the prosecution of the war with more ardor and alacrity than the whigs? Whose hearts have bled more freely than those of the whigs? Who have more occasion to mourn the loss of sons, husbands, brothers, fathers, than whig parents, whig wives, and whig brothers in this deadly and unprofitable strife?

But the havoc of war is in progress, and the no less deplorable havoc of an inhospitable and pestilential climate. Without indulging in an unnecessary retrospect and useless reproaches on the past, all hearts and heads should unite in the patriotic endeavor to bring it to a satisfactory close. Is there no way that this can be done? Must we blindly continue the conflict, without any visible object, or any prospect of a definite termination? This is the important subject upon which I desire to consult and to commune with you. Who, in this free government, is to decide upon the objects of a war, at its commencement, or at any time during its existence? Does the power belong to the nation, in the collective wisdom of the nation in congress assembled, or is it vested solely in a single functionary of the government?

A declaration of war is the highest and most awful exercise of sovereignty. The convention, which framed our federal constitution, had learned from the pages of history that it had been often and greatly abused. It had seen the war had often been commenced upon the most trifling pretexts; that it had been frequently waged to establish or exclude a dynasty; to snatch a crown from the head of one potentate and place it upon the head of another; that it had often been prosecuted to promote alien and other interests than those of the nation whose chief had proclaimed it, as in the case of English wars for Hanoverian interests; and, in short, to be confided to the perilous exercise of one single man. The convention, therefore, resolved to guard the war making power against those great abuses, of which, in the lands of a monarch, it was so susceptible.

And the security against those abuses which its wisdom devised, was to vest the war making power in the congress of the United States, being the immediate representatives of the people and the states. So apprehensive and jealous was the convention of its abuse in any other hands, that it interdicted the exercise of power to any state in the Union, without the consent of congress. Congress, then, in our system of government, is the sole depository of that tremendous power.

The constitution provides that congress shall have power to declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, to raise and support armies, to provide and maintain a navy, and to make rules for the government of the land and naval forces. Thus we perceive that the principal power, in regard to war, with all its auxiliary attendants, is granted to congress. Whenever called upon to determine upon the solemn question of peace or war, congress must consider and deliberate and decide upon the motives, objects, and causes of the war. And, if a war be commenced without any previous declaration of its objects, as in the case of the existing war with Mexico, congress must necessarily posses the authority, at any time, to declare for what purposes it shall be further prosecuted. If we suppose congress does not possess the controlling authority attributed to it; if it be contended that a war having been once commenced, the president of the United States may direct it to the accomplishment of any objects he pleases, without consulting and without any regard to the will of congress; the convention will have utterly failed in guarding the nation against the abuses and ambition of a single individual.

Either congress or the president, must have the right of determining upon the objects for which a war shall be prosecuted. There is no other alternative. If the president possesses it and prosecute it for objects against the will of congress, where is the difference between our free government and that of any other nations which may be governed by an absolute Czar, Emperor, of King.

Congress may omit, as it has omitted in the present war, to proclaim the object for which it was commenced or has been since prosecuted, and in cases of such omission the president, being charged with the employment and direction of the national force, is necessarily, left to his own judgment to decide upon the objects, to the attainment of which that force shall be applied. But, whenever congress shall think proper to declare, by some authentic act, for what purposes a war shall be commenced on continued, it is the duty of the president to apply the national force to the attainment of those purposes. In the instance of the last war with Great Britain, the act of congress by which it was declared was preceded by a message of President Madison enumerating the wrongs and injuries of which we complained against Great Britain. That message therefore, and without it the well known objects of the war, which was a war purely of defence, rendered it unnecessary that congress should particularize, in the act, the specific objects for which it was proclaimed. The whole world knew that it was a war waged for free trade and sailors' rights.

It may be argued that the president and senate possess the treaty making power, without any express limitation to its exercise; that the natural and ordinary termination of a war is by a treaty of peace; and therefore, that the president and senate must posses the power to decide what stipulations and conditions shall enter into such a treaty. But it is not more true that the president and senate possess the treaty making power, without limitation, than that congress possesses the war making power, without restriction. These two powers then ought to be so interpreted as to reconcile the one with the other; and, in expounding the constitution, we ought to keep constantly in view the nature and structure of our free government, and especially the great object of the convention in taking the war making power out of the hands of a single man and placing it in the safer custody of the representatives of the whole nation. The desirable reconciliation between the two powers is effected by attributing to congress the right to declare what shall be the objects of a war, and to the president the duty of endeavoring to obtain those objects by the direction of the national force and by diplomacy.

I am broaching no new and speculative theory. - The statute book of the United States is full of examples of prior declarations by congress of the objects to be attained by negotiations with foreign powers, and the archives of the executive department furnish abundant evidence of the accomplishmdnt of those objects, or the attempt to accomplish them, by subsequent negotiations.

Prior to the declaration of the last war against Great Britain, in all the restrictive measures which congress adopted, against the two great belligerent powers of Europe, clauses were inserted in the several acts establishing them, tendering to both or either of the belligerents the abolition of those restrictions if they would repeal their hostile Berlin and Milan decrees and orders in council, operating against our commerce and navigation. And these acts of congress were invariably communicated, through the executive, by diplomatic notes to France and Great Britain, as the basis upon which it was proposed to restore friendly intercourse with them. So, after the termination of the war, various acts of congress were passed, from time to time, offering to foreign powers the principle of reciprocity in the commerce and navigation of the U. States with them. Out of these acts have sprung a class, and a large class, of treaties, (four or five of which were negotiated, whilst I was in the department of state,) commonly called reciprocity treaties concluded under all the presidents, from Mr. Madison to Mr. Van Buren, inclusive. And with regard to commercial treaties, negotiated with the sanction of prior acts of congress, where they contained either appropriations or were in conflict with unrepealed statutes, it has ever been held as the republican doctrine, from Mr. Jay's treaty down to the present time, that the passage of acts of congress was necessary to secure the execution of those treaties. If in the matter of foreign commerce, in respect to which the power vested in congress to regulate it and the treaty making power may be regarded as concurrent, congress can previously decide the objects to which negotiation shall be applied, how much stronger is the case of war, the power to declare which is confided exclusively to congress?

I conclude, therefore, Mr. President and fellow citizens, with entire confidence that congress has the right either at the beginning or during the prosecution of any war, to decide the objects and purposes for which it ought to be continued. And I think it is the duty of congress, by some deliberate and authentic act, to declare for what objects the present war shall be longer prosecuted. I suppose the president would not hesitate to regulate his conduct by the pronounced will of congress, and to employ the force and the diplomatic power of the nation to execute that will. But, if the president should decline or refuse to do so, and, in contempt of the supreme authority of congress, should preserve in waging war, for other objects than those proclaimed by congress, then it would be the imperative duty of that body to vindicate its authority by the most stringent and effectual and appropriate measures. And if, on the contrary, the enemy should refuse to conclude a treaty, containing stipulations securing the objects designated by congress, it would become the duty of the whole government to prosecute the war, with all the national energy, until those objects were attained by a treaty of peace. There can e no insuperable difficulty in congress making such an authoritative declaration. Let it resolved, simply, that the war shall, or shall not, be a war of conquest, and if a war of conquest, what is to be conquered. Should a resolution pass, disclaiming the design of conquest, peace would follow in less than sixty days, if the president would conform to the constitutional duty.

Here, fellow citizens, I might pause, having indicated a mode by which the nation, through its accredited and legitimate representatives in congress, can announce for what purposes and objects this war shall be longer prosecuted, and can thus let the whole people of the United States know for what end their blood is to be further shed, and their treasure further expended, instead of the knowledge of it being locked up and concealed in the bosom of one man. We should no longer perceive the objects of the war varying, from time to time, according to the changing opinions of the chief magistrate charged with its prosecution. But I do not think it right to stop here. It is the privilege of the people, in their primitive assemblies, and of every private man, however humble, to express an opinion in regard to the purposes for which the war should be continued; and such an expression will receive just as much consideration and consequence as it is entitled to, and no more.

Shall this war be prosecuted for the purpose of conquering and annexing Mexico, in all its boundless extent, to the United States?

I will not attribute to the president of the United States any such design; but I confess I have been shocked and alarmed by manifestations of it in various quarters. Of all the dangers and misfortunes which could befal this nation, I should regard that of its becoming warlike and conquering power the most direful and fatal. History tells the mournful tale of conquering nations and conquerors. The three most celebrated conquerors, in the civilized world, were Alexander, Caesar and Napoleon. The first, after overrunning a large portion of Asia, and sighing and lamenting that there were no more worlds to subdue, met a premature and ignoble death. His lieutenants quarreled and warred with each other, as to the spoils of his victories, and finally lost them all.

Caesar, after conquering Gaul, returned with his triumphant legions to Rome, passed the Rubicon, won the battle of Pharsalia, trampled upon the liberties of his country, and expired by the patriot hand of Brutus. But Rome ceased to be free. War and conquest had enervated and corrupted the masses. The spirit of true liberty was extinguished, and a long line of emperors succeeded, some of whom were the most execrable monsters that ever existed in human form. And that most extraordinary man, perhaps in all history, after subjugating all continental Europe, occupying almost all its capitals, seriously threatening, according to Mr. Thiers, proud Albion itself, and decking the brows of various members of his family, with crowns torn from the heads of other monarchs, lived to behold his own dear France itself in the possession of his enemies, was made himself a wretched captive, and far removed from country, family, and friends, breathed his last on the distant and inhospitable rock of St. Helena. The Alps and Rhine had been claimed as the natural boundaries of France, but even these could not be secured in the treaties to which she was reduced to submit. Do you believe that the people of Macedon or Greece, of Rome, or of France, were benefitted, individually or collectively, by the triumphs of their great captains? Their sad lot was immense sacrifice of life, heavy and intolerable burdens, and the ultimate loss of liberty itself.

That the power of the United States is competent to the conquest of Mxico is quite probable. But it could not be achieved without frightful carnage, dreadful sacrifices of human life, and the creation of an onerous national debt; nor could it be completely effected, in all probility, until after the lapse of many years. It would be necessary to occupy all its strongholds, to disarm its inhabitants, and to keep them in constant fear and subjection. To consummate the work, I presume that standing armies, not less than a hundred thousand men, would be necessary, to be kept perhaps always in the bosom of their country. These standing armies, reveling in a foreign land, and accustomed to trample upon the liberties of foreign people, at some distant day might be fit and ready instruments, under the lead of some daring and unprincipled chieftain, to return to their country and prostrate the public liberty.

Supposing the conquest to be once made, what is to be done with it? Is it to be governed, like Roman Provinces, by Proconsuls? Would it be compatible with the genius, character, and safety of our free institutions, to keep such a great country as Mexico, with a population of not less than nine millions, in a state of constant subjection?

Shall it be annexed to the United States? Does any considerate man believe it possible that two such immense countries, with territories of nearly equal extent, with populations so incongruous, so different in race, in language, in religion and in laws, could be blended together in one harmonious mass, and happily governed by one common authority? Murmurs, discontent, insurrections, rebellion, would inevitably ensure, until the incompatible parts would be broken asunder, and possibly, in the frightful struggle, our preeent glorious union itself would be dissevered or dissolyed.

We ought not so forget the warning voice of all history, which teaches the difficulty of combining and consolidating together, conquering and conquered notions. After the lapse of eight hundred years, during which the Moors held their conquest of Spain, the indomitable courage, perseverance, and obstinacy of the Spanish race finally triumphed, and expelled the African invaders from the Peninsula. And even with our own time, the colossal power of Napoleon, when at its loftiest height, was incompetent to subdue and subjugate the proud Castilian. And here with in our own neighborhood, Lower Canada, which near one hundred years ago, after the conclusion of the seven years war, was ceded by France to Great Britain, remains a foreign land in the midst of the British provinces, foreign in feelings and attachment, and foreign in laws, language and religion. And what has been the fact with poor gallant, generous and oppressed Ireland? Centuries have passed since the overbearing Saxon overran and subjugated the Emerald Isle.

Rivers of Irish blood have flowed, during the long and arduous contest. Insurrection and rebellion have been the order of the day; and yet, up to this time, Ireland remains alien in feeling, affection and sympathy, toward the power which has so long borne her down. Every Irishman hates, with a mortal hatred, his Saxon oppressor. Although there are great territorial differences between the condition of England and Ireland, as compared to that of the United States and Mexico, there are some points of striking resemblance between them.

Both the Irish and the Mexicans are probably of the same Celtic race. Both the English and the Americans are of the same Saxon origin. The Catholic religion predominates in both the former, the Protestant among both the latter. Religion has been the fruitful cause of dissatisfaction and discontent between the Irish and the English nations. Is there no reason to apprehend that it would become so between the people of the United States and Mexico, if they were united together? Why should we seek to interfere with them in their mode of worship of a common Saviour? We believe that they are wrong especially in the exclusive character of their faith, and that we are right. They think that they are right and we are wrong. What other rule can there be than to leave the followers of each religion to their own solemn convictions of conscientious duty towards God? Who but the great Arbiter of the Universe, can judge in such a question? For my own part, I sincerely believe and hope that those who belong to all the departments of the great church of Christ, if, in truth and purity, they conform to the doctrines which they profess, will ultimately secure and abode in those regions of bliss, which all aim finally to reach. I think there is no potentate in Europe, whatever his religion may be, more enlightened or at this moment so interesting as the liberal head of the Papal See.

But I suppose it to be impossible that those who favor, if there be any who favor the annexation of Mexico to the United States, can think that it ought to be perpetually governed by the military sway. Certainly no votary of human liberty could deem it right that a violation should be perpetuated of the great principles of our own revolution, according to which, laws ought not to be enacted and taxes ought not to be levied, without representation on the part of those who are to obey the one, and pay the other. Then, Mexico is to participate in our councils and equally share in our legislation and government. But, suppose she would not voluntarily choose representatives to the national congress, is our soldiery to follow the electors to the ballot box, and by force to compel them, at the point of the bayonet, to deposit their ballots? And how are the nine millions of Mexican people to be represented in the congress of the United States of America and the congress of the United States of the Republic of Mexico combined? Is every Mexican, without regard to color or caste, per capita, to exercise the elective franchise? How is the quota of representation between the two republics, to be fixed? Where is their seat of common government to be established? And who can foresee or foretel, if Mexico, voluntarily or by force, were to share in the common go ernment what would be the consequences to her or to us? Unprepared, as I fear her populations yet is, for the practical enjoyment of self government, and of habits, customs, language, laws and religion, so totally different from our own, we should present the revolting spectacle of a confused, distracted, and motley government.

We should have a Mexican party, a Pacific Ocean party, an Atlantic party, in addition to the other parties, which exist, or with which we are threatened, each striving to execute its own particular views and purposes, and reproaching the others with thwarting and disappointing them. The Mexican representation, in congress, would probably form a separate and impenetrable corps, always ready to throw itself into the scale of any other party, to advance and promote Mexican interests. Such a state of things could not long endure. Those, whom God and geography have pronounced should live asunder, could never be permanently and harmoniously united together.

Do we want for our own happiness or greatness the addition of Mexico to the existing Union of our states? If our population was too dense for our territory, and there was a difficulty in obtaining honorably the means of subsistence, there might be some excuse for an attempt to enlarge our dominions. But we have no such apology. We have already, in our glorious country, a vast and almost boundless territory. Beginning in the north, in the frozen regions of the British provinces, it stretches thousands of miles along the coasts of the Atlantic ocean and the Mexican gulf, until it almost reaches the tropics. It extends to the Pacific ocean, on those great inland seas, the lakes, which separate us from the possessions of Great Britain, and it embraces the great father of rivers, from its uppermost source to the Balize, and the still longer Missouri, from its mouth to the gorges of the Rocky Mountains.

It comprehends the greatest variety of the richest soils, capable of almost all the productions of the earth, except tea and coffee and the spices, and it includes every variety of climate, which the heart could wish or desire. We have more than ten thousand millions of acres of waste and unsettled lands, enough for the subsistence of ten or twenty times our present population. Ought we not to be satisfied with such a country? Ought we not be profoundly thankful to the Giver of all good things for such a vast and bountiful land? Is it not the height of ingratitude to Him to seek by war and conquest, indulging in a spirit of rapacity, to acquire other lands, the homes and habitations of a large portion of his common children? If we pursue the object of such a conquest, besides mortgaging the revenue and resources of this country for ages to come, in the form of an onerous national debt, we should have greatly to augment the debt, by an assumption of the sixty or seventy mililons of the national debt of Mexico. For I take it that nothing is more certain than that, if we obtain voluntarily or by conquest, a foreign nation, we acquire it with all the incumbrances attached to it. In my humble opinion, we are now bound, in honor and morality, to pay the just debt of Texas. - And we should be equally bound by the same obligations, to pay the debt of Mexico if it were annexed by the United States.

Of the possessions which appertain to man, in his collective or individual condition, none should be preserved and cherished, with more sedulous and unremitting care than that of an unsullied character. It is impossible to estimate it too highly, in society, when attached to an individual, nor can it be exaggerated or too greatly magnified in a nation. Those who lose or are indifferent to it become just objects of scorn or contempt. Of all the abominable transactions which sully the pages of history, none exceed in enormity that of the dismemberment and partition of Poland, by the three great continental powers - Russia, Austria and Prussia. Ages may pass away, and centuries roll around, but as long as human records endure all mankind will unite in execrating the rapacious and detestable deed. That was accomplished by overwhelming force, and the unfortunate existence of fatal dissentions and divisions in the bosom of Poland. Let us avoid affixing to our name and national character a similar, if not worse stigma. I am afraid that we do not now stand well in the opinion of other parts of Christendom. - All the nations, I apprehend, look upon us in the prosecution of the present war, as being actuated by a spirit of rapacity and an inordinate desire for territorial aggrandizement. Let us not forfeit altogether their good opinions. Let us command their applause by a noble exercise of forbearance and justice. In the elevated station which we hold, we can safely afford to practise the godlike virtues of moderation and magnanimity. The long series of glorious triumphs, achieved by our gallant commanders and their brave armies, unattended by a single reverse, justify us, without the least danger of tarnishing the national honor, in disinterestedly holding out the olive branch of peace.

We do not want the mines, the mountains, the morasses and the sterile lands of Mexico. To her the loss of them would be humiliating, and be a perpetual source of regret and mortification. To us they might prove a fatal acquisition, producing distraction, dissension, division possibly disunion. Let therefore the integrity of the national existence and national territory of Mexico remain undisturbed. - For one, I desire to see no part of her territory torn from her by war. Some of our people have placed their hearts upon the acquisition of the Bay of San Francisco in Upper California. To us, as a great maritime power, it might prove to be, of advantage hereafter in respect, to our commercial and navigating interests. To Mexico which can never be a great maritime power, it can never be of much advantage. - If we obtain it by fair purchase with a just equivalent, I should be happy to see it so acquired. As, whenever the war ceases, Mexico ought to be required to pay the debts due to our citizens, perhaps an equivalent for that bay may be found in that debt, our government assuming to pay to our citizens whatever portion of it may be applied to that object. But it should form no motive in the prosecution of the war, which I would not continue a solitary hour for the sake of that harbor.

But what, it will be asked, shall we make peace without any indemnity for the expenses of war? If the published documents in relation to the late negotiations between Mr. Trist and the Mexican commissioners be true, and I have not seen them any where contradicted, the executive properly waived any demand of indemnity for the expenses of the war. And the rupture of that negotiation was produced, by our government insisting upon a session from Mexico, of the strip and mostly barren land between the Nueces and the Rio Bravo and and New Mexico, which Mexico refused to make. So that we are now fighting, if not for the conquest of all Mexico as intimated in some quarters, for that narrow strip, and for the barren province of New Mexico, with its few miserable mines. We bought all the Louisiana Purchase for fifteen millions of dollars, and it is, in my opinion, worth more than all of Mexico together. We bought Florida, at five millions of dollars, and a hard bargain it was, since, besides that sum, we gave up the boundary of the Rio Bravo, to which I think we were entitled, as the western limit of the province of Louisiana, and were restricted to that part of the Sabine. And we are now, if not seeking the conquest of all Mexico, to continue this war indefinitely for the inconsiderable objects to which I have just referred.

But it will be repeated, are we to have no indemnity for the expenses of the war? Mexico is utterly unable to make us any pecuniary indemnity, if the justice of the war on our part entitled us to demand it. Her country has been laid waste, her cities burned or occupied by our troops, her means so exhausted that she is unable to pay even her own armies. And every day's prosecution of the war, whilst it would augment the amount of our indemnity, would lessen the ability of Mexico to pay it. We have seen, however, that there is another [illegible]…

Among the resolutions which it is my intention to present for your consideration at the conclusion of this address, one proposes, in your behalf and mine, to disavow, in the most positive manner, any desire, on our part, to acquire any foreign territory whatever for the purpose of introducing slavery into it. I do not know that any citizen of the U. States entertains such a wish. But such a motive has often been imputed to the slave states, and I therefore think it necessary to notice it on this occasion. My opinions on the subject of slavery are well known. - They have the merit, if it be one, of consistency, uniformity and long duration. I have ever regarded slavery as a great evil, a wrong, for the present I fear an irredeemable wrong to its unfortunate victims. - I should rejoice if not a single slave breathed the air or was within the limits of our country. But here they are, to be dealt with as well as we can, with a due consideration of all circumstances affecting the security, safety and happiness of both races. Every state has the supreme, uncontrolled and exclusive power to decide for itself whether slavery shall cease or continue within its limits, without any exterior intervention from any quarter. In states where the slaves outnumber the whites, as is the case with several, the blacks could not be emancipated and invested with all the rights of freemen, without becoming the governing race in those states. Collisions and conflicts between the two races, would be inevitable, and after shocking scenes of rapine and carnage, the extinction or expulsion of the blacks would certainly take place.

In the state of Kentucky, near fifty years ago, I though the proportion of slaves, in comparison with the whites, was so inconsiderable that we might safely adopt a system of gradual emancipation that would ultimately eradicate this evil in our state. - That system was totally different from the immediate abolition of slavery for which the party of the abolitionists of the present day contend. Whether they have intended or not, it is my calm and deliberate belief, that they incalculable mischief even to the very cause which they espoused, to say nothing of the discord which has been produced between the different parts of the Union. According to the system, we attempted, near the close of the last century, all slaves in being were to remain such, but all who might be born subsequent to a specified day were to become free at the age of twenty-eight, and during their service were to be taught to read, write and cypher. Thus, instead of being thrown upon the community, ignorant and unprepared, as would be the case by immediate emancipation, they would have entered upon the possession of their freedom, capable, in some degree, of enjoying it. After a hard struggle the system was defeated, and I regret it extremely, as, if it had been then adopted, our state would be now nearly rid of that reproach.

Since that epoch, a scheme or unmixed benevolence has sprung up, which, if it had existed at that time, would have obviated one of the greatest objections, which was made to gradual emancipation, which was the continuance of the emancipated slaves to abide among us. That scheme is the American colonization society. About twenty-eight years ago, a few individuals, myself among them, met together in the city of Washington, and laid the foundation of that society. It has gone on amidst extraordinary difficulties and trials, sustaining itself almost entirely by spontaneous and voluntary contributions, from individual benevolence, without scarcely any aid from government.

The colonies, planted under its auspices, are now well established communities, with churches, schools, and other institutions appertaining to the civilized state. They have made successful war in repelling attacks and invasions by their barbarous and savage neighbors. They have made treaties, annexed territories to their dominion, and are blessed with a free representative in government. I recently read a message, from one of their governors to their legislature, which, in point of composition, and in careful attention to the public affairs of their republic, would compare advantageously with the messages of the governors of our own states. I am not very superstitious, but I do solemnly believe that these colonies are blest with the smiles of Providence, and, if we may dare attempt penetrating the veil, by which he conceals his all-wise dispensations from mortal eyes, that he designs that Africa shall be the refuge and the home of the descendants of its sons and daughters, torn and dragged from their native land, by lawless violence.

It is a philanthropic and consoling reflection that the moral and physical condition of the African race in the United States, even in a state of slavery, is far better than it would have been if their ancestors had never been brought from their native land. And if it should be the decree of the great Ruler of the universe that their descendants shall be made instruments in his hands in the establishment of civilization and the christian religion throughout Africa, our regrets on account of the original wrong will be greatly mitigated.

It may be argued that, in admitting the injustice of slavery, I admit the necessity of an instantaneous reparation of that injustice. Unfortunately, however, it is not always safe, practicable, or possible, in the great movements of states and public affairs of nations, to remedy or repair the infliction of previous injustice. In the inception of it, we may oppose and denounce it, by our most strenuous exertions, but after its consummation, there is often no alternative left us but to deplore its perpetration, and to acquiesce as the only alternative, in its existence, as a less evil than the frightful consequences which might ensue from the vain endeavor to repair it. Slavery is one of those unfortunate instances. The evil of it was inflicted upon us, by the parent country of Great Britain against all the entreaties and remonstrances of the colonies. And here it is amongst and amidst us, and we must dispose of it as best we can under all the circumstances which surround us. It continued, by the importation of slaves from Africa, in spite of colonial resistance, for a period of more than a century and a half, and it may require an equal or a longer lapse of time before our country is entirely rid of the evil. And in the meantime, moderation, prudence, and discretion among ourselves, and the blessings of providence may be all necessary to accomplish our ultimate deliverance from it. Examples of similar infliction of irreparable national evil and injustice might be multiplied to an indefinite extent. The case of the annexation of Texas to the United States is a recent and an obvious one which, if it were wrong, it cannot now be repaired. Texas is now an integral part of our Union, with its own voluntary consent. Many of us oppose the annexation with honest zeal and most earnest exertions. But who would now think of perpetrating the folly of casting Texas out of the Confederacy and throwing her back upon her own independence, or into the arms of Mexico? Who would now divorce her from this Union? The Creeks and the Cherokee Indians were, by the most exceptionable means, driven from their country, and transported beyond the Mississippi River. Their lands have been fairly purchased and occupied by inhabitants of Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Tennessee. Who would now conceive the flagrant injustice of expelling those inhabitants and restoring the Indian country to the Cherokees and Creeks, under color of repairing original injustice? During the war of our revolution, millions of paper money were issued by our ancestors, as the only currency with which they could achieve our liberties and independence. - Thousands and hundreds of thousands of families were stripped of their homes and their all and brought to ruin, by giving credit and confidence to that spurious currency. Stern necessity has prevented the reparation of that great national injustice.

But I forbear, I will no longer trespass upon your patience or further tax my own voice, impaired by a speech of more than three hours' duration, which professional duty required me to make only a few days ago. If I have been at all successful in the exposition of the views and opinions I entertain, I have shown -

1st. That the present war was brought about by the annexation of Texas and the subsequent order of the president, without the previous consent and authority of congress.

2d. That the president, being unenlightened and uninstructed by any public declaration of congress, as to objects for which is ought to be prosecuted, in the conduct of it, is necessarily, left to his own sense of what the national interest and honor may require.

3d. That the whole war making power of the nation, as to motives, causes, and objects, is confided by the constitution to the discretion and judgment of congress.

4th. That it is, therefore, the right of congress, at the commencement or during the progress of any war, to declare for what objects and purposes the war ought to be waged and prosecuted.

5th. That it is the right and duty of congress to announce to the nation for what objects the war shall be longer continued; that it is the duty of the president, in the exercise of all his official functions, to conform to and carry out this declared will of congress by the exercise, if necessary, of all the high power with which he is clothed and that, if he fail or refuse to do so, it becomes the imperative duty of congress to arrest the further progress of the war by the most effectual means in its power.

Let congress announce to the nation the objects for which this war shall be further protracted, and public suspense and public inquietude will no longer remain. - If it is to be a war of conquest of all, or any part of Mexico, let the people know it, and they will be no longer agitated by a dark and uncertain future. But although I might of forborne to express any opinion whatever as to purposes and objects for which the war should be continued, I have not thought proper to conceal my opinions, whether worth anything or not, from the public examination. Accordingly I have stated

6th. That it seems to me that it is the duty of our county as well as the score of moderation and to magnanimity, as to the view of avoiding discord and discontent at home, to abstain from seeking to conquer and annex to the United States, Mexico or any part of it; and especially to disabuse the public mind in any corridor of the Union of the impression, if it any where exist, that a desire for conquest is cherished for the purpose of propagating and extending slavery.

I have embodied, Mr. President and fellow citizens, the sentiments and opinions which I have endeavored to explain and enforce in a series of resolutions, which I beg now to submit to your consideration and judgment.

After reading the resolutions and handing them to the secretary, Mr. Clay concluded by apologizing for the length of time which he had trespassed upon the meeting, and thanking the ladies and gentlemen most cordially, for the honor done him by their attendance on that occasion and the profound attention with which they had iistened to him.

NOTE BY THE EDITOR. - The speech was often interrupted by bursts of applause, and both at its commencement and conclusion, there was tremendous cheering. [RLLW]


NNR 73.200-201 Nov. 27 1847 Gen. David E. Emanuel Twiggs' official report on the battles of Contreras and Churubusco

OFFICIAL DISPATCHES
REPORTS OF THE BATTLES OF CONTRERAS AND CHURUBUSCO,
MADE TO THE COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF

Report of General Twiggs
Headquarters 2d Division Regulars.
San Angel, near Mexico, August 23d, 1847.

Sir: For the information of the general-in-chief of the United States army, I have the honor to make the following report of the operations of my division, and of those of other troops which came under my command on the 19th and 20th instant.

Agreeably to instructions from Gen. Scott, I left my train of wagons at San Augustin on the morning of the 19th, and proceeded with my division to cross the mountain route previously reconnoitered by Captain Lee, of the engineers, and cover a working party under the orders of Major General Pillow. Having proceeded about two miles, the enemy was discovered at the main roads to the city of Mexico, (and some nine miles from it,) distant one mile, in a naturally strong position made still more so by breastworks which commanded the approach in every direction. Captain McLellan, of the topographical engineers, and Lieut. McClellan, of the engineer proper, were sent in advance to reconnoitre, with a view of placing our batteries. They were soon stopped by one of the enemy's pickets, and were compelled to return, each having had his horse shot. The rifle regiment, commanded by Major Loring, was then ordered forward as skirmishers to clear the ground. This duty was performed handsomely and with dispatch. Having driven in the enemy's pickets, to within 300 yards of his works, Capt. Magruder's battery and the mountain howitzer and rocket battery commanded by Lieut. Callender, of the ordnance, were placed in position by Capt. Lee, of the engineers.

These batteries at my disposal by the kindness of Major General Pillow, by whose magnanimity (he being my senior present) I had the control of my reinforcements, and every facility from his division, which I required. So soon as our batteries were established, the enemy opened a most destructive fire from several of his large guns. The connonnading was kept up on both sides for several hours, until compelled by loss of officers, men, and crippled pieces, our batteries were placed for the time under shelter. In this affair the very gallant and much lamented Lieut. J.P. Johnstone, of Magrduer's battery, was mortally wounded; and Lieut. Callenender, of the howitzer and rocket battery, severely wounded. The coolness and determination evinced by the officers and men while under this hot fire, gave sure indication of the result of the coming conflict, when all my command would get in position. General Smith's brigade was ordered to proceed in the direction of our batteries and Riley's, by inclining to the right, to get a position, if possible, in the enemy's rear. The route he was compelled to take was most difficult and tedious, passing over volcanic rocks and crossing large fissures barely narrow enough to permit the men to get over by leaping. - Accompanied by Lieut. Tower of the engineers, this brigade finally reached the main road and got in position in rear of the enemy (ten or twelve thousand) was discovered coming from the direction of the city, and closing on Riley's rear. At the same time from the field work at Contreras came out two or three thousand men on the road which the briga e had crossed, entirely cutting of Riley's from Smith's brigade. - Notwithstanding the very great disparity in numbers in favor of the enemy, this fine brigade kept its ground, occasionally driving from its vicinity, with loss, bodies of the enemy who had rashness enough to approach within musket range.

During this state of affairs, Smith's brigade was ordered to form a junction with Riley's, while Gen. Pierce's brigade occupied the left of the trail, and remained as a support to the batteries. Much credit is due to Col. Ransom, by whose untiring exertions an zeal the 9th and 12th infantry were placed in position near the batteries late in the night of the 19th. Late in the evening the two brigades joined near the road - Riley having manoevred in the face of the enemy so as to rejoin Smith's. Still later - Shields's and Cadwallader's brigades formed a junction with any division, then under the immediate command of General Smith. I being unable from a lame foot, to follow the route taken by my troops, returned to the vicinity of Taylor's battery, where I passed the night. General Smith made his arrangements to attack the enemy's works the next morning.

For the particulars of this affair I would respectfully refer the general-in-chief to the reports of Gen. Smith and Colonel Riley, to whom, and to the other officers engaged, is due all the credit that attaches - I was unable, for the reason given above, to come up to my division till the affair was over, and the road opened for my horse. In all the recommendations from brigade and regimental commanders I fully concur; and in addition, for gallant services on the 19th , would present the names of Capt. McClellan, topographical engineers, Lieutenants Beauregard, Tower, G.W. Smith, G.B. McClellan, Stevens and Foster, of the engineers, proper, (the last named officer was particularly active in the management of one of Captain Magruder's pieces after the lamented Johnstone lost his leg,) Magruder, Lieut. Jackson, Lieuts. Callender and Reno, serving with their respective batteries. Lieut. G. B. McClellan, after Lieut. Callender was wounded, took charge of and managed the howitzer battery (Lieut. Reno being detached with the rockets) with judgment and success, until it became so disabled as to require shelter. For Lieut. McClelland's efficiency and gallantry to this affair, I present his name for the favorable consideration of the general-in-chief.

The medical officers of the division, always ready to administer to the comfort of the sick and wounded, were particularly active on this occasion. With no conveniences for themselves, and but little shelter for the wounded, this admirable corps of officers spent the entire night exposed to the pitiless storm, in dressing the wounded and in alleviating their sufferings. I cannot do less than give their names a place in this report: Surgeons C. S. Tripler, B. Randall, H. H. Siemer, C. C. Kerney, and ---- Hammond, make up the number. My immediate staff --- Lieutenant Brooks, A. A. A. G., Lieutenant McDonald, A. D. C., Captain Allen, quartermaster, and Lieutenants Grafton, ordnance officer, and Sykes, A. C. S. to the division, were active and efficient in conveying orders, and, when necessary, in giving directions.

Having secured the prisoners and captured property at Contreras, [entrenched camp,] the 4th artillery, with other troops, was left as a guard, and to provide for the wounded and bury the dead. Pursuing a small retreating force through the villages of San Angel and Santa Catarina, giving them occasionally a running fire until we arrived in front o Churubusco, where the enemy were in strongly fortified position, with seven pieces of cannon and several thousand bayonets, a large body of lancers guarding the approach to the right of their work, which was incomplete, I came to a halt; by order of the general-in-chief, for the purposes of having a reconnaissance made. Lieut. Stevens, of the engineers, was sent forward to look at the enemy's position, supported by the company of sappers and miners. He reported a good position for Taylor's battery towards the left of the work, from which it was practicable to drive from the roof and walls of the church such of the enemy as, from their elevated position, could annoy my foot troops destined to storm the work surrounding the church.

The battery was accordingly ordered. It opened with great spirit, and remained under a most galling and destructive fire of grape, round shot, shell, and musketry for an hour and a half; by which time, having accomplished the desired object, it was withdrawn, much crippled in officers, men and horses. - In the meantime, Smith's brigade was ordered in the same direction the battery took, immediately in front of the work, and Riley's farther to the left, with a view of turning and gaining entrance to the open portion of the entrenchments on the enemy's right. After an uninterrupted and severe fire on both sides for two hours, my troops entered the work. All the regiments were close at hand, and shared equally in the dangers and honors of the day. Gen. Rincon, the commander of the place, and two other general officers, together with several others of rank, in all numbering 104, and 1155 non-commissioned officers and privates, prisoners of war, seven pieces of cannon, and a large number of small arms, and a great amount of ammunition of all kinds, together with 2655 prisoners of war.

To Captain Lee, of the engineers, I have again the pleasure of tendering my thanks for the exceedingly valuable services rendered throughout the whole of these operations; and to Lieut. G. W. Smith, of the engineers, who commanded the company of sappers and miners, I am under many obligations for his services on this and other occasions. Whenever his legitimate duties with the pick and spade were performed, he always solicited permission to join in the advance of the storming party with his muskets, to which position his gallantry, and that of his officers and men, was conspicuously displayed at Contreras as well at Cerro Gordo. His name I also present to the commanding general for discretion.

Finally, to Brevet Brigadier General Smith and Brevet Colonel Riley all the praise I can bestow is entitled, for their cordial and valuable support to me on all occasions and in every emergency. Their names, already conspicuous in the present campaign, have been rendered doubly so during the two recent battles.

My effective force on the morning of the 20th was one hundred and eleven officers and twenty-five hundred and thirty non commissioned officers and privates, and of the number were killed and wounded twenty-one officers, two hundred and forty-five men, killed, wounded and missing.

For more minute information, I will refer you to the accompanying reports of brigade and regimental commanders. A list of the killed and wounded, and missing, I have the honor to present with this report.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
D.E. TWIGGS,
Brigadier General U.S. Army,
Commanding 2d division Regulars.

Captain H.L. Scott, A. A. G.,
Headquarters of the army in the field.
[RLLW]


NNR 73.201 Nov. 27 1847 Gen. John Anthony Quitman's report concerning the reserves during the recent battles at Contreras and Churubusco

REPORT OF GENERAL QUITMAN

Headquarters Volunteer Division,
San Augustin, August 26 1847

SIR:-I have the honor to enclose the report of Brig. Gen. Shields of the operations of that portion of my division which was actively engaged in the recent battles before the city of Mexico.

Having been ordered by the general-in-chief to remain at this point in reserve with the remainder of my division, consisting of the 2d Pennsylvania regiment, under command of Col. Roberts, the battallion of marines, under Lieut. Col. Watson, Captain Steptoe's battery, and Captain Gaither's troop of dragons, I have nothing to add, the enclosed report of Brig. Gen. Shields, except the expression of my unqualified admiration of the distinguished conduct of that gallant officer, and my approbation of the good conduct and gallantry of the portion of my division which had the good fortune to be actively engaged under his command.

The troops which remained at this place in reserve, diligently performed the burdensome duties which fell to their lot during and after the sever conflicts which took place before the city. Col. Roberts, 2d Pennsylvania regiment, Lieut. Col. Watson, of the marines, and Captains Steptoe and Gaither assiduously shared the labors and cares which devolved upon me. My thanks are due to 1 st Lieut. Lovell, acting assistant adjutant general, and Lieut. Wilcox, my aid, for their able and active performance of their duties. I also take this opportunity of noticing the energy, activity, and zeal with which Capt. Daniels, the division quartermaster, has performed his duties, both on the march and whil in this position.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. A. QUITMAN, Major Gen.
Commanding volunteer divis.

[RLLW]

NNR 73.201-202 Nov. 27, 1847 Gen. James Shields' report on operations of August 20

REPORT OF GENERAL SHIELDS.

Headquarters 1 st Brigade Vol. Division,
San Augustin, Mexico, August 24, 1847
.

Sir: -- On the 19th instant, about three o'clock in the afternoon, pursuant to the orders of the general commanding this division, I marched from this place with the New York and South Carolina regiments of volunteers towards the battle-field of Contreras. On reporting to the commander-in-chief, who occupied on my arrival a position which overlooked the field, he described to me in a few words, the position of the contending forces, pointed out the route of my command, and briefly instructed me as to the dispositions which would render my force the most serviceable.

Directing my march upon this village near Contreras, the troops had to pass over ground covered with rocks and crags, and filled with chasms, which rendered the road almost impassable. A deep ragged ravine, along the bed of which rolled a rapid stream, was passed after dark, with great dilliouity and exertion; and rest to the wearied troops after crossing. I directed them to lie upon their arms until midnight. While occupying this position, two strong pickets, thrown out by my orders, discovered, fired upon and drove back a body of Mexican infantry moving towards the city. I have since learned that an attempt had in like manner been made by the enemy to pass the position on the main road occupied by the 1 st regiment of artillery, and with a like want of success. About midnight I again resumed the march, and joined Brig. Gen. Smith in the village already referred to.

Gen. Smith, previous to my arrival, had made the most judictous of arrangements for turning and surprising the Mexican position at daybreak, and with which I could not wish to interfere. This cast upon my command the necessity of holding the position to be evacuated by General S., and which was threatened by the enemy's artillery and infantry on the right, and a large force of his cavalry on the left. - About daybreak the enemy opened a brisk fire of grape and round shot upon the church and village in which my brigade was posted, as also upon a part of our own troops displayed to divert him on his right and front - evidently unaware of the movement in progress to turn his position left and rear. - This continued until Col. Riley's brigade opened its fire from the rear, which was delivered with such terrible effect, that the whole Mexican force was thrown into utmost consternation.

At this juncture, I ordered the two regiments of my command to throw themselves on the main road, by which the enemy must retire, to intercept and cut off his retreat; and, although officers and men had suffered severely during the march of the night, and from exposure without shelter or cover to the incessant ram until daybreak, this movement was executed in good order, and with rapidity. The Palmetto regiment, crossing a deep ravine, deployed on both sides of the road, and opened a most destructive fire upon the mingled masses of infantry and cavalry; and the New York regiment, brought into line lower down, and on the road side, delivered its fire with a like effect. At this point many of the enemy were killed add wounded, some 365 captured, of which 25 were officers, and amongst the latter was General Nicholas Mendoza.

In the meanwhile the enemy's cavalry, about 3000 strong, which had been threatening our position during the morning, moved down towards us in good order, and as if to attack. I immediately recalled the infantry, to place them in position to meet the threatened movement; but soon the cavalry changed direction and retreated towards the capital. I now received an order from Gen. Twiggs to advance by the main road towards Mexico; and having posted Capt. Marshal's company of S. Carolina volunteers, and Captain Taylor's New York volunteers in charge of the prisoners and wounded, I moved off with the remainder of my force, and joined the positions of the 2d and 3d divisions already en route on the main road. On this march we were joined by the general in chief, who assumed command of the whole, and the march continued uninterrupted until we arrived before Churubusco. Here the enemy was found strongly fortified, and posted with his main force - probably 25,000.

The engagement was commenced by the 2d division under Twiggs, soon joined by the first under Gen. Worth, and was becoming general, when I was detached by the commander-in-chief, with my two regiments and Pierce's brigade - the 9th, 12th, and 15th - and with the mountain howitzer battery, and ordered to gain position if possible, to attack the enemy's fear, and intercept his retreat.

Leaving Coyoacan by a left hand road and advancing about a mile upon it, I moved thence with my command toward the right, through a heavy cornfield, and gained an open but swampy field, in which is situated the hacienda de los Portales. On the edge of this field, beyond the hacienda, I discovered the road by which the enemy must retire from Churubusco, and found his reserve of about 4,000 infantry already occupied it, just in rear of the town. As my command arrived, I established the right upon a point recommended by Capt. Lee, engineer officer, to whose skill and judgment I had the utmost confidence, and commenced a movement to the left, to flank the enemy on his right, and throw my troops between him and the city; but finding his right supported by a heavy body of cavalry of some 3,000 strong, and seeing, too, that with his infantry he answered to my movements by a corresponding one towards his right flank, gaining ground later than I could, owing to the heavy mud and swamp through which I had to operate, I withdrew the men to the cover of the hacienda, and determined to attack him upon his front. I selected the Palmetto regiment as the base of my line, and this gallant regiment moved forward firmly and rapidly under a fire of musketry as terrible, perhaps, as any which soldiers have ever faced; the New York, 12th, and 15th, deployed gallantly on the right, and the 9th on the left, and the whole advanced, spending their fire as they came up, and moving steadily forward the enemy began to waver, and when my order to charge was given, the men rushed upon and … his broken ranks. As we reached the road, the advance of Worth's command appeared, driving the enemy from his stronghold of Churubusco. I took command of the front, and continued in pursuit until passed by Harney with his cavalry, who followed the routed foe into the very gates of the city.

In this terrible battle, in which a strongly fortified enemy fought behind his works under the walls of his capital, … loss is necessarily severe. The loss, I regret to say, has fallen most severely on my command. In the two regiments of my own brigade, numbering about 600 in the fight, the loss is reported 240 m killed and wounded.

In this last engagement my command captured 380 prisoners, including 6 officers. Of this number 42 had deserted from the American army during the war, and at their head was found the notorious O'Reilly, who had fought against troops at Monterey and elsewhere. A …. Report of the loss, as also of the prisoners captured by the command, accompanies this report.

Pierce's brigade, under my command in this action, lost a considerable number in killed and wounded. - Amongst the latter, the gallant Col. Morgah of the 15th. This command having rejoined its division, immediately after the action, I have, as yet, received no official report of its loss.

In closing this report I beg to offer my thanks to the many gallant officers of my command for their zealous and fearless support during the conflict. To Col. Burnett and Lieut. Col. Baxter, of the N. York volunteers; to Lieut. Colonel Dickinson and Major Gladden, South Carolina volunteers; as also to many of their gallant subordinates, every praise is due. - Col. Burnett was severely wounded at the head of his regiment; and Lieut. Col. Dickinson also severely wounded whilst in command of his regiment, and while bearing gallantly forward the colors of his corps. My thanks are due to the medical staff of the command - Doctors Halstead and McKebbin, of the New York, and Doctors Clark and Blann of the South Carolina regiments; as also to Doctor Swift, U. States Army, for their devoted attention to the wounded.

It affords me pleasure, and I but perform my duty, too, in acknowledging my great obligations to Capt. R. E. Lee, engineer corps; as also to my particular staff, Capt. F. N. Page, A. A. G. Lieut. R. P. Hammond, 3d artillery, aid de camp: and Lieut. G. T. M. Davis of Illinois, acting as aid, for their gallant services and fearless exposure in encouraging the troops, and conveying my orders during the different engagements. Lieut. Reno, commanding howitzer batter, deserves great credit for the handsome manner in which he brought his guns into action, and continued to serve them. I beg respectfully, through the general or division, to ask for these gentlemen the favorable notice of the commander in chief, and to commend them to the president. Lieut. Shubrick, of the navy, who accompanied me, attached himself to the Palmetto regiment of his native state, and fought in its ranks, and is spoken of handsomely in the report of its commander.

While thus enjoying the pleasure of bestowing my commendation upon the living, I turn with feelings of sorrow, though with pride, to recollect the gallant dead. Lieutenants Adams and Williams, of the S. Carolina regiment, and Lieutenant Chandler of the New York regiment, are of those who gallantly fell. Yielding their lives to achive this glorious victory, they have won a soldier's fame with a soldier's death.

The noble and gallant colonel of the S. Carolina regiment, P. M. Butler, had risen from his sick bed to share the hardships of the field and the dangers of the combat with his devoted regiment. He survived the conflict of the morning to lead his command where victory again awaited it. Although wounded himself, and having lost his horse, shot under him, he still continued to press onwards near the colors of his regiment, until the fatal ball terminated his life.

A gallant soldier in his youth, he has won in his death, upon the field of battle, fame for himself and his regiment, and added another name to the roll of Carolina's departed heroes.

I am, very respectfully, your obd't serv't,

JAS SHIELDS,
Brig. Gen. comd'g 1 st brig. Vols.

To Lieut. M. Lovell, 4th art., A. A. A. G.
[RLLW]


NNR 73.202 Nov. 27, 1847 Col. William Selby Harney's report on his operations at Mexico

Report of Colonel Harney.

Headquarters, Cavalry Brigade, Tocubaya, Mexico, August 24, 1847.

Sir - I have the honor to present the following report of the operations of the cavalry brigade under my command during the battle of Mexico.

The cavalry force being necessarily weakened by detachments to the different divisions on the army, I found myself, on the morning of the 19th, in the immediate command of nine companies only, consisting of six companies of the 2d drag ons, one company of mounted riflemen, and two companies of mounted volunteers. With this force I was ordered by the general in chief to report to Brigadier Gen. Twiggs, who was at this time covering Major General Pillow's division in an effort to make a road through the ridge of lava which forms the pass of San Antonio. Owing to the nature of the ground, I was compelled to halt within range of the enemy's shells, and to remain in this position for several hours - an idle spectator of the action which ensued. After night I returned with my command to San Augustin, and remained there until the enemy's position at Contreras was carried on the morning of the 20th.

As soon as the road was ascertained to be opened and praticable for cavalry, I was directed by the general in chief to proceed with two squadrons and Capt. McKinstry's company of volunteers to the field of battle, and to take charge of the prisoners which had been captured. While in the execution of this order, I received instructions from the general in chief to leave one squadron in charge of the prisoners, and to report to him in person with the other three companies. Captain Blake, with his squadron, was directed to perform this duty; while Maj. Sumner and myself, with Captain Kerr's squadron and Captain McKinstry's company of volunteers, joined the commanding general near the field of Churubusco, just after the engagement at the palace had commenced.

The reports of Major Sumner, commanding 1st battalion, and Lieut. Col. Moore, commanding 2d battalion, which I have the honor to forward here with, will show in what manner the other troops and squadrons of my command were employed. The three troops of horse brought by me on the field, being ordered away in different directions, Major Sumner and myself soon found ourselves without commands. I then employed myself with my staff in rallying fugitives and encouraging our troops on the left of the main road. Major Sumney, towards the close of the engagement, was placed by the general in chief in charge of the last reserve, consisting of the rifle regiment and one company of horse, and was ordered to support the left. This force was moving rapidly to take its position in line of battle, when the enemy broke and fled to the city. At this moment perceiving the enemy were retreating in disorder on one of the causeways leading to the city of Mexico, I collected all of the cavalry within my reach, consisting of parts of Capt. Ker's company 2d dragoons, and Capts. McReynold's and Duperu's companies of the 3d dragoons, and pursued them vigorously until we were halted by the discharge of the batteries at their gates.

Many of the enemy were overtaken in the pursuit, and cut down by our sabres. I cannot speak in terms too complimentary to the manner in which this charge was executed. My only difficulty was in restraining the impetuosity of my men and officers, who seemed to vie with each other who should be foremost in the pursuit. Captain Kearney gallantly led his squadrom into the very entrenchments of the enemy, and had the misfortune to lose an arm from grapeshot fired from a gun at one of the gates of the capital. Capt. McReynolds and Lieut. Graham were also wounded and Lieut. Ewell had two horses shot under him.

Great praise is due to Maj. Sumner, commanding 1st battalion, for his zeal, energy and promptitude, and for the gallant manner in which e led up the last reserve of the general in chief. It is much to be regretted that the 2d battalion, under the command of Lieut. Col. Moore, was so cute up by detachment as to materially weaken its efficiency, and to impair the usefulness of the officer, who was always at the post of danger and anxious to participate in the conflict. My warmest thanks are due to my brigade stall, consisting of Captain Wood, A Q M., Lieut. Steele, A. A. G., and Lieut. May, my aid-de-camp, who were actively employed on the morning of the 20th rallying our men, and who exhibited the utmost coolness and bravery under a heavy fire of the enemy. The two last named officers were foremost in the pursuit, and Lieut. Steele cut down three of the enemy with his own sabre.

In conclusion, I beg leave to state that the dragoons, from the commencement of the march from Puebla, have been engaged on the most active and laborious service. These duties have been the most arduous in consequence of the small force of cavalry, compared with the other arms of service. Small parties being constantly engaged in reconnoitering and on picket guards, the utmost vigilance and precaution have been required to prevent surprise and disaster.

The gallant Captain Thornton, while reconnoitering the enemy near San Antonio on the 18th instant, was shot through the body by a cannon shot and instantly killed. His death is much to be regretted. On the 20th, although I had but lost companies of my brigade with me on the field, the remainder were actively employed in the performance of important and indispensable duties. Capt. Hardee, while watching the enemy with his company near San Augustin, was attacked by guerrillas; but the enemy was promptly and handsomely repursed, and a number of their horses, with arms and accoutrements, captured.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
WM. S. HARNEY, Col. comd'g cavalry brigade.

Captain H. L. Scott, Acting Adj. General U.S. Army.
[RLLW]


NNR 73.202-204 Nov. 27, 1847 Gen. Persifor Frazer Smith's report on his operations of 19 and 20 August

Report of General Smith.

Headquarters, 1 st Brig. 2d Div. Regulars, San Angel (near Mexico) Aug. 23, 1847.

SIR: On the 19th instant my brigade, with the rest of the division, marched from San Augustin to cover the division of Gen. Pillow, opening the road from San Augustin to that which runs through this place to the city, in order to turn the position of San Antonio. Advancing about one and a half miles, we were met by a fire of the Mexican batteries opposite to us on the San Angel road. Between us was about a half a mile of lava rocks, almost impassable for a single footman, then a slope downward toward a ravine, on the opposite bank of which were the road and the enemy's works, on a height called Contreras. The front faced us, and the left flank swept the road below it, a turn forward in the road bringing the work directly in the prolongation of the lower part of the road. The work had upward of 20 large guns, was full of infantry, and large masses of infantry and cavalry were behind it and on its flank. Magruder's battery was ordered forward to a position in front of the enemy, and partially covered by a ledge of rocks. My brigade was ordered to follow and support it, and cover the advance of the party making the road. We went forward under a very heavy fire, and took a position on the left of Magruder's battery. We found Lieut. Callender's howitzer battery at this point. When we took this direction Riley's brigade was sent to the right. Magruder's battery and the howitzer battery were soon disabled, and on examining the ground, it was evident that we were advancing by the only path that crossed the broken bed of lava, and on which the enemy were prepared to receive us, having cleared away all the bushes that obstructed their view. The guns could go no farther, and the infantry would on its march down the slope, be exposed to a terrible fire, without knowing whether the crossing of the ravine below was possible.

Being isolated from the division, I determined to try one of the enemy's flanks; and that on our right being preferable, as it would cut off his retreat, I determined to move in that direction, taking Lieut. G. W. Smith's engineer company, the 1 st artillery, under Major Dimick, and 3d infantry, under Captain Alexander, and as many of the mounted riflemen as could be collected near; the regiment having been detached as skirmishers at the first by Gen. Twiggs, and ordered by him to cover different parties of reconnoitering officers, Capt. Magruder was direct - to open his fire we pressed on his rear, to occupy the enemy, and mask our movement to the right. - This he did most effectually, though suffering from a great loss, especially of officers. To replace this loss, Lieut. Haskins and twenty men were detached from Maj. Dimick's regiment, and three companies of the 3d infantry, were left to support him. With great difficulty we succeeded in crossing the rock for near a mile, and descended toward the village of Encelda, whose church was visible among the trees. - As we emerged from the rocks we saw an immense number of troops, cavalry and infantry, approaching from Mexico and forming on the slope on the opposite side of the village.

We crossed two small streams at the bottom of deep and difficult gullies, and found some of our troops in the village, they proving to be four regiments, chiefly of Gen. Pillow's division, and under command of Gen. Cadwallader, who immediately reported to me. The village lay entirely on the other side of the main road, and a small stream ran between them at the bottom of the ravine. On the road, and between it and the stream, was a garden and house surrounded by a high and tolerably strong stone wall. The village was intersected by narrow lanes lying between high dikes enclosing gardens full of trees and shrubbery - the lanes affording cover, the trees concealment for the men. In the center stood and old stone church. I drew Gen. Cadwallader's force up in the outer edge of the village, facing the enemy - placing the 3d infantry and rifles in column by company, left in front, on the right flank - occupied the church with Lieut. Smith's engineer company and Captain Irwin's company of the 11th regiment - placing Maj. Dimick's regiment in the garden on the road, to secure that avenue and our rear.

The enemy was now formed opposite to us in two lines - the infantry in front, and cavalry in the rear - about ten thousand strong. It was now after sunset when Colonel Riley's brigade arrived. It had crossed and gone up towards Contreras, [entrenched camp,] and driven off strong parties of the enemy. I now ordered an attack on the enemy's right, intending to attack in two columns - Col. Riley's on our left, and Gen. Cadwallader's on the right of the former - retired in echelon; but before the troops could be disengaged from the thickets, (the officers being without horses,) it was already so dark that the enemy's line could not be seen, and the order to attack was countermanded. Gen. Cadwallader took position again in the outer edge of the village; Riley's brigade parallel to it in a long line inside; the rifles under Major Loring on his right, and the 3d infantry in the church yard. The troops were without shelter or fire and it rained all night.

At this time Lieut. Tower reported that he had been at the ravine towards the rear of the enemy's work at Contreras, and thought it practicable for infantry though very difficult. We had now in front, and on our left flank, eighteen thousand Mexicans with between twenty five and thirty guns - among the troops six or seven thousand cavalry. We were, at most, three thousand three hundred strong, and without artillery or cavalry; and it was evident we could only maintain our position, which was of the utmost importance to the commanding general, by the most prompt and energetic action. I therefore directed an attack on the works at Contreras, (the entrenched camp,) and by turning their rear before day; and Captain Lee, of the engineers, offerred to return to Gen. Scott (a most difficult task) and inform him of our position, and that I would march out by 3 o'clock A. M., so that any diversion that he could make in our favor from that side might be prepared accordingly. The officers commanding brigades were informed of the plan and order of attack and directed to have their commands formed, and the heads resting on the path by which we were to march out by 2 ½ A. M.

I was at a loss of how to secure our rear; for it the enemy took possession of the village, he would not only secure the retreat of his force at Contreras, [his entrenchments,] but would greatly embarrass us; and I was not strong enough to detach largely for that purpose. At this juncture Gen. Shields' aid arrived and reported that the general was near, and on the other side of the ravine, with the South Carolina and New York volunteers. These two regiments were directed to hold Eucelda [the village] and cut off the the retreat of the troops from Contreras, [the camp,] or take his large reserve in flank, if it changed front to the right to attack us towards Contreras, [the camp]. At precisely 3 o'clock in the morning of the 20th, the troops commenced their march. It had rained all night, and the men had lain in the mud, without fire, and suffering from cold. It rained now, and was so dark that an object six feet off could not be seen. The men were ordered to keep within touch of each other, so that the rear could not go astray.

Lieut. Lower of the engineers, with Lieutenant Brooks, acting assistant adjutant general of the 2d division, now acting in my staff, had, during the night, again reconnoitered the pass, to assure the practicability of the march. Lieut. Tower accompanied the head of the column, to lead it, and Lieut. Beauregard, engineers went with me at the head of Gen. Cadwallader's brigade. Col. Riley's brigade led, Gen. Cadwallader's brigde was to follow, and Major Dimick, with my own brigade, at the head of which was Lieut. G. W. Smith, engineer company, closed the rear. The path was narrow, full or rocks and mud, and so difficult was the march that it was day break before the head of Cadwallader's brigade got out of the village, where the path descends to the ravine; and as the march was by the flank, the command was stretched out to thrice its length. - Having followed up the ravine to a point where it seemed possible to get at the rear of the work, the head was halted and the rear closed up; many loads that were wet were drawn, and Riley formed two columns by divisions.

He thus advanced farther up the ravine, turning to the left, and rising over the bank, stood fronting the rear of the work, but still sheltered from its fire by a slight acclivity before him. Having re-formed his ranks he ascended the top of the hill, and was in full view of the enemy, who immediately opened a warm fire, not only from the work, but on his right flank. Throwing out his two first divisions as skirmishers, he rushed down the slope to the work. The engineer company and rifles had been thrown across the intervening ravine, under the brow of the slope, and from that position swept it in front of his column, and then, inclining towards their left, joined in the attack on the troops outside of the left flank of the fort. In the meantime, Gen. Cadwallader followed the route taken by Riley, and, forming his columns as the troops came up, moved on to his (Riley's) support. The 1st brigade had been ordered to follow the same route; but, while it was still marching in that direction by its right flank, up the ravine, and nearly opposite the work, seeing a large body of the enemy on its flank, I ordered Maj. Dimick to face the brigade to the left, and, advancing in line, attack the force in flank.

This was done in the finest style, and the 1st artillery and 3d infantry mounted the bank of the ravine, rushing down the next and up its opposite bank, met the enemy outside of the work just as Riley's brigade poured into it, and the whole giving way. - Cavalry formed in line for the charge, yielding to the bayonets of our foot, the rout was complete, while Riley's brigade cleared the work and planted their colors on it. The two first pieces captured, which fell into the hands of the 4th arillery, proved to be the pieces lost (but without loss of honor) by a company of that very regiment at Buena Vista. Leaving a force to collect and guard the captured ordnance, the pursuit continued down the road.

This, it will be recollected, passed not more than half a mile off the garden and house occupied by a part of Gen. Shield's brigade, placed there to intercept the retreat of the enemy. This skilful and gallant officer, when we marched, had spread his men over the line we had occupied, and directed them to make fired toward daylight, as though preparing their breakfast. The enemy in front had, during the night, placed batteries along their line, and in the morning moved detachments forward to take in flank the attack he saw we were meditating the night before, which he was preparing to meet - supposing from the indications he found, that we were still in force in the village. When, after daylight, he saw a column moving on Contreras, [the entrenched camp,] and already prepared to turn it, he must have supposed we had been strongly reinforced: for his movements to and fro indicated great perplexity. His doubts were soon resolved, however, by the loss of Contreras, [the camp,] and he immediately commenced a hasty retreat along the top of the hill, inclining towards the San Angel road.

Shields' force (500 or 600 men) having, under his skilful direction, thus disposed of one enemy, he turned to the other, who, in the flight, found themselves intercepted at the garden, and under the sure fire of the S. Carolina regiment, and broke away over the opposite fields, and, taking shelter in the ditches and ravines, escaped to the rocks. Two squadrons of cavalry, either by chance or a wise design, in a narrow part of the road between the wall and dike, laid down their arms, and so choked by the way, that the pursuit was interrupted for upwards of 20 minutes; which sufficed (we having no cavalry) for the safety of many of the fugitives. A large body escaped upwards towards the mountains. I did not pursue them, being entirely out of our direction.

Accounts from Mexican officers, intercepted since the battle, inform us that there were seven thousand in and about Contreras, (the entrenched camp,) commanded by General Valencia, and upwards of twelve thousand in front of Encelda, (or hamlet of Contreras,) in reserve, commanded by Gen'l Santa Anna. We killed seven hundred and took fifteen hundred prisoners, among them several generals. - We captured 22 pieces of brass ordnance, viz: 4 Spanish 16-pounders, 4 eight inch howitzers, 2 5 ½ inch howitzers, 6 6-pounders, and 6 smaller pieces, with a large amount of shells and ammunition. We also took 700 pack mules and many horses, and an immense number of small arms, which we destroyed. After directing the prisoners and property to be collected, I directed the pursuit to be contained, and was forming the column when General Twiggs arrived. He immediately ordered the most vigorous pursuit, and we moved forwards. As we approached San Angel, the rifles were again thrown forward as skirmishers, and entered the town at the heels of the enemy's lancers, capturing an ammunition wagon.

Here Gen. Pillow assumed command, and at Coyoacan the commander in chief came up. The first brigade was sent forward with the rest of the division towards Churubusco; the rifles were detached to the right, to cover a reconnooisance. Lieut. Stephens of the engineers, covered by Lieut. Smith's engineer company, went forward to reconnoitre the church of Churubusco, and reported a 1-gun battery across the road, which could be turned by its left. - The 1 st artillery was directed to be detached for that purpose, and marched in that direction. A heavy fire opening there, I was ordered up with the 3d infantry, and shortly after Taylor's battery was placed in position, fronting the buildings about the church, the 3d infantry supporting it. At this time the tremendous fire from the neighborhood of the church showed clearly, not only that there was a strong force stationed there, but that there was also a more considerable work than what was at first supposed; but being all surrounded by very high corn, its form could not be discovered. It afterwards proved that the place was regularly fortified. The church buildings formed a large square; the lower front towards us was chiefly a wall scaffolded for infantry. Behind it rose a high building, also covered with infantry; behind it the church, and the high steeple on its right flank, also filled with men.

In front of the first was a curtain, connecting two salient angles which flanked it, and were continued back to the side walls of the church. It was garrisoned by about 2,000 men, and mounted 7 pieces. - What was supposed to be the 1-gun battery, was the right salient angle which enfiladed the road from Coyoacan; so that when the 1st artillery attempted to turn it, they found themselves in front of this curtain, and exposed to all the musketry of the walls beyond. They however stood their ground with great loss, getting such cover as the ground afforded, and firing at the embrazures when opportunity afforded. It was now reported that the other brigade (Riley's) was orderad round to the right of the work, and General Pillow's division to its left. I therefore ordered the 3d infantry to be ready, so soon as the fire of these corps began to tell, to advance under the cover of some huts near the right bastion, and after silencing the fire of the musketry to assault it.

In the meantime Taylor's battery had continued its fire uninterrupted by the severest shower of grape, canister, musketry, round shot, and shell, within short musket range, that was ever witnessed. The conduct of Capt. Taylor, Lieut. French, and the men who remained unhurt, was the admiration of all who witnessed it. The pieces were served as though on drill, while two of the officers - Lieuts. Martin and Boynton, and twenty men wounded, and fifteen horses crippled, laid around, and testified to the danger of their position. Hearing now the fire from the other corps, and finding that of the work to be less steady, I directed Captain Alexander (commanding 3d infantry) to advance to the position indicated and commence his work. After clearing the ramparts partially of their men, the 3d rushed over the bastion, led by Captain J. M. Smith and Lieutenant Shepherd, and their companies, and a part of the 1st artillery, over the curtain, when the garrison, and had gone up into the gallery of the front house, with General Rincon, from which he was displaying the colors of his regiment, a staff officer from another division who had seen the white flag still flying rode into the work to receive the surrender which had been made some time before to Capt. Alexander. Seven pieces of brass cannon, much ammunition and small arms, the prisoners before mentioned, and an important position were the fruits of this victory. I should have mentioned before that Capt. Craig had in the morning rejoined this regiment with the three companies of riflemen who had been left in the pedregal, (field of rocks and lava,) had also joined the regiment.

The troops in the actions of the pedregal, on the afternoon of the 19th, and at Contreras and Churubusco on the 20th, distinguished themselves far beyond my capacity to do them justice. The difficulties they overcame - opposed by the enemy to be insuperable - the hardships they endured, and the fatigue they suffered, contrasted with the manner in which they did their work, raises their character as soldiers highly towards perfection.

Brig. Gen. Cadwallader [in the morning] brought his corps up from his intricate bivouac in a good order, formed the head of the column to support Riley's, and led it forward in the most gallant style under the fire directed at the latter. The 1 st brigade was conducted by Maj. Dimick, who charged in line with it on the enemy's left, driving before the force formed there outside of the works, and putting to rout a far superior force, displaying the skill of the commander as well as the bravery of the soldier. - But the opportunity afforded by his position to Col. Riley was seized by that gallant veteran with all the skill and energy for which he is distinguished. The charge of his noble brigade down the slope, in full view of friend and foe, unchecked even for a moment, until he had planted all his colors upon their farthest works, was a spectacle that animated the army to the boldest deeds.

Majors Gardnes and Brown, 4th artillery, at the head of their regiment, setting an example of their own courage, carried the part of the work before, and Captain Drum, of that corps, had the good fortune to recover the trophies of Buena Vista. Col. Prymptom and Maj. Bainbridge with the 7th infantry, as that veteran regiment deserves to be led; and Captain Morris in command of the 2d infantry, brought it up to share equally with the others in the honors of the successful assault. Capt. Alexander's good conduct brought his regiment up most effectively. Major Loring, detached to Col. Riley's left showed not only a perfect knowledge of the value of his arm, but the courage and activity necessary to make it effective. Lieutenant G. W. Smith, in command of the engineer company, and Lieutenant M'Clellan, his subaltern, distinguished themselves throughout the whole of the three actions. Nothing seemed to them too bold to be undertaken, or too difficult to be executed; and their services as engineers were as valuable as those they rendered in battle at the head of their gallant men. Lieutenant Foster, being detached from his company during the action at Contreras, did not fall under my notice; but in the actions on the 19th, at Churubusco, he was equally conspicuous for his gallantry. In adverting to the conduct of the staff, I wish to record particularly my admiration of the conduct of Capt. Lee, of the engineers.

His reconnaissances, though pushed far beyond the bounds of prudence, were conducted with so much skill, that its fruits were of the utmost value - the soundness of his judgment and personal daring being equally conspicuous. Lieutenants Beauregard and Tower, of the same corps, rendered me the most important services in examining the ground, and displayed throughout the greatest personal gallantry. To the latter I am indebted for the knowledge of the route by which it was practicable to turn the enemy's works. The accident which separated the different parts of the division on the evening of the 19th, left its acting assistant adjutant general, Lieut. W. P. Brooks, with Col. Riley's brigade, and on its joining me he offered his services on my staff. I owe him my thanks for the very efficient aid he rendered me, and for his indefatigable energy and readiness to encounter any danger or difficulty; his personal courage and coolness were brilliantly displayed in the course of the day. The events of Fort Brown, Monterey, Vera Cruz, and Cerro Gordo, had already afforded to my aid de camp, Lieut. Early Van Dorn, opportunities for calling forth the commendations of his commanding officers.

He has not let pass the present one; but though his gallantry was again shown in a personal conflict with the enemy, it is far from being the highest quality of a soldier that he possesses. The names of officers who distinguished themselves in the corps of Gens. Cadwallader and Shields, will no doubt be found in the reports of those generals of the headquarters of divisions to which they properly belong. It would be impossible for me to enumerate the acts of all those in the 2d division (Twiggs') who have entitled themselves to particular mention. I beg leave to make the brigade and regimental reports, which I herewith transmit a part of my own - merely repeating here the names of those officers mentioned therein as peculiarly deserving of praise. - Capt. Wessels and Capt. Canby, A. A. G., and Lieut. Benjamin and Lieut. Hayden, A. D. C., (mentioned in the 3d brigade report); Capts. Sanderson, Bakinstoe, Porter, and Crittenden, Lieut. Van Buren, McLane, Gibbs, and Palmer, and Ass't Surgeon Suter, of the regiment of the mounted riflemen; Capts. Winder and Nanman, Lieuts. Brannon, Seymour, and Coppee, and Assistant Surg. H. H. Steiner, at the 1 st artillery; Capt. Drum, Lieut. Howe and Asst. Surgeon Cuyier of the 4th artillery; Capt. Casey, J. R. Smith and Kingsbury, Lieut. Gardner, Lyons, Jones, Jarvis, Tilden, and Davis of the 2d infantry; Captains Craig, Van Horn and Chandler, Lieuts. Buel and Richardson, and Asst. Surgeon Keeney, of the 3d infantry; Capts. Ross and Paul, and Lieuts. Grantt, Tyler and Henry, of the 7th infantry.

But as the battery of the Captain Taylor was at Churubusco, acting immediately under my own eye, and displaying, from its gallant commander down to the lowest noncommissioned officer, a coolness and activity under circumstances of the most extraordinary danger. I ask leave to record here, besides the names of Sergeants Thos. Wilson, Patrick Martin, Joe McGee, Chas. Kullineyes and Corporal M. Bigelow, John Jones, Wm. Barb…ed Captains Capron and Burke, 1 st artillery, and Lieut. Hoffman, 1 st artillery; and were wounded, Capt. Cr..g and Lieut. Buel, 3d infantry. In the pedregal were wounded, on the 19th, Captains Hathaway. 1 st artillery, and Chandler, 3d infantry; Lieut. Collins, 4th artillery, and Tilden, 2d infantry, were wounded. But the victory there, important as it is, was dearly bought by the death of Captain Hanson, 7th infantry. A more perfect soldier never fell on a battle field - kind in all his affections - just in all his acts - pure in his life; and immoveable in his courage, he met the present with the boldness of a man, and the future with the pious confidence of a Christian.

The force present on our side of Contreras, including Gen'l Shields, was about 3,650 men; that of the enemy about the works, 7,000, under Valencia, and in their reserve, 12,000, under the president, Santa Anna.

I transmit herewith a return of the killed and wounded, but leaving out all those wounded at Contreras who were not disabled.

Our loss in killed and wounded there did not exceed sixty.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your ob't servant,

PERSIFOR F. SMITH,
Brevet Brigadier General.

Lieut. W. T. H. Brooks, Act'g Assist. Adj't Gen., 2d division of regulars.
[RLLW]


NNR 73.204 Nov. 27, 1847 Gen. John Anthony Quitman's report of taking the capital

REPORT OF MAJOR GENERAL QUITMAN.

Headquarters of the Volunteer Division, National Palace, Mexico, Sept. 29, 1847.

Sir: I have the honor to transmit, for the information of the general-in-chief, a report of the movements and operations of that portion of the army under my command from the afternoon of the 11th instant to the 14th , when our flag was raised on the National Palace of Mexico.

The general-in-chief, having concluded to carry the strong fortress of Chapultepec, and through it advance upon the city, ordered me, on the 11th, to move my division after dark from its position at Coyoacan to Tacubaya. Steptoe's battery and Gaither's troop of horse having been directed to report to Gen. Twiggs, the remainder of the division, consisting of the battalion of marines, New York and South Carolina regiments, under Brig. Gen. Shields, and 2d Pennsylvania regiment, under command of Lieut. Col. Geary, moved during daylight to the village of Piedad, and at night proceeded thence to their position at Tacubaya, where the troops lay upon their arms until daylight.

Two batteries, Nos. 1 and 2 on the map - the former put up by Lieuts. Tower and Smith, of engineers, under direction of Captain Lee, of the same corps, on the road from Tacubaya to Chapultepec, about 800 yards from the fortress, the latter under direction of Capt. Huger, of ordinance, at some distance to the left of the former - had been erected during the night. My division being intended to support these batteries, and to advance to the attack from the direct road from Tacubaya to the fortress, was placed in position near battery No. 1, early on the morning of the 12th, detachments from its left extending to the support of battery No. 2. At 7 o'clock the guns (two 16-pounders and an 8-inch howitzer) were placed in battery No. 1 in position so as to rake the road, sweep the adjoining grounds, and have a direct fire upon the enemy's batteries and the fortress of Chapultepec.

Our fire was then opened and maintained with good effect throughout the day under the direction of that excellent lamented officer, Capt. Drum, of the 4th artillery, zealously aided by Lieutenants Benjamin and Porter, of his company. The fire was briskly returned from the castle with round shots, shell, and grape. During the day I succeeded under cover of our batteries, in making an important reconnaissance of the grounds and works immediately at the base of the castle, a rough sketch of which was made by my aide, Lieut. Lovel, on the ground. This disclosed to us two batteries of the enemy, one on the road in front of us mounting four guns, and the other a flanking work of one gun, capable also of sweeping the low grounds on the left of the road, and between it and the base of the hill.

The supporting party on this reconnaissance was commanded by the late Major Twiggs, of the marines, and sustained during the observation of a brisk fire from the batteries and small arms of the enemy, who, when the party were retiring, came out of the works in large numbers; and, although repeatedly checked by the fire of our troops, continued to advance as the supporting party retired, until they were dispersed, with considerable loss, by several discharges of canister from the guns of Capt. Drums battery, and a well directed fire from the right of the 2d Pennsylvania regiment, posted on the flank of the artery for its support. Our loss in this affair was seven men wounded; but the information gained was of incalculable advantage to the operations of the succeeding day. In the evening, Capt. Drums company was retrieved by Lieutenant Andrews company 3d artillery, by whom a study in well-directed fire was kept up from the battery until the fortress could no longer be seen in the darkness. - During the day, my command was reinforced by a select battalion from Gen. Twiggs division intended as a storming party, consisting of thirteen officers, and two hundred and fifty men and non-commissioned officers and privates, chosen for this service out the rifles, 1 st and 4th regiments of artillery, and 2d, 3d, and 77th regiments of infantry - all under the command of Captain Silas Casey, 2d infantry.

Having received instructions from the general - n - chief to prevent, if possible, reinforcements from being thrown into Chapultepec, during the night, Captain Paul, of the 7th infantry, with the detachment of fifty men was directed to establish and advance picket on the road to Chapultepec, During the night a brisk skirmish occurred between the detachment and the advanced posts of the enemy, which resulted in driving back the enemy; but apprehensive that this demonstration was intended to cover the passage of reinforcements into Chapultepec, I ordered Lieut. Andrews to advance a piece of artillery and take the road with several discharges of canister. This was promptly executed; and, during the remainder of the night, there were no appearances of movements in the enemies lines. - During the night, the platforms of battery No. 1 were repaired, under the direction of Lieut. Tower of engineers, who had reported to me for duty, and a new battery of one gun established in advance of No. 1 a short distance, by Lieut. Hammond, of Gen. Shields staff.

The protection of battery No. 2, which was completed on the morning of the 12th, under direction of Captain Huger, was entrusted to Brig. General Shields. This battery, after the guns had been placed, opened and maintained a steady fire upon the castle, under the sikilful direction of that experienced officer, Lieut. Hagner, of ordinance.

At dawn on the morning of the 13th, the batteries again opened upon the castle, which was returned by the enemy with spirit and some execution, disabling for a time the 18-pounder battery No. 1, and killing one of the men at the guns. During the cannonade active preparations were made for the assault upon the castle. Ladders, pick axes, and crows, were placed in the hands of a Pioneer storming party of select men from the volunteer division, under the commands of Capt. Reynolds of the marine corps, to accompany the storming party of 120 men which had been selected from all corps of the same division and placed under the command of Major Twiggs, of the marines. Capt. Drum had again relieved Lieut. Andres at the guns, retaining from the command of the latter Sergeant Davidson and eight to man an 8 pounder which it was intended to carry forward to operate on the enemies batteries in front of us; and, to relieve the command from all danger of attack on our right flank from reinforcements, which might come from the city, that well tried and accomplished officer, Brevet Brigadier General Smith, with his well-disciplined brigade, had reported to me for orders. He was instructed to move in reserve on the right flank of the assaulting column, protect it from skirmishers, or more serious attack in the quarter, and, if possible, on the assault, cross the aqueduct leading to the city, turn the enemy, and cut off his retreat. Those dispositions being made, the whole command, at the signal preconcerted by the general-in-chief, with enthusiasm and full of confidence advanced to the attack. At the base of the hill, constituting a part of the works of the fortress of Chapultepec, and directly across our line of advance, were the strong batteries before described, flanked on the right by some strong buildings, and by a heavy stone wall about fifteen feet high, which extended around the base of the hill towards the west. Within two hundred yards of these batteries were some dilapidated buildings, which afforded a partial cover to our advance. Between these and the wall extended a low meadow, the long grass of which concealed a number of wet ditches by which it was intersected. To this point the command, partially screened, advanced by a flank, the storming parties in front, under a heavy fire from the fortress, the batteries, and breastworks of the enemy. The advance was here halted under the partial cover of the ruins, and upon the arrival of the heads of the South Carolina and New York regiments, respectively. General Shields was directed to move them obliquely to the left, across the low ground, to the wall at the base of the hill. Encouraged by the gallant general who had led them to victory at Churubusco, and in spit of the obstacles which they had to encounter in wading through several deep ditches, exposed to a severe and galling fire from the enemy, these tried regiments promptly executed the movement, and effected a lodgment at the wall. The same order was given to Lieut. Col. Geary, and executed by his regiment with equal alacrity and success. These dispositions, so necessary to the final assault up on the works, were not made without some loss. In directing the advance, Brig. Gen. Shields was severely wounded in the arm. No persuasions, however, could induce that officer to leave his command, or quit the field. The brave Capt. Van O'Linden, of the New York regiment, was killed at the head of his company. Lieut. Col. Baxter, of the same regiment, a valuable and esteemed officer, while gallantly leading his command, fell mortally wounded near the wall. And Lieut. Cols. Geary, 2d Pennsylvania regiment, was for a time disabled from command by a severe confusion from a spent ball. [RLLW]


NNR 73.206 Nov. 27 1847 Gen. David Emanuel Twiggs' report concerning the assault at Mexico City

REPORT OF BRIGADIER GENERAL TWIGGS.

Headquarters 2d division of regulars. City of Mexico, September 21, 1847.

Sir: For the information of the general in chief I have the honor to make the following report of the part taken by my division in the reduction of the city of Mexico and its contiguous workers.

On the 7th instant of Riley's brigade, composed of the 4th artillery, the 2d and 7th infantry, was, by the general's orders, thrown in advance of Pillow's division on the San Angel road, to watch and keep in check any force from the cityin that direction. - On the following day this brigade was the reserve at the battle of Molino del Rey; after which it assumed its post on the San Angel road, and was joined on the afternoon of the 11th, and by daylight in the morning was enabled to open on the enemy's batteries, situated at the garita in the San Antonio road; and between that and the San Angel road the firing was kept up briskly during the day on both sides, with but little loss to us, who were protected by a good temporary breastwork. On the morning of the 13th the firing was renewed with great spirit, which compelled the enemy to withdraw his guns from the garita, within the protection of the city walls.

Smiths' brigade was now ordered to proceed in the directions of Chapultepec and support one of the columns of attack, commanded by Major General Quitman. With the stormers from my division in front of the road, the attacking column on the left and Smith's brigade on the right of it, the force advanced in the face of a well directed fire from a battery at the base of Chapultepec, near a point where the acqueduct leaves it, and also from musketry sheltered by the acqueduct, and by breastworks across and on each side of the road. When within charging distance, the stormers, with the assistance on the right of Smith's brigade, which had been thrown forward toward the acqueduct, rushed on the enemy's guns, drove off or killed, the cannoners, and took possession of the strong point. Smith's brigade having advanced three companies of mounted riflemen considerably to its right, to protect the right of Quitman's division, they were found near the first battery when the stormers were about attacking, and were thus enabled to enter with the advance. The brigade pushed on an captured a second battery to the rear of the first when several guns and many pioneers were taken; after some brisk skirmishing, the enemy was finally driven from every point on the east of the hill, and were pursued on the San Cosme road some distance by the storming party, under the command of Capt. Paul, 7th infantry; this party having been overtaken by the 1 st division and their specific duties as stormors having been accomplished, were ordered to return and rejoin their respective regiments.

Early in the action Captain Casey, 2d infantry, who commanded the storming party from my division, was severely wounded, and obliged to retire. The command devolving upon Captain Paul, 7th infantry, Lieut. Gantt, 7th infantry, with a portion of a party, was ordered to cross the ditch on the left of the road and proceed further to the left of the base of Chapultepec, and, by scaling the wall, gain admittance to the body of the work. This gallant officer was shot dead at the head of his men; the command of his party devolving upon Lieut. Steele, 2d infantry, who led his men on with intrepidity and success. Too much cannot be said in praise of the officers and men who composed this storming force, with Capt. Paul in command, ably and gallantry supported by a Capt. Dobbins, 3d infantry; Lieut. Steele, 3d infantry; Lieut. Steuart, mounted rifles; and Lieut. D. Rosey, 4th artillery, the party advanced without a falter or a check.

Smith's brigade - the riflemen leading, supported by a 8 inch howitzer, in charge of the late and gallant Capt. Drum, 4th artillery - carried a battery near the Casa Colorada, half way to the garita on the Chapultepec road. The command was here reorganized by the senior officer, Major General Quitman, with the mounted rifleman again in the advance, supported by the South Carolina regiment; the remainder of Smith's brigade being in reserve - and charged the battery at the garata; the reserve pushing up, arrived at the battery at the same moment with the advance, and entered the city at 20 minutes past 1 o'clock P.M. The brigade occupied buildings within the city during the night, and the enemy, having in the meantime abandoned the city, our forces took possession of it on the morning of the 14th. Our national colors were planted on the enemies palace by a non commissioned officer of the mounted rifles at 7 o'clock A.M.

Until late in the afternoon of the 13th, Riley's brigade with Steptoe's and Taylor's batteries, were kept in the Piedad road to watch the enemy in that quarter. It formed a junction with the 1st division on the San Cosme road early in the night of the 19th.

For more minute information adds to the operations themselves, and as to the officers and men particularly distinguished on these several occasions, I will respectfully refer the general in chief to the accompanying report of Brig. Gen. Smith, who so ably commanded the brigade in action.

Lists of the killed, wounded, and missing have already been furnished.

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

D. E. TWIGGS
Birg. Gen. U.S.A., commanding 2d division.

To Capt. H.L. Scott, A. A. G. Headquarters of the army, City of Mexico.
[RLLW]


NNR 73.206-207 Nov. 27, 1847 Maj. Edwin Vose Sumner's report on the attack on the foundry near Chapultepec

Headquarters, second regiment dragoons, Tacubaya, Sept. 9, 1847.

Sir: I have the honor to report that, in compliance with the orders of Major Gen. Worth, I joined his division yesterday morning in the attack on the foundry near Chapultepec.

My command consisted of six troops of the 2d dragoons, under the command of Lieut. C. D. Williams, 3d dragoons, and Capt. Ruff's company of mounted riflemen - in all about 270 men. My orders were to take a positon of the left of our line, to hold in check the enemy's cavalry, and to give a blow to their horse or foot, if an opportunity should offer. In taking up my position, I was compelled to pass within pistol shot of a large body of the enemy, who were protected by a ditch and breastworks. This exposure of my command was entirely unavoidable, in consequence of a deep ditch on my left, which it was impossible to cross, until I got close to their line; and I could not pause at tha moment, as a very large body of the enemy's cavalry was advancing toward the left of our line. After passing through this fire, and crossing a ravine, I formed my command in line facing the enemy's cavalry, on which they halted, and shortly afterward retired.

I continued to hold my command on the left flank of our line, until the enemy's infantry broke and retired - changing my position from time to time, in order to face their cavalry whenever they advanced. I should have joined in the pursuit of their infantry when they broke; but, in doing this, I should have uncovered our left, and their large cavalry force was still maintaining a menacing attitude, covered and protected as it was, by a large hacienda filled with troops.

My loss, in passing their line of fire, way very severe - viz: 5 officers and 33 soldiers wounded, and 6 soldiers killed; 27 horses killed, and 77 wounded. Capt. Ker, of the 2d dragoons, 1st Lieut. Walker, of the rifles, and 2d Lieuts. Smith and Tree, of the 2d dragoons, and 2d Lieut. C. D. Williams, of the 3d dragoons, were wounded; but I am happy to say not dangerously.

My officers and men maintained their character for steadiness and confidence throughout the action. They did well; but I must notice, in particular, the successful efforts of Captain Hardee in maintaining order in his squadron during the many evolutions that it was necessary to make with great rapidity. I have also to state that Assistant Surgeon Barnes was very assiduous in his duties, and took such measures that our wounded men received prompt attention. I have also the pleasure to report that I received effective aid from my adjutant, Lieut. Oakes.

Lieutenant Colonel Moore, of the 3d dragoons, joined me after the action commenced, and did me the great favor to abstain from assuming the command. His presence, however, was of great service to me, and his example, of the most perfect coolness under fire, had a favorable influence upon my command.

Col. Harney, who was quite unwell, also came upon the field during the action, and, after observing my measures for some time, expressed himself satisfied with them, and said to me that he would not assume the command; for which I am deeply obliged to him.

I enclose the list of killed and wounded.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your ob't servant,
E. V. SUMNER,
Major, 2d dragoons commanding regiment.

Capt. W. W. Mackall, assistant adjutant general 1st division.
[RLLW]


NNR 73.207 Nov. 27, 1847 Capt. Benjamin Huger's report

Siege-train camp, Tacubaya, (Mexico,) Sept. 9, 1847.

Sir: In obedience your instructions, I moved at 3, A. M., on the 8th of September, with two 24 pounder siege guns supported by the light battalion of the 1 st division , and was placed by Lieut. Col. Duncan on the plain, about 606 yards from the building called Modino del Rey, (supposed to be a foundry,) which I was directed to batter. At daylight we opened a fire from these two guns upon the building with good effect, and fired about ten rounds from each piece, when our infantry, having reached the front of the building, the firing of the 24 pounders was discontinued. After the infantry had captured the batteries of the enemy, and occupied the buildings, I received orders to advance to the left of our line, to drive off the enemy, who were in great force in that direction. On arriving at that point, I received your personal order to remove one gun to the foundry, which was immediately dispatched in charge of Lieut. Stone - the other piece remaining in its then position in charge of Lieut. Hagner, who fired with great precision and effect at the Mexican forces on our left, and caused them to retire. When his limited supply of ammunition was expended, his gun was withdrawn.

As Lieut. Stone got into position near the foundry, a large force of the enemy advanced from Chapultepec upon a small field piece Captain Drum had posted there, with only a small supporting force of infantry. A few rounds from the 24 pounder caused the advancing forces to retire; and Lieut. Stone maintained this position, and fixed his gun with great coolness and precision whenever the enemy appeared - the fort of Chapultepec firing upon him all the while. I now returned to camp, and brought out a fresh supply of ammunition, when I received your instructions not to fire at the fort of Chapultepec, but to withdraw the guns and remove the captured ones. I found on the ground 6 pounders, without limbers, (one of which had been used against the enemy by Lieut. Peck, of the 2d artillery.) As soon as the 24 pounders had been withdrawn from the ground, I sent Lieut. Hagner with their limbers, and removed the two captured 6 pounders.

By your direction, I furnished horses and drivers (from the siege train) to Capt. Drum, 4th artillery, for the two light, 6 pounder guns he recaptured from the enemy at Contreras, (those taken by them at Buena Vista,) and instructed him to report to Col. Garland. Capt. Drum will make a special report of his operations; but, as I was present with him part of the time, I must be allowed to say, that never were pieces served with better judgment and effect. Of Lieut. Hagner commanding the siege the train company who by his untiring industry and exertions, has kept the siege battery in the most perfect order and of Lieut. Stone and the non commissioned officers and men of the siege train, I cannot speak in too high terms; they performed their duty well.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
BEN J. HUGER,
Captain, acting chief of ordnance.

To Maj. Gen. Worth, comd'g 1 st division.
[RLLW]


NNR 73.207 Nov. 27, 1847 Col. William Selby Harney's report about his operations against Chapultepec and the city of Mexico

[Without date]

Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report of the duties performed by my command, during the operations against Chapultepec and the City of Mexico, on the 13th and 14th inst.

On the 10th, I was ordered by the general-in chief to proceed to Mixcoac with the 2d battalion of cavalry, to take command of the troops at that place, and to make such dispositions as would enable me to protect the depots and hospitals collected there against the large forces of the enemy, known to be outside of the city.

I found the post occupied by Lieut. Col. Bonham, 12 infantry, with four weak companies his regiment - one company of mounted rifles, one of the 3d, and one of the 7th infantry; in all less than 300 effective men - which, added to those I had brought with me, made a force of near 500 men, with which to guard a large body of Mexican prisoners, and protect the hospitals and depots of ordinance and provisions. I immediately put in requisition every means in my power that would increase the strength of the place - manning some of the captured pieces of artillery with such soldiers and teamsters as had any knowledge of artillery practice, and enrolling all camp follows not in government employ. These precautions were useless as the enemy did not see fit to give my small command an opportunity of competing with their companions in arms in gallant achievements.

The 1 st battalion of cavalry, I have pleasure in stating, were actively employed under the command of Maj. Sumner; to whose report which is herewith transmitted, I beg leave to refer you for their operations. [RLLW]


NNR 73. 207 Nov. 27, 1847 Capt. P. B. Riley's report

Headquarters second brigade, Mexico, Sept. 23, 1847.

Sir: I have the honor to report that, in accordance with the instructions of the brigadier general commanding the division, my brigade, under the immediate command of Lieut. Col. Plympton, 7th infantry, moved from Coyoacan on the evening of the 7th instant, and took up a position near the San Angel road, and about two miles south of the garita, at the junction of the Tacubaya and Piedad, causeways. - On the morning of the following day, in obedience to instructions from Major General Pillow, commanding the forces advanced in this direction, the brigade marched to the field of Molino del Rey, at which place I joined it, and was for several hours engaged in the covering of removal of the killed and wounded, and captured ammunition from the battle field.

While so occupied, the 2d infantry - temporarily under the orders of Brig. Gen. Pierce - became engaged with the enemy's skirmishers at the foot of Chapultepec. In the afternoon the position of the previous night was re-occupied. On the morning of the 9th, under instructions from Maj. Gen. Pillow, the brigade occupied a position in an to the right of the Piedad village, in observation of the enemy's works on the San Antonio and San Angel roads, which was retained under his orders until the brigadier general commanding the division arrived, on the evening of the 11th. On the morning of the 12th, the brigade supported Steptoe's battery in the demonstration made against the garita of Candelaria. In the afternoon of the day it furnished seven officers - Lieutenants Hill and DeRussy, 4th artillery, Captain Casey, Lieutenants Westcott and Steele, 2d infantry, Captain Paul, and Lieut, Gantt, 7th infantry - and 125 rank and file, for the storming of Chapultepec.

The stormers were actively engaged in the glorious assault upon the works of the castle of Chapultepec on the morning of the 13th, and lose more than one forth of that number in killed and wounded - among the former, Lieut. Gantt, a promising and gallant officer of the 7th infantry; and among the latter, Capt. Casey, of the 2d. In the afternoon of that day the 4th artillery was detached for the purpose of making a diversion on the Piedad causeway, but was recalled when the brigade war ordered to march for the garita of San Cosme. On reaching this point late in the evening, I reported to Major General Worth, commanding the attack in that quarter, and on the morning of the 14th marched with his division into the city of Mexico. Soon after entering the city, the 2d infantry was detached; and while absent, was actively engaged for several hours with a large Mexican force in the southern part of the city, suffering a considerable loss, and inflicting a very severe one on the enemy. - With the remainder of my brigade, under instructions from Major General Worth, I occupied the Careel, near the Tacubaya garita, until late in the evening, when orders were received to report to the brigadier general commanding the division in the Plaza Mayor.

For the details of these operations, reference is respectfully made to the reports of subordinate commanders, copies of which are herewith submitted.

It gives me pleasure to repeat here the commendations bestowed in former reports, and to express to the officers and men of my command my warmest thanks for the zeal and gallantry and good conduct evinced by them in the different positions occupied by the brigade as a reserve, as supporting, and by a portion of it as an attacking piece.

My staff officers - aided by Captain McClellan, topographical engineers, and Lieut. Westcott, 2d infantry, as volunteer aids - were actively engaged in the performance of their appropriate duties.

I remain, sir, very respectfully, your ob't serv't,
P. B. RILEY,
Brevet Col. commanding 2d brigade.

To First Lieut. W. S. Brooks. A. A. A. General, 2d division.
[RLLW]


NNR 73.209 Nov. 27, 1847 tariff of duties imposed on Mexico - R.J. Walker

MILITARY CONTRIBUTIONS. - OFFICIAL. - Treasury department, Nov. 5, 1847.

Sir: The military contributions, in the form of duties upon imports into Mexican pors, have been levied by the departments of war and of the navy during the last six months under your order of the 31 st March last, and in view of the experience of the practical operation of the system I respectfully recommend the following modifications in some of its details, which will largely augment the revenue.

That the duty on silk, flax, hemp, or grass, cotton, wool, worsted, or any manufacturers thereof, including cigars and cigaritos; glass, china, and stone ware, iron and steel, and all manufactures of either, not prohibited, be thirty percent ad valorem. On copper, and all manufacturers thereof, tallow, tallow candles, soap, fish, beef, pork, hams, bacon, tongues, butter, lard, cheese, rice, Indian corn and meal, potatoes, wheat, rye, oats, and all other grain, rye meal and oat meal, flour, whale and sperm oil, clocks, boots and shoes, pumps, bootees, and slippers, bonnets, hats, caps, beer, ale, porter, cider, timber, boards, planks, scantling, shingles, laths, pitch, tar, rosin, turpentine, spirits of turpentine, vinegar, apples, ship-bread, hides, leather, and manufacturers thereof, and paper of all kinds, twenty per cent ad valorem; and these reduced rates shall also apply to all goods on which the duties are not paid, remaining not exceeding ninety days in deposite in the Mexican ports, introduced under previous regulations enforcing military contributions.

Yours, most respectfully,
R. J. WALKER, sect'y of the trea'y.

To The President.
[RLLW]


NNR 73. 209 Nov.27, 1847 inspection by Gen. Zachary Taylor of forts from Monterey toward the Rio Grande

GEN. TAYLOR, accompanied by Gen. Wood, was at our last dates, making an inspection of the posts from Monterey towards the Rio Grande, and had reached Mier. Gen. Taylor was en route for home, and was expected at New Orleans hourly, at our last dates from thence. There were great preparations making for his reception at New Orleans. [RLLW]


NNR 73.213 Dec. 4, 1847 arrival of officers in the United States from the seat of the war

WAR WITH MEXICO

The steamer Alabama reached New Orleans on the 24th, with Vera Cruz dates tp the 18th and city of Mexico dates to the 8th of Nov. No less than 210 sick, disabled, and wounded soldiers embarked in the Alabama at Vera Cruz, three of whom died on the passage. Ried. McManus, 2d Pennsylvania volunteers, was buried at sea.

The steamship Galveston sailed from Vera Cruz with the Alabama, to touch at Tampico. The New Orleans was to leave on 19th, as was also the Gen. Butler. A number of officers, on their way from the army, as also a portion of the Encarnacion prisoners - among them Major Gaines, Captains Heady and Smith, Lieuts. Barbour and Churchill, will arrive by these vessels.

Amongst the many passengers on board the Alabama, was Major Gen. Quitman, Gen. Shields, Cols. Harney, Garland, Andrews, Morgan, Ramsay and Burnett; Majors Barland, Arkansas volunteers, Smith, engineers, Wade, 3d artillery, Bonneville, th infantry, Loring, rifles, Bennett and Dykeman; plymaster. A proportionate number of captains, amongst them Capt. C. M. Clay, Kentucky cavalry, and of Lieutenants, &c., Lieuts. Porter and Sweeny, of the New York volunteers, Passed Midshipman Rogers and Geo. W. Kendall. Gen. Quittman leaves Mexico under order of Gen. Scott, directing that he shall report personally, or by letter to the war department, as, since his promotion, he had not been permanently assigned to any division, the object of his return is to seek this. Gen. Shields returns to recover his health, impaired from his wounds received in battle. Col. Harney comes home to recruit. Some of the officers returned are ordered to ..in Bragg's battery immediately.  [RLLW]


NNR 73.213 Dec. 4, 1847 captured documents from Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

A Mexican courier had been captured with letters from Atlisco, Orizaba, and Tehuacan. Among them was a document from Santa Anna, in which he says that just as he had matured his plans for attacking Perote he received orders from the supreme government to turn over the command of the army.  [RLLW]


NNR 73.213 Dec. 4, 1947 Mexican congress assembles at Queretaro

The city of Mexico Moniteur Republicano of 4th Nov. says that a sufficient number of members of congress had arrived at Queretaro on the 1st for the transaction of business. Later letters from Queretaro direct announce that the congress was organized on the 21 November; Senor De Jose Ma..rial, deputy, from Iranalauto, was elected president, and Jose Hernandez, deputy from Durango, vice-president.  [RLLW]


NNR 73.213 Dec. 4, 1847 question of the election of a Mexican president

A letter from an English gentleman in the city of Mexico, dated 8th November, says that although much confidence was felt in the acting president and vice president of congress, who are favorably disposed towards peace, it was much feared that Complidado, of Guadalaxara, will be elected president ad interim of the republic instead of Herrera, or Pena y Pena.

The health of Gen. Herrera is precarious, but improving. Some say that Elloriaga will receive a majority of votes for president ad interim. - Others are divided between Herrera, Almonte, Complidado[?] and Gonzales Rosio.  [RLLW]


NNR 73.213 Dec. 4, 1847 position of the several corps of troops
NNR 73.213 arrival of officers in the United States from the seat of the war
NNR 73.213 train from Mexico City arrives at Veracruz

It was reported at Vera Cruz that Gen. Lane had another brush with Rea, near Puebla, and routed him entirely. All was quiet at Perote when the train came through.

Gen. Patterson was still at Jalapa, suffering some what of a severe cold, but recovering.

Gen. Cushing's command was three miles beyond. The entire force was in the vicinity of about 3000.

Col. Hays left for Puebla on the 13th, escorting Major Polk and Mr. Smyth, bearer of dispatches.

Jarauta, the guerrilla chief, had sent a commissioner to Gen. Patterson. It is said that Jarauta has gone towards Queretaro, his forces having been completely broken up.

Gen. Butler and staff arrived at Vera Cruz on the 17th, and was received with all due honors.

From 2000 to 3000 troops, who had sailed about the same time from New Orleans, arrived at Vera Cruz on the 17th and 18th, and Gen. Butler would, in a fortnight, move forward for the capital with 6000 men, including what had been left behind of the former division.

Gen. Quitman's division at the capital had been incorporated with the divisions of Twiggs and Worth, as also the Pennsylvania and New York volunteers with the former.

The Vera Cruz Arco Iris of the 18th Nov. states that he had arrived at Orizaba with 1500 ragged followers.

Commodore Perry was to sail for Vera Cruz on the 19th ult. for Alvarado, Tobasco, Laguna and Campeachy.

The American Star, of the 3d November, published in the city of Mexico, states that the congress at Queretaro had received a communication from Mr. Trist, but the character of the contents had not transpired.  [RLLW]


NNR 73.213 Dec. 4, 1847 publications of Señor Otero

The papers from the Mexican capital contain a long communication from Señor Otero, a distinguished member of congress, invoking public opinion to induce congress to decline all peace overtures by which any territory but Texas shall be alienated.  [RLLW]


NNR 73.213 Dec. 4, 1847 Capt. Robert H. Taylor's Rangers sent to rectify a theft against a Mexican

A Mexican trader came into camp day before yesterday and complained to General Wool that while at La Ventura, a small hacienda or village on the route from here to San Luis, he was robbed of his cargas and mules to the value of five hundred dollars. In consequence of the promise to protect the property of Mexicans who remain neutral, and the assurances that robbers and those assisting them shall be punished, General Wool has ordered Capt. Taylor's company of Texan Rangers to repair to the rancho or hacienda, retake the goods if they are there, or if they are not, to seize a sufficient number of the cattle and horses belonging to the place to make up for the loss of the Mexican, and if those who had a hand in the robbery can be pointed out, to seize them and bring them in as prisoners. The expedition started this morning, and before the get back will probably go to the hacienda Potosi.  [RLLW]


NNR 73.213 Dec. 4, 1847 Squire Collins
NNR 73.213 Dec. 4, 1847 departure of parties from Buena Vista for Santa Fe and San Antonio
NNR 73.213 Dec. 4, 1847 Thomas H. O'S Addicks

Mr. Collins, better known in Missouri as Squire Collins who acted as interpreter to Doniphan's command, and has since been employed as interpreter to the quartermaster department, left here last week with a party of a dozen for Santa Fe, via Monvlova and the Presidio, through the Indian country. It is expected that this party may meet guerrilla parties and Indians on their route, but though few in number they are prepared to make a stout resistance.  [RLLW]

Another party left yesterday morning for San Antonio, Texas, via Monclova, about fifteen strong. - Among them was Mr. Thos. H. O'S. Addicks, Gen. Wool's interpreter, a most excellent, intelligent and talented follow. He has been in this country or Texas many years, and been an actor in many stirring scenes with the Mexicans and Indians, and among the latter, the Lipans, has spent a considerable time, and I believe has been made a chief by them. He holds the office of county clerk in San Antonio. This party, it is reported, is to be attacked by guerrillas between here and Monclova, by a band who are waiting for them.  [RLLW]


NNR 73.213 Dec. 4, 1847 Guerrilla attack

Lieut. Campbell of the 2d dragoons left here on the morning of the 1st for Monterey with Lieut. Clark of the Texas Rangers, together with twenty dragoons and two Texas rangers,--in all about 25. About six miles beyond Maria he was attacked by about 150 guerrillas. He fought them for nearly an hour, when they fled. They had him completely surrounded for some time. His loss was three killed, of the dragoons, two missing and sixteen wounded. Lieut. Clarke was shot through the leg and one of the rangers was among the wounded. The wounded are all in camp at Monterey. [JNA]


NNR 73.213 Dec. 4, 1847 trial of Mexican prisoners accused of murder

The Mexicans who are charged with the murder of Raynes and Patterson have not been convicted. - The board was in session when I wrote you last had merely examining powers. A regular commission, ordered by General Taylor, commenced its session this morning for the trial. The accused stand a poor chance for their necks, for the evidence is very strong against them. I hear nothing new from Monterey and imagine they are quite as dull as we are here.  [RLLW]


NNR 73.213 Dec. 4, 1847 unsuccessful revolution at Guadalajara

Vera Cruz, November 18.

In the city of Guadalajara a fresh revolution has burst forth in favor of the elevation to the presidency of Gomez Farias, the avowed antagonist of the sacerdotal party. His partisans, whilst attacking the churches and endeavoring to abstract therefrom the sacred utensils of gold, were suddenly assaulted by the mob, incited by the priests. A sanguinary engagement immediately ensued between the infuriated parties - the one endeavoring to pillage the sacred edifices, the other to protect them from the threatened desecration. In the action it is said that Gen. Ampudia, of Monterey and Sentmanat notoriety, was slain, together with many of the followers of Gomez Farias. The militant church party, which so well knows how to defend its privileges, has triumphed as usual.  [RLLW]


NNR 72.213 Dec. 4, 1847 Gen. Mariano Paredes y Arillaga pronounces in favor of plan of Iguala

Gen. Paredes has openly pronounced, at Tulancingo, in favor of the plan of Iguala. In his pronunicamento and monarchical movement, he was seconded by the garrison of Mazaltan.  [RLLW]


72.213 Dec. 4, 1847 Mexican war spirit unalloyed

The spirit breathed forth in every paragraph of these papers, is the spirit of war and unquenchable hatred to the North Americans and their acts. The Mexicans, though destitute of all resources, having amongst them the apple of discord, distracted by internal convulsions and divided councils, yet evince no desire nor tendency whatever to peace or conciliation.  [RLLW]


72.213 Dec. 4, 1847 Michael Leonard the teamster executed

EXECUTION. - Michael Leonard, a teamster, belonging to the train which arrived here on the 12th instant, was hung yesterday morning in the main plaza, in pursuance of his sentence, for the murder of another teamster, named William Hampton. The murder occurred on the road the day after the battle of Huamantla. Leonard had previously quarreled with a wagon master named Boulet, and intended to kill him alone. Boulet, however, escaped with the loss of an arm, while the same shot killed Hampton. An immense crowd assembled to witness the execution. Leonard expressed no regret dying, and said that his sentence was a just one, but that if he had the thing to do over again, he would avenge himself on Boulet.[Puebla Flag
[RLLW]


72.214 Dec. 4, 1847 council of war at Puebla between Nicolas Trist and Gen. Winfield Scott

COUNCIL OF WAR - MR. TRIST AND GENERAL SCOTT
THE $3,000,000.

Extract of a letter to the St. Louis Republican dated

Puebla, Mexico, Aug. 6. 1847.

While at Jalapa, I announced to you the fact, that an estrangment, as well as some pretty sharp correspondence, had taken place between Gen. Scott and Mr. Negotiator Trist, arising from a no less singular than gentlemanly course pursued by the latter towards the former. That difficulty, I am happy to say, has long since ceased to exist, and Mr. Trist now regards Gen. Scott as the general in chief of the army of the United States, and in that capacity from time to time consults him in all diplomatic matters connected with the object of his mission - peace! I speak advisedly when I assure you, that Mr. Trist's bearing towards Gen. Scott when he first reached Jalapa, was not approved at Washington either by the president or secretary of war. And Major General Pillow, who arrived here on the 8th of last month, was invested not only with the power of making peace between these two high functionaries, but bore directions to Mr. Trist, that in the future progress of his negotiations he must, from time to time, consult with Majs. Gen. Scott and Pillow.

I observe, from the papers that an idea is prevalent among the more intelligent portions of the U. States, that General Scott is vested with high diplomatic powers. Whatever may have been the case, previous to the arrival of Mr. Trist, since then all such powers have been vested in Mr. Trist alone. He was sent here as the confidential political friend of the administration, as the disburser of some three million bribery fund, and with the expectation that by a judicious application of it, a peace could easily be purchased from a people over whome our standrd had … victorious in every engagement we had had with them. I mention this, because I believe that the administration, fearing the infamy that will attach to a peace procured upon such terms, have cunningly devised the plan to create, and allow the impression to become prevalent, that Gen. Scott possessed the diplomatic power, and that upon him must rest the responsibility of any such termination of the war.

A short time since things were in a fair way this to be ended. The application of this fund was to have been, upon certain contingencies, in bringing about the appointment of commissioners to treat with us for peace; and those who had secured this result were to have been the recipients of certain portions of the fund. To this, Mr. Trist was committed to fully and so far as consent went, Gen. Scott in part. A council of war was decided upon, and called. It convened at the headquarters of the army, on Saturday evening, the 17th of July last. Those who was present at this council, were, the general in chief Maj. Gens. Pillow and Quitman, Brigadier Generals Twiggs, Shields and Cadwallader. The justly distinguished General Worth was not present, in consequence of a most unfortunate disruption of the friendly relations that had existed for 35 years between him and Gen. Scott. But of this, more anon.

At this council of war, two propositions were presented for the action of its members. The first was whether the advance of the army upon the city of Mexico should bedealyed until the arrival of Gen. Piece's command, who was then known to have left Vera Cruz for his place. And the second was whether the application of a portion of the three millions in the manner above specified by me, would be justifiable under the peculiar circumstances of the case.

The first proposition was without much discussion, unanimously decided in the affirmative, all concurring in opinion that it was the part of both prudence and discretion to await the reinforcement of Col. Genral Pierce's column.

The second proposition presented in its consideration an entirely different spectacle. All evidently were sensibly impressed with the importance of the contemplated step and the idea of a great and victorious nation attempting to bribe the leaders of the government over whom they had triumphed, to make a peace upon almost any terms, was for the first time to a conflict between civilized nations, about to be resorted to.

The general-in-chief, with his usual bland, impressive, and, I may add eloquent manner, first went over the whole ground, bringing in support of his position in every argument to which tact, much reflection, and a strong mind could give birth. To these considerations, he added the great and pressing … in all their … by the administration to terminate by any means, if possible, this war. Upon his concluding, the opinions of the different generals present, were called for according to rank. General Pillow's was the first one given, and was favorable to the plan proposed. Gen. Quitman followed, but objected in tata to it, upon the ground that it would inflict a stain upon our national escutcheon, that centuries could not wipe out. Of the brigadier generals, Twiggs was the first to expose his views, and by regarding it to a great extent as a "political question," declined giving any opinion. - Gen. Shields was next required to give his views; he at once rose from his seat; his whole countenance lit up with animation, and in that bold, fearless, uncompromising manner that so strikingly illustrates his whole public careers, denounced the whole scheme in the most unqualifying terms. He insisted that the application of this fund for any such purpose, was not only immoral, but debasing. That, while for purposes of self defence it was, according to usages of modern warfare, justifiable in one nation, to employ as spies the subjects of the other belligerent power, for the sake of benefiting us, that belligerent power, for the sake of benefiting us, to cut the throats of their own subjects. And he boldly declared, that rather than see the country of his adoption thus disgraced, he would prefer by far to witness a continuation of the war for ten years, and in every battle we fought, lose five thousand men. The one would admit of a remedy; the other was an evil from the consequences of which, as a nation, we never could recover.

Gen. Cadwallader simply remarked, that Gen. Shields had exhausted the subject, and he fully concurred with him in the conclusions to which he had come. Thus terminated the council of the evening of the 17th July. What followed is soon related.

The next day, Gen. Shields had a long interview with Mr. Trist. What occurred at that interview, I have no means of ascertaining, but the subsequent note of Mr. Trist can leave but little doubt upon that subject. Two days afterwards, Mr. Trist withdrew all papers connected with this manner of terminating the war. And from that hour to this, an immediate march upon the capital, so soon as General Pierce came up, was determined upon, and all hopes of an early peace abandoned.

I have been particular in relating the proceedings of what I regarded by far the most important council of war that has covened since the existence of hostilities between the United States and Mexico, because I believe my country has been saved from being plunged into an abyss of infamy, from which there would be no extrication; and for the reason, that those who, regardless of consequences to themselves, have … that blow, should receive credit for it.  [RLLW]


72.214 Dec. 4, 1847death of an American sailor

AN AMERICAN SAILOR. A letter published in the Harrisburg Argus, written by Lieut. James Elder, says: "When the transport ship Empire struck near … Rey, not one man was lost, who Lieut. E says he was steering the ship when she struck, and attempted to save her by putting the helm hard down; but when nearly hard down the rudder struck; but when nearly hard down the rudder struck the rocks, which carried him over and under the wheel several times, the handles of the wheels tearing his thigh every revolution, the flesh was literally torn off from the knee to the hip. Lieut. E. asked him why he did not let go. He said 'four hundred lives are more valuable than one.'

"This brave soldier's name should be known and remembered - he is beyond the reach of this world's recompense, for he did not survive his injuries."[RLLW]


NNR 73.214 Dec. 4, 1847 "reveling in the halls of Montezumas"

"REVELLING IN THE HALLS OF THE MONTEZUMAS."

An officer of the South Carolina volunteers writes from the National Palace of Mexico, under date of October 16th, as follows: Much has been said about reveling in the Halls of Montezumas, but we have seen little of it yet. If sleeping on two blankets on a hard table, and covered with one, then I can say, I do revel. But when one comes to try it, the romance of the thing vanishes."[RLLW]


NNR 73.214 Dec. 4, 1847 divisions among parties in Mexico, exactions on the clergy

PARTIES IN MEXICO. - EXACTIONS ON THE CLERGY.

The St. Louis Repbulican, of the 22d inst., contains an interesting letter from the city of Mexico, dated October 17th, from which we make the following extract:

"As to the prospects of peace, I have now no more confidence in so desirable a result being brought about, than I had at Jalapa. The country is m so divided and unsettled a condition, that I do not see how peace could be made, even if the country was in favor of it. They are divided into three parties. The first is called Santa Anna's party, which constitutes the military and a portion of the clergy, who are in favor of that state of things that will best enable them to rob the public with the least trouble. A second party consists of a large number of respectable citizens, to which may be added the major part of the clergy, who are decidedly in favor of some European Prince being placed over them, and that every vestige of a republican form of government should be swept away from Mexico with the termination of this war. The third and last party, are those in favor of the constitution of 1924, and opposed to every thing like a monarchical form of government. The latter party is rapidly increasing in strength, and are determined to send a commissioner to Washington this winter to ask the U. States to occupy and hold the entire country . A few of the most influential members of this party have already had a confidential interests with Mr. Trist, who promised to represent their wishes favorable to our government."

He states that a Mexican newspaper has been established in the city, edited by an association of gentlemen of the liberal party, which boldly and ably, and with a good deal of effect in the public mind, advocate a restoration of the state of affairs that existed during the first three years of Mexican independence. He alludes as follows to the church interest:

"I have met with and conversed freely with several of the most distinguished clergy in this city, as to the present and future condition of Mexico. - Many of them partially admit that the interest of the church as well as their own, would be greatly enhanced by Mexico becoming a monarchy. But, they as freely asserted that if that could not be done, as they were then in favor of the United States occupying and governing the country as the next best means of preserving the church property from being consumed to sustain and carry on the war. Or, in the event of peace, it being a … to feel like praetorian cohort of their officers, civil and military that cling like leeches on the body politic.

The cathedral, in addition to over two hundred thousand dollars previously contributed was compelled to give up some of its images, in order to enable Santa Anna to fortify the city. This was taken and disposed of to the English bankers, Manning A. McIntosh, for $300,000. The convent of St. Domingo, one of the most extensive, and heretofore wealthy institutions of the kind, has been greatly impoverished by the exorbitant contributions extorted from them for the support and maintenance of war, and the government together. The principal padre, or priest, in the institution, told me, a few days ago, that this convent alone, had been compelled to advance upwards of $400,000l; and to accomplish it, they had been forced, in addition to giving up all their ready money, to dispose of some of the most valuable real estate of the city. Other religious institutions have suffered in proportion to their wealth, equally as much; and to check further encroachment upon their estates, and to guard against the rapacity of their own government, as well as to avoid the result that would follow the success of Gomez Farias party, who are violent in their opposition to the clergy, and in favor of a confiscation of the whole of the church property to relieve the government from its embarrassments - most of the intelligent and reflecting portion of the priesthood, in the event of no foreign prince reigning over them, prefer for these reasons, solely, that the United States should govern them. Do not think that this is an idle conjecture, or the mere ebullient of a distempered fancy. It is the result of calm investigation, and well authenticated information drawn from the most reliable sources."[RLLW]


NNR 73.215 Dec. 4, 1847Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's manifesto to the Mexican nation

MANIFESTO OF SANTA ANNA.

Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, general of division, "Benemerito de la Patria," and provisional president of the republic, to his fellow citizens:

Since my return to the country I have upon various occasions addressed you, giving an account off my operations as chief of the army, and as first executive magistrate; but holding no longer those positions, I now address you with the most profound grief to complain for you of the cruel ingratitude of some, and of the perfidy of others, who, not content to have acted with the most criminal indifference during the period of the great conflict, are now striving to throw upon me alone the responsibility for those great public calamities to which they have so much contributed.

Such conduct does not surprise me, for a full year ago I discovered that I was again to be made the target of the factions which had torn out of the bowels of the country. Their audacity reached the pitch of holding me up as a TRAITOR before a community which had been witnesses of my repeated services in the cause of independence and liberty, and of the sacrifices I had made to save them from the yoke with which they are now threatened. But it was impossible for me to have anticipated my violent removal from the theatre of the war, in the mode in which it has been effected by him with whom I had deposited supreme power whilst I was fighting with our unjust invaders; and as this inexplicable conduct is calculated to confirm the malignant reports which have so deeply wounded my heart, I, find myself compelled to lay before the world a historical review of my conduct during the fourteen months which have elapsed since my return to the republic, to the end that my labors maybe seen and a full exposure made of the cunning by which I was thwarted, of the injustice with which I was opposed by those whose duty it was to support me, and of the origin of that invention of "traitor" with which I am stigmatized, with a view to discredit me in public opinion, when I had done my best to serve the country; for I have sought to respond loyally to the call made upon me to save the country from the barbarous and iniquitous invasion it has suffered. But as this work will require time, and cannot be prepared as soon as I could wish, at the same time that slander loses not a moment in striking its venomous fangs into my reputation, I entreat all impartial men who have not been witnesses of the exertions I have made, t design to suspend their opinions until that publication, assuring them that therein they shall learn what has been my true conduct, and what that of my unjust detractors.

As the calamity which is iniquitously urged against me is so atrocious, I hurl it back with all the energy of my character, and with the force of innocence infamously outraged. I challenge and summon all my accusers to come forward with their proof, and if they fail to do so, I denounce them as vile calumniators and enemies of the nation.

I call upon Generals Scott and Taylor, and upon every individual in their armies, and I conjure them to declare upon their honor whether the Mexican general, who has fought them in the north and in the east and in the centre, too, of the republic, down to the 10th inst., has discharged all his duty to his country.

Fellow citizens: Misfortune has deprived me of the incomparable satisfaction of offering you a splendid victory; but misfortune has never been deemed treason. They insult you who endeavor to persuade you that such infamy can have fallen upon a veteran of independence, covered with honorable wounds received in defence of your rights, and who has grown gray serving his country with affection and loyalty. Remember that these same men have before abused your simplicity, misleading your judgment, and cast upon the pages of our history the bolt which stains it, in the record of the assassinations of Padilla and of Cuilapan; remember that by these men were sacrificed the two chiefs who at Iguala traced the plan of our independence; that they were found guilty of the act of removing from the sacred soil in which it was … which your fellow citizen last in fighting a foreign foe, to make a public mockery of it under the pretext that it had belonged to one whom in that moment of delirium they called a TYRANT. - If my conduct during these fourteen months deserves reproach, it is required that it be subjected to examination because its results have not been fortunate, I am ready to meet any charges which may be legally and fairly brought against me; but in the meantime I believe myself to the considerations which the fundamental fact secures to me, which my services demand and which justice exacts.

If you will await events as I desire you in order to judge with certainty, you will perceive that those who form their clubs have managed to diffuse distrust and malignant reflections upon my conduct, taking advantage of our misfortunes, are the very ones who are hastening to treat with the enemy and to yield to him what I refused.  [RLLW]


NNR 73.216 Dec. 4, 1847 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's decree, Rosa orders Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna to trial and divests him of command

On the 7th of September Santa Anna issued a decree, in which, reciting the necessity of there being a permanent head to the government, now that neither congress nor the council of government are in session, he orders that, in case he should fall or be taken prisoner, the president of the supreme court of justice would assume his functions, aided by Gens. Herrera and Bravo. This substitution was ordered to continue until congress should assemble and name a president, or the states could elect one. After General Bravo had been taken prisoner, and Santa Anna had abandoned the capital, the latter issued another decree, bearing date September 16th. In this he premises that he designs to continue the campaign; that to do so and retain executive authority are quite incompatible, as the executive government should reside in the centre of the republic. Wishing to avoid this evil, and to provide for the permanency of the government let what may betide, he resigns the provisional presidency of the republic, and orders that the executive authority shall be vested in the president by the supreme court, (Senor Pena y Pena,) assisted by Gen. Herrera and Gen. Alcorta - that latter in place of Gen. Bravo. A second article of the decree fixes upon Queretaro as the seat of government for the nation.

ORDER FOR THE DISMISSION OF SANTA ANNA

Section of Wars

Most excellent sir: His excellency, the provisional president of the Republic, profoundly impressed with his duties to his country, convinced of the necessity of reestablishing public morals in the nation, and of giving more vigor to the discipline of the army, which has been for some time … and almost extinguished by our civil dissensions; desirous also of manifesting to the people of the city of Mexico, and others in the possession of the city of Mexico, and others in the possession of the enemy, that their fate is not disregarded by his excellency; considering that in every well organized country that the generals of the army should answer before a tribunal for the faults which they have committed, and even the defeats which they have suffered in their campaigns, has resolved that you should deliver the command in chief of the army to his excellency, the commander of division, Don Manuel Rincon. The provisional president directs that you establish your residence in the place you should judge convenient, with the consent of the supreme government, and there await, under the guarantee of your word of honor the orders for a formation of a council of war composed of general officers, who shall judge you for the loss of the actions which you have directed as general-in-chief in the present war, and particularly for the loss of the capital of the republic. His excellency the president believes that your honor requires that your military conduct may be submitted to a decision, the result of which he hopes may be favorable and honorable to you. I have the grief to communicate to your excellency the supreme order, and the honor of offering my distinguished consideration. God and Liberty.

Toluca, Oct. 7, 1847. ROSA.

His excellency the general who deserves well of his country, D. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna.

The above order, it will be seen, is dated the 7th October. It was some days after its date that Santa Anna was engaged at the head of 2,500 cavalry, with Col. Lane's detachment in the battle in which Capt. Walker was killed at Huamantia.  [RLLW]


NNR 73.216 Dec. 4, 1847 Atlixco taken, a Mexican Account

BATTLE OF ATLIXCO - MEXICAN ACCOUNT.

Entrance of the Americans with fire and blood into Atlixco.

My beloved Father and Sire, whom I venerate:

Surely your blessing has preserved me in this conjuncture, for the Americans, by their valor and discipline, are invincible, and without exaggeration the attack which they made appeared to me the day of judgment.

I write to you for the purpose of informing you that the army of the United States of America, yesterday afternoon, had a bloody engagement with his excellency, the senior commanding general, Don Joaquin Rea, who was at the head of two thousand infantry, well drilled, well equipped and paid, with all his valiant guerrilleros. But having found it impossible to maintain his position, not withstanding the profound military knowledge possessed by this ancient soldier of Napoleon, and veteran of independence, he abandoned it with precipitation and retired to the city of Atlixco. And the American army pursuing, and resistance in the impregnable mountain of San Miguel, which, however, was carried by American valor, notwithstanding it was covered with two thousand more troops and one cannon. In this action we had much need of the valiant National Guards, of Huachamanga, who the day before yesterday were commanded by the governor to retire, and who slept at Cholula, and marched out at 1 o'clock in the morning, on their march, with much apprehension.

The American army possessed themselves of this hill, in which they encountered the most admirable firmness of the patriotic Mexicans, who retired to the centre of the city and discharged much musketry from the houses and churches, which served for strong walls of defence. These were attacked by fire, for the artillery was directed with great force against the plaza, into which they threw about 211 shots and shells. This superiority of arms compelled the Mexicans to ask a truce, which resulted in a capitulation, which was commenced at 7 o'clock, at which hour I have the satisfaction to take up my pen to write.

I know not the loss which the American army has suffered, but am assured that it has been very small, whilst we have had 219 Mexicans killed, 300 more wounded, and several guerrillas taken prisoners, of those who call themselves the "poisoned lancers."

I omitted to mention to you, that the Senor Gen. Rea, has departed with his most confidential adjutants, for the south, and on yesterday morning his excellency, the governor, took flight, attended with the most loyal employees. He intends to establish himself at Jalapa, a place very suitable to oppose the enemy with that valor which he has always exhibited and will continue to exhibit.

The Senor Deputy; in consequence of his accelerated flight to Matamoros, has omitted to pay me the draft, but I have had it protested, and in consequence thereof, you will take from the trunk the silver plate, which I consider ought to be sold to pay the expenses of your journey. Starting from your city you will await me at Tepeaca for which place I start this moment.

When I see you I will give you particulars, and now, business aside, I request you to avail yourself of the humble respect with which you are venerated by your affectionate son,

JOSE EDUARDO HERNANDEZ.

[RLLW]


NNR 73.216-217 Dec. 4, 1847 manifesto of Gen. Mariano Paredes

MANIFESTO OF PAREDES.

We are persuaded that our readers will peruse with interest the following manifesto of General Paredes, an ex-president of Mexico, and, in view of those vest able to judge, and honest man and a patriot.

Manifesto of Gen. Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga to his fellow citizens.

Countrymen: - The force of circumstances and events constrained my to absent myself from my family and to leave my country. I sought in Europe an exile, where I devoured in silence the grief which I suffered as a father and a citizen - severe is the task of stifling the feelings so natural under such circumstances. Notwithstanding, nothing so depressed my spirits, nothing so preyed upon my heart, as the impossibility of giving to my country the same services which I rendered her in the happier days of her independence - fighting for her and pouring out my blood.

This exile, and the constrained inaction to which I was condemned, were to me a most costly sacrifice. But one single consideration could have brought me to submit to it, the necessity of depriving my enemies of the pretext that in my person an obstacle was presented to the defence of then national territory, the fate of which caused me the most painful disquietude, for I foresaw the consequences, and the danger was becoming constantly more imminent.

It is easy to conceive of agony of such a position; and the anxiety in which I lived. I sought, unceasingly to take part in the current of events, but the distance rendered this impossible; each day seemed to me an age. In the meanwhile the most sinister rumors were current in Europe, which are ever the precursors of the great calamities that nations endure; the republic was insulted, humiliated, abashed; its gratuitous enemies and those who were ill-disposed towards it, omitted nothing which could injure it. Unhappily the events of Monterey, the An..ra, Vera Cruz, and Cerro Gordo ensued to confirm those ominous portents, and they increased my anxiety and my distress. I saw with dread a large portion of the territory of the republic in the power of the enemy; the states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, New Leon, Tamaulipas, New Mexico and the Californias had been invaded; a like fate had befallen Vera Cruz; … occupied, and the battle of Cerro Gordo laid open the road to the capital and exposed the nation to the gravest and most frightful consequences. On every side the republic was assaulted; she was hemmed in by a line of steel, and the cause of justice succumbed in every encounter. Difference of opinion did not disappear; civil war again presented itself, and the blood shed in the combats with the foreign foe was not sufficient to extinguish civil dissensions.

Such a state of affairs was terrible, for who could look with indifference upon calamities like these, following one after the other! Who could think upon the conflict and the difficulties in which the country was involved without feeling a vehement desire to sacrifice himself in her …? Do you suppose that a citizen in whose breast had once burned the purest patriotism, could look with frigid egotism upon such calamities? Could a soldier, … and cowardly though he were, remain an unconcerned spectator, far from the scene and the places where the conflict was going on for a cause so just and interests so sacred? Could he watch unmoved the audacious strides which the invader was making on his work of iniquity? Misfortune never has overwhelmed my soul, but my prostrate country could not survive calamities like these. I declare to you with all sincerity, I hesitated not a moment, and followed the impulses of my heart, inspired by a patriotism pure and free from personal speculations, I embraced the resolution of coming to join my efforts with yours in favor of our country. I reflected not that I had enemies among my countrymen, for I had been the enemy of none; I never considered that I should become the mark of poisonous shafts of … for I was satisfied with the purity of my intentions; all within me was truth. I came to offer my services to a country which saw me in the ranks of her glorious independence, and if necessary to sacrifice myself for her. I harbored neither suspicion nor fears, neither resentments nor enmities. I sought to unite my efforts in those of her other … began to present the country to the world in an attitude of dignity and to command respect. I came not to arouse nor to inflame the passions of Mexicans against Mexicans, nor to excite recollections painful for the country. But one though occupied me, and that was that there was still a foot hold left from which to fight, still a space where the war might yet be waged, and that the soil moistened with the blood of so many martyrs might again become the theatre of lofty prowess in which valor and patriotism could obtain their deserved reward.

Occupied exclusively with this idea, I gave notice to the government of my determination from Paris under date of the 17th June last. I made with all haste my preparations, for the voyage, and embarked at Southampton on the July … I reached Vera Cruz on the 14th of August, and as I learned in Havana that the same packet would convey to the governor of Vera Cruz intelligence of my coming, was the first step to leap ashore, and changing my dress I had the good fortune to escape from he city, incognito, before the commandant of the enemy had time to take measures, consequent upon the betrayal of me by an unworthy man who had recognised me.

The precautions we had taken, and the promptitude with which I acted saved me, for five minutes had not elapsed before the gates of the city were closed, and an order given to the cavalry outside the walls, to give chase and pursue me; but all their measures were fruitless, for I fled with rapidity, taking the road of La Soledad, and thence I continued my journey through a multitude of dangers such as they encounter who travel through a country overrun with evil doers. I proceeded to Cordova and Orriba, and at last reached Palmer, from which point I again addressed his excellency the minister of war, notifying him of my arrival, and offering services. Little regard was paid my overtures; my proffered services were contemptuously rejected, and not only were the good wishes which animated me disregarded, but a surveillance was ordered upon me. And directions were given to the governor of Vera Cruz to seize and reship me, and to the governors of the other states, including the commandantes generales, to conduct me a prisoner to Acapulco.

Fortunately these orders, dictated by a hatred the most concentrated, by an ignoble thirst for vengeance, by the most profound resentment, and, what is more criminal that all, by prior engagements which the head of the Mexican government had entered into with the United States, were rendered … who could have executed these orders, and by whose sentiments of justice not yet extinct among Mexicans, and by the horror excited by the idea of converting them into the instruments of … unworthy passions. They refused with honest indignation to execute those orders, well knowing, the shameless tyranny in which they originated. It was notorious that the president of the republic had no authority to issue them, for it was expressly forbidden by the third article of April 20th of this year to impose penalties upon Mexicans, notwithstanding the design of the decree was to invest him with extraordinary powers. It was an outrage, for it violated the most sacred guarantees. I had not los my position as a Mexican; I was entitled to return freely to my country; there was no legal resolution, no measure passed in regard to me promoting my return. I was under the protection of the laws, and these are the reasons why these orders were … which commanded at my re-embarkation, my seizure and imprisonment, orders directed against a man who, oppressed with infirmities and with affliction at seeing his country destroyed, her independence and nationality threatened with extinction, sought to die on her soul, and solicited any place whatever amongst the ranks of his countrymen to accompany him to the combat.

During this unjust persecution by the man who … depth of that abyss in which we now see her, I received repeated requests from military chiefs to place myself at the head of the troops which they commanded; but I constantly refused, so as not to afford to my enemy by a division of the army an excuse by which he could palliate or gloss over the disasters caused by his want of skill, and stupidity, by his total military incapacity. Now that he has detached himself from the direction of the government by abandoning it, I await employment from the government which has succeeded him, should it be deemed proper, and should it be thought that my services may be of any use. I will never accept any command unless it be by the order of the government.

Here, fellow-citizens, have I written in a few words my sincerity and good faith, the history of my return to the republic, the conduct which I observe upon my arrival therein, and of the position which I now maintain. Let calumny, hatred and malevolence invent reports against me as they please, my actions will constantly give the lie to them.

I desire that you would seriously fix your attention upon the situation in which the country is placed. - It demands vast efforts and sacrifices. Its prostration is the fruit of divisions and exacerbation of passions, of political hatred, of rivalries and distrust, pushed to the greatest extremes. Let us repudiate our errors, let us detest our irregularities, and let the school of misfortune make us cautious for the future. Let not the lessons of experience be lost upon us; let us not be blinded by illusions. Let us apply a remedy to the ills of the nation, and recognizing its true … trepidly driving back the enemy who has penetrated to the heart of the country, that so we may prevent the humiliation and annihilation of our country.

MARIANO PAREDES Y ARRIILLAGA.
Tulancingo, Sept.29, 1847

[RLLW]


NNR 73.217 Dec. 4, 1847 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's farewell address, items, Mexican force in the field, affairs from the capital

SANTA ANNA'S FAREWELL ADDRESS. Headquarters, Huamantla, Oct. 16, 1847.

The general-in-chief of the army to his companions in arms;

My Friends: When we anticipated obtaining a triumph for the country over our invaders, according to the [illegible] in which you are no strangers, and while I was exclusively occupied in carrying on hostilities against the enemy as you well know, which object alone brought us this way, I received surprising communication of Don Luis de la Rosa, minister of state and war, in which he informs me that by order of his excellency the president of the supreme court of justice, charged with the supreme executive power, by the appointment which I made to that effect in my decree of the 16th of last September, I am to deliver the command of this body of troops to this excellency, general of division, Don Manuel Rincon, or to Don Juan Alvarez, holding the same rank. Although against so strange a proceeding I could argue many objections, as I will do in due time before the nation, in order to preserve the dignity of the appointment which the sovereign constitutional congress made in my person as president ad interim, yet delicacy and patriotism induce me to obey without reply the individual who has just removed from my hands the power which the nation had confided to me, and when I merely relinquish in order to carry on the war against our unjust invaders. I do not wish to furnish a pretext to my implacable enemies to calummate me, nor to have it said that I avoided presenting myself to answer for my conduct as a public man.

From these motives I separate myself from you with the profoundest regret. You are my companions in misfortune, but you are the faithful servants of the nation. Your virtues are known to me, and you know that our intentions were to finish fighting for the most sacred of causes, or to snatch from fortune some important favor. I depart from you and the theatre of the war, perhaps to sacrifice myself to the vengeance of my enemies, or to effect an ingloroious peace which I did not wish to grant, because it was repugnant to my conscience.

Soldiers! be faithful servants to your country! - Let me no misfortune intimidate you. Perhaps the moment is not far distant when conducted by another more fortunate chieftain, fortune will be propitious to you.

ANTONIO LOPEZ DE SANTA ANNA.

[RLLW]


NNR 73.218 Dec. 4, 1847 liberty of the press restored in Mexico City

The liberty of the press has been entirely restored in this city, and in addition to seven Mexican and French papers at present published, we have two American papers. Both of the latter are well supported, especially the American Star, by the pioneer printer, publisher and editor, J.H. Peoples. I will send your files of both, if an opportunity ever presents itself.  [RLLW]


NNR 73.222 Dec. 4, 1847 official report on the actions of the first regiment of US volunteers of New York in the storming of Chapultepec and the advances on Mexico City

Headquarters, 1st regiment U.S. volunteers of N.Y., City of Mexico, Sept. 16, 1847.

To Capt. F. N. Page, A. A. Adj. Gen.

SIR: I have the honor to make the following report of the part taken by the 1st regiment U.S. volunteers of New York, in the affairs of the 12th and 13th instant.

In the absence of Col. Ward B. Burnett, who was still confined at the Hacienda Miquaque, from a wound received on the 20th ultimo, at Los Potalis, Lieutenant Col. Charles Baxter was in command of the regiment. The regiment after furnishing the different details that had been ordered for the storming party, light battalion and batteries, was reduced to 280 officers and men. We arrived at Tacubaya on the morning of the 12th instant, and were posted until about 8 o'clock on the morning of the 13th instant, on the right of the road from Tacubaya to the city, and near Capt. Drum's battery, to protect said battery.

About 8 A. M. on the 13th, as the division filed past the gate on the Tacubaya road, Col. Baxter received orders to advance and storm the castle. After proceeding about half a mile, he was ordered by the general to file to the left by a ranche through a corn field. Here we were received by a shower of grape, canister, and musket balls, when Col. Baxter fell severely wounded, gallantly leading the charge. I immediately took command, and in ascending the hill was struck by a spent ball, which disabled me for a few minutes, during which time I directed Captain Taylor to command the battalion.

Notwithstanding the difficult nature of the ground, intersected as it was by numerous ditches, and swept by a galling fire from the enemy, the regiment which I had the honor to command was the first at the ditch, the first in the enemy's works, and the first to place the national flag upon the conquered castle. Gen. Bravo, commanding the garrison, surrendered himself a prisoner of war to Charles B. Brower, commanding company F. The castle having surrendered, I was ordered by the general to proceed with my command on the Tacubaya road, and was halted at the aqueduct, where the men refilled their cartridge boxes. After a short rest, we advanced towards the Garita de Belen, where the skirmishing parties under command of Captains Hungerford and Taylor, were detailed by order of Gen. Quitman, and rendered essential service in driving the enemy from the batteries at the Garita. A working party was also detailed to carry sand bags, fill ditches, and make a road under the direction of Lieut. Pinto, of company D. Capt. Barclay was then ordered to superintend the building of a breast work, and rendered the effeicient aid as second in command, throughout the day. The acting adjutant Lieutenant Charles Innes, having been wounded about this time, I appointed Lieut. [illegible] of company K in his place, and assigned Lieut. Francis G. Boyle to the command of company.

At dusk a large working party was detailed from the N. York and Pennsylvania regiments, and placed under the command of Capt. Fairchild, in order to erect a battery in front of the Garita, as well as to strengthen our position in other respects. At daylight the following morning we marched with the rest of the division into the capital.

I feel that it is due to Doctors Edwards and McSherry of the marine corps, to thank them for their kind attention to our wounded during the absence of our surgeon, Dr. M. B. Halstead, who was ordered to remain in charge of the hospital at Misquanque. - Capt. Hutton comimissary to the regiment, was left in command at Misquaque, and was active in forwarding supplies. Capt. Van Olinda was killed, gallantly leading his company to the charge, and Lieut. Mayne Reid serverely wounded at the head of his company on the hill.

In closing my report, I must do justice to those gallant officers, by particular notice, whose assistance to me, both in the attack on Chapultepec and the advance on the city, added greatly to the brilliant results of the day. They were Captains Barclay, Taylor, Hungerford, Fairchild, and Pearson; the latter fell early in the engagement, severely wounded, Lieuts. Henry, whose gallantry deserves special notice, Miller, McCabe, [illegible], Brower, Griffin, Green, Boyle, Scannel, Farmsworth, Dorning and Doremus.

A list of the killed, wounded, and missing in the storming of the castle, and the subsequent battles on the road to Mexico, is herewith enclosed.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully yours, &c,
[Signed] JAMES C. BURNHAM,
Lieut. Col. commanding U.S. regiment.

[RLLW]


NNR 73.222 Dec. 4, 1847 Gen. Joseph Lane's report on the relief of Puebla

REPORTS OF THE BRIGADIER GENERAL LANE

Puebla, (Mexico,) October 13, 1847.

SIR: I have the honor to announce to you the arrival of my command at this place on yesterday at 1 o'clock. Before entering this city, I had learned satisfactorily that Col. Childs had been besieged forty days, and that his position was becoming a very critical one, principally for the want of proper supplies. For the particulars of this siege I respectfully refer you to the report of Col. Childs himself. As my command [illegible] the city firing was distinctly [illegible] and feeling confident that my force was sufficient to enter the city at once, I directed Col. Brough, with the Ohio and Captain Heitzleman's battalion, to [illegible] with the Indiana regiment, to proceed by a street further to the east and left. Upon our approach, I found an enemy upon the house-tops and in the streets, firing occasional shots. The troops moved up toward the main plaza, driving the scattering forces of the enemy before them, and completely clearing the streets and city, and killing a few of the enemy. Immediately all was quiet and order restored. I should remark, also, that I found ten or twelve of Col. Child's men who had been killed by the enemy that morning, and but a short time before our entering the city. Col. Childs and command are entitled to the highest consideration from his government for the gallant defence they have made against the repeated attacks of the enemy during the long and serious siege.

My thanks are due to the whole of my command for the gallant manner in which they obeyed my orders, and attacked and drove the enemy.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully your most obedient servant,
JOSEPH LANE, Brig. Gen.

[RLLW]


NNR 73.222-223 Dec. 4, 1847 Gen. Joseph Lane's official report of the engagement at Huamantla

BATTLE OF HUAMANTLA.

Headquarters Department of Puebla.

Puebla, October 18, 1847

SIR: I have the honor to make the following report of an engagement between a part of me force and the enemy, under the command of General Santa Anna, at the city of Huamantla, on the 9th instant:

After my departure from Vera Cruz, and when near the San Jose river, a party of guerrillas was observed near the hacienda of Santa Anna. Capt. Lewis' company of [illegible] volunteers was detached to pursuit; a portion of the command, under Lieut. Lilly, came upon the enemy, and had a smart skirmish with them. Lieut. Lilly behaved in the most gallant manner, rallying and encouraging his men under a most sever fire. Upon leaving Paso de Orejas, the rear guard was fired upon by a small guerrilla force, and I regret to have to announce the death of Lieut. Cline, who was shot in the affair. He is reported to have been a most energetic and efficient young officer, belonging to Capt. Lewis' company of Louisiana mounted volunteers.

At various points on the road [illegible] reached me that a large force was concentrating between Perote and Puebla. These rumors were confirmed on my arrival at the former place, and I also received the additional intelligence that Santa Anna in person commanded them, having about four thousand men and six pieces of artillery. No molestation occurred until my arrival at the hacienda of San Antonio Tamaris, at which place, through the medium of my spies, I learned that the enemy were at the city of Huamantla. Leaving my train packed at the former place, guarded by Col. Brough's regiment Ohio volunteers, Captain Simmons' battalion of three companies, and Lieut. Pratt's battery, my force consisting of Col. Wynkoop's battalion, (from Perote,) Col. Gorman's regiment of Indian volunteers, Captain Heintzleman's battalion of mounted men, under command of Captain Samuel H. Walker, mounted riflemen, and five pieces of artillery, assisted by Lieut. Field, artillery. On arriving near the city, at about one o'clock P. M., Capt. Walker, commanding the advanced guard, (of horsemen,) was ordered to move forward ahead of the column, (but within supporting distance,) to the entrance of the city, and if the enemy were in force to await the arrival of the infantry before entering. When within about three miles, parties of horsemen being seen making their way through the fields towards the city, and it the enemy were in force to await the arrival of the infantry before entering. When within about three miles, parties of horsemen being seen making their way through the fields towards the city, Captain Walker commenced a gallop. - Owing to the thick maguey bushes lining the sides of the road, it was impossible to distinguish his further movements. But a short time had elapsed when firing was heard from the city. The firing [illegible], the column was pressed forward as rapidly as possible. At this time a body of about 2,000 lancers was seen hurrying over the hills towards the city. I directed Col. Gorman, with his regiment, to advance towards and enter the west side of the city [illegible] Colonel Wynkoop's battalion, with the artillery, moved towards the east side, Capt. Heintzleman's moving on his right, and Major Lally's constituting the reserve.

Upon arriving at the entrance to the city, Captain Walker discovering the main body of the enemy in the plaza, (about 500 in number,) ordered a charge. [illegible] hand to hand conflict took place between the [illegible]; but so resolute was the charge, that the enemy were obliged to give way, being driven from their guns. They were pursued by our dragoons for some distance, but the pursuit was checked by the arrival of their reinforcements. Col. Gorman's re[illegible] on arriving at the entrance to the city about the same time as the reinforcements of the enemy, opened a well directed fire, which succeeded in routing them. With the left wing of his regiment he proceeded in person towards the upper part of the town where the enemy still were, and succeeded in dispersing them. Col. Wynkoop's command, with the batteries, assumed their position; but before they were within range the enemy fled in haste. The same occurred with Capt. Heintzleman's command. The enemy entering the town and becoming somewhat scattered, Major Lally, with his regiment, proceeded across the holds to cut off his rear and intercept his retreat. This movement not being perceived, I ordered him to advance towards the town: thus depriving him, unintentionally, of an opportunity of doing good service. Captain Walker's force had been engaged some three quarters of an hour before the infantry arrived to his support. He succeeded in capturing two pieces of artillery from the enemy, but was not able to use them, owing to the want of priming tubes, although every effort was made. On this occasion every officer and soldier shaved with the utmost coolness, and my warmest thanks are due to them. Col. Gorman, Lieut. Col. Humont, and Major McCoy, of the Indiana regiment; Col. Wynkoop, Pennsylvania; volunteers; Major Lally and Captain Heintzleman, rendered me most efficient service by their promptness in carrying into execution my orders. To Surgeons Reynolds and Lamar the highst commendations are due joining us as they did in the charge of the cavalry. Surgeon Reynolds, side by side with Captain Walker, rushed on the enemy's lines, and, after the conflict was ended, rendered professional [illegible] of the wounded, promptly performing amputation and other surgical operations on the field of battle. Lieut. Claiborne, mounted riflemen, captured a six pounder in a gallant manner; while Captain Fitzhuman, company C. mounted riflemen, captured a mounted howitzer. Corporal Tilman is highly spoken of by all. Lieut. Anderson, Georgia volunteers, succeeded in capturing Col. La Vega and Major Iturbide, narrowly escaping with his life. The cavalry were much exposed, and behaved with that daring which characterizes American soldiers on every occasion of danger. My thanks are due to the members of my staff present, for their promptness in serving me.

Capt. Besancon, with his command of (mounted) Louisiana volunteers, in following the command of Capt. Walker, was separated by a large body of lancers from the remainder of the squadron, but gallantly succeeded in cutting his way through them. Lieut. Henderson, Louisiana volunteers, was acting as one of my aids.

The colors of the Indiana regiment were planted on the arsenal the moment the enemy were routed. This victory is saddened by the loss of one of the most chivalric, noble hearted men that graced the profession of the arms - Captain Samuel H. Walker, of the mounted riflemen. Foremost in the advance he [illegible] the enemy when he fell mortally wounded. In his death the service has met with a loss which cannot easily be repaired. Our total loss is thirteen killed and eleven wounded. We succeeded in capturing one six pounder lance gun and one mountain howitzer, both mounted, together with a large quantity of ammunition and wagons, which I was compelled to destroy. The enemy's loss was about one hundred and fifty. I must beg leave to further mention Lieut. B.P. McDonald, 3d artillery, who was sent with an order into the town previous to my entry, accompanied by Mr. Bradley, of the quartermaster's department. He was surrounded by lancers, but succeeded in escaping.

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,
JOSEPH LANE, Brig. Gen.

To the Adjutant General, U.S. Army, Washington, D.C.
[RLLW]


NNR 73.223 Dec. 4, 1847 Gen. Joseph Lane's official account of the engagement at Huamantla

BATTLE OF ATLIXCO.

Headquarters Department Perote,

Perote, October 22, 1847.

SIR: On the evening of the 18th instant learning that Gen. Rhea was in command of a considerable force of the enemy at Atlixco, about ten leagues from this place, I ordered a movement for the net morning at 11 o'clock. My force consisted of the 4th Ohio and 4th Indian regiments, Major Lally and Captain Heintzleman's battalions, Col. Wynkoop's battalion of four companies, (1st Pennsylvania volunteers) Captain Taylor's and Lieut. Pratt's batteries of light artillery, and a squadron of dragoons, commanded by Captain Ford, 3d dragoons - About 4 o'clock P. M., when near Santa Isabella seven leagues from this place, the advance guard of the enemy was discovered. A halt was ordered into the cavalry, which had previously been detached to [illegible] a hacienda, should arrive. The enemy with his accustomed bravado, came to the foot of the hill in small parties, firing their escopetas and waving their lances. On the arrival of the cavalry forward movement was made by the column. A large ravine appearing on the left of the road Lieut. Col. Moore, with his Ohio regiment, was ordered to flank it, Major Lally with his battalion leading the advance. Our column had scarcely commenced its movement, when signs of confusion were visible among the enemy. In consequence of which the cavalry was ordered to charge, follow them up and engage them until the infantry could arrive. - Lieut. Pratt with his battery was ordered to follow in rear of the dragoons at a gallop. Had this movement been performed, the whole force would have been ours. But by an order from Maj. Lally, Lieut. Pratt was taken from the place assigned him by me and in consequence detained until a greater portion of the ground, it was impossible for his battery to proceed with rapidity.

The cavalry pursued the retreating enemy for about a mile and a half, skirmishing with them. - On arriving at a small hill, they made a stand and fought severely until our infantry appeared, when they took flight. Our artillery fired a few shots as soon as it came up, but without effect, as by their rapid retreat they had placed themselves at long range. The dragoons were again ordered to follow and keep them engaged. After a running fight of about four miles and when within a mile and a half of Atlixco, the whole body of the enemy was discovered on a hill side, covered with a chaparral, forming hedges, behind which they had posted themselves. Our cavalry dashed among them, cutting them down in great numbers. So think was the chaparral that the dragoons were ordered to dismount, and fight them on foot. A most bloody conflict ensued, fatal to the enemy. Our infantry for the last six miles had been straining themselves to the utmost to overtake the enemy, pressing forward most arduously, notwithstanding the forced march of sixteen miles since 11 o'clock. Owing to the nature of the road, almost entirely destroyed by gullies, the artillery could only advance at a walk. As soon as the infantry again appeared in sight, the enemy again retreated. So worn out were our horses (the sun having been broiling hot all day) that they could pursue the enemy no further. The column was pressed forward as rapidly as possible towards the town; but night had already shut in, giving us, however, the advantage of a full moonlight. As we approached several shots were fired at us, and, deeming it unsafe to risk a street fight in an unknown town at night, I ordered the artillery to be posted on a hill near to the town, and overlooking it, and open its fire. - Now ensued one of the most beautiful sights conceivable. Every gun was served with the utmost rapidity; and the crash of the walls and the roofs of the houses when struck by our shot and shell, was mangled with the roar of our artillery. The bright light of the town enabled us to direct our shots to the most thickly populated parts of the town.

After firing three quarters of an hour, and the firing from the town having ceased, I ordered Major Lally and Colonel Brough to advance cautiously with their commands into the town. On entering I was waited upon by the ayuntamiento, desiring that their town might be spared. After searching the next morning for arms and ammunition, and disposing of what was found, I commenced my return.

Gen. Rea had two pieces of artillery; but as soon as he was aware of our approach, he ordered them with haste to Matamoros, a small town eleven leagues beyond. The enemy state their own loss in this action to be 219 killed and 300 wounded. On our part, we had one man killed and one wounded. Scarcely ever has a more rapid forced march been made than this, and productive of better results. Atlixco had been the headquarters of guerrillas in this section of country, and of late the seat of government of this state. From hence all expeditions have been fitted out against our troops. So much terror has been impressed upon them, at thus having war brought to their own homes, that I am inclined to believe they will give us no more trouble.

The cavalry under Captain Ford deserves my very warmest thanks. The services performed by them was of a most arduous and dangerous character, and nobly did they sustain themselves. To Capt. Lewis, Lieuts. Waters and Lilly, it is but justice to recommend the particularly to the notice of the department for their gallantry. Also Lieut. Martin, 3d dragoons, commanding for the time Captain Ford's company, behaved in a [illegible]. To the commanders of regiment [illegible], to Captain Taylor, 3d artillery, and Lieut. [illegible], 2d artillery, commanding batteries of light artillery, I am under great indebtedness. To Lieut. Sears, 2d artillery, acting A. A. G., for his promptness and efficiency throughout the day in carrying my orders, also my highest thanks are due Lieut. Henderson, Louisiana regiment, Lieut. [illegible] regiment, and Lieut. McDonald, assistant quartermaster, deserve my thanks for efficient service during the day. To my secretary, Mr. A. Phelps, my thanks are due. To Doctors Reynolds, Newton, and Lamar, I must tender my thanks.

On my return, when at Cholula, learning that two pieces of artillery had just been finished at Guexocingo, I determined to proceed thither, and took with me a portion of Col. Brough's and Col. Wynkoop's regiments, and a part of Captain Heintzleman's battalion, and Capt. Taylor's battery - [illegible], 450 men. I made a thorough search of the town; the pieces had been removed, but their carriages were found and destroyed.

On my entry into the town, a party of the enemy were seen, but retreating precipitately.

The next morning, without interruption, I returned to Puebla.

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,
JOS. LANE, Brig. Gen.

Hon. W.L. Marcy, secretary of war.
[RLLW]


NNR 73.235-239 Dec. 11, 1847 address of Albert Gallatin to the people of the United States on the subject of the war with Mexico

ADDRESS OF ALBERT GALLATIN.

To the People of the United States, On the subject of the War with Mexico.

I. – THE LAW OF NATIONS:

It seems certain that Mexico must ultimately submit to such terms of peace as the United States shall dictate. A heterogeneous population of seven millions, with very limited resources and no credit; distracted by internal dissensions and by the ambition of its chiefs; a prey by turns to anarchy and to military usurpers; occupying among the nations of the civilized world, either physically or mentally, whether in political education, social state, or any other respect, but an inferior position, cannot contend successfully with an energetic, intelligent, englightened, and united nation of twenty millions, possessed of unlimited resources and credit, and enjoying all the benefits of a regular, strong, and free government. – All this was anticipated; but the extraordinary successes of the Americans have exceeded the most sanguine expectations. All the advanced posts of the enemy (New Mexico, California, the line of the lower Rio del Norte, and all the seaports which it was deemed necessary to occupy) have been subdued. And a small force, apparently incompetent to the object, has penetrated near three hundred miles into the interior, and is now in quiet possession of the far famed metropolis of the Mexican dominions. The superior skill and talents of our distinguished generals and the unparalleled bravery of our troops have surmounted all obstacles. By whomsoever commanded on either side, however strong positions and fortifications of the Mexicans, and with a tremendous numerical superiority, there has not been a single engagement in which they have not been completely defeated. The most remarkable and unexpected feature of that warfare is, that volunteers, wholly undisciplined in every sense of the word, have vied in devotedness and bravery with the regular forces, and have proved themselves in every instance superior in the open field to the best regular forces of Mexico. These forces are now annihilated or dispersed; and the Mexicans are reduced to a petty warfare of guerrillas, which, however annoying, cannot be productive of any important results.

It is true that these splendid successes have been purchased at a price far exceeding their value. It is true that neither the glory of these military deeds, nor the ultimate utility of our conquests, can compensate the lamentable loss of the many thousand valuable lives sacrificed on the field, or the still greater number who have met with an obscure death, or have been disabled by disease and fatigue. It is true that their relatives, their parents, their wives and children, find no consolation for the misery inflicted upon them in the still greater losses experienced by the Mexicans. But if, disregarding private calamities and all the evils of the general nature, the necessary consequences of this war, we revert solely to the relative position of the two countries, the impotence of the Mexicans and their total inability to continue the war, with any appearance of success are still manifest.

The question then occurs: What are the terms which the U. States have a right to impose on Mexico? All agree that it must be an "honorable peace;" but the true meaning of this word must in the first place be ascertained.

The notion that any thing can be truly honorable which is contrary to justice, will, as an abstract proposition, be repudiated by every citizen of the United States. Will any one dare to assert that a peace can be honorable which does not conform with justice?

There is no difficulty in discovering the principles by which the relations between civilized and Christian nations should be regulated, and the reciprocal duties which they owe one another. These principles, these duties, have long since been proclaimed, and the true law of nations is nothing else than the conformity to the sublime precepts of the gospel morality; precepts equally applicable to the relations between man and man, and to the intercourse between nation and nation.";Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself.""Love you enemies.""As you would that men should do to you, do ye also to them likewise."The sanctity of these commands is acknowledged, without a single exception, by every denomination of Christians, or of men professing to be such. The skeptical philosopher admits and admires the precept. To this holy rule we should inflexibly adhere when dictating the terms of peace. The United States, though they have the power, have no right to impose terms inconsistent with justice. It would be a shameful dereliction of principle, on the part of those who were averse to the annexation of Texas, to countenance any attempt to claim an acquisition of territory, or other advantage, on account of the success of our arms.

But in judging the acts of our government, it must be admitted that statesmen think a conformity to these usages which constitute the law of nations, not as it should be, but as it is practically, sufficient to justify their conduct. And by that inferior standard those acts and our duties in relation to Mexico will be tested.

II. INDEMNITIES TO CITIZENS OF THE U. STATES.

The United States had, and continue to have, an indubitable right to demand a full indemnity for any wrongs inflicted on our citizens by the government of Mexico, in violation of treaties or of the acknowledged laws of nations. The negotiations for satisfying those just demands had been interrupted by the annexation of Texas. When an attempt was subsequently made to renew them, it was therefore just and proper that both subjects should be discussed at the same time; and it is now absolutely necessary that those just claims should be fully provided for in any treaty of peace that may be concluded, and that the payment should be secured against any possible contingency. I take it for granted that no claims have been or shall be sustained by our government but such as are founded on treaties or the acknowledged law of the nations.

Whenever a nation becomes involved in a war, the manifestos and every other public act issued for the purpose of justifying its conduct, always embrace every ground of complaint which can possibly be alleged. But, admitting that the refusal to satisfy the claims for indemnity of our citizens might have been a just cause of war, it is most certain that those claims were not the cause of that in which we are now involved.

It may be proper, in the first place, to observe that the refusal of doing justice, in cases of this kind, or the long delays in providing for them, have not generally produced an actual war. Almost always long protracted negotiations have been alone resorted to: This has strikingly always been the case with the United States. The claims of Great Britain for British debts, secured by the treaty of 1783, were not settled and paid till the year 1803; and it was only subsequent to that year that the claims of the United States, for depredations committed in 1793, were satisfied. The very plain question of slaves carried away by the British forces in 1815, in open violation of the treaty of 1814, was not settled and the indemnity paid till the year 1826. The claims against France for depredations committed in the years 1808 to 1813 were not paid for till the year 1834. In all those cases peace was preserved by patience and forbearance.

With respect to the Mexican indemnities, the subject had been laid more than once before congress, not without suggestions that strong measures should be resorted to. But congress, in whom alone vested the power of declaring war, uniformly declined doing it.

A convention was entered into on the 11th day of April, 1839, between the United States and Mexico, by virtue of which a joint commission was appointed for the examination and settlement of claims. The powers of the commissioners terminated, according to the convention, in February, 1842. The total amount of the American claims, presented to the commission, amounted to $6,291,605. Of these, $2,026,140 were allowed by the commissioners of the U. States, rejected by the Mexican commissioners, and left undecided by the umpire, and claims amounting to $3,336,837 had not been examined.

A new convention, dated January 30, 1843, granted to the Mexicans a further delay for the payment of the claims which had been admitted, by virtue of which the interest due to the claimants was made payable on the 30th of April, 1846, and the principal of the awards, and the interest accruing thereon, was stipulated to be paid in five years, in twenty equal installments every three months! The claimants received the interest due on the 30th of April, 1843, and the three instalments due in April and July, 1844, before they had been actually paid by Mexico, the payment has been assumed by the United States and discharged to the claimants.

A third convention was concluded at Mexico on the 20th of November, 1842, by the plenipotentiaries of the two governments, by which provisionsion was made for ascertaining and paying the claims on which no final decisions had been made. In January, 1844, this convention was ratified by the senate of the United States, with two amendments, which were referred to the government of Mexico, but respecting which no answer has ever been made. On the 12th of April, 1844, a treaty was concluded by the president of Texas, for the annexation of that republic to the United States. This treaty, though not ratified by the senate, placed the two countries in a new position, and arrested for a while all negotiations. It was only on the 1st of March, 1845, that congress passed a joint resolution for the annexation.

It appears most clearly that the United States are justly entitled to a full indemnity for the injuries done to their citizens; that before the annexation of Texas, there was every prospect of securing that indemnity; and that those injuries, even if they had been a just cause of war, were in no shape whatever the cause of that in which we are now involved.

Are the United States, justly entitled to indemnity for any other cause? This question cannot be otherwise solved that by an inquiry into the facts, and ascertaining by whom, and how, the war was provoked.

III. ANNEXATION OF TEXAS.

At the time when the annexation of Texas took place, Texas had been recognized as an independent power, both by the United States and by several of the principal European powers; but its independence had not been recognized by Mexico. Nothing can be more clear and undeniable than that, whenever two nations are at war, if a third power shall enter a treaty of alliance, offensive of defensive, with either of the belligerents, and if such treaty is not contingent, and it to take effect immediately and pending the war, such a treaty is a declaration of war against the other party. The causes of the war between the two belligerents do not alter the fact. – Supposing that the third party, the interfering power, should have concluded the treaty of alliance with that belligerent, who was clearly engaged in a most just war, the treaty would not be the less a declaration of war against the other belligerent.

If Great Britain and France were at war, and the United States were to enter into such a treaty with either, can there be the slightest doubt that this would be actual war against the other party; that it would be considered as such, and that it must have been intended for that purpose? If, at this moment, either France or England were to make such a treaty with Mexico, thereby binding themselves to defend and protect it with all their forces against any other power whatever, would not the United States instantaneously view such a treaty as a declaration of war, and act accordingly?

But the annexation of Texas by the United States was ever more than a treaty of offensive or defensive alliance. It embraced all the conditions and all the duties of growing out of the alliance; and it imposed them forever. From the moment when Texas had been annexed, the United States became bound to protect and defend her, so far as her legitimate boundaries extended, against any invasion or attack on the part of Mexico; and they uniformly acted accordingly.

There is no impartial publicist who will not acknowledge the indubitable truth of these positions. – It appears to me impossible that they should be seriously denied by a single person.

It appears that Mexico was at the time disposed to acknowledge the independence of Texas, but on the express condition that it should not be annexed to the United States; and it has been suggested that this was done under the influence of some European powers. Whether this last assertion be true or not is not known to me. But the condition was remarkable and offensive.

Under an apprehension that Texas might be tempted to accept the terms proposed, the government of the United States may have deemed it expedient to defeat the plan, by offering that annexation which had been formerly declined, when the government of Texas was anxious for it.

It may be admitted that, whether independent or annexed to the United States, Texas must be a slaveholding state so long as slavery shall continue to exist in North America. Its whole population, with hardly any exception, consisted of citizens of the United States. Both for that reason and on account of its geographical position, it was much more natural that Texas should be a member of the United States than of the Mexican confederation. Viewed purely as a question of expediency, the annexation might be commenced as beneficial to both parties. – But expediency is not justice. Mexico and Texas had a perfect right to adjust their differences and make peace on any terms they might deem proper. – The anxiety to prevent this result indicated a previous disposition ultimately to occupy Texas: and when the annexation was accomplished; when it was seen that the United States had appropriated to themselves all the advantages resulting from the American settlements in Texas and from their subsequent insurrection, the purity of the motives of our government became open to suspicion.

Setting aside the justice of the proceeding, it is true that it had been anticipated by those who took an active part in the annexation that the weakness of Mexico would compel it to yield, or at least induce her not to resort to an actual war. This was verified by the fact; that had government remained in the hands with whom the plan originated, war might probably have been avoided. But, when no longer in power, they could neither regulate the impulse they had given nor control the reckless spirits they had evoked.

Mexico, sensible of her weakness, declined war, and only resorted to a suspension of diplomatic intercourse; but a profound sense of the injury inflicted by the United States has ever since rankled in their minds. It will be found, through all their diplomatic correspondence, through all their manifestoes, that the Mexicans, even to this day perpetually recur to this never forgotten offensive measure. And, on the other hand, the subsequent administration of our government seems to have altogether forgotten this primary act of injustice, and in their negotiations in have acted as if this was only an accomplished fact, and had been a matter of course.

IV. – NEGOTIATIONS AND WAR

In September, 1845, the president of the United States directed their consul in Mexico to ascertain from the Mexican government whether it would receive an envoy from the United States, entrusted with full power to adjust all the questions in dispute between the two governments.

The answer of Mr. De la Pena y Pena, minister of the foreign relations of Mexico, was; "That, although the Mexican nation was deeply injured by the United States, through the acts committed by them to the department of Texas, which belongs to his nation, his government was disposed to receive the commissioner of the United States who might climb to the capital, with full powers from his government to settle the dispute in a peaceful, reasonable, and honorable manner;" thus giving a new proof that, even in the midst of its injuries and of its firm decision to exact adequate reparation for them, the government of Mexico does not reply with contumely to the measures of reason and peace, to which it was invited by its adversary.

The Mexican minister at the same time intimated that the previous recall of the whole naval force of the United States, then lying in sight of the port of Vera Cruz, was indispensable; and this was accordingly done by our government.

But it is essential to observe that whilst Mr. Black had, according to his instructions, inquired whether the Mexican government would receive an envoy from the United States with full power to adjust all the questions in dispute between the two governments, the Mexican minister had answered that his government was disposed to receive the commissioner of the United States who might come with full powers to settle the present dispute in a peaceful, reasonable, and honorable manner.

Mr. Slidell was, in November following, appointed envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary of the United States of America near the government of the Mexican republic, and he arrived in Mexico on the sixth of December.

Mr. Herrera, the president of Mexico, was undoubtedly disposed to settle the disputes between the two countries; but, taking advantage of the irritation of the mass of the people, his political opponents were attempting to overset him for having made, as they said, unworthy concessions. The arrival of Mr. Slidell disturbed him extremely; and Mr. Pena y Pena declared to Mr. Black that his appearance in the capital at this time might prove destructive to the government, and thus detest the whole affair. Under these circumstances Gen. Herrera complained without any foundation, that Mr. Slidell had [illegible] that had been understood; he resorted to several frivolous objections against the tenor of his powers; and intimated that the difficulties inspecting Texas must be adjusted before any other subject of discussion should be taken into consideration.

But the main question was, whether Mexico should receive Mr. Slidell in the character of envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary, to reside in the republic. It was insisted by the Mexican government that it had only agreed to receive a commissioner to treat on the questions which had arisen from the events in Texas, and that until this was done the suspended diplomatic intercourse could not be restored, and a residing minister plenipotentiary admitted.

Why our government should have insisted that the intended negotiation should be carried on by a residing envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary might have been discussed and settled as easily, fully, and satisfactorily by commissioners appointed for that special purpose, as by residing ministers or envoys. It is well known that, whenever diplomatic relations have been superseded by war, treaties of peace are always negotiated by commissioners appointed for that special purpose, who are personally amply protected by the law of nations, but who are never received as resident ministers till after the peace has restored the ordinary diplomatic intercourse. Thus the treaty of peace of 1783, between France and England, was negotiated and concluded at Paris by British commissioners, whom it would have deemed absurd to admit as resident envoys or ministers before peace had been made.

The only distinction which can possibly be made between the two cases is, that there was not as yet actual war between Mexico and the United States. But the annexation of Texas was no ordinary occurrence. It was a most clear act of unprovoked aggression; a deep and most offensive injury; in fact, a declaration of war, if Mexico had accepted it as such. In lieu of this, that country had only resorted to a suspension of the ordinary diplomatic relations. It would seems as it our government had considered this an act of unparalleled audacity; which Mexico must be compelled to retract before any negotiations for the arrangement of existing difficulties could take place; as an insult to the government and to the nation, which must compel it to assert its just rights and to avenge its injured honor.

General Herrera was not mistaken in his anticipations. His government was overset in the latter end of the month of December, 1845, and fell into the hands of those who had denounced him for having listened to overtures of an arrangement of the difficulties between the two nations.

When Mexico felt its inability to contend with the United States, and, instead of considering the annexation of Texas to be, as it really was, tantamount to a declaration of war, only suspended the ordinary diplomatic relations between the two countries, its government, if directed by wise counsels, and not impeded by popular irritation, should at once, since it had already agreed to recognise the independence of Texas, have entered into a negotiation with the United States. At that time there would have been no intrinsic difficulty in making, a final arrangement, founded on an unconditional recognition of the independence of Texas, within its legitimate boundaries. Popular feeling and the ambition of contending military leaders, prevented the peaceable termination of those unfortunate dissensions.

Yet, when Mexico refused to receive Mr. Slidell as an envoy extraordinary and minister plenitpoteniary, the United States should have remembered that we had been the aggressors, that we had committed an act acknowledged, as well by the practical law of nations as by common sense and common justice, to be tantamount to a declaration of war, and they should have waited with patience till the feelings excited by our own conduct had subsided.

Gen. Taylor had been instructed by the war department, as early as May 28, 1845, to cause the forces under his command to be put in a position where they might most promptly and efficiently act in defense of Texas, in the event that it should become necessary or proper to employ them for that purpose. By subsequent instructions, and after the people of Texas had accepted the proposition of annexation, he was directed to select and occupy a position adapted to repel invasion, as near the boundary line, the Rio Grande, as prudence would dictate; and that, with this view, a part of his forces should be west of the river Nueces. It was certainly to the duty of the president to protect Texas against invasion from the moment it had been annexed to the possession of Corpus Christi which, was the position selected by Gen. Taylor, there was nothing, in the position he had taken, indicative of any danger of actual hostilities.

But our government seems to have considered the refusal, on the part of Mexico, to receive Mr. Slidell as a resident envoy of the United States, as necessarily leading to war. The secretary of state, in his letter to Mr. Slidell of January 28, 1846, says:

"Should the Mexican government finally refuse to receive you, the cup of forbearance will then have been exhausted. Nothing can remain but to take the redress of the injuries to our citizens and the insults to our government into our own hands."

And again:

"Should the Mexican government finally refuse to receive you, then demand passports from the proper authority and return to the United States. It will then become the duty of the president to submit the whole case to congress, and call upon the nation to assert its just rights and avenge its injured honor."

With the same object in view, the secretary of war did by his letter dated January 13, 1844, instruct Gen. Taylor –

"To advance and occupy, with the troops under his command, positions on or near the east bank of the Rio del Norte. * * * * It is presumed Point Isabel will be considered by you an eligible position. This point, or some one near it, and points opposite Matamoros and Mier, and in the vicinity of Loredo, are suggested for your consideration. - * * * * Should you attempt to exercise the right which the United States have, in common with Mexico, to the free navigation of this river, it is possible that Mexico would interpose resistance. You will not attempt to enforce this right without further instructions. * * * * It is not designed, in our present relations with Mexico that you should trust her as an enemy; but, should she assume that character by a declaration of war, or any open act of hostility towards us, you will not act merely on the defensive, if your relative means enable you to do otherwise.

The administration was therefore of opinion that this military occupation of the territory in question was not an act of hostility toward Mexico, or treating her as an enemy. Now, I do aver, without fear of contradiction, that whenever a territory claimed by two powers is and has been for a length of time in the possession of one of them, if the others should invade and take possession of one of it by military force, such an act is an open act of hostility according to the acknowledged law of nations only recognises a clear and positive fact.

The sequel is well known. General Taylor, with his troops, left Corpus Christi, March 8th to 11th, 1846, and entered the desert which separtates that place from the vicinity of the Del Norte. On the 21st he was encamped three miles south of the Arroyo, or Little Colorado, having by the route he took marched one hundred and thirty-five miles, and being nearly north of Matamoros, about 30 miles distant. – He had on the 19th met a party of irregular Mexican cavalry, who informed him that they had peremptory orders, if he passed the river, to fire upon his troops, and that it would be considered a declaration of war. The river was, however, crossed without a single shot having been fired.

In a proclamation issued on the 12th, Gen. [illegible] who commanded the forces of the department of Tamaulipas, asserts that the limits of Texas are certain and recognised, and never had extended beyond the river Nueces; that the cabinet of the United States coveted the regions on the left bank of the Rio Bravo, and that the American army was now advancing to take possession of a large part of Tamaulipas. On the 24th of March Gen. Taylor reached a point on the route from Matamoros to Point Isabel, eighteen miles from the former and ten from the latter place, where a deputation sent him a formal protest of the prefect of the northern district of the department of Tamaulipas, declaring, in behalf of the citizens of the district, that they never will consent to separate themselves from the Mexican republic, and to unite themselves with the United States.

On the 12th of April the Mexican General Ampudia required General Taylor to break up his camp within twenty-four hours, and to retire to the other bank of the Nueces river, and notified him that, if he insisted on remaining upon the soil of the department of Tamaulipas, it would clearly result that arms alone must decide the question, in which case he declared that the Mexicans would accept the war to which they had been provoked.

On the 24th of April General Arista arrived in Matamoros, and on the same day informed General Taylor that he considered hostilities commenced, and would prosecute them. On the same day a party of sixty-three American dragoons, who had been sent some distance up the left bank of the river, because engaged with a very large force of the enemy, and after a short engagement, in which about sixteen were killed or wounded, were surrounded and compelled to surrender. These facts were laid before congress by the president in his message of the 11th of May.

V. THE CLAIMS OF TEXAS ON THE [ILLEGIBLE]

From what precedes it appears that the government of the United States considered the refusal of Mexico to receive a resident enemy or minister as a sufficient cause for war, and the Rio del Norte as the legitimate boundary of Texas. The first opinion is now of not importance; but the question of boundary, which was the immediate cause of hostilities, has to this day been the greatest impediment to the restoration of the peace. I feel satisfied that if this was settled there would be no insuperable difficulty in arranging other pretensions.

The United States claim no other portion of the Mexican dominions, unless it be by right of conquest. The tract of country between the Rio Nueces and the del Norte is the only one which has been claimed by both parties as respectively belonging either to Texas or to Mexico. As regards every other part of the Mexican possessions, the United States has never claimed any portion of it. The iniquity of acquiring any portion of it otherwise than by fair compact, freely consented to by Mexico, is self-evident. It is in every respect most important to examine the ground on which the claim of the U. States to the only territory claimed by both nations is founded. It is the main question at issue.

The Republic of Texas did, by an act of Dec. 1836, declare the Rio del Norte to be its boundary. It will not be seriously contended that a nation has a right, a law of its own, to determine what is or shall be the boundary between it and another country. The act was nothing more than the expression of the wishes or pretensions of the government. Its only practical effect was, that, emanating from its congress or legislative body, it made imperative on the executive not to conclude ay peace with Mexico unless that boundary was agreed to. As regards right, the act of Texas is a perfect nullity. We want the arguments and documents by which the claim is sustained.

On a first view the pretension is truly startling. – There is no exception: the Rio Norte from its source to its mouth, is declared to be the rightful boundary of Texas. That river has its source within the department, province, or state of New Mexico, traverses through its whole length from north to south, dividing it into two unequal parts. The largest and most populous, including Santa Fe, the capital lies on the east bank of the river, and is therefore embraced within the claim of Texas. Now this province of New Mexico was first visited and occupied by the Spaniards under Vasquez Coronado, in the years 1540 to 1543. It was at that time voluntarily evacuated, subsequently revisited, and some settlements made about the year 1583; finally conquered in 1595 by the Spaniards, under the command of Onate. An insurrection of the Indians re-entered it the ensuing year, and after a long resistance re-conquered it. This was an internal conflict with the Aborigines; but as related to foreign powers the sovereignty of the Spaniards over the territory was never called in question; and it was, in express terms, made the western boundary Louisiana and the royal charter of the French government.

The conquest of the province by Onate took place 5 and 20 years prior to the landing of the Pilgrims in New England, and 12 years before any permanent settlement had been made in North America, on the shores of the Atlantic, by either England, France, Holland, Sweden, or any other power, or that in Florida by any other than Spain herself.

I have in vain sought for any document, emanating from the Republic or state of Texas, for the purpose of sustaining its claim either in New Mexico or in the country bordering on the lower Del Norte. The only official paper within my reach, in which the claim of Texas is sustained by the president’s messages of May 11 and December 3, 1846; and these refer only to the country bordering on the lower part of the Del Norte. The portion of the message of May 11, 1846, relating to that subject, is as follows:

"Meantime Texas; by the final action of our congress has become an integral part of our Union. – The congress of Texas, by its act of December 19, 1836, had declared the Rio del Norte to be the boundary of that republic. Its jurisdiction had been extended and exercised beyond the Nueces. The country beyond that river and the Del Norte had been represented in the congress and in the convention of Texas; had thus taken part in the act of annexation itself; and is now included within one of our congressional districts. Our own congress had, moreover, with great unanimity by the act approved December 31, 1845, recognised the country beyond the Nueces as a part of our territory, by including it within our revenue system; and a revenue officer, to reside within that district, has been appointed, by and with the advice and consent of the senate. It became, therefore, of urgent necessity to provide for the defense of that portion of our country. Accordingly, on the 13th of January last, instructions were issued to the general command of these troops to occupy the left bank of the Del Norte.

"The movement of the troops to the Del Norte was made by the commanding general, under positive instructions to abstain from all aggressive acts towards Mexico or Mexican citizens, and to regard the relations between that republic and the United States as peaceful, unless she should declare war or commit acts of hostility indicative of a state war. He was specially directed to protect private property and respect individual rights."

In his annual address of December 8, 1846, the president states that Texas, as ceded to the United States by France in 1803, has been always claimed as extendi ng west to the Rio Grande; that this fact is established by declarations of our government during Mr. Jefferson’s and Mr. Monroe’s administrations; and that the Texas which was ceded to Spain by the Florida treaty of 1819 embraced all the country claimed by the state of Texas between the Nueces and the Rio Grande.

He then repeats the acts of Texas with reference to her boundaries, stating that –

"During the period of more than nine years, which intervened between the adoption of her constitution and her annexation as one of the states of our union, Texas asserted and exercised many acts of sovereignty and jurisdiction over the territory and inhabitants west of the Nueces – such as the organizing and defining limits of counties extending to the Rio Grande, establishing courts of justice, and extending her judicial system over the territory; establishing also a custom-house, post offices, a land officer, &c."

The president designates by the name of Texas the cession of Louisiana by France to the U. States; and he again calls the territory ceded to Spain by the Florida treaty of 1819 the Texas. He intimates that the claim of the United States to the territory between the Sabine and the Rio Norte was derived from the boundaries of Texas, and by claiming as far west as this river, the United States did recognise that it was the boundary of the Texas. I really do not understand what is meant by this assertion.

The United States claimed the Rio Norte as being the legitimate boundary of Louisiana, and not of Texas. Neither they nor France had ever been in possession of the country beyond the Sabine. Spain had always held possession, and had divided the territory into provinces as she pleased. One of these was called Texas, and its boundaries had been designated and altered at her will. With these the United States had no concern. If their claim could be sustained, it must be by proving that Lousiana extended the right thus far. This had no connexion with the boundaries which Spain might have assigned to her province of Texas. These might have extended beyond the Rio del Norte, or have been east of the Rio Nueces. There is not the slightest connexion between the legitimate boundaries of Louisana extended the right thus far. The presumed identity is mere supposition.

It is not necessary to discuss the soundness of the pretensions to the Rio Norte, asserted by Mr. Jefferson and Mr. Monroe, since they were yielded in exchange for Florida, and some other objects, by the treaty of 1819 – a treaty extremely popular at the time, and the execution of which was pressed with great zeal and perseverance.

Whenever ultimately ceded to Mexico, that Republic fixed it boundaries as it thought proper Texas and Coahula were declared to form a state, and the Rio Nueces was made the boundary of Texas. When Texas declared itself independent, it was the insurrection of only part of a state, for Goahuila remained united to Mexico; but the Rio Nueces was the boundary between the department of Texas and the state of Tamaulipas. The whole contested territory lies within the limits of Tamaulipas, which never was, under the Mexican government, connected in any shape with Texas.

The question now under consideration is only that between the United States and Mexico, and in that view of the subject it is quite immaterial whether the acts of the United States emanated from congress or from the executive. No act of either recognising a country beyond the Nueces as a part of the territory of the United States, can be alleged against Mexico as a proof of their right to the country thus claimed. Any such act is only an assertion, a declaration, but not an argument sustaining the right. It is, however, proper to observe here that the port of delivery west of the Nueces, erected by the act of congress "to establish a collection district in the state of Texas," was at Corpus Christi, a place which was in the actual possession of that state.

It must also be premised that in the joint resolution for the annexation of Texas the question of the boundary between it an Mexico was expressly reserved as one which should be settled by treaty between the United States and Mexico.

The only arguments in the president’s message, which sustain the right of Texas to territory beyond the Nueces, are contained in those passages in which it is asserted that the jurisdiction of Texas had been extended and exercised beyond the Nueces; that the country between that river and the del Norte had been represented in the congress and convention of Texas, had taken part in the annexation of itself, and was now included within one of our congressional districts.

But it is not stated in the president’s message how far beyond the Nueces the jurisdiction of Texas had been extended, nor what part of the country between that river and the del Norte had been represented in the congress and convention of Texas; and was then included within one of our congressional districts.

Now the actual jurisdiction beyond the Nueces never extended further than the adjacent settlement of San Patricio, consisting of about twenty families. That small district, though beyond the Nueces, was [illegible] to, and in the actual possession of Texas: on this account it might be rightfully included within the limits which we were bound to protect against Mexican invasion.

But what was the country between the small settlement of San Patricio, or between Corpus Christi and the Rio del Norte, over which it might be supposed, from the message, that the jurisdiction of Texas had been extended, so as he included within one of our congressional districts? Here, again Texans had erected that small settlement into a county called San Patricio, and declared that this county [illegible] to the Rio del Norte. This, like all other declaratory acts of the same kind, was only an assertion, not affecting the question of right. The State of Texas might, with equal propriety, have declared that their boundary extended to the Sierra Madre or the Pacific. The true question of right to any territory beyond the Mexican limits of the department of Texas depends on the facts: by whom was the territory in question actually inhabited and occupied? and had the inhabitants united with Texas in the insurrection against Mexico?

The whole country between the settlement of San Patricio and Corpus Christi, till with a few miles of the del Norte, is a perfect desert, one hundred and sixty miles wide by the route pursued by General Taylor, as stated by himself, and near one hundred and twenty miles in a straight line.

The only settled part of it is along the left bank of the del Norte, and but a few miles in breadth. – This belt was settled, inhabited, and occupied exclusively by Mexicans. It included the town of Loredo, and Mexico had a custom house at Brasos, north of the mouth of the river. Till occupied by the American arms it had ever been, and was at the time when invaded by Gen. Taylor, a part of the department of Tamaulipas, and subject to the jurisdiction of the prefect of the northern district of that department.

In the course of the war between Mexico and Texas, incursions had been occasionally made by each party into the territories of the other. A Mexican officer had once or twice obtained temporary occupation of San Antonio, within the limits of Texas; and the Texas had on one occasion taken Loredo itself, and more than once had carried their arms, not only to the left bank of the del Norte, but even beyond that river. In both cases the aggressive parties had been repulsed and expelled. The last Texan expedition of that kind took place in December, 1842, and terminated in their defeat at Mier.

That the country adjacent to the left bank of the river was exclusively in the possession of the Mexicans, was well known to our government.

When Gen. Taylor marched into del Norte he issued and order, (No. 30,) translated into Spanish, ordering all under his command to observe with the most scrupulous respect the rights of all the inhabitants who might be found in peaceful prosecution of their respective occupations, as well on the left as on the right side of the Rio Grande. No interference, he adds, will be allowed with the civil rights or religious privileges of the inhabitants.

In Jun, 1845, Gen. Taylor had been directed to select and occupy, on or near the Rio Grande del Norte, such a site as would be best adapted to repel invasion and to protect our western border. But, on the 8th July following, the secretary of war (Mr. Marcy) addressed the following letter to him:

"This department is informed that Mexico has some military establishments on the east side of the Rio Grande, which are, and for some time have been, in the actual occupancy of her troops. In carrying out the instructions heretofore received you will be careful to avoid any acts of aggression, unless an actual state of war should exist. The Mexican forces at the posts in their possession, and which have been so, will not be disturbed as long as the relations of peace between the United States and Mexico continue."

On the 30th July, 1845, the secretary again addressed Gen. Taylor as follows:

"You are expected to occupy, protect, and defend the territory of Texas, to the extent that it has been occupied by the people of Texas. The Rio Grande is claimed to be the boundary between the two countries; and up to this boundary you are to extend your protection; only excepting nay posts on the eastern side thereof which are in the actual occupancy of Mexican forces, or Mexican settlements over which the republic of Texas did not exercise jurisdiction at the period of annexation, or shortly before that event. It is expected, in selecting the establishment for your troops, you will approach as near the boundary line, the Rio Grande, as prudence will dictate. With this view, the president desires that your position, for a part of your forces at least, should be [illegible].

The Mexican settlements, thus [illegible], are not those over which Texas did not claim jurisdiction, but those on the east bank of the Rio Grande over which Texas did not exercise jurisdiction at the period mentioned. The president had no authority to give up the territory claimed by Texas; but it is clear that at that ime, when war was not contemplated, the administration was of opinion that, till the question was definitively settled, the occupancy by the Mexicans of the territory adjacent to the left bank of the del Norte ought not to be disturbed. – Neither the subsequent refusal by Mexico to receive a residing envoy nor the successes of the American arms have affected the question of right. The claim of Texas, whether to New Mexico or to the lower portion of the Rio Norte, was identically the same; as invalid and groundless in one case as in the other. Why a distinction has been made by the executive has not been stated. The fact is, that he has established a temporary government for New Mexico, as a country conquered, and without any regard to the claim of Texas; while, on the other hand, he has permitted that state to extend its jurisdiction over the country lying on the left bank of the del Norte, which, like New Mexico, had been conquered by the arms of the United States. Not a shadow of proof has been adduced to sustain the pretensions of Texas to that district; and justice imperiously requires that it should, by the treaty of peace, be restored to Mexico.

It so happens that the boundary which may be traced in conformity with this principle is a neutral one, and that, as a measure of expediency, none more eligible could have been devised. A desert of one hundred and twenty miles separates the most southwesterly Texan settlements of Corpus Christi and San Patricio from those of the Mexicans on the left bank of the del Norte, than which no boundary could be devised better calculated to prevent collisions hereafter between the two nations. It will be sufficient for that purpose to draw nominal line through the desert, leaving all the waters that empty into the Rio Norte to Mexico, and all those that empty into the Rio Nueces to Texas, together with such other provisions respecting the fortifications and military posts as may be necessary for the preservation of peace.

The line of the Rio Norte is one from which Mexico would be perpetually threatened, and from which their adjacent town on the eastern bank may be bombarded. Such an intolerable nuisance would perpetuate hostile feelings. With such a narrow river as the Rio del Norte, and with a joint right of navigation, repeated collisions would be unavoidable.

Among these, when there was nothing but a fordable river to cross, slaves would perpetually escape from Texas; and where would be the remedy? Are the United States prepared to impose by a treaty on Mexico, where slavery is unknown, the obligation to surrender fugitive slaves?

Mexico is greatly the weaker power, and requires a boundary which will give her as much security as is practicable. It is not required, either for the preservation of peace or any other legitimate purpose, that the United States should occupy a threatening position. It cannot be rationally supposed that Mexico will ever make an aggressive war against them; and even in such a case the desert would protect them against an invasion. If a war should ever again take place between the two countries, the overwhelming superiority of the navy of the United States will enable them to carry on their operations as they please. They would within a month reoccupy the left bank of the Rio Norte, and within a short time effect a landing, and carry the war to any quarter they pleased.

Must the war be still prosecuted for an object of no intrinsic value, to which the United States have no legitimate right, which justice requires them to yield, and which even expediency does not require?

VI. RECAPITULATION

It is an indisputable fact that the annexation of Texas then at war with Mexico, was tantamount to a declaration of war, and that the comparative weakness of Mexico alone prevented its government from considering it as such. Under these circumstances, it was evidently the duty of the United States to use every mean to soothe and conciliate with Mexicans, and to wait with patience for an unconditional recognition of the independence of Texas, till the feelings excited by our aggression had subsided.

It has been shown that after Mexico had resorted, as a substitute for war, to the harmless suspension of the ordinary diplomatic intercourse, the attempt to make it retract that measure, before any negotiations for the restoration of harmony between the two countries could be entered into, was neither [illegible] by the acknowledged law of nations, nor necessary for any useful purpose, nor consistent with a proper and just sense of the relative position in which the aggressive measures of the U. States had placed the two countries. But that the refusal of Mexico to submit to that additional contumely should have been considered as an insult to the U. States betrays the pride of power rather than a just sense what is due to the true dignity and honor of this nation.

It has been demonstrated that the republic of Texas had not a shadow of right to the territory adjacent to the left bank of the lower portion of the Rio Norte; that, though she claimed, she never had actually exercised jurisdiction over any portion of it; that the Mexicans were sole inhabitants, and in actual possession of that district; that therefore its forcible occupation by the army of the U. States was, according to the acknowledged law of nations, as well as in fact, an act of open hostility and war; that the resistance of the Mexicans to that invasion was legitimate; and that therefore the war was unprovoked by them, and commenced by the United States.

If any doubt should remain of the correctness of these statements let them be tested by the divine and undeniable precept, "Do unto others as you would be done by."

If at this moment France was to contract a treaty of defensive and offensive alliance with Mexico, a treaty taking effect immediately, and pending the war between the United States and Mexico, and finding herself to defend it with all her forces against any and every other power, would not the United States at once consider such a treaty as a declaration of war against them?

If, in lieu declaring war against Great Britain in the year of 1812, the United States had only suspended the ordinary diplomatic relations between the two countries, and Great Britain had declared that she would not enter into any negotiation for the settlement of all the subjects of difference between the two countries, unless the United States should, as a preliminary condition, restore those relations, would not this have been considered as a most insolent demand, and to which the United States never would submit?

If the United Staes were, and had been for more than a century, in possession of a tract of country, exclusively inhabited and governed by them, disturbed only by the occasional forays of an enemy, would they not consider the forcible military invasion and occupation of such a district by a third power as open and unprovoked war commenced against them? And could their resistance to the invasion render them liable to the [illegible] of having themselves commenced the war?

Yet it would seem as if the splendid and almost romantic success of the American arms had, for a while, made the people of the United States deaf to any other consideration than an enthusiastic and exclusive hive of glory; as if, forgetting the origina of the war, and with an entire disregard for the dictates of justice, they thought that those successes gave the nation a right to dismember Mexico and to appropriate to themselves that which did not belong to them.

But I do not despair, for I have faith in our institutions and in the people; and I will now ask them whether this was their mission; and whether they were placed by Providence on this continent for the purpose of cultivating false glory, and of sinking to the level of those vulgar conquerors who have at all times desolate the earth?

VI. – THE MISSION OF THE UNITED STATES

The people of the United States have been placed by Providence in a position never before enjoyed by any other nation. They possessed of a most extensive territory, with a very fertile soil, a variety of climates and productions, and a capacity of sustaining a population greater, in proportion to its extent, than any other territory of the same size on the face of the globe.

By a concurrence of various circumstances, they found themselves, at the epoch of their independence in the full enjoyment of religions, civil, and political liberty, entirely free from any hereditary monopoly of wealth or power. The people at large were in full and quiet possession of all those natural rights for which the people of other countries have for a long time contended, and still do contend. They were, and you still are, the supreme sovereigns, acknowledged by all. For the proper exercise of these uncontrolled powers and privileges, you are responsible to posterity, to the world at large, and to the Almighty Being who had poured on you such unparalleled blessings.

You mission is to improve the state of the world; to be the "Model Republic;" to show that men are capable of governing themselves, and that this simple and natural form of government is that which confers most happiness on all, is productive of the greatest development of the intellectual faculties – above all, that which is attended with the highest standard of private and political virtue and morality.

Your forefathers, the founders of the Republic, imbued with a deep feeling of their rights and duties, did not deviate from these principles. The sound sense, the wisdom, the probity, the respect for public faith, with which the internal concerns of the nation were managed, made our institutions an object of general admiration. Here for the first time, was the experiment attempted with any prospect of success, and on a large scale, of a representative democratic republic. If it failed, the last hopes of the friends of mankind was lost or indefinitely postponed – and the eyes of the world were turned towards you. Whenever real or pretended apprehensions of the imminent danger of trusting the people at large with power were expressed, the answer ever was, "look at America!"

In their external relations the United States, before this unfortunate war, had, whilst sustaining their just rights, ever acted in strict conformity with the dictates of justice, and displayed the utmost moderation. They never had voluntarily injured another nation. Every acquisition of territory from foreign powers was honestly made the result of treaties, not imposed but freely assented to by the other party. The preservation of peace was ever a primary object. The preservation of peace was ever a primary object. The recourse to arms was always in defence. On its expediency there may have been a difference of opinion. That, in the only two instances of conflict with civilized nations which occurred during a period of 63 tears, (1783 to 1846,) the just rights of the United States had been invaded by a long continued series of aggressions, is undeniable. In the first instance war was not declared; and there were only partial hostilities between France and England. The congress of the United States, the only legitimate organ for that purpose, did, in 1812, declare war against Great Britain. Independent of depredations on our commerce, she for twenty years carried on actual war against the United States. I say actual war, since there is now but one opinion on that subject; a renewal of that impressments of men sailing under the protection of our flag would be tantamount to a declaration of war. The partial opposition to the war of 1812 did not rest on a denial of the aggressions of England and of the justice of our cause, but on the fact that, with the exception of impressments, similar infractions of our just rights had been committed by France, and on the most erroneous belief that the administration was partial to that country and insincere in their apparent efforts to restore peace.

At present, all these principles would seem to have been abandoned. The most just, a purely defensive war, and no other is justifiable, is necessarily attended wit a train of great and unavoidable evils. – What shall we say of one iniquitous in it origin, and provoked by ourselves – of a war of aggression, which is now publicly avowed to be one of intended conquest?

If persisted in, its necessary consequences will be a permanent increase of our military establishment and of executive patronage; its general tendency to made man hate man, to awaken his worst passions, to accustom him to the taste of blood. It has already demoralized no inconsiderable portion of the nation.

The general peace which has been preserved between the great European powers during the last thirty years may not be ascribed to the purest motives. Be these what they may, this long and unusual repose has been most beneficial to the cause of humanity. Nothing can be more injurious to it, more lamentable, more scandalous, than the war between two adjacent republics of North America.

Your mission was, to be a model for all governments and for all other less favored nations, to adhere to the most elevated principles of political morality, to apply all your faculties to the gradual improvement of your own institutions and social state, and by your example, to exert a moral influence most beneficial to mankind at large. Instead of this, an appeal has been made to your worst passions; to cupidity, to the thirst of unjust aggrandizement by brutal force; to the love of military fame and of false glory; and it has even been tried to pervert the noblest feelings of your nature. The attempt is made to make you abandon the lofty position which your fathers occupied, to substitute for it the political morality and heathen patriotism of the heroes and statesmen of antiquity.

I have said that it was attempted to pervert even your virtues. Devotedness to country, or patriotism, is a most essential virtue, since the national existence of any society depends upon it. Unfortunately, our most virtuous dispositions are perverted, not only by our vices and selfishness, but also by their own excess. Even the most holy of our attributes, the religious feeling, may be perverted from that cause, as war but too lamentably exhibited in the persecutions, even unto death, of those who were deemed heretics. It is not, therefore, astonishing that patriotism, carried to excess, should also be perverted. – In the entire devotedness to their country, the people, every where and at all times, have been too apt towards other nations. It is against this natural propensity that you should be specially on your guard. The blame does not attach to those who, led, by their patriotic feeling, though erroneous, flock around the national standard. On the contrary, no men are wothy of admiration, better entitled to the thanks of their country, than those who, after war has once taken place, actuated only by the purest motives, daily and with the utmost self-devotedness, brave death and stake their own lives in the conflict against the actual enemy. I must confess that I do not extend the same charity to those civilians who cooly and deliberately plunge the country into any unjust or unnecessary war.

We should have but one conscience – and most happy would it be for mankind were statesmen and politicians only as honest in their management of the internal of external national concerns as they are in private life. The irreproachable private character of the president and of the members of his administration is known and respected. There is not one of them who would spurn who would spurn with indignation the most remote hint that, on similar pretences to those alleged for dismembering Mexico, he might be capable of attempting to appropriate to himself his neighbor’s arm.

In the total absence of any argument that can justify the war in which we are now involved, resort has been had to a most extraordinary assertion. It is said that the people of the United States have and hereditary superiority of race over the Mexicans, which gives them the right to subjugate and keep in bondage the inferior nation. This, it is also alleged, will be the means of enlightning the degraded Mexicans, of improving their social state, and of ultimately increasing the happiness of the masses.

Is it compatible with the principle of democracy, which rejects every hereditary claim of individuals to admit an hereditary claim of individuals to admit an hereditary claim of individuals very properly deny that the son can, independent of his own merit, derive any right or privilege whatever from the merit or any other social superiority of his father. Can you for a moment suppose that a very doubtful descent fro men who lived one thousand years ago has transmitted to you a superiority over your fellow men? But the Anglo Saxons were inferior to the Goths, from whom the Spaniards claim to be descended; and they were in no respect superior to the Franks to the Burgundians.

It is not to their Anglo Saxon descent, but to a variety of causes, among which the subsequent mixture of Frenchified Normans, Augevians, and Gascons must not be forgotten, that the English are indebted for their superior institutions. In the progressive improvement of mankind much more has been due to religious and political institutions than to races. Whatever European nations, which from language are presumed to belong to the Latin or Belavonian race, shall have conquered institutions similar to those of England, there will be no trace felt of the pretended superiority of one of those races above the other. At this time the claim is but a pretext for covering and justifying unjust usurpation and unbounded ambition.

But admitting, with respect to Mexico, the superiority of race, this confers no superiority of rights. Among ourselves the most ignorant, the most inferior either in physical or mental facilities, is recognised as having equal rights, and he has an equal vote with any one, however superior to him in all those respects. This is founded on the immutable principle that no one man is born with the right of governing another man. He may indeed, acquire a moral influence over others, and no other is legitimate. The same principle will apply to nations. However, superior the Anglo American race may be to that of Mexico, this gives the Americans no right to infringe upon the rights of the inferior race. The people of the United States may rightfully, and will, if they use proper means, exercise a most beneficial moral influence over the Mexicans and other less enlighted nations of America. Beyond this they have no other right to go.

The allegation that the subjugation of Mexico could be the means of enlightening the Mexicans, of improving their social state, and of increasing their happiness, is but the shallow attempt to disguise unbounded the cupidity and ambition. Truth never was or can be propagated by fire and sword, or by any other than purely moral means; by these, and by these alone, the christian religion was propagated, in less than three thousand years, to conquer idolatry. During the whole of that period Christianity was tainted by no other blood than that of its martyrs.

The duties of the people of the United States towards other nations are obvious. Never losing sight of the divine precept, "Do to others as you would be done by," they have only to consult their own conscience; for our benevolent Creator has implanted in the hearts of men the moral sense of right and wrong, and that sympathy for other men the evidences of which are of daily occurrence.

It seems unnecessary to add any thing respecting that false glory which, from habit and the general tenor of our early education, we are taught to admire. The task has already been repeatedly performed in a far more able and impressive manner than any thing I could say on the subject. It is sufficient to say that at this time neither the dignity of the nation are inseparable from justice. Pride and vanity alone demand the sacrifice. Though so dearly purchased, the astonishing success of the American arms have at least put it in the power of the United States to grant any terms of peace without incurring the imputation of being actuated by any but the most elevated motives. It would seem that the most proud and vain must be satiated with glory, and that the most reckless and bellicose should be sufficiently glutted with human gore.

A more truly glorious termination of the war, a more splendid spectacle, an example more highly useful to mankind at large, cannot well be conceived than that of the victorious forces of the United State voluntarily abandoning all their conquests, without requiring any thing else than that which was strictly due to our citizens.

VIII. – TERMS OF PEACE.

I have said that the unfounded claims of Texas to the territory between the Nueces and the Rio Norte was the greatest impediment to peace. Of this there can be no doubt. For if, relinquishing the spirit of military conquest, nothing shall be required but the indemnities due to our citizens, the United States have only to accept the terms which have been offered by the Mexican government. It consents to yield a territory five degrees of latitude, or nearly three hundred and fifty miles in breadth, and extending from New Mexico to the Pacific. Although the greater part of this is quire worthless, yet the portion of California lying between the Sierra Nevada and the Pacific, and including the port of San Francisco, is certainly worth much more than the amount of indemnities justly due to our citizens. It is only in order to satisfy those claims that an accession of territory may become necessary.

It is not believed that the executive will favor the wild suggestions of a subjugation, or annexation of the whole of Mexico, or any of its interior provinces. And, if I understand the terms offered by Mr. Trist, there was no intention to include within the cessions required the province of New Mexico. But the demand of both Old and New California, or of a seacoast of more than thirteen hundred miles in length (latitude 23° to 42°) is extravagant and unnecessary. The peninsula is altogether worthless, and there is nothing worth contending for south of San Diego, or about latitude 32°.

In saying that, if conquest is not the object of the war, and if the pretended calm of Texas to the Rio del Norte shall be abandoned, there cannot be any insuperable obstacles to the restoration of peace, it is by no means intended to assert that the terms heretofore proposed by either party are at this time proper. And I apprehend that the different views of the subject entertained by those who sincerely desire a speedy and just peace may create some difficulty. There are some important considerations which may become the subject of subsequent arrangements. For the present nothing more is strictly required than to adopt the principle of status ante bellum, or in other words, to evacuate the Mexican territory, and to provide for the payment of indemnities due to our citizens. The scruples of those who object to any cession whatever of territory except on terms sufficient for the purpose, and leave it in the possession of the United States until the indemnities had been fully paid.

Were I to listen exclusively to my own feelings and opinions, I would say that, if the propositions which I have attempted to establish are correct – if I am not mistaken in my sincere conviction that the war was unprovoked by the Mexicans, and has been one of iniquitous aggression on our part – it necessarily follows that, according to the dictate of justice, the United States are bound to indemnify them for having invaded their territory, bombarded their towns, and inflicted all the miseries of war on a people who are fighting in defence of their own homes. If all this be true, the United States would give but an inadequate compensation for the injuries they have inflicted by assuming the payment of the indemnities justly due to their own citizens.

Even if a fair purchase of territory should be covenant to both parties, it would be far preferable to postpone it for the present, among other reasons, in order that it should not have the appearance of being imposed upon Mexico. There are also some important considerations to which it may not be improper to call at this time the public attention.

Our population may at this time be assumed as amounting to twenty millions. Although the ratio of national increase has already been lessened from thirty three to about thirty per cent, in ten years, the deficiency has been, an will probably continue for a while to be, compensated by the prodigious increase of immigration from foreign countries. An increase of thirty per cent would add to our population six millions within ten and nearly fourteen millions in twenty years. At the rate of only twenty five per cent, it will add five millions in ten and more than eleven millions in twenty years. – That the fertile uncultivated land within the limits of the states admitted or immediately admissible in the Union could sustain three times that is indubitable. But the indomitable energy, the locomotive propensities, and all the habits of the settlers of new countries are such that not even the united efforts of both governments can or will prevent their occupying within twenty if not within ten years ever district as far as the Pacific, and whether within the limits of the United States or of Mexico, which shall not have previously been actually and bona fide occupied and settled by others. It may be said that this is justifiable by natural law; that, for the same reason which sets aside the right of discovery, if not followed by actual occupation within a reasonable time, the rights of Spain and Mexico have been forfeited by their neglect and inability, during a period of three hundred years, to colonize a country which, during the whole of that period, they held, undisputed by any other foreign nation. And it may, perhaps, be observed that, had the government of the United States waited for the operation of natural and irresistible causes, these alone would have given them, without a war, more than they want at this moment.

However plausible all this may appear, it is nevertheless certain, that it will be an acquisition of territory for the benefit of the people of the United States and in violation of solemn treaties. Not only collisions must be avoided, and the renewal of another illicit annexation be prevented, but the two countries must coolly consider their relative position; and whatever portion of territory, not actually settled by the Mexicans, and of no real utility to them, they may be disposed to cede, must be acquired by a treaty freely assented to, and for a reasonable compensation. But this is not the time for the discussion of a proper final arrangement. We must wait till peace shall have been restored and angry feelings shall have subsided. At present the only object is peace, immediate peace, a just peace, and no acquisition of territory, but that which may be absolutely necessary for effecting the great object in view. The most simple terms, those which will only provide for the adjustment of the Texan boundary and for the payment of the indemnities due to our citizens, and in every respect, restore things as they stood before the beginning of hostilities, appear to me the most eligible. For that purpose I may be permitted to wish that the discussion of the terms should not be embarrassed by the introduction of any other matter. There are other considerations, highly important, and not foreign to the great questions of an extension of territory, but which may, without any inconvenience or commitment, be postponed, and should not be permitted to impede the immediate termination of this lamentable war.

I have gone further than I intended. It is said that a rallying point is wanted by the friends of peace. Let them united, boldly express their opinions, and use their utmost endeavors in promoting an immediate termination of the war. For the people no other banner is necessary. But their representatives in congress assembled are alone competent to ascertain, alone vested with the legitimate power of deciding what course should be pursued at this momentous crisis, what are the best means for carrying into effect their own views, whatever these may be. We may wait with hope and confidence the result of their deliberations.

I have tried in this essay to confine myself to the question of the issue between the United States and Mexico. – Whether the executive has in any respect exceeded his legitimate powers; whether he is for any of his acts liable to animadversion, are questions which do not concern Mexico.

There are certainly some doubtful assumptions of power, and some points which explanations are necessary. The most important is the reason which may have induced the president, when he considered the war as necessary and almost unavoidable, not to communicate to congress, which was all that time in session, the important steps he had taken, till after hostilities, and indeed actual war, had taken place. The sustituion of war contributions of an arbitrary and varying tariff appears to me to be of a doubtful nature; and it is hoped that the subject will attract the early attention of congress. I am also clearly of opinion that the provisions of the law respecting volunteers, which authorizes their officers, is a direct violation of the constitution of the United States, which requires no other land force than the army and the militia, and which vests in the president and the senate the exclusive power of appointing all the officers of the United States whose appointments are not otherwise provided for in the constitution of itself. (With respect to precedents, refer to the act of July 6, 1812, chap. 461, cxxxviii, enacted with due deliberation, and which repeals, in that respect, the act on the subject of February 6, 1812.) [RLLW]


NNR 73.241 Dec. 18, 1847 ravages of the war on the second regiment of Pennsylvania volunteers

THE SECOND PENNSYLVANIA REGIMENT. Lieut. Rankin, of the 2d Pennsylvania regiment, in a letter to some friends at Pittsburg, mentions the ravages which war has made in that regiment. Of 900 men, who left Pittsburg but one year ago, 300 cannot now be mustered.  [RLLW]


NNR 73.256 Dec. 18, 1847 Revelling in the Halls of the Montezumas

"REVELLING IN THE HALLS OF THE MONTEZUMAS."

A private, acting as clerk for General Pierce, writes:

"Our men are assassinated here in the city nightly by the Mexican renegadoes, who make a practice of killing all they come across who do not happen to have any arms about them. They do not always come out right, for last night one of our men was stabbed at the theatre, and the 2d dragoons turned out and killed about twenty Mexicans before they could be stopped. This is the state of things in the city at the present time.

"To let you know how battle and sickness have thinned the army now in Mexico city, I will state one instance of my own company, which consisted of ninety-five good men when we started from Toledo, but is now reduced to about sixteen men for duty, the remainder being either in the hospital or dead."
[JNA]


NNR 73.256 Dec. 18, 1847 Killed and wounded, Gulf Squadron

Navy Journal.
List of naval officers who died in the gulf within the past year.
Midshipmen Wingate Pilsbury, drowned.
  "   Edward Carmichael, fever.
  "   T.B. Shubrick, killed at Vera Cruz.
  "  Edward Storer, fever.
Passed Mid. John R. Hanson, drown'd.
  "  Henry A Clemson, do.
  "  Richard Allison, fever.
  "  Charles Waddell, do.
  "  Frederik W. Colby, do.
Lieutenant Charles W. Morriss, killed at Tabasco.
  "  James L. Parker, fever.
  "  Chas. W. Chauncey, do.
  "  Spencer G. Gist, do.
Capt. Marines, Calvin Edson, do.
Surgeon John A. Kearny, do.
Passed Ass't Surgeon, Capt. J. Bates, fever.
  "  J. Howard Smith, do.
Assistant Surgeon, Delaney, do.
Purser Andrew D. Crosby, killed at Laguna.
    [North American
[JNA]


NNR 73.256 Dec. 18, 1847 official order for levying contributions on Mexico by collecting export duties and taxes

OFFICIAL - MILITARY CONTRIBUTIONS

Treasury department, November 16, 1847.

SIR: With a view to augment the military contributions now collected by the departments of war and of the navy, under your order of the 31st of March 1sst, I recommend that the export duty exacted before the war by the government of Mexico be now collected at the port of exportation, by the same officers of the army or navy of the United States in the Mexican porta in our possession who are authorized to collect the import duties; abolishing, however, the prohibition of export established in certain cases by the Mexican government, as also all interior transit duties; dispensing also with the necessity of any certificate of having paid any duty to the Mexican government.

The export duty would then be as follows: on -
Gold, coined or wrought, three percent.
Silver, coined, six per cent.
Silver, wrought, with or without certificate of having paid any duty to the Mexican government, seven per cent.
Silver, refined or pure, wrought or in ingots, with or without certificate of having paid the Mexican government duty, seven per cent.
Gold, unwrought, or in the state or ore or dust, three per cent.
Silver, unwrought, or in a state of ore, seven per cent.

Where gold or silver, in any form, is taken from any interior Mexican city in our military possession, the export duty must be paid there, to the officer of the United States commanding; and his certificate of such prepayment must be produced at the Mexican port of exportation, otherwise a double duty will be collected upon the arrival of such gold or silver at the Mexican port of exportation. Whenever it is practicable, all internal taxes, of every description, whether upon person or property, exacted by the government of Mexico, or by any debartment, town, or city thereof, should be collected by our military contribution towards defraying the expenses of the war; excluding, however, all duties on the transit of goods from one department to another, which duties, being prejudicial to revenue and restrictive of the exchange of imports for exports, were abolished, by your order of the 31st of March last.

Yours, most respectfully,
R.J. WALKER. Secretary of the treasury.

To the President.
[RLLW]


NNR 73.256 Dec. 18, 1847 account of troops in and around Santa Fe

SANTA FE - A number of recruiting officers have reached St. Louis on the 16th brining Santa Fe dates to the 20th October. They suffered severely from cold and hunger along their way in. Their object is to obtain 800 recruits, necessary to fill up the ranks of the Illinois and St. Louis battalions, deaths having been daily of occurrence.

Col. Gilpin has arrived with his battalion. Col. Price was at Walnut Hills, and expected to reach Santa Fe about the 1st of December.  
[RLLW]


NNR 73.256 Dec. 18, 1847 American troops moving against Chihuahua or Mexicans at El Paso

Fifteen hundred American troops and 12 pieces of artillery were to be dispatched against Chihuahua, and three companies were already on the road, but had halted below Albuquerque waiting reinforcements, as it was rumored that the Mexicans had been concentrated at El Paso. The American troops will undoubtedly meet with a stubborn resistance either there or at Chihuahua.  
[RLLW]


NNR 73.260 Dec. 25, 1847 resolution of New Hampshire legislature on the Wilmot Proviso

Mr. Hale of New Hampshire, presented the resolutions of instruction adopted by the legislature of the state, relative to the Wilmot Proviso.  
[RLLW]


NNR 73.272 Dec. 25, 1847 Pedro Maria Anaya elected provisional president, his cabinet.

Gen. Anaya was elected president of the republic of Mexico on the 11th November to serve until the 8th January next, when the present term will expire. He was once before provisional president, and is regarded as favorable to a peace. He has called Pena y Pena to the office of secretary of state, and Mora y Villamil to the war department. His inaugural address is received.  
[RLLW]


NNR 73.272 Dec. 25, 1847 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's pronunciamento against proceedings at Queretaro

Santa Anna has issued a pronunciamento against the proceedings at Queretaro, but the story of his having under him ten or fifteen thousand men, is unfounded. He has scarcely a life guard with which he was to proceed for Queretaro on the 22d of November.  
[RLLW]


NNR 73.272 Dec. 25,1847 arrest of Gen. Gideon Johnson Pillow, Gen. William Jenkins Worth, and Col. James Duncan

It is reported, that Generals Worth and Pillow and Lieut. Col. Duncan have been arrested by Gen. Scott.  
[RLLW]


NNR 73.272 Dec. 25, 1847 Gen. Robert Patterson's train leave Jalapa

Gen. Patterson's train left Jalapa, on the 25th ult.  
[RLLW]


NNR 73.272 Dec. 25, 1847 Padre Martin captured

Padre Martin (the second Jarauta) had been made prisoner while sleeping in one of the garitas of the city of Mexico.  
[RLLW]


NNR 73.272 Dec. 25, 1847 Otero's proposition to forbid alienation of Mexican territory rejected, guerrilla affairs near Veracruz

Senor Otero brought forward his proposition in the Mexican congress for depriving the executive of the power to alienate any part of the territory of the republic by a treaty of peace. The proposition was rejected by a large majority, which is deemed a favorable omen.  
[RLLW]


NNR 73.272 Dec. 25, 1847 Execution of two American teamsters and two guerrilla officers

WAR WITH MEXICO.

Arrivals from Vera Cruz bring dates to the 7th December.

Gen. Anaya, was elected president of the republic of Mexico on the 11th November to serve until the 8th of January next, when the present term will expire. He was once before provisional president, and is regarded as favorable to a peace. He had called Pena y Pena to the office of secretary of state, and Mora y Villannil to the war department. His inaugural address is received.

Santa Anna has issued a pronunciamento against the proceedings at Queretaro, but the story of his having under him ten or fifteen thousand men, is unfounded. Hi has scarcly a life guard with which he was to proceed for Queretaro on the 22d November.

It is reported, that Generals Worth and Pillow and Lieut. Col. Duncan have been arrested by Gen. Scott.

Gen Patterson's division left Jalapa, on the 25th ult. Before his departure he hung, on the 23d, two American teamsters, for having killed a Mexican by twelve years old. He caused also to be executed, the next day, the two Mexican officers, Garcia and Alcade (belonging to the 8th and the 11th regiments) who were taken prisoners commanding guerrillas, without having been exchanged. The people buried them in great pomp and ceremony, upon which Gen. Patterson sent to the alcade, who said that the funeral had been spontaneous with the people, and that he had not power to prevent it; besides he remarked that notwithstanding the great numbers who had attended the ceremony, order had not been disturbed in the slightest. [JNA]




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