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NILES' NATIONAL REGISTER
Vol. 72, July-August 1847


July 1844-April 1846 May-July 1846 August-October 1846 November-December 1846 January-February 1847 March-April 1847
May-June 1847 July-August 1847 September-October 1847 November-December 1847 January-March & July December 1848


INDEX

NNR 72.269-72.270 Gen. Joseph Lane's supplemental report on the action at Buena Vista

NNR 72.270-72.271 Gen. Gideon Johnson Pillow's address to the public on his attack at Cerro Gordo

NNR 72.272 train under Col. James Simmons McIntosh attacked and forty wagons lost

NNR 72.272 vomito increasing at Veracruz

NNR 72.272 communication to Gen. Winfield Scott cut off

NNR 72.272 guerrillas around Veracruz

NNR 72.272 promise of liberty to an American prisoner

NNR 72.272 expectation of opposition to Gen. Winfield Scott's entry into the Mexican capital

NNR 72.272 removal of Mexican government urged

NNR 72.272 troops available to defend Mexico City

NNR 72.272 lack of reports about fortifications at Rio Frio

NNR 72.272 Gen. Jose Urrea stationed at Tula

NNR 72.272 departure of generals after the resignation of Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, suspension of military prosecutions

NNR 72.274 ship Carmelita expected to be released

NNR 72.274 Com. Matthew Calbraith Perry's order opening Mexican ports

NNR 72.274 blockade of Yucatan ports officially removed

NNR 72.275 reported loss of wagon train en route to Santa Fe in an attack by Indians

NNR 72.275 Gen. Winfield Scott's preparations to advance on the capital

NNR 72.275 Gen. William Jenkins Worth's official report of march to and occupation of Puebla

NNR 72.275-72.276 account of the attack on the train from Veracruz

NNR 72.276 George Wilkins Kendall's account of movements, detachment under Capt. William Phillips Bainbridge leaves Puebla for Veracruz, affairs on the route

NNR 72.276-72.277 return of Capt. Duperu's dragoons to Veracruz, his account of the train, arrival there of the dead and wounded, arrival of troops, Gen. George Cadwalader reaches the train with reinforcements and takes command

NNR 72.277 Capt. Samuel Hamilton Walker's retaliation on Mexican guerrillas

NNR 72.277 report of the determination to remove the military depot from Veracruz to Tuxpan and opening a new line of communication

NNR 72.277 Tampico threatened

NNR 72.277 insurrection attempted at Tampico

NNR 72.277 report that Gen. Winfield Scott had advanced, and that the Mexicans had sent propositions of peace

NNR 72.277 exhaustion of the troops returning to Veracruz, rumors and dissatisfaction at the manner in which the train had been managed

NNR 72.277-72.278 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's resignation and manifesto on resuming executive power

NNR 72.279 Col. Alexander William Doniphan's achievements, casualties, fight with Lipans at El Paso, letter to Maj. E.M. Ryland

NNR 72.283 speculations respecting peace

72.284 items

NNR 72.288 peace rumors

NNR 72.288 vomito prevails at Veracruz, rumor of Mexican peace proposals denied

NNR 72.288 Col. Alexander William Doniphan's division reaches the states

NNR 72.288 unenviable position of Col. Sterling Price's division

NNR 72.288 accounts from California

NNR 72.288 various items from Brazos, Matamoros, and Monterey, capture of Mexican dispatches

NNR 72.288 review of the posture of our several armies, &c.

NNR 72.288 murder of an Arkansas volunteer by guerrilla, retaliation

NNR 72.288 Col. Samuel Ryan Curtis appointed governor of Saltillo

NNR 72.289 Gen. Winfield Scott and Nicholas Philip Trist

NNR 72.290-72.291 traits of American character, privates in the volunteers elected to political office

NNR 72.297 contradiction of report of Gen. Winfield Scott having advanced or the Mexicans having proposed peace
NNR 72.297 Gen. George Cadwalader, after several conflicts, reaches Jalapa with the train

NNR 72.297 Gen. Gideon Johnson Pillow organizing another reinforcement at Veracruz

NNR 72.297 number of troops under Gen. Winfield Scott after he is joined by reinforcements

NNR 72.297 vomito fatal

NNR 72.297 guerrilla affair

NNR 72.297-72.298 business at Veracruz at a stand, refusal of one firm to pay the tariff

NNR 72.298 punishment of various criminals

NNR 72.298 guerrillas audacious

NNR 72.298 Gen. Gideon Johnson Pillow marches with 1,800 men and 125 wagons, his skirmish with guerrillas

72.298 report arrives at Veracruz that Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna was dictator and at the head of 30,000 men

NNR 72.298 Gen. Gideon Johnson Pillow's effort to march his troops in the middle of the day

NNR 72.298 destruction of guerrillas by dragoons

NNR 72.298-72.299 speculators harvesting on bounties paid to discharged soldiers

NNR 72.299 return of Alabama and Georgia volunteers to the United States

NNR 72.302-72.303 reception of returning volunteers at New Orleans

72.304 Dr. Vanderlinden, rumors from the Army and the capital

NNR 72.304 peace rumors, &c.

NNR 72.304 Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's withdrawal of his resignation

NNR 72.304 National Guards collecting to defend Mexico City, accounts of the guerrillas
NNR 72.304 Mexican skepticism about troops and funds available to Gen. Winfield Scott
NNR 72.304 natives of the US ordered to leave Mexico City

NNR 72.304 consideration of Tuxpan as a port of supply in lieu of Veracruz

NNR 72.304 position of forces in California

NNR 72.304 rumors, votes for Mexican president

NNR 72.305 refutation by the Washington "Union" of the charge by the "Courier and Enquirer" that the administration has authorized Nicholas Philip Trist to interfere with the operations of Gen. Winfield Scott

NNR 72.305 description of Col. Alexander William Doniphan and his men

NNR 72.305 British mediation suggested between the United States and Mexico

NNR 72.306 Connecticut resolutions on the war

NNR 72.307 Cuban refusal of passports to the United States or Mexico

NNR 72.307 Mexican comments on the American force at Puebla, decree against publishing information on the state of defenses at Mexico City and against intercourse with the part of the country under occupation

NNR 72.307 "Union" insists that Gen. Winfield Scott will have over 20,000 men

NNR 72.307 Gen. Gideon Johnson Pillow's letter

NNR 72.307 Gen. Robert Patterson's opinion of the plan for conquering a peace

NNR 72.307 release of Maj. John Pollard Gaines and other persons
NNR 72.307 Maj. Edwin Vose Sumner's report on operations of dragoons under his command on 11 and 14 September
NNR 72.308 liberated prisoners met and detained by Gen. Jose Urrea en route for Tampico

NNR 72.308 movement and position of corps, reinforcements, ordered back to embark for Veracruz, all hope of advancing abandoned

73.308 General Wool at Agua Nueva or Saltillo

NNR 72.308 preparations for defense of Tampico
NNR 72.308 Gen. Winfield Scott detained at Puebla for want of reinforcements and supplies
NNR 72.308 Jalapa evacuated
NNR 72.308 less than 300 men garrison Veracruz
NNR 72.308 Tabasco taken
NNR 72.308 Gen. George Cadwalader at Perote waiting arrival of Gen. Gideon Johnson Pillow's forces
NNR 72.308 provisions and forage available at Puebla
NNR 72.308 capture and condemnation of a Mexican spy
NNR 72.308 rumors

NNR 72.308 vomito still prevailing at Veracruz

NNR 72.308 Gen. Franklin Pierce at Veracruz organizing reinforcements

NNR 72.308 letter from an officer at Saltillo about lack of troops on that line

NNR 72.313-72.314 reception for returning volunteers at New Orleans, tribute to the Mississippians

NNR 72.315-72.316 reply of Col. William T. Haskell to Gen. Gideon Johnson Pillow concerning the action at Cerro Gordo

NNR 72.316-72.319 "welcome home" to Col. Alexander William Doniphan's detachment at Saint Louis

NNR 72.320 movement of government funds to New Orleans

NNR 72.320 Col. Sterling Price at Santa Fe

NNR 72.320 battle at Red River Canyon, &c.
NNR 72.320 attack by Indians on government wagon trains

NNR 72.321 bustle of exports from Cuba to Mexico after announcement of the American administration regarding the tariff imposed on Mexico

NNR 72.322 list of killed and wounded in the attack on Tabasco

NNR 72.322 letter from aboard the Raritan about the taking of Tabasco

NNR 72.322 order of Com. Matthew Calbraith Perry commending the forces involved in the seizure of Tabasco

NNR 72.326-72.327 correspondence between Mexico and the United States concerning the mission of Nicholas Philip Trist to Mexico

NNR 72.327 article from the New York "Herald" about forces in the field

NNR 72.327 account of the Tennessee regiment when starting for the war and when returning from the campaign

NNR 72.327 letter from Maj. John Pollard Gaines

NNR 72.327-328 rumors of British mediation

NNR 72.327 report of naval activities, incident near Tabasco

NNR 72.327 Gen. Franklin Pierce still at Veracruz

NNR 72.327 Mexican Congress summoned, apparently to consider appointment of Nicholas Philip Trist
NNR 72.327-72.328 rumor of British mediation in arranging a peace
NNR 72.328 forces in the field

NNR 72.328 article from the Baltimore "American" about the inadequacy of troops in the field

NNR 72.328 article from the Alexandria "Gazette" questioning the administration's energy and vigor in prosecuting the war

NNR 72.328 article from the Washington "Union" about the troops in Gen. Winfield Scott's Army

NNR 72.328-72.329 Gen. Enos D. Hopping to head the camp of instruction

NNR 72.329 letter from Monterey

NNR 72.330 news of naval operations in the Pacific

NNR 72.330 establishment of civil government in California, proclamation, choice of a seat of government

NNR 72.336 prisoners detained at Huejutla, Col. Lewis Gustavus DeRussy's expedition to relieve American prisoners

NNR 72.336 health of Tampico reported more favorable

NNR 72.336 Capt. J. Mayo's expedition in search of Caledonio Domeco Jarauta

NNR 72.336 celebration of the Fourth at Veracruz, train still not started from Veracruz

NNR 72.336 Gen. Winfield Scott's council of war, whether to advance or delay for reinforcements, Mexican account of Scott's force
NNR 72.336 "Republicano" on peace
NNR 72.336 rejection by the Mexican Congress of communications on peace
NNR 72.336 Gen. Winfield Scott leaves Puebla for the Mexican capital
NNR 72.336 Gen. Franklin Pierce nearly ready to start for Jalapa and Puebla

NNR 72.336 complaints among troops in command of Gen. Gideon Johnson Pillow

NNR 72.337 members of a legislature nominated in California

NNR 72.339 resolution on slavery and acquired territory in the Maine legislature
NNR 72.339 resolutions of the New Hampshire Democratic Party convention against the extension of slavery in acquired territory

NNR 72.341 Gen. Zachary Taylor's reply to Mexican inquiry as to manner of conducting the war

NNR 72.341 items, "Union"'s implied censure of Gen. Winfield Scott relative to Nicholas Philip Trist's proposals

NNR 72.341 peace rumors, "Union"'s remarks

NNR 72.341-72.342 "the war and its generals"

NNR 72.342 Gen. Zachary Taylor's orders No. 68, assigning posts to be occupied, &c., volunteers under him

NNR 72.342 escape and arrival of eight American prisoners at New Orleans

NNR 72.342 effects of illness among the Virginia volunteers in Mexico

NNR 72.342-72.343 disturbances in and around Tabasco

NNR 72.343 rumors about a descent on Reynosa by Gen. Jose Urrea, troops sent there, suspicions of Urrea's object
NNR 72.343 gang of desperadoes near Brazos
NNR 72.343 compliment to the tenth regiment

NNR 72.343 letter from Lt. William T. Barbour, a prisoner in Mexico
NNR 72.343 refusal of the president to sanction Gen. Stephen Watts Kearny's actions conferring rights on citizens of New Mexico

NNR 22.343 Col. Russell's speech in favor of Col. John Charles Fremont
NNR 72.343 need to relieve the "military mob" at Santa Fe

NNR 72.343 depredations by fugitives from Taos

NNR 72.343-72.344 attack on Lt. Jonathan Love by Indians

NNR 72.344 dictatorship suggested for Mexico

NNR 72.344 coalition of states in defense of federalism

NNR 72.344 letter about the collection of American troops at Puebla

NNR 72.344 letter of the Mexican Gen. Juan Alvarez about his plans

NNR 72.344 description of Puebla

NNR 72.352 Gen. Franklin Pierce's train attacked, returns to Veracruz for reinforcements, advances again
NNR 72.352 Col. William Gates' requisition

NNR 72.352 Gen. Winfield Scott at Puebla awaiting response from the Mexican Congress

NNR 72.352 Col. Lewis Gustavus DeRussy's detachment attacked, returns to Tampico, alarm there
NNR 72.352 another report that Mexican commissioners were appointed to treat
NNR 72.352 disposition of the forces of the Army of Occupation
NNR 72.352 toast to Gen. Zachary Taylor as next president of the United States

NNR 72.352 advance and retreat of Mexicans at Buena Vista

NNR 72.352 Carmelita, brig, seized by Mexican privateer, released

NNR 72.357 spirit of the Mexican press, index of popular feeling in Mexico, threat of enslavement of the Mexican people

NNR 72.357-72.358 accounts of the fighting during the expedition to Huejutla

NNR 72.359 march of the train under Col. James Simmons McIntosh from Veracruz to Perote

NNR 72.359-72.360 troops from Jalapa reach Perote

NNR 72.361-72.362 account of the national anniversary celebration at Monterey, speeches, toasts

NNR 72.362-72.365 ceremony at Frankfort, Kentucky, in honor of those who fell in the Battle of Buena Vista

NNR 72.368 correction of account of attack on Gen. Franklin Pierce's division

NNR 72.368 intense anxiety for news about overtures for peace, rumors relating to mission of Nicholas Philip Trist
NNR 72.368 Gen. Winfield Scott to march from Puebla to Mexico City, Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna to give him battle

NNR 72.368 Gen. Franklin Pierce again leaves with train, attack on those following the train

NNR 72.368 Santa Fe burned

NNR 72.368 vomito declining at Veracruz

NNR 72.368 train of wagons and pack mules attacked between Camargo and Monterey

NNR 72.368 financial pressure on the administration because of expenditures for the war

NNR 72.369 tariff receipts at Tampico

NNR 72.369-72.370 article on the state of government finances

NNR 72.370 Lt. Col John Charles Fremont arrested for disobedience of orders, dispute between Gen. Stephen Watts Kearny and Com. Robert Field Stockton

NNR 72.370 American fleet off Lower California, troops concentrating in that direction

NNR 72.370 Col. John Charles Fremont arrested and sent home for trial, Gen. Stephen Watts Kearny and Com. Robert Field Stockton returning

NNR 72.371 the Col. Yell lost on Aransas Bar

NNR 72.372 United States requisition for volunteers for service on the Plain

NNR 72.372 Texas Rangers under Capt. Jack Hays sent to Veracruz
NNR 72.372 some Arkansas volunteers return to New Orleans, new company formed
NNR 72.372 eight new companies of Indiana volunteers arrive at New Orleans

NNR 72.372 departure of the steamship Galveston for Tampico and Veracruz
72.372 company of Pennsylvania volunteers enrolled by Capt. Edward Watts accepted for service in Mexico
72.372 Gen. Joseph Lane expected to leave for seat of the war
72.372 reduction in the force of the Virginia regiment in Mexico

NNR 72.372 account of Capt. Braxton Bragg's battery at Buena Vista

NNR 72.372 departure of the Maryland battalion for Veracruz, their mission

NNR 72.372-72.373 report that the capital was taken

NNR 72.373 Gen. Franklin Pierce leaves Veracruz with 3,000 men to join Gen. Winfield Scott

NNR 72.373-72.374 "Union"'s statement of forces

NNR 72.374 order for organization of the corps of American citizens in Veracruz

NNR 72.374 Capt. John Holliway's account of Maj. Edmonson at the battle of Grand Canon

NNR 72.374 affairs at Veracruz, spy arrested by the Mexicans with dispatches

NNR 72.374-72.375 Gen. Stephen Watts Kearny's proclamation to the people of California

NNR 72.375 Com. James Biddle's blockade order

NNR 72.375 affairs at Santa Fe

NNR 72.384 rumors at Matamoros of Gen. Winfield Scott's having entered Mexico
NNR 72.384 Gen. Enos D. Hopping's requisition for dragoons
NNR 72.384 operations of Col. Carvajal

NNR 72.384 Gen. Caleb Cushing reaches Monterey, troops suffering with disease

72.384 peace rumors contradicted, Gen. Franklin Pierce's train reaches Perote

NNR 72.386 war tax on exports from Mexican ports discontinued by Com. Matthew Calbraith Perry

NNR 72.386 orders to West Point cadets to the seat of the war

NNR 72.386 court of inquiry on actions of Gen. William Jenkins Worth at Puebla

72.387 From the Washington "Union"

72.387 Washington "Union"

NNR 72.387 deaths of sailors of the squadron at Tabasco

NNR 72.389-72.390 general orders on the recruiting service

NNR 72.394 receipt of dispatches from Gen. Winfield Scott at Puebla, Gen. Franklin Pierce's affairs with the guerrillas, Gen. Persifor Frazer Smith's brigade to meet Pierce

NNR 72.394 Gen. Gabriel Valencia reaches Mexico with reinforcements

NNR 72.395 letters from Puebla

NNR 72.395-72.396 rumors

NNR 72.396 accounts from the capital, George Wilkins Kendall

NNR 72.396 Tabasco evacuated

NNR 72.396-72.397 Col. Lewis Gustavus DeRussy's report on his expedition to Huejutla

NNR 72.398 Mexican committee of foreign relations on Nicholas Philip Trist's propositions

NNR 72.399 letter about Gen. Winfield Scott's plan to advance on the capital as soon as Gen. Franklin Pierce arrives with reinforcements
NNR 72.399 consultation between Gen. Winfield Scott and Nicholas Philip Trist

NNR 72.399 Gen. John Ellis Wool ordered to advance on Encarnacion and San Luis
NNR 72.399 outrages committed by Mexicans on their countrywomen and countrymen

NNR 72.399 Lt. Brown and party killed, Maj. Edmonson overtakes and chastises the murderers
NNR 72.399 another conspiracy discovered, Lt. Larkin and four privates killed

NNR 72.400 Col. Henry R. Jackson's vindication against a charge of having plundered the hacienda of Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

NNR 72.400 "National Intelligencer" on Gen. Winfield Scott's probable course

NNR 72.401 shifting of specie from New York to New Orleans for war expenses

NNR 72.401 invalids brought to Pensacola from Veracruz
NNR 72.401 fever aboard the Decatur

NNR 72.402 production of the Mexican mines, opportunities to supply the American Army in Mexico with specie

72.402 arrival of remainder of California expedition in California

NNR 72.408-72.409 tribute to the deceased officers of the first dragoons

NNR 72.409 expectation that guerrillas can be driven from the sand hills near Veracruz and the road opened to Jalapa

NNR 72.409 "Union's" denial of the "National Intelligencer's" statement on Gen. Winfield Scott's actions

NNR 72.409 failure of efforts to exchange Midshipman Robert Clay Rogers

NNR 72.409 Nicholas Philip Trist despairs of negotiating at present

NNR 72.409 refusal of the Mexican Congress to consider overtures for peace

NNR 72.409 Gen. Winfield Scott awaiting Gen. Franklin Pierce before advancing on Mexico

NNR 72.409 various rumors about the Mexican peace party, gathering of Mexican troops at Mexico City

NNR 72.409-72.410 correspondence between Gen. Winfield Scott and Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna relative to peace intercepted by the Mexicans

NNR 72.410 troops under Gen. Gabriel Valencia arrive at Mexico City

NNR 72.410 dispute between Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna and the Mexican Congress on entertaining peace overtures

NNR 72.410 details of a letter from Tampico

NNR 72.410 withdrawal of troops under Gen. Jose Urrea from Tula

NNR 72.410 American comments on the leadership of Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

NNR 72.410 Brownson's "Quarterly Review" on the war

NNR 72.410-72.411 Washington "Union" on the Whig Party's policy toward the war with Mexico

NNR 72.411 New Hampshire "Statesman" on the Whig Party and the Mexican war

NNR 72.411 letter from the Army of Occupation

NNR 72.411 Mexican atrocities near Matamoros, barbarities near Parras

NNR 72.411 arrival of a portion of Col. Alexander William Doniphan's command at Saint Louis

NNR 72.411 "the starving Mexicans at the battle of Buena Vista"

NNR 72.411 comments on the withdrawal of the second and third Indiana regiments from Mexico

NNR 72.411 praise for Private Divers and Corporal Agnew

NNR 72.411 incident involving Maj. Joseph K.F. Mansfield at the Battle of Monterey

NNR 72.411-72.412 comment on Sr. Pacheco's circulars on conduct of the war with the United States and establishment of peace

NNR 72.412 plans to enforce a government on Mexico

NNR 72.416 Gen. Winfield Scott issues orders to his several divisions to advance on the city of Mexico
NNR 72.416 Gen. Franklin Pierce joins Gen. Winfield Scott
NNR 72.416 Maj. Jonathan Pollard Gaines and Midshipman Robert Clay Rogers escape from the Mexicans
NNR 72.416 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna marches to meet the American Army

NNR 72.416 Maj. Folliot Thornton Lally's affair at the National Bridge

NNR 72.416 Capt. Charles Frederick Ruff's affair with Mexicans
NNR 72.416 active preparations against night attack at Tampico

NNR 72.416 reports of illness in the squadron at Veracruz and along the coast

NNR 72.416 troops at Puebla in want of funds, American and Mexican troop movements

NNR 72.416 call for Illinois regiment to keep open communications to Santa Fe

NNR 72.416 "Old Europe and Young America"

NNR 72.416 new Illinois regiment collecting for New Orleans and Veracruz


NNR 72.269-72.270 July 3, 1847 Gen. Joseph Lane's supplemental report on the action at Buena Vista

Gen. Lane's Supplementary Report.

        From the N.O. Picayune.

        The following report by Brigadier General lane is supplementary to his first official report of the operations of his brigade in the battle of Buena Vista. He has thought it called for by the developments of a court of inquiry held since his first report was made, and by the various statements made in the papers injurious to the character of Indiana. As an act of justice to the Indiana troops and as a part of the record of the great deeds of the 23d of February, we cheerfully give the report an insertion in our column.

        Buena Vista May, 1847.

        From the comments of the press, the numerous letters that have been written and published, the many false and ridiculous statements uttered by different persons at sundry places concerning the battle at this place on the 22d and 23d of February last, and more particularly in consequence of the erroneous statements invented and circulated in reference to the Indiana brigade in connection with that memorable day, I feel myself constrained, in discharge of an imperious duty to give to the public a succinct account of facts which may enable every candid reader to arrive at correct conclusions, and that the public mind may be disabused of a studied and systematic attempt at misrepresentation and detraction.

        The disposition of the troops seems to have been confided to General Wool, and they were posted in the following order, viz: The 2d regiment of Indiana volunteers, commanded by Col. Bowles, with three pieces of artillery under Captain O'Brien, were posted on the extreme left. The 3d regiment Indiana volunteers, commanded by Colonel Lane, occupied a height in rear of Washington's battery. The 1 st Illinois regiment, commanded by Colonel Hardin, were stationed on a high hill near and a short distance to the left and front of he same battery.-The 2d Kentucky volunteers, under Colonel McKee, was on the 22d posted on the right of a deep ravine at the distance of a half mile, on the right of he battery, but on the morning  of the 23d were ordered to recross the ravine, and took place near Col Hardin and to his left. The 2d Indiana regiment were placed; which regiment, as before remarked, occupied the extreme left of the field, near the base of the mountain. The four rifle companies of my command, under Major Gorman, were at early dawn of day ordered to move up the side of the mountain to engage the enemy, some three of four thousand strong, who were endeavoring to cross the points of ht mountain and to turn our left flank.-These riflemen were directed to check their advance if possible. Three rifle companies of the 2d Illinois regiment, three companies of Col. Marshall's mounted regiment, were dismounted and sent up the mountain so the assistance of Major Gorman, who had not for some time been hotly engaged with the enemy. The contest on the mountain brow raged with fury for the space of about three hours, when I was informed by Colonel Churchill that the enemy in great force were advancing under cover of a deep ravine about four hundred yards in my front and to the right. I immediately put my small command in motion to meet them. IT should be borne in mind that my whole force was the eight battalion companies of the 2d Indiana regiment and Capt. O'Brien's battery of three guns-in all about four hundred men. On arriving at a narrow ridge between two deep and rugged ravines, I found the Mexican infantry, from four to six thousand strong, supported by a body of lancers. The infantry were coming up out of the ravine on my left and forming in beautiful order across the ridge, leaving the lancer in the ravine. I immediately directed Captain O'Brien to halt his battery and get ready for the fray. The column was halted when the first company was up with and on the left of the battery, and formed forward into line of battle. I rode in front of the column, and continued in front as the companies were forming in line, and was much delighted to see the officers and men move forward in good order; coolness and courage were depicted in every countenance.-By the time in companies were inline, and while I was yet in front, the Mexicans opened their fore from their entire line. In a moment the left companies were in line. I passed to the rear, and the fire was returned with promptness and good effect.

        Thus commenced the battle on the plain of Buena Vista. The distance between the enemy's line and my own was about one hundred and twenty yards. About the time the action commenced, the enemy opened a tremendous fire from their battery of three heavy guns, posted on my left and a little to the rear, which nearly enfiladed my line. In this manner the battle continued to rage for nearly twenty five minutes, the firing being very severe on both sides, the lines of the Mexican infantry presenting one continued sheet of flame. I observed the Mexican line to break and fall back several times, but their successive formations across the ridge  enabled them at once to force the men back to their position and keep them steady. I then formed the determination to take position nearer the enemy, with the hope of routing and driving them from that part of the field, and for the purpose of placing the lines out of he range of the enemy's guns, which had succeeded in getting the range so as to be doing some execution nearly every fire. For that purpose I sent my aid to direct Captain O'Brien to advance his battery some fifty or sixty yards to the front, and to return to the same point. He went with the battery to its advanced position. I was at that moment near the left of my line. Before my aid returned to me, I was much surprised to see my line begin to give way on the right, and continuing to give way to the extreme left, not knowing at that time that Colonel Bowles had given an order to retreat, and it was several days after the battle (and not until after I had made my official report) before I was satisfied that the regiment had retreated in obedience to an order given by Colonel Bowles. The order was not obeyed until it had been thrice repeated, as has since been proved in a court of inquiry, appointed to inquire into the conduct of the colonel. Lieut. Col. Haddon and twelve other good witnesses have testified to his having twice or thrice given the order before the line broke, so unwillingly were they to abandon their position. The 2d regiment occupied an important position-it was the key to that part of the field-and were unsupported by any other troops. An evidence of their being  in a very hot place is that about ninety of them were killed and wounded before they retreated. They had stood firmly doing their duty, as well as ever did veteran troops, until they had discharged over twenty rounds of cartridges at the enemy, killing and wounding some three hundred of them; and I have no hesitation in saying that if it had not been for that unnecessary, unauthorized and cowardly order to retreat, they would not have left their position. I hesitate not to express my belief that if my order to advance had been carried out and we had taken the advanced position as intended, that we would have driven the enemy from the ridge. Although the men retired in some confusion, the most of them soon rallied-say, to the number of two hundred and fifty-and they continued to fight like veterans throughout the day. Lieut. Robinson (my aid-de-camp) and Lieutenant Colonel Haddon were ordered to proceed to the rancho and bring back  such of our men as had gone in that direction; which was promptly done. Capts. Davis, Kimball, McRae, Briggs, Lieutenant Spicely (then in command of his company in consequence of the fall of ht gallant and lamented Kinder,) Adjutant Shanks, and Lieutenants Hoggart, Burwell, Lewis, Foster, Bennefiel, Kunkl, Londermilk, Roach, Rice, and Zenor, with most of the company officers, were also very active in rallying their men. Capt. Sanderson, and Lieutenants Davis, Hogan, and Cayce, and several other officers were wounded and had to leave the field; as also Captain Dennis, who had fought like a hero with a  gun in had, found himself from fatigue and indisposition unable to remain longer the field. Paymaster Major Dix, having arrived on the field. Paymaster Major Dix, having arrived on the field at this moment, was very active in assisting to rally our broken and scattered forces-He seized the colors from their bearer, who was unable to carry them longer, and handed them to Lieut. Kunkle, who carried them triumphantly throughout the day. These colors, now in the possession of Capt. Sanderson, are well riddled with balls-one 24 pound shot, one6 pound shot, and many musket balls passed through them while they were in the hand of this victorious young officer, and they could at all times be seen high above the heads of the Indiana brigade, moving to and from wherever it was necessary to meet and repulse the enemy. Lieut. Peck (now captain) of he rifle battalion, who had been compelled to retire from the mountain to the plain, after the fall of his gallant old Captain Walker, succeeded in rallying about twenty men, and joining the regiment continued to fight gallantly throughout the day. The severe lost in killed and wounded which the 2d Indiana regiment sustained in the action will convey some idea of the danger they faced and the tenacity with which they struggled: 107 of their number were killed and wounded.

        At or about the time of the retreat of my small command under that ill-fated order, the riflemen were compelled by superior numbers to abandon their position on the mountain side and retreat to the plain below. The cavalry which had been posted some distance in my rear, and out of range of the enemy's battery, to act as circumstances might require, either to advance upon the enemy and cut them off in case they should be compelled to fall back, instead of affording me the least assistance, left their position without receiving one fire from the enemy, and made a precipitated retreat to he rear along the foot of he mountain, pursued by a large body of lancers, who succeeded in cutting of and slaughtering quite a number of our forces, most of them riflemen. If they had made a bold stand and allowed the riflemen and the 2d Indiana regiment to rally on them, altogether they would have been sufficient to check the enemy before he had gained any considerable advantage. After these successful and almost simultaneous retreats of the different forces on the left, it remained wholly undefended, and the enemy, numbering several thousand, came pouring down from the mountains and from the front, and formed in good order along the foot of the mountain and in the rear of the position at first occupied by our forces. Soon after the retreat of the 2d, and while I was rallying them, the Mississippi regiment arrived on the field, and in a most gallant manner engaged the enemy, but were compelled by vastly superior numbers to fall back.

        At this time the 3d Indiana regiment, under Col. Lane, was ordered into the fight, and, joined with the 2d Indiana and Mississippi regiments, composed a force of about one-fifth as large as the enemy, but sufficient to engage them with success. Capt. Sherman, with one gun of his battery, at this time joined us. The whole moved towards the foot of the mountain and engaged the enemy. Here the artillery proved very effective. This portion of the enemy's forces became at length so closely pressed, and our artillery continuing to waste them away with its destructive fire, and they begin separated from the enemy's main force, would have in a short time been compelled to surrender, when a white flag was seen on the field, and we were ordered to cease firing. We did so; but the Mexicans continued to fire from their battery, thus covering the retreat of their forces. This flag was sent to the left wing from Gen. Taylor, in consequence of Santa Ana having sent him a flag, which the general naturally supposed conveyed propositions either of truce or surrender. Hence the white flag on our part of the battle field. This flag proved to be nothing more than a stratagem of the Mexican general to extricate that portion of his troops which he saw was absolutely in our power. During the delay occasioned by this interchange of flags, this portion of his army, so completely in our power, moved off and made good their retreat to where the enemy's main force was posted.

        We now moved and took position to meet a large body of lancers supported by about 2,000 infantry. The Mississippi and a portion of the 2d Indiana regiments were formed across a narrow ridge, between two deep ravines, supported by one gun from Capt. Sherman's battery, and the other part of the 2d and all of the 3d Indiana regiments were on the brow of one of the ravines and parallel to the same, the line being nearly in the shape of an L, and faced by the rear rank. The charge was made on the left flank of he 3d Indiana-now right, as they were faced. This charge, it is due to the enemy to say, was made most gallantly, and was as gallantly received by our forces, delivering our fire when they were within a short distance. It proved most destructive to the enemy, felling many a horse and his rider, breaking their columns and putting them to flight, leaving many of their companions dead on the field.

        Soon after this successful repulse the field on the left was completely cleared of the enemy's forces; and hearing a sharp and continued firing on our right, and to the left of Washington's battery, I put my command in motion at double quick time, for the purpose of taking part in the conflict. This fire proved to be a severe action between the entire Mexican infantry and the 1 st and 2d Illinois and 2d Kentucky volunteers, which was Santa Anna's last and great effort. These forces had been repulsed by overwhelming numbers, and were retreating in confusion, hotly pursued by thousands of Mexicans, who were loading and firing on our men at every jump, when my command, consisting of the 2d and 3d Indiana and Mississippi regiments, arrived within musket shot, which we did by coming up suddenly of a ravine, and opened a destructive fire upon them. Finding themselves suddenly attacked, and from an unexpected quarter, they quit the pursuit, formed promptly into line, and returned our fire with considerable effect; but they in turn were compelled to retreat under our well directed fire to the position they had occupied in the morning. This was the last firing between the infantry of the opposing forces on that memorable day, although the cannon continued to play at intervals until dark. The battle on the plain was opened, as has been shown, by the 2d Indiana regiment, and the last musketry fired was by the 2d and 3d Indiana and Mississippi regiments. It should also be stated that our forces had been under arms since the morning of the 22d, and remained upon the field of battle until the morning of the 24th.

        I have here given a brief and faithful account of the operations of the Indiana brigade on the 23d of February, as came under my observation, and there was not one minute, from the time the battle commenced until the last gun was fired, that I was not with them. Captain O'Brien who commanded the battery of light artillery posted on my right at the commencement of he battle, as well as Capt. Sherman, who acted with us part of the day, are deserving particular praise for their gallantry and good conduct-moving and discharging their pieces with all the coolness and precision of a day of ordinary parade. The intrepid and honorable conduit of the 2d Kentucky and 1 st and 2d Illinois volunteers could not have been exceeded, and no commendation of mine could add lustre to the glory that should and would be theirs. There is enough of honor and glory for each man who did his duty at Buena Vista, and he must be an uncharitable and selfish citizen who would knowingly wish to detract from any portion of that glorious little army, with a  desire to augments that of any other corps at the expense of another. The many gallant officers and men who did their duty on that day should not suffer by invidious comparison.

        If I have neglected to particularize the conduct of the Arkansas and Kentucky cavalry, or to define their position on the field, it is not because I deemed them of little moment or importance, but for the reason, that from the time of their retreat I had no opportunity of seeing any thing of their movements. They participated in the rancho fight, when the gallant Yell fell nobly at the head of his column. He, with the noble should who fell on that day, should never be forgotten. The ambition of distinction should never prompt us to deface any portion of the tablet of fame which our country will erect to the honor of the actors in that battle, and the regular and volunteer army should be proud of it, as one of the greatest epochs in our country's history.

        It is due to the commanders of he different batteries of light artillery to say that their efforts were most powerful and efficient towards gaining the almost unparalleled victory of Buena Vista. Ready at all times to meet the enemy at fearful odds, their guns wasted them away  with their fire in a handsome manner, compelling them to retreat whenever coming within their range. Gens. Taylor and Wool were present as commanders-the former as commander in chief. They were exposed to dangers almost every instant of the day, watching the movements of he enemy, and ordering and disposing our troops to meet and repel them. By their coolness and courage in gaining this victory they have won laurels and a fame that shall endure as long as traces of American history shall exist.

Respectfully your obedient servant,
John Lane, Brig. Gen.

[ANP]


NNR 72.270-72.271 July 3, 1847 Gen. Gideon Johnson Pillow's address to he public on his attack Cerro Gordo

        Gen. Pillow's Statement.

        An article in the Picayune of the 29th ultimo, signed by Col. Haskell and other officers of he 2d Tennessee regiment, addressed to the public, calls for some notice from me. This article professes to be "a simple statement of facts;" and, in advance, disclaims any other motive in making the publication that such as arises from a desire "to do justice for themselves."  If those gentlemen had made a correct statement of facts, and had left the public to form its own judgment upon those facts, I should have been content to have passed the publication by unnoticed; for, from a statement of facts I have nothing to fear.

        This article professes to describe the enemy's works, and he order of attack of my brigade in the battle of Cerro Gordo. It says: "There were on the line of works, extending from the National Road to the gorge of the mountains, through which the river passes, three works, known to our engineers as batteries Nos. 1,2, and 3, and that, by the order of battle for my brigade battery No.1, situated upon the river bluff was to have been assaulted by Col. Wynkoop's regiment, supported by Col. Campbell's; and battery No. 2 was to have been assaulted by Haskell's regiment, supported by Col. Roberts' regiment.

        Instead of three works in this line of works, as those gentlemen say, there were known to be four before the battle. Battery No. 1, situated on the river bluff, and No. 2 at the extreme left of the enemy's line of breast-work, and not nearer to the point assaulted than from four hundred to six hundred yards, and batteries Nos. 3 and 4 were still further towards the National Road-the place assaulted made the 5th battery. Col. Haskell (who is the author of this article) says further that he was to assault battery No. 2, and Colonel Wynkoop battery No. 1.

        It never was, however, intended by me to assault batteries No. 1 and 2, and no order was ever given to that effect. He was not ordered to assault battery No. 2, nor was that battery ever assaulted. Col. Wynkoop was not ordered to assault battery No. 1. The position intended to be assaulted was, what was believed by both the engineers and myself, to be the angle of those batteries formed by the long line of stone breast-works, about four hundred yards from battery No 1. In my official report, bearing date  18th April, 1847, and prepared immediately after the battle by an officer of my staff, (for being disabled in my right arm I could not write,) I distinctly stated that the points of assault were "the adjacent angles of batteries Nos. 1 and 2."   But, in the after part of that report, for the sake of brevity, and for the purpose of designating the positions of he two assaulting forces, I speak of batteries Nos. 1 and 2, without repeating tin each paragraph the words "adjacent angles."

        At this suppose dangle no guns could be seen, and none were believed to be there-though, on the last day of reconnaissance, something presenting the appearance of one gun was seen. Still it was believed to be the weakest point in the line of works, and was therefore selected by the engineer on duty with my brigade for the assault.

        Agreeably to my plan of attack, Haskell's assaulting force was to attack the left of this angle and Wynkoop's the right, so as to engage at the same time the forces upon both sides of he angle.-General Scott's order of battle was ling, and reached me about 9 o'clock the night of the 17th , and too late for me have the necessary copies of it prepared and issued to my command. I therefore sent for Colonels Campbell, Haskell, Wynkoop, and Roberts, and at my own quarters read to them the general order of battle, and explained to them particularly the position of the different batteries, my position for assault, and the order of movement for each regiment, and the order of movement for each regiment, and for the position to be assumed by  each preparatory to the assault.

        The assault was made at the place previously determined upon, and made known to these officers; and, though this point turned out to be a strong work, mounting eight pieces of artillery immediately in front, and two more on a retired line, all which were to the moment of attack, entirely concealed and completely masked by the stone wall and brush, yet, up to that time, it was believed to be an angle in the large stone breastwork, connecting the batteries Nos. 1 and 2. That such was the position tended to be and actually assaulted, will conclusively appear from my official reports of this battle, made almost immediately after the battle, dated 18th and 28th April.

        Colonel Haskell cannot understand why his regiment was place between Wynkoop's and Campbell's in Campbell's between his (Haskell's) and Roberts' regiment, on the march from the encampment. This (to him) incomprehensible order of march, which he seems to think was a blunder of mine, will perhaps be under stood by him when I state to him the object.

        The narrow pathway along which we were obliged to march pierced the enemy's line of works just at the place selected for the assault. By my order of attack, Wynkoop's assaulting column was to form on the left of the path, fronting the right side of the angle, and Haskell's assaulting force was to form on the right side of the path, and was to attack the works on the left side of the angle. Wynkoop's position was further advanced on the road that Haskell's and therefore he was place dint he advance.

        When Wynkoop's regiment reached its position, it was to form, and did form, on the proper side of the 5th. When Haskell's regiment had formed, it cleared the path for Colonel Campbell's regiment t ass up to Wynkoop's support. The passage of Campbell's regiment left the way clear for Roberts' to come forward to Haskell's support. Thus it will be seen that the only order of march by which it was possible to have placed the regiments, with their supporting forces, in proper position was adopted; and it resulted in the proper formation of each assaulting force, without the least confusion or disorder, although there was no road but a narrow pathway.

        Again: Colonel Haskell says that I placed his regiment in position by directing him "to rest his right flank right of the path, extending his left square off to the left, so as to form his line of battle parallel with the centre field work of the enemy."  He en says that, "by this maneuver, it will be perceived that the ranks of Colonel Haskell's command are reversed, the front rank becoming the rear, and the right of the regiment its left." Now, how s possible for a regiment which is marching by the flank to reverse its ranks and change its wings from right to left, by this order, it will be difficult for any military man to comprehend. If the right of the regiment was upon the right of he path, and the left extended square off to the left, as the says was ordered by me, it was as impossible for the wings to have been reversed any that order, as it would be for a man to reverse the position of his own arms, and equally so for the ranks to have been reversed; for they could not possibly be reversed except by the whole regiment being ordered to face by the rear ranks, which would have turned to backs of he men to the enemy; and yet, Colonel Haskell comes to the conclusion that, by this order, his wings and his ranks were reversed. I cannot account for such inexplicable confusion of mind in a military man. To suppose him so ignorant of he principles of military science, would show him utterly unfit for the command of a regiment. It would be entirely immaterial by which flank he marched; the order which he says I did give, would, if executed, place the regiment in proper position for the assault upon the enemy's works.

        First, then, Col. Haskell misstates the number of works in the enemy's line, and their positions.  Secondly, he misstated the work which in fact I indented either himself of Wynkoop to assail , and the work which was actually assailed. Thirdly, the order of march, which he regards as a blunder of mine, was proper, and the only one by which the assaulting parties could possibly reach their positions; and the regiments were each placed in the march with this express object. Fourthly, my order for the formation of his command into line of battle, which he says reversed the wings and the ranks of the regiment, was right and proper; and, agreeably to that order, there was no possibility of his wings and his ranks being reversed; and yet the public are told, in the very outset of this article, that the publication is to be "a simple statement of facts, "which is by no means complimentary to the general's talents as a military man."  Is my military reputation to be affected before an intelligent nation by such an assault as this?

        Again: He says I professed to have carefully reconnoitred these works; "but the truth is, the general was ignorant of the ground and enemy's strength and preparations of defence."  I did profess to have reconnoitred these works and ground as carefully as , from the nature of he ground and other obstacles, I could; but I deny that either the engineers or myself did or could carefully reconnoitre them, or ever said we had. Colonel Johnston, engineer, while engaged in a reconnaissance of these works was shot through the body twice. Lieutenant Tower, engineer, and myself devoted three other days to the examination of these works, were repeatedly shot at, and once hotly pursued, and narrowly escaped a capture. On this last occasion Colonel Haskell was along himself. Lieutenant Tower and myself had as carefully reconnoitred these works as it was possible to do under the constant fire to which we were exposed from the enemy's picquets. I professed to have examined them as carefully as I could, but we did not know, and could not, by any possibility, have known, the character of the works which we attacked, for they were completely masked by the stone wall and brush. In the strength of this work we were all deceived. It was not my duty professionally to examine or to know these works: that belonged exclusively to the engineer corps; but I took it upon myself to reconnoitre them that I might have a personal acquaintance with the ground, which could only be acquired by a personal reconnaissance. Colonel Haskell was invited to be present at these reconnaissances, and was along more than once, and was as much deceived as any one else. Who does not know that it is impossible to look through stone walls, covered over with brush?  What means have either engineers or other officers of discovering works completely masked when the approach to the vicinity of those works is guarded by the enemy's picquets, who fire upon them every time they come within sight of any portion of their line of works?  The stone breastwork was extended from battery No. 1 to battery No. 2, a distance of about 800 yards; this work was at all points partially concealed with brush and there was nothing at the point assaulted which indicated concealed or masked works at that place more than any other portion of the line. No matte what portion of he line was approached, the enemy's picquets fired upon the reconnoitring parties. Under these circumstances it was impossible for he most skilful engineers, by acts the most daring, to make any better reconnaissance than was here made during four days' arduous and perilous duty, exposed to the constant fire of he enemy's picquets.

        I knew the works were very strong, and so reported to the general in chief, and that it would cost a large portion of my command to carry them. His reply was, "the enemy is there in strong position and force, and he must be whipped, and I direct you to assault him in the front, believing you will do you duty. If we had known the exact strength of his position, we would probably have sought some other place to have assailed him, but it is not probable we would have fared much better.

        The question is distinctly asked, "why I assaulted battery No. 2?  Why I did so before I was ready, and with so small a force?"  As an answer to these questions, I refer to the following portion of my detailed report: "Upon arriving at my position for assaulting forces, without the loss of a moment's time. I had myself placed Colonel Haskell's regiment in position for assault, upon the left side of the angle; had placed Colonel Roberts' regiment (the supporting force of Haskell's regiment) in position in a short distance in the rear; had ordered Wynkoop's regiment (the advance of he other assaulting force) to its position; (and it was on its way to its position, with Colonel Campbell's regiment as its supporting force,) when the enemy, discovering our position, directed a most galling fire into the command. This fire was so destructive that it would have swept away my entire command, had it remained in its position even long enough to have completed the formation of the forces for the assault. Owing to the impenetrable chaparral which covered the whole face of the country, it was equally impossible to fallback and complete the movement, even if such a movement would not have thrown the force entirely out of position. Seeing that no alternative was left me but to retreat, with the whole command, in the face of he enemy's fire,, and break up the order of battle, and violate the orders of he general in chief, and thus bring disgrace upon the whole brigade, or to dash rapidly forward upon the enemy's works with the forces which were in position, I instantly sent my aid-de-camp, Lieutenant Rains, with orders to bring Col. Roberts' regiment as quickly as possible to the support of Colonel Haskell, and directed this last regiment to charge the enemy's works with the forces which were in position, I instantly sent my aid-de-camp, Lieutenant Rains, with orders to  bring Col. Roberts' regiment as quickly as possible to the support of Colonel Haskell, and directed this last regiment to charge the enemy's works. I also directed my aid-de-camp, Lieutenant and Anderson, to Colonel Wynkoop, with orders for a similar movement upon the works in front of his position, being on the opposite side of he angle. .Haskell's regiment dashed nobly forward, with a shout of enthusiasm."  Hence it will be seen that the course which I took of charging the works was the only one left me.

        It is manifest, therefore, tat the effort to throw upon me the responsibility of the failure to carry the work assaulted at Cerro Gordo is altogether unjust. The alleged errors in my orders and dispositions  of the assaulting forces, I have shown were not errors; but that they were, on the contrary, the proper orders and dispositions for hat purpose. A most vigorous and determined effort was made to carry them by Colonel Haskell's regiment. It was not successful because of he strength of the work assailed, and the almost insurmountable obstacles and barriers to its approach. Though Col. Roberts was in close supporting distance of Colonel Haskell, being within 150 or 200 yards, and was ordered to is immediate support before the latte was ordered to charge, yet he did not get up in time to sustain the assault mad by Haskell's regiment before it was cut down and forced to retire. Upon the report of the fact to me, though at the time I was entirely disabled in the use of my right arm by a canister shot, Immediately formed the whole command to renew the attack, and had ordered the charge, when the enemy ran up the white flag and surrendered..-I am not disposed to charge the fault of this failure to the misconduct of any officer or portion of my command, but to the Gibraltar like strength of the works themselves.

        The colonel further says I enjoy the reputation of leading his command in this charge at Cerro Gordo. I was not aware that I enjoyed the reputation of doing what I nowhere claim to have done. In my official report I distinctly state that I was at the head of the column-in person, placed his regiment in position, ordered Colonel Roberts to his support, ordered Colonel Wynkoop to his position, and that, after having ( for reasons which are fully explained in my detailed report) ordered the charge of his regiment, I then moved across the line of the enemy's fire, intending to lead in person the storming party of which Colonel Wynkoop's regiment constituted the advance, but was prevented by a wound received from doing so. If I had led the charge of Haskell's command, I think I should have let it differently and with different results; and if he severity of he fire had cut sown all my filed officers except myself, and driven back my command, I think I should have fallen back with it in good order.

Gideon Pillow.

New Orleans, June 7, 1847.


NNR 72.272 July 3, 1847 Train under Col. James Simmons McIntosh attacked and forty wagons lost

THE TRAIN ATTACKED--On the night of the 4th inst. Colonel McIntosh, with 800 troops, started from Vera Cruz with the train of 125 wagons and 600 pack mules from Puebla, having $225,000 for paymaster and quartermaster departments in specie in the wagons.

At a well selected pass, twenty-five miles from Vera Cruz, where a party of guerrillas had made some preparations for the purpose, an attack was simultaneously made on the 6th instant on each extremity, and on the center of the train, but mainly directing the assault at the wagons which they supposed contained the specie.

Private accounts represent that the attack was so far successful that forty of our wagons were destroyed--though not those containing the specie--two hundred mules loaded with subsistence were taken, and thirty of our men killed. The American Eagle of the 9th says twenty, but private accounts, from responsible sources, give the loss, at thirty men.

The check was so severe that Colonel McIntosh determined not to hazard an advance without reinforcements. Our troops accordingly entrenched themselves behind their wagons, and despatches were sent off to General Cadwallader at Vera Cruz. The general left on Monday evening, the 7th instant, with a force of about five hundred men and four howitzers. Private accounts say that on the 10th a part of the voltigueurs also left, with four howitzers, to join the train.

The Eagle represents that our troops received the attack with the utmost coolness, and that the enemy, being repulsed feel back towards the Puente Nacional, which some suppose they may attempt to defend. No later news from the train had been received the morning of the 11th .

No later news had been received from the army of Gen. Scott. The reason is obvious; communication has been entirely cut off. But it indicates a necessity for some cavalry force upon the line to clear away the brigands which infest it, and who must have mustered in greater force than had been anticipated to attack a train guarded by 800 troops.

But the audacity of these guerrillas does not stop here.

They are entering Vera Cruz and stealing our horses. For several nights alarms had been created in the city by these predatory attempts. Private letters say that sixty horses were stolen from one pen in the immediate vicinity of the town. A regiment of Texas rangers, it seems to us, would find ample scope for employment in the vicinity of Vera Cruz.

The steamers Palmetto and Edith arrived at Vera Cruz on the 8th inst. The schooner Gen. Worth had also arrived with one company of voltigueurs. [CCB]


NNR 72.272 July 3, 1847 Vomito increasing at Veracruz

ARMY OF INVASION

The United States ship Massachusetts reached New Orleans on the 19th , with accounts from Vera Cruz to the 11th instant. She brought 155 sick and wounded soldiers under charge of Dr. Tudor. Eight deaths occurred on board.

The vomito is on the increase at Vera Cruz. Paymaster Bosworth, who left New Orleans on the 18th ult. sickened and died of it. His brother returns in the Massachusetts with his remains. [CCB]


NNR 72.272 July 3, 1847 communication to Gen. Winfield Scott cut off

No later news had been received from the army of Gen. Scott. The reason is obvious; communication has been entirely cut off. But it indicates a necessity for some cavalry force upon the line to clear away the brigands which infest it, and who must have mustered in greater force than had been anticipated to attack a train guarded by 800 troops. [NGP]


NNR 72.272 July 3, 1847 guerrillas around Veracruz

But the audacity of these guerrillas does not stop here.

They are entering Vera Cruz and stealing our horses. For several nights alarms had been created in the city by these predatory attempts. Private letters say that sixty horses were stolen from one pen in the immediate vicinity of the town. A regiment of Texas rangers, it seems to us, would find ample scope for employment in the vicinity of Vera Cruz. [NGP]


NNR 72.272 July 3, 1847 promise of liberty to an American prisoner

A letter from an American officer, a prisoner in Mexico dated the 28th, states that the had been again and again promised his liberty, and expected to be released on the 30th beyond doubt. He writes that it was expected that General Scott would reach the capital in eight days, and he thought no formidable opposition would be made. [NGP]


NNR 72.272 July 3, 1847 expectation of opposition to Gen. Winfield Scott's entry into the Mexican capital

The Picayune says that private letters which they have seen express the persuasion that Gen. Scott will meet with further opposition to his entry to the capital. [NGP]


NNR 72.272 July 3, 1847 removal of Mexican government urged

El Republicano urges strenuously that the seat of government should at once be removed; the government should still exist and form a centre of union for a rallying point. [NGP]


NNR 72.272 July 3, 1847 troops available to defend Mexico City

In an earlier article upon the subject of the defense of the capital, El Republicano sets down the troops available for the purpose as follows: The garrison them in the capital was not far from 10,000 men, while there were to arrive, says the editor, from the state of Guanajuato 3,000, from the south of Mexico 3,000 from Michoacan 2,000, and from Queretaro 1,000. We enter from allusions made to an article in El Razonador that the latter paper ridicules the idea of making any defense of the city, says the Picayune. [NGP]


NNR 72.272 July 3, 1847 lack of reports about fortifications at Rio Frio

We see nothing in the paper about the formidable works said to be going on at Rio Frio. We are inclined to the opinion that the resistance anticipated at this point has been much exaggerated. The Mexican papers which we have seen say nothing about it, and speak only of the fortifications in the immediate vicinity of the capital. It looks as though parties were marshalling their forces for a struggle for power among themselves rather than to defend their country against a foreign foe. [NGP]


NNR 72.272 July 3, 1847 Gen. Jose Urrea stationed at Tula

Gen. Urrea was stationed at Tula, with a large guerrilla force, levying contributions alike on friends and enemies. [NGP]


NNR 72.272 July 3, 1847 departure of generals after the resignation of Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, suspension of military prosecutions

We find in the papers a copy of the new constitution, or rather the amendments to the constitution of 1824, which have been adopted. The address, too of Gen. Herrera, Gen. Santa Anna, and the president of the supreme court upon the former promulgation of the new law, are given at length. We have looked into that of Gen. Herrera with much curiosity to find what he has to say of the war. He touches upon it only in general terms. He says that a people truly free was never yet conquered by a foreign invasion; and conjures Mexicans to lay aside their animosities and unite in support of the laws and constitution. This done he promises that their defense of the independence of their country cannot fail. Santa Anna's address is in his usual vein; we get no new ideas of his designs from it.

From San Luis Potosi we have dates to the 25th of May. All is quiet and indifference there. There were about 7,000 of the debris of Santa Anna's army in the place, but they had orders to repair to the capital, leaving a few of the national guard for the defense of the place. Fortifications miserably constructed, nothing were doing in them.

They were under the impression that Gen. Taylor would not march on that place, but would advance on the capital, by way of Zacatecas, the inhabitants of which are said to be highly favorable to the Americans. [NGP]


NNR 72.274 July 3, 1847 ship Carmelita expected to be released, Privateers

MEXICAN PRIVATEERS.
The Barque Carmelite. A letter from Capt. Littlefield, of said barque received by Messrs. Brett & Vose, New York, dated "Barcelona, 20th May," says:

"After being retained as prisoners of war on board the privateer until the 9th inst., during which time I protested against the capture, we were put in possession of our own vessel, and the prize crew removed on board the privateer May 12th . The Mexican colors were hauled down on board the privateer, the vessel taken possession of, and the crew imprisoned by the Spanish authorities, to be tried for piracy. The probability is that more or less of them will be shot and the remainder of them will have to be confined to the galleys for life. There has been a report of other vessels being fitted out on this coast as privateers, but I know it to be incorrect. We are detained to await some formalities concerning the prisoners. As I have avoided being the accuser, I think soon to be able to proceed on our voyage unmolested. The Queen's Governor has informed the American minister, as soon as proof shall be received that she was not a legal letter of marque, the captured should immediately be set at liberty, and all expenses and damages should be paid by the felucca and owners, they being Spanish subjects, and most of them old offenders against the laws." [CCB]


NNR 72.274 July 3, 1847 Com. Matthew Calbraith Perry's order opening Mexican ports

Flagship Mississippi, Sacrificio, May 24, 1847

Notice having already been given of the opening of the ports of Matamoras, Tampico, Vera Cruz, and Alvarado, it is hereby made known that the additional ports of Tuspan, Goaxacoalcos, Frontera, and Laguna, now in the possession of the United States naval forces, are also open to the admission of American and neutral vessels not having on board articles contraband of war, and subject to the regulations, established by an order of the United States government, dated April 7th, 1847.

By order of Commodore M.C. Perry
H.A. Adams, Commander and staff officer

[NGP]


NNR 72.274 July 3, 1847 blockade of Yucatan ports officially removed

Notice is hereby given, that the restrictions formerly imposed on the commerce between the ports of Mexico in possession of the United States forces and the State of Yucatan, are no longer in force: and that trade may be carried on from the p orts of Yucatan as from neutral ports.

By order of Commodore M.C. Perry
H.A.Adams, Commander and flag officer

[NGP]


NNR 72.275 July 3, 1847 reported loss of wagon train en route to Santa Fe in an attack by Indians

Sad news from the plains - Capture of a wagon train - murder of teamsters. A gentleman arrived at St. Louis, on the evening of the 21st, from Westport, who informs the editors of the Reveille, that just before his departure, a Delaware Indian had arrived from the Plains, giving an account of a wholesale murder of teamsters, by a combined force of Arapahoes, Camanches and Pawnees. The Indian is a son of Nacomi, the principal chief of the Delawares, and is generally considered a man of voracity. He was found a prisoner at Taos, when Col. Price took that place and was liberated.

His story is, that having started homeward, he fell in with a large body of Indians, of the tribes mentioned, on the Arkansas. They made him prisoner, and only spared his life on the condition that he would join them against the whites. He sets their number down at two hundred fires, which would make the total number of the force about 1,000 men.

Near Walnut creek, he states this formidable party met and attacked a train of thirty wagons, drawn by mule teams, and accompanied only be the drivers and eight or ten horsemen. The Indians surrounded them and charging suddenly drove the teamsters from their saddles, and massacred every man of the party. The wagons were loaded with government stores, which, with the mules, the Indians appropriated to their own use.

The day succeeding this massacre, young Nacom was permitted to depart, having been presented with a fine large American mule. This animal bears the mark "U.S." and has been recognized as one of those belonging to a government train which left Fort Leavenworth a few weeks since.

We further learn that the Delawares are preparing to send a war party against the Osages. The latter tribes have recently taken three Delaware scalps. The Indian who gave the information respecting the murder of the teamsters, says there were a few Osages among the murderers. [NGP]


NNR 72.275 July 3, 1847 Gen. Winfield Scott's preparations to advance on the capital

Dispatches were received on Saturday night by the war office from General Scott's camp. Several of the soldiers were sick in the hospitals of Vera Cruz, Jalapa, Perote, and Puebla; but, with the reinforcements that were en route from Vera Cruz, he would probably have troops sufficient by the 22nd to march to the capital, perhaps without any serious opposition. He had ordered all our troops to evacuate Jalapa, in order to strengthen his active army. The last accounts by the steamer James Day are from Vera Cruz to the evening of the 16th which state that Gen. Scott had advanced to Rio Frio, where a dispatch is said to have met with him a proposition for peace. If this last report be true, it is probably that he will remain at Rio Frio, and not forth march to the capital, but according to the intimation in his own dispatches, wait till about the 22nd, both to give himself the opportunity of receiving reinforcements, and to allow the Mexicans more time to negotiate with the better grace. [NGP]


NNR 72.275 July 3, 1847 Gen. William Jenkins Worth's official report of march to and occupation of Puebla

Sir I have the honor to report, for information of the general in chief, that the forces under my command, including the brigade of Major Gen. Quitman, took military possession of this city at 10 o'clock today. Halting yesterday at Amosoque, to await the junction of Gen. Quitman, I found my position suddenly menaced, at 8 o'clock, by a large body of cavalry. This force approached somewhat stealthily by a road on our right unknown to us. A rapid examination, as it unmasked itself, exhibited, as was supposed, some 2,000, but from accurate information obtained here, 3,000 cavalry of the line, unsupported either by infantry or artillery, and moving a mile on our right and toward the rear, led to the conclusion that it was a ruse to attract attention in that quarter, while the real attack was to be looked for on the high road in front, or a movement on Gen. Quitman, who might have been supposed the usual day's march in the rear. It was presently reported that a heavy column was actually approaching on the main road. Thus it became necessary while directing a portion of the force against the visible enemy, to guard our large train, reserve ammunition, packed in the square, against the invisible.

The 2nd artillery section of Duncan's battery under the brigade commander, Col. Garland the 6th infantry under Maj. Bonneville, with Stephoe's battery, was promptly moved, and so directed as to take the enemy in flank. The head of his column having now reached a point opposite the center of the town, and distant about half a mile, the batteries soon opened a rapid and effective fire. After some twenty five founds, the entire column broke without attempting a charge or firing a shot, and hastily fled up the sides of the convenient hills. Only one company of the infantry was enabled, from distance, to deliver its fire. The march in the direction of Gen. Quitman's approach. The 2nd artillery and 8th infantry, with two sections of the light batteries, was put in its track, when the enemy again swerved to the left, and disappeared in the hills. Two miles distant Gen. Quitman was met by the last named detachment. He had already discovered the enemy, of whose proximity the firing had admonished him, and promptly taken his order of battle. This discomfited enemy reached Puebla late at night, and evacuated the place at four in the morning We took some prisoners, and found a few dead. The enemy acknowledged a lost of 89 killed and wounded. Gen. Santa Anna conducted the enterprise. Enclosed, marked A, is a copy of a communication addressed on the 12th to the civil authorities of Puebla. Again, marked C, on the 14th with reply to the latter, marked D: also copy of circular, dated 9th, addressed to commanders of corps, to regulate their conduct in certain contingencies on the march. It is understood the force which retired from this city the day before yesterday, and today is to take post at Puente del Tesmaluca, distant 12 leagues on the road to the capital, where it is where it is proposed to fortify. Our reception was respectfully and coldly courteous, but without the slightest cordiality. Incessant occupation has not allowed me a moment to look into the resources in way of supply; but Mr. --- says, breadstuff will be had in abundance, less of beef, and perhaps a liberal quantity of small rations.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant
W.J. Worth
Brevet Major General Commanding

[NGP]


NNR 72.275-72.276 July 3, 1847 account of the attack on the train from Vera Cruz

The arrival of the Galveston at N. Orleans, from Vera Cruz, which she left on the 15th June, furnished a variety of interesting items from the army, of which we proceed to furnish a synopsis.

THE ATTACK ON THE TRAIN UNDER COL. McINTOSH.

A correspondent of the N. O. Bee, in a letter dated Paso de Ovejas, June 12th , writes: The train of wagons and pack mules under the direction of Col. McIntosh, which left Vera Cruz on the 4th inst., escorted by Capts. Duperu, Ford, and McReynolds, companies of dragoons--the two latter mounted--and three hundred infantry commanded by Major Lee, arrived in this village on the 7th inst., after a march of three days.

The train consisting of 150 wagons laden with specie, and ammunition, and 500 pack mules with provisions &c., proceeded without molestation until about noon on Sunday last, 6th inst., when our advanced guard of Capt. Ford's Indiana dragoons was suddenly attacked by a large body of Mexicans, killing two men and wounding five or six. In this skirmish the enemy succeeded in capturing several horses and a large quantity of baggage, among which I have to regret the loss of all my clothing and papers. Half an hour afterwards the rear of the train was attacked, and before the rear guard who were unfortunately too far behind could come up to its defence, the Mexicans captured a large number of pack mules, and robbed several wagons of a portion of their contents. With their booty their retired into the dense chaparral, where it was impossible to pursue them. One of the rascals actually dragged from a wagon, the wife an hospital steward, and throwing her across his horse, was making his escape, when he was fortunately shot by one of the infantry, and the terrified lady delivered in safety into the arms of her husband.

After the train which reached several miles had come into order, the whole body moved forward, the two companies of mounted dragoons forming the rear guard. At sunset, when passing along a low portion of the road, with an open chaparral on our left, and a large cleared field hemmed in about 100 yards from the road, by a heavy chaparral and commanded at the further end by a hill on the side of which is a small line fort, our whole advanced guard, consisting of 25 mounted dragoons, about 250 infantry, and our company (Duperu's) of dismounted dragoons, was assailed by a heavy discharge of musketry, from the fort, the hill in its rear, and the chaparral beyond, and the cleared field. Our boys received their tire, steadily and unflinchingly, and returned it briskly for a few minutes. We hen charged on the chaparral at the rear of the open space, silenced the fire of the enemy and drove them entirely off. At the same time the mounted dragoons charged on the hill, routed the Mexicans out of the fort, and drove them over the hills.

The whole action lasted about half an hour, and our troops, who were principally raw recruits, behaved in the most gallant manner. The Louisiana boys acquitted themselves admirably, and were the first to reach the chaparral. The friends of Capt. Duperu and his company, in New Orleans, will be gratified to learn that we have sustained their highest anticipations. The loss in our company, on this occasion, was three wounded, viz: Samuel Lankin, in the thigh, severely;-----Wallace, in the thigh and hand, severely; William Hassel, in the thigh, slightly. They are all doing well.

We suffered greatly for want of water, but about 9 o'clock, came to a small muddy brook, were we bivouacked for the night, sleeping in the middle of the road. The next morning early we were put in motion, and about 10 o'clock our vanguard was again attacked by the enemy, who, upon being charged by the dragoons, were repulsed and forced to retreat into the chaparral.

An hour afterwards we entered the town of Paso de Obejas, (passage of the sheep,) where we were quartered, to award the arrival of reinforcements of artillery from Vera Cruz, with which to pass the National Bridge, six miles from this place, and the heights of Cerro Gordo, where, it is supposed, the enemy will show opposition. About 9 o'clock yesterday morning a small train of 4 or 5 wagons came in direct from Puebla. They contained the baggage, and were escorted by some two hundred discharged sick soldiers and a few teamsters, whose term of service had expired. They were attacked from the heights, while in the act of crossing the National Bridge. Not being able to return their fire, the Mexicans being concealed, they simultaneously raised a shout and ran towards them, whereupon the yellow skinned cowards vamoosed. One wagon master was killed. I have forgot to mention in the proper place, that our whole loss in the two days fighting was 40 killed, wounded, and missing.

The forces at Jalapa have received marching orders, and will join us on our route to 'headquarters,' Gen. Scott and his whole army, with the exception of the Jalapa force are occupying Puebla. He will remain there, until sufficiently reinforced to march on the capital, which will not be, it is anticipated, until fall.

Late yesterday afternoon reinforcements arrived here from Vera Cruz, under the command of Brig. Gen. Cadwallader. They number near five hundred strong; two twelve pound howitzers: the Kentucky company of mounted dragoons, under Capt. Gaithers and four or five companies of infantry. We will probably leave here tomorrow, and should the rancheros give us a fight, we will demolish them.

YOURS, THE DRAGOON.
[CCB]


NNR 72.276 July 3, 1847 George Wilkins Kendall's account of movements, detachment under Capt. William Phillips Bainbridge leaves Puebla for Veracruz, affairs on the route

        The New Orleans Delta gives the following synopsis of the news.

        The following highly important intelligence was communicated to us by Lieuts. Floyd and McWilliams, of the 2d Pennsylvania Volunteers, who came over on the steamship Galveston, this morning at 6 o'clock. On the 8th a small recruiting party, together with some citizens disbanded soldiers, in number about 150 with 75 armed men, and thirty mounted, left Puebla for Vera Cruz. This party was under command of Capt. Bainbridge, of 3d artillery.-On leaving Jalapa and getting near Cerro Gordo, this party was informed hat it would bet be prudent to go through the pass, as here were about 4,000 Mexicans in the chaparral along the pass. Previous to this tow officers who had gone to the rear of the train were fired at from the chaparral. At the mouth of the pass the party was organized and marched through without meeting an enemy. Arrived at the bridge that evening. Whilst they were bivouacked on the other side of the brigade, being so fatigued that they were unable to furnish a guard, they were informed that some persons were barricading the bridge. A guard was then stationed between the bridge and the encampment, to prevent the party being surprised. At this time signal lights on the ridges and cliffs were distantly seen.

        Before daylight the sick and wounded of this little party were removed to Santa Anna's hacienda-a quarter of a mile from the bridge. A scouting party was then sent out, and also a party to clear the bridge, which was done without any opposition. The main body of he party then passed over the bridge. Everything appearing then to be safe, and all danger being passed, Lieut. McWilliams and Mr. Frazer were sent back to bring on the train on the other side of he bridge. Just as they were entering the bridge a party of about twenty five Mexicans appeared on the ridge, and fired several volleys on them. The wagon master and four others, who were passing the bridge, were fired on and the whole five were killed, and a wagon was captured, of no great value.

        After the fire had ceased, a party of lancers appeared on the bridge and seemed to be preparing to charge, but seeing that Capt. Bainbridge's party were preparing to receive them, they wheeled their horses and galloped off.

        Capt. Bainbridge resume his march in good order, followed by 400 or 500 of the lancers, who hung upon his rear and flanks for four or five miles, but at a respectable distance. Thus hemmed in this little party pursued its way until it arrived at the pass  of La Voilta, where Col. McIntosh had encamped with his large train. The Mexicans who had attacked Bainbridge's party were the same who had compelled Col. McIntosh to halt and wait for reinforcements. The party remained that night in McIntosh's camp, and during the whole time the Mexicans kept a continual fire on the camp, approaching, with the greatest boldness, very near to our sentinels.

        On the next day Capt. Bainbridge's party resumed its march to Vera Cruz, being joined by Capt. Duperu's dragoons, who were sent back to get their horses. This company, with its gallant Captain, had behaved very handsomely in the attack on McIntosh's camp. Its gallantry was the theme of universal praise and admiration in the army. Indeed , it was generally admitted that Col. McIntosh's command was saved by the gallantry of Duperu's party. Bainbridge's party continued their march to Vera Cruz, where they arrive in safety. In the meantime Duperu's party, having a long return train to guard, and being threatened by a large body of lancers, halted at Santa Fe, where they were charge by a greatly superior force, which they gallantly repulsed, killing many of the enemy, and suffering no loss themselves. It was said however, that some of our wagons were cut off, and the drivers taken prisoners. Capt. Duperu arrived safely in Vera Cruz, having lost three killed and three wounded.

        On the day Capt. Bainbridge's party left McIntosh's camp Gen. Cadwalleder had arrived, with a force of 800 men and two howitzers. The two commands were then joined, making, in all, about 1000 men, with two howitzers, under the command of General Cadwallader, and pushed on towards the National Bridge.

        On approaching the bridge General Cadwallader occupied the heights commanding the bridge from which the enemy had fired on Capt. Bainbridge's party, where he was attacked by a large force of the Mexicans, posted in the ridges and chaparral, and some hard fighting was carried on for several hours, the Mexicans losing more that 100 men, a and Gen. Cadwallader loosing some 13 killed and some 30 or 40 wounded. The Mexicans were repulsed; the bridge was successfully passed by General Cadwallader, who was on his way to Jalapa.

        The estimate loss of Colonel McIntosh's party is about $40,000. For miles the road is strewed with empty boxes and bacon sides, which had been captured by the enemy. There is a great deal of dissatisfaction in the army, respecting the of conduct of the command which had charge of the train. There will be a court of inquiry into the subject.

        The garrison at Jalapa has been broken up, by order of Gen. Scott and all he sick and government stores have been sent to Perote Castle, so that this line of communication is entirely closed. General Scott has had a road opened from Perote to Tuxpan, from which in future, all our stores and men will be sent, in preference to the old road. The Engineer corps have completed a fine road from Tuxpan to Perote, the distance being less than one half that from Vera Cruz to Perote, and Tuxpan being a healthier place.

        The success of the attack on McIntosh's command has given great confidence to the guerrillas, who are swarming in great numbers through the country, and attacking all our parities, large and small.

        It was chiefly owning to the gallantry of Major Bennett, the paymaster, that the specie wagons in McInosh's party were saved. He was in one of them himself when the wagon was attacked, and fought lie a tiger.

        We are pained to hear that the fine charger sent out by the citizens of New Orleans to Col. Harney was captured by the Mexicans. Their daring was so great that even lariated a woman who was in the wagon, but she was rescued by our men after some hard fighting.

        There are about 1000 men in camp at Vera Cruz. General Shields was at Jalapa, and was about to leave for the United States, when he received an order from Gen. Scott to join him at Puebla.

        There are no preparations to defend any point between Puebla and the Capital. All the odds and ends of the army are collected in the city, about 20000 in number, but poorly armed, and of miserable material. There was a small pronunciamento at the city of Mexico, which was easily putdown by Gen. Bustamente. It was got up by factions of the peace party. The cry was "down with Santa Anna!" but the president ad interim still maintains his power and influence. Congress has refused to accept his resignation.

        We have about 6000 men at Puebla, under command of Worth and Quitman.

        Gen. Scott will remain at Puebla until he is reinforced. Gen. Bravo is in command of the army at the capital.

        There is much sickness at Vera Cruz, but very little in the Castle. Col. Wilson publishes a card in the Eagle pronouncing the statement of Col. Mata, that La Vega had been confined in the guard house of the Castle to be false.

        The little party, who cut their way from Jalapa to Vera Cruz, and so narrowly escaped the many perils that surrounded them, express themselves under the greatest obligation so Capt. Bainbridge, Mr. Karns and Adj Dutton, for their coolness, prudence and judgment in conducting them in safety through their many dangers.

        Gen. Cadwallader is much praised for the energy and promptness of his movements to the rescue of McIntosh, and or the bravery and skill with which he scattered the swarms of guerrillas, grown confident by the success of their previous enterprises.

        Rejon, and five other generals, whose names are not given, had been arrested and sent to the different states for confinement.

        The gallant Captain Walker has commenced his work of retaliation on the guerrillas. On the morning of the 8th inst. he started with his command from Perote on an expedition some distance since the interior. During the expedition he succeeded in capturing nineteen guerrillas and an alcalde-he has employed them in cleaning the streets and sinks. [ANP]


NNR 72.276-72.277, July 3, 1847 return of Capt. Duperu's dragoons to Veracruz, his account of the train, arrival there of the dead and wounded, arrival of troops, Gen. George Cadwalader reaches the train with reinforcements and takes command

    The Vera Cruz correspondent of the Times writes June 14th—“I have just seen Captain Duperu, who came in this morning from the train, which he left about three miles this side of the bridge, at a stand. It is his opinion that the train will not move forward for some days, if at all. The guerrillas are gathering in great numbers and from all quarters, and the chief danger is in delay. Every hour renders its advance more difficult. Within the past three days a number of young Vera Cruzanos have gone out, and are now under arms against us, after enjoying our protection for the past two months, during which time their property and persons have been more respected than they have for any two months together since they were born. The city has several emissaries within its walls from Jarauta and Robledo, one of which, in a gray friar’s dress, was just pointed out to me.—Persons in the interest and pay or promise of pay—of the Mexican authorities, Mexicans by birth as well as Spaniards, are also in the employ of our authorities in this city, some of them receiving large salaries and holding offices of trust connected with our courts and different departments in administrative and clerical capacities, ready at any moment to turn over their files and books to parties with whom their natural sympathies lie; people openly rejoice at the success—for success it is—of the guerrillas over our troops. The Spanish paper here teems with covert appeals to the sympathies of the foreigners and the patriotism of the Mexicans; magnifies our losses and the Mexican gains; makes a great display of wrongs inflicted on our side, and patient suffering on the part of injured Mexicans, and all passes unnoticed as far as I can see.
    The writer goes on to detail of, to him, alarming reports, and appears to be alarmed for the safety of Vera Cruz.
    Since I commenced this page I have seen Dr. ----- who has just arrived with thirty wounded and dead men from the train—the latter have died on their way here, from the severity of their wounds and many of the wounded are in such a state that they will probably sink under the amputating knife. The train had reached the bridge when this party left, and the fight had been suspended for the moment. The General, (Cadwallader), however, expected to meet the enemy in full force at Encerro or at Cerro Gordo, and will have to fight every inch of the way to Jalapa, or, indeed, to Perote, as we have reason to believe that our troops have evacuated the former post.
[WFF]


NNR 72.277 July 3, 1847 Report of the determination to remove the military depot from Veracruz to Tuxpan and opening a new line of communication

A letter had been received in Vera Cruz on the 15th previous to the sailing of the Galveston, direct from the headquarters of Gen. Scott, stating that Gen. Scott had issued orders for the removal of the Government from Vera Cruz to Tuxpan and Puebla than between the latter place and Vera Cruz. All the public stores in Vera Cruz would in that case be removed to Tuxpan, and troops only sufficient to garrison the place, left at Vera Cruz. The activity displayed among the different vessels in the harbor of Vera Cruz in shifting the cargoes from vessels having but small portions of Government property on board, into others nearly full, with the evident intention of a move, would go far to confirm the rumor of a change in the base of operations. [NGP]


NNR 72.277 July 3, 1847 Tampico threatened

The steamer James Day arrived at New Orleans from Vera Cruz on the 21st. She left Vera Cruz on the 16th, touching at Tampico on the 17th, Brazos St. Jago on the 18th.

The main interest excited by this arrival, centers on the report communicated to the James L. Day, by Mr. Clifton, the pilot of Tampico, who boarded her on the 17th of that city. He stated that they were in daily expectation of an attack from the Mexicans, who were reported to be 1,500 strong in the vicinity of the city. [NGP]


NNR 72.277 July 3, 1847 insurrection attempted at Tampico

On the night of the 12th a demonstration was made by the Mexicans in Tampico to rise. The American authorities, however, had timely information of the contemplated movement, and to suppress it, if attempted, called out the troops, who lay on their arms all night. There was then no demonstrations of revolt made.

On the 15th a party of Mexican lancers attacked the outposts at Tampico, and drove the sentinels into the city. On the 16th a party of rancheros attacked the pilot station and were greeted by a discharge from half a dozen muskets, when they retreated. [NGP]


NNR 72.277 July 3, 1847 report that Gen. Winfield Scott had advanced, and that the Mexicans had sent propositions of peace

The most important intelligence brought by this arrival is the flattering prospect of peace. Capt. Wood, of the D. informs us that information had been received at Vera Cruz before the day left, that Generals Scott and Worth, with the main body of the army, had advanced as far as Rio Frio, without opposition, and were met at that place by a deputation from the capital, with propositions for peace. The exact tenor of the propositions was not known; they were however, of such a nature that Gen. Scott refused to accept them, and was determined to push on his forces to the capital. From the deep anxiety felt by the new government if the term government can be applied to any party or power in Mexico, to stay the march of our forces on the capital, it was thought that further concessions would be made to Gen. Scott before he took up his line of march from Rio Frio. [NGP]


NNR 72.277, July 3, 1847 Capt. Samuel Hamilton Walker's retaliation on Mexican guerrillas

    The gallant Captain Walker has commenced his work of retaliation on the guerrillas. On the morning of the 8th inst. he started with his command from Perote on an expedition some distance into the interior. During the expedition he succeeded in capturing nineteen guerrillas and an alcalde—he has employed them in cleaning the streets and sinks.
[WFF]


NNR 72.277 July 3, 1847 exhaustion of the troops returning to Veracruz, rumors and dissatisfaction at the manner in which the train had been managed

ONE DAY LATER ACCOUNTS. The steamer James L. Day arrived at New Orleans from Vera Cruz on the 21 st ult. She left Vera Cruz on the 16th , touching at Tampico on the 17th , Brazos St. Jago on the 18th .

The main interest excited by this arrival, centers on the report communicated to the James L. Day, by Mr. Clifton, the pilot of Tampico, who boarded her on the 17th off that city. He stated that they were in daily expectation of an attack from the Mexicans, who were reported to be 1,500 strong in the vicinity of the city.

On the night of the 12th ult. a demonstration was made by the Mexicans in Tampico to rise. The American authorities, however, had timely information of the contemplated movement, and to suppress it , if attempted, called out the troops, who lay on their arms all night. There was then no demonstration of revolt made:

On the 15th ultimo, a party of Mexican lancers attacked the outposts at Tampico, and drove the sentinels into the city. On the 16th a party of rancheros attacked the pilot station and were greeted by a discharge from half a dozen muskets, when they retreated.

The most important intelligence brought by this arrival is the flattering prospect of peace. Captain Wood, of the D. informs us that information had been received at Vera Cruz before the Day left, that Generals Scott and Worth, with the main body of the army, had advanced as far as Rio Frio, without opposition, and were met at that place by a deputation from the capital, with propositions for peace. The exact tenor of the propositions was not known; they were, however, of such a nature, that General Scott refused to accept them, and was determined to push on his forces to the capital. From the deep anxiety felt by the new government if the term government can be applied to any party or power in Mexico, to stay the march of our forces on the capital, it was thought that further concessions would be made to Gen Scott before he took up his line of march from Rio Frio.

A letter dated Santa Fe, (near Vera Cruz), 5th ultimo, says--"Yesterday it was painful to witness the men dropping down along the road, from sheer exhaustion. Captain Duperu's company, owing, to some culpable mismanagement in the commissary's or quartermaster's department at Vera Cruz, was sent as a portion of the escort to the large train, without either horses or arms! Last night when we encamped at a small stream, called Rio Medio, the horses in the train were without a particle of forage. The men of Capt. Duperu's company were in a like condition, so far as the article of provent, as Maj. Dalgetty would say, was concerned. Capt. D. although provided himself with a splendid horse, preferred to share the fate of his brave men, and refused to ride while his men had to foot it."

A letter received in Savannah, dated Tampico, June, 1847, says--"Since I last wrote you, the sickness has decreased somewhat; but the truth is, that nearly all those sick have died. The Louisiana regiment have now but 300 men fit for duty. The rest are either in the hospital or in their graves." [CCB]


NNR 72.277-278 July 3, 1847 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's resignation and manifesto on resuming executive power

The unpropitious events of the war have conducted me to the capital of the Republic, and in obedience to the law I have once more, and that for a short time, seized the reins of the state. It becomes my duty to explain to the nation the grave and powerful motives of this conduct and the course I intend to pursue in the solemn moments which are to decide the life or death, the honor or disgrace of our country.

Ever since the commencement of our just contest with the United States, fortune has treated us with disdain, and has rendered unavailing the efforts of honor and patriotism, made for the most noble and holy cause which has ever been defended on earth. The defeat of Cerro Gordo has only been a link in the chain of our misfortunes, to try, perhaps whether we are capable of overcoming by our constancy the iron destiny which purses us without pity.

Hardly had the valor of the soldiers of the republic succeeded in humbling the pride of the Americans in the field of Angostura, carrying off the trophies of victory, when the imperious necessity to put an end to the discord which was destroying the beautiful city brought me hither, in conformity with the invitation of a respectable majority of the national Congress. Having accomplished this object, I proceeded to the next most important, that of preventing, if possible, the advance of the enemy, who, being already in possession of Vera Cruz, and Ulua, was in search of a better climate to escape the rigor of the season. In three days I went from Mexico to a position recommended of old by those experienced in the art of war, and fortified it as well as the want of time and scarcity of means permitted, uniting in it two brigades of the army of the army of the north, some other troops, without discipline, and some bodies of recruits. The enemy fought with the greater and the most select portion of his army, and although he gained the battle, it cost him much blood, and he received another proof that Mexicans do not refuse to fight, although the circumstances are unfavorable to them. As far as regards myself, I am satisfied that I spared no exertion nor fatigue to snatch a favor from fate, and that I exposed my existence as long as I entertained any hope of regaining the day.

Escaped as by miracle out of the hands of the enemy, I proceeded to Orizaba with the intention of uniting the dispersed, to gather new troops, and to prepare further resistance to our daring invaders, my firmest resolution having always been never to despair of the fate of the country, nor to abandon it under its greatest reverses. Twenty days sufficed to form an army, with which I proceeded to the city of Puebla with the privilege sanctioned by our laws and which the United States do not respect. Does the land proprietor know how hard and exacting are the degrees of the conquetors? If the high social advantages, if the blessings of independence are so little appreciated, and if to be ranked among the independent and sovereign nations has no longer any value to Mexico, why did we contend during eleven consecutive years, spilling torrents of blood and desolating our town country, in order to make it free? The moment has finally arrived to explain all in order to save all. Woe to him who does not comprehend the gravity of our position!

It is now we are reaping the bitter fruits of our inexperience during the years in which we have governed ourselves. A nation, arrogant and coveting our elements of power and wealth, has been watching, like a tiger lying in wait for its prey, the moment when the civil discord should have debilitated and prostrated the nation, to surprise and subdue us. And when the enemy is carrying into the execution his [ . . . ] intentions we do not even correct ourselves. Disunion progresses sedition increases the political passions are agitated in the worst devise and as if it were nothing that the foreign enemy should be combating us, we endeavor to deprive the authorities of power, and with a fatal blindness and perverseness prevent them from undertaking the defense of our country.

Of these truths I am at once the witness and the victim. Since my return from exile I have only thought of the salvation of the republic. Did I not hasten to create and organize a powerful army? Did I not meet the enemy without regard to risk and danger? Did I not traverse the whole republic to close the road to the cruel conqueror of Vera Cruz? Have I not in all directions sought the front of the enemy? My duty was to combat and I have fought! My courage was not more vigorous at Tampico than at Cerro Gordo, and torture which permitted me there to ado another laurel to the many glories of the nation, alas refused to let me secure her happiness. It is, however, counseling to me that the injustice of men is not lasting, and what still more consoles me is that the majority of my countrymen are important and intelligent, and that they will pardon my errors and esteem my constant devotion to the service.

As regards the interest and [ . . . ] of the nation I shall be inflexible. I intend that the war must be continued until our position improves. The conqueror oppresses the vanquished and accords him nothing but an inglorious peace. Will the nation permit that an immense portion of its territory shall be torn from it? Can it consent to be called a nation when it has ceased to be so by its mutiny and impotence!

Should the close of my public life he near at the hand, I desire to terminate it leaving exalted lessons of devotion without limit to the cause of the country. As long as I live her sovereign will shall be the constant rule of my conduct. I desire to serve my country and wish that all may serve her with a firmness and constancy which may form a rampart against which all the efforts of her enemies may prove unavailing.

Mexicans, my countrymen, examine my actions and let them respond for my intentions. If the Supreme [ . . . ] of society has probed us in the crucible of misfortune, he already commences to show his compassion by allowing us to form a constitution which will be a table of salvation in our troubles. I have sworn to it. I have signed it and I will defend it. With respect to the independence and integrity of the nation, I have but one wish, and that is the most of my heart. "to combat and die for them."

Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

[NGP]


NNR 72.279 July 3, 1847 Col. Alexander William Doniphan's achievements, casualties, fight with Lipans at El Paso, letter to Maj. E. M. Ryland

COL. DONIPHAN'S LETTER.

A note from Major E. M. Ryland, to the editor of the St. Louis Republican, dated Lexington, Mo., June 10, encloses for publication the following letter presuming that "it is only through the medium of the private letters which have been addressed by the officers in command of the different divisions of the army, to their intimate friends at home, and which have found their way into the newspapers, that the country has been enabled to learn and to understand the real nature and extent of the difficulties and dangers which have, from time to time, encompassed those officers and their respective commands in the progress of the war with Mexico. And without this knowledge it would be impossible for the people in general to appreciate properly the indomitable courage and energy which have enabled those gallant commanders and their brave troops, to surmount every obstacle and defy every danger, and to achieve a series of brilliant victories, the memory of which can perish only with the institutions and language of the country under whose banner those victories have been won.

City of Chihuahua, March 7, 1847.

DEAR MAJOR: How often have I again and again determined to send you my hearty curses of everything Mexican? But, then, I knew that you had seen the sterile and miserable country, and its description would be, of course, no novelty to you. To give you, however, a brief outline of our movements, I have to say, that we have marched to Santa Fe by Bents' Fort; thence through the country of the Navajo Indians to the waters of the Pacific ocean; down the St. Juan river, the Rio Colorado, and the Gila, back again to the Rio Del Norte; across the Jornada Del Muerto to Brazos, where we fought the battle of which you have, doubtless, seen the account; thence to the town of El Paso Del Norte, which was taken by us; thence across two other Jornadas, and fought the battle of the Sacramento, and have sent you, herewith, a copy of my official report of the same. We are now in the beautiful city of Chihuahua, and myself in the place of Gov. Frias.

My orders are to report to General Wool, but I now learn that, instead of taking the city of Chihuahua, he is shut up at Saltillo, by Santa Anna. Our position will be ticklish, if Santa Anna should compel Taylor and Wool even to fall back. All Durango, Zacatecas, and Chihuahua, will be down upon my little army. We are out of the reach of help, and it is as unsafe to go backward as forward. High spirits and a bold front, is perhaps the best and the safest policy. My men are rough, ragged, and ready, having one more of the R's than General Taylor himself. We have been in service nine months, and my men, alter marching two thousand miles, over mountains and deserts, have not received one dollar of their pay, yet they stand without murmuring. Hall rations, hard marches, and no clothes!--but they are still game to the last, and curse and praise their country by turns, but fight for herself all the time.

No troops could have behaved more gallantly than ours in the battle of Sacramento. When we approached the enemy, their numbers and position would have deterred any troops, less brave and determined, from the attack; but as I rode from rank to rank, I could see nothing but the stern resolve to conquer or die--there was no trepidation, and pale forces. I cannot discriminate between companies or individuals; all have done their duty and done it nobly. Lafayette has sent out hosts of gallant spirits; the whole company behaved nobly.--Your nephew, Lieut. Robert Barnett, (Lafayette volunteers) was in Captain Reid's cavalry company, in the most dangerous charge that was made during the battle. Captain May's charge at Resaca de la Palma, was not bolder or better executed. Robert (your nephew) is a gallant and high tempered boy, and feels himself privileged to praise and to blame his commanders, as may suit his fancy for the time. Lieut. Desha Graves (Lafayette volunteers,) is also a very gallant man. Indeed, it is a fine company, not better than my others; but it is great praise to say that it is equal to the best. I regret most deeply, the death of poor Kirkpatrick. He was in Reid's charge, and fought like a lion.

Col. Samuel C. Owens lost his life by excessive bravery or rather rashness. He rode up to a redoubt filled with armed men, and continued to fire his pistols into it until himself and his horse fell pierced with balls upon its very brink.

When we are to leave here--where we are to go, or what is to become of us, you will be enabled to conjecture more correctly by the time this letter shall have reached you, than I can at this time.

Give my best respects to C. French, Esq. Judge Ryland, Col. Wood, Judge H. Young, &c., and for yourself I send the assurances of my earnest prayer for your continued prosperity, and also for my own speedy reunion with my family and friends in Missouri. Your friend, very truly.

A. W. DONIPHAN."
[CCB]


NNR 72.283 July 3, 1847 speculations respecting peace

We should have given these rumors at most a mere passing notice, as we do generally with rumors, but for the publication of the article which we extract from the Union, seeming to give official countenance to the one last received. It is on so important a subject that of peace. That instead of delaying for authentic facts to be enticed, we conclude, to publish a synopsis of the rumors, and of what is said to relation to Mr. Trist's mission, leaving our readers to judge for themselves as to the degree of confidence to which they are entitled.

The New Orleans Bulletin of the 22nd mentions the report at Vera Cruz of Gen. Scott being at Rio Frio negotiating with the new government of Mexico, but adds that their informant paced very little confidence in the rumor. Another version of the report is that Herrera declined entering into any negotiation until the new government was more settled and firm in power. [NGP]


NNR 72.288 July 3, 1847 peace rumors

The Picayune of same date, in reference to the report says: "Our letters from Vera Cruz do not confirm this news and they represent on the contrary that nothing had been received from Gen. Scott subsequent to the departure of the

Galveston. And furthermore we have letters from Puebla to the 3rd when Gen. Scott was there, and scarcely time had elapsed for him to march to Rio Frio and enter into negotiations, and for the news to come back to Vera Cruz. We are therefore, at present, incredulous about this intelligence.

Mr. Trist's Mission

Soon after it was published that Mr. Trist, first clerk of the department of state, had left Washington on a mission to Mexico, the Philadelphia Evening Bulletin a paper recognized as being generally well informed in relation to the views of the government, published an article as from the very best authority that the rumors in circulation to the effect that this gentleman is an agent of the government, are wholly without foundation. He not only does not go out as a plenipotentiary to carry out ultimatum to Mexico, but goes in no official capacity whatever. His real purpose is to visit a sick brother in Louisiana, who is in charge of a sugar plantation belonging to both of them. Mr. Trist has not seen his relation since his return from Cuba.

A Vera Cruz correspondent of the New Orleans commercial times thus noticed Mr. Trist's arrival there: the celebrated arrived yesterday with dispatches for Gen. Scott and Com. Perry The commodore came up today and held long conversations with Mr. T, evidently very confidential, and often in a tone of voice and with a manner which indicated communications and sentiments of no ordinary importance. Mr. Trist is the government, in Mexico. He goes with the train tomorrow to meet Gen. Scott, and will doubtless give him ample instructions for the effectual prosecution of the war.

The New Orleans correspondent of the New York Courier wrote: "That Mr. Trist had communicated from Vera Cruz with Gen. Scott, at Jalapa; that in all probability, Mr. Trist would proceed with the nest train to Jalapa. And that the negotiation might, perhaps be brought very suddenly to a favorable conclusion. This is not absolutely certain; but format he diplomatic survey of Gen. Scott, and a [ . . . ] officer in Mexico. The exceedingly strong probability now is that we shall soon have peace. Buena Vista was a more brilliant affair than Cerro Gordo; but the results of the latter are now, in conjunction with Mr. Trist, sign a treaty of peace in "the Halls of the Montezumas," he will have achieved glory enough even although he should never be president. Rest assured there is a perfect understanding with Scott and the administration, and that the terms on which both coincide in opinion are: Upper California and new Mexico, and no other or greater portion of territory; and the right of way across the Isthmus, if it can be obtained. These terms are so much more moderate than were anticipated by Mexico, that whenever they are promulgated it is believed that the popular voice of Mexico will be clamorous for peace. Unless then, the Mexicans are more besotted than Hotentots or Esquimaus, we must have peace.

The Washington correspondent of the Baltimore Sun wrote that "The proclamation was substantially written by Gen. Scott, Mr. Trist have been at the same time, in Vera Cruz and in communication with Gen. S, and no doubt approving of the matter contained in it. The text of the proclamation coincides perfectly with the views of the government.

A Jalapa correspondent of the St. Louis Republican, under date of the 26th April, has the following "I neglected in the hurry of writing my last, to mention that a warm and somewhat severe rupture had broken out between Gen. Scott and the clerk of the state department, Mr. Trist, who has been sent here a s a sort of generalissimo of the American army. This is the same Mr. Trist if I err right, who imparted to Charles J. Ingersoll the knowledge of the existence in the state department of private and confidential papers, during the absence of Mr. Secretary Buchanan, and who found out a way by which Mr. Ingersoll unconstitutionally got access to them, which enabled him to make his attack on Mr. Webster. A pretty representative of a great nation at a foreign court to be sure!

This Mr. Trist in the exercises of his mongrel plenary civil and military powers addressed letter to Gen. Scott, directing him as to what move he must make with his troops. A portion of these directions were such as Gen. Scott believed were at war with the best interests of our government, and the tendency of which would be the protraction rather than a recommendation of host allies.

It was the correspondence growing out of this difference of opinion that was the immediate result of this rupture. Copies of all the correspondence. I learn have been transmitted by Gen. Scott to the war department. [NGP]


NNR 72.288 July 3,1847 vomito prevails at Veracruz

        Latest. The steamer left Palmetto reached New Orleans the 25th ult. from Vera Cruz. Vomito still prevails-many are dying. The report of the Mexicans having proposed peace is fully contradicted. Gen. Scott has left Puebla, expecting to have to fight his way to the Capital. [ANP]


NNR 72.288 July 3, 1847 Col. Alexander William Doniphan's division reaches the states

The Washington correspondent of the New York Courier on the 27th wrote that the Mexican Gen. Trias had made known his views in favor of negotiation [incides] with him, it was supposed, would be elected president; that the terms proposed were known to both of them; that in truth, Mexico is astonished at the moderation of these terms.

Stockjobbers it is said, generally continue to see as deep into political millstones as those that peck them. The New York Express of Wednesday says This is quite a peace day in Wall street. There are so many predictions by the letters from Washington, for the press in various sections of the country, that quite an impression is made on the money market in Wall street. Very large capitalists as well as some of the banks, made heavy purchases of United States treasury note today at 7 and a half percent premium. There is a great desire to speculate in this description of security; and the margin for a rise in case of peace with Mexico is considered most favorable. [NGP]


NNR 72.288 July 3, 1847 unenviable position of Col. Sterling Price's division

The army of the north had the severest time of it. The division under Col. Doniphan having left Chihuahua to the enemy, have reached the states after an unprecedented campaign. The division under Col. Price, at Santa Fe, was left in no enviable posture, and a train going to them with supplies has been captured by the Indians and all the treasurers murdered. [NGP]


NNR 72.288 July 3, 1847 accounts from California

Accounts from California state that Mazatlan had been blockaded by our squadron for two months. The Cyane had captured a prize valued at 200,000 dollars. The California regiment had arrived out in very bad condition; the men not what they ought to be. The coast was quiet, the Yankee ax and hammer ringing about Monterey, and Yankee girls in Yankee bonnets tripping along, and shawl covered senoras. [NGP]


NNR 72.288 July 3, 1847 various items from Brazos, Matamoros, and Monterey, capture of Mexican dispatches

In business there was little or nothing doing. The whole amount of duties collected under the tariff, at Matamoros, Brazos and the mouth of the river, was short of $20,000. No revival of trade was expected until that tariff was very materially modified.

Major. B. M'Culloch had reached the Brazos with 150 horses, of which 50 were for his own company, the rest for Col Butlers dragoons.

Col. J.P. Taylor, subsistence department, being relieved at Brazos by Capt. Eaton, has returned to New Orleans. [NGP]


NNR 72.288 July 3, 1847 review of the posture of our several armies, &c.

The Monterey correspondent of the Picayune, writes that: Capt. Toban with a party of Mculoch's rangers, on a scout, a considerable distance from Buena Vista, came across a Mexican express rider with dispatches from Gen. Sanchez tot he Governor of San Luis, with an escort, mostly deserters from the American army. The latter made their escape, but the bearer of dispatches and his horse and papers were captured. Sanchez urges that a movement be made immediately against Saltillo, as but few Americans are left there and the Mexicans were burning for an opportunity to relieve themselves of them.

The horse recovered on this occasion had been stolen from Lieut. Sturgis some time since. General Wool dispatched some of the rangers and a company of dragoons in pursuit of the men that had escaped. [NGP]


NNR 72.288 July 3, 1847 murder of an Arkansas volunteer by guerrilla, retaliation

GUERRILLA WARFARE--On the 31 st May, a member of the Arkansas cavalry while leading his horse in a grove near the Alameda, used as a race track, was accosted by two Mexicans, who extended their hands to him in a friendly manner; but, instead of the grasp of friendship, the assassin's knife was plunged into his heart; and he was cast into a ditch while his horse was made away with. Some of the companions of the deceased, who came to join him on the track soon after, discovered traces of blood, and on pursuing them found the wounded man breathing his last, with just life enough to tell the cause of his situation. Not far from the place two Mexicans were shortly afterwards discovered, whose conduct was suspicious, and they were captured. It was afterwards deemed inadvisable to permit them to be regularly tried, a party of men demanded them, and they were taken out and shot. In the sleeve of one was found a bloody knife, corresponding with the size of the wound. This was not enough! I regret to state that many Mexicans were killed that day--some say seventeen, and some more. Comment is unnecessary.

Col. Curtis, formerly of the Ohio regiment, has volunteered for the war and been appointed Governor of Saltillo.

We have had no more news of Urrea. The 2d battalion of Virginia volunteers garrison this place, but will move on as soon as they can be relieved.--There is still a good deal of sickness here, but of mild character, and but few deaths. For the last few days we have had several showers during the day, and I imagine it is brewing up for the rainy season.

It seems there is still a bare possibility of our going to San Luis at a more advanced period than was contemplated by Gen. Taylor at first, but all depends upon whether troops can be had.

J.D.D.

[CCB]


NNR 72.288 July 3, 1847 Col. Samuel Ryan Curtis appointed governor of Saltillo

Col. Curtis, formerly of the Ohio regiment, has volunteered for the war and been appointed Governor of Saltillo.

We have had no more news of Urrea. The 2nd battalion of Virginia volunteers garrison this place, but will move on as soon as they can be relieved. There is still a good deal of sickness here, but of mild character, and but few deaths. For the last few days we have had several showers during the day, and I imagine it is brewing up for the rainy season.

It seems there is still a bare possibility of our going to San Luis at a more advanced period than was contemplated by Gen. Taylor at first, but all depends upon whether troops can be had. [NGP]


NNR 72.289 July 3, 1847Gen. Winfield Scott and Nicholas Philip Trist

Unless we have been entirely misled by our southern correspondents, Mr. Trist's first step on his arrival at Jalapa, was to request Gen. Scott to transmit to its destination a sealed packed, addressed to the Mexican Secretary of the State, which he enclosed to the General, and of the contents of which he gave him no account. Gen. Scott promptly informed him that he declined to do so; but that he should retain the letter, subject to Mr. Trist's order. His reply to Mr. Trist was of course in writing, and was so emphatic and explicit as to leave no room for misapprehension. This letter we know is now on file in Washington; and if the report that has reached us of its contents is incorrect, the Union, by procuring a copy of it can set us right.

Mr. Trist or more properly the Executive of which in all this he is simply the tool, was thus baffled in his first attempt to throw upon Gen. Scott the responsibility of whatever proposition to the Mexican government his sealed packet contained. He then informed the General that he had come to Mexico with full authority to conclude an armistice with the government of Mexico; to suspend all military operations; and to make all necessary arrangement preliminary to the negotiation of a treaty of peace. This fact has already been asserted in letters from Mexico, published in New Orleans and elsewhere; and we are assured by private advices that it is strictly true. Mr. Trist, moreover submitted to Gen. Scott a letter from the Secretary either of State or of War, confirming in every respect the statement he had made, and directing him to recognize, in its fullest extent, Mr. Trist's plenary authority.

Gen. Scott thus found himself, under the orders of the department, virtually though not formally deprived of his command, and made subordinate to a clerk in the state department. He at once informed Mr. Trist that he should not permit him to interfere with the operations of the army which was under his command; that under the circumstances in which that was placed, an armistice was strictly a matter of military policy; and that he should recognize no suspension of hostilities to which his assent, as commander in chief of the forces in the filed, should not be previously given. At the same time, he wrote to the Secretary of War repeating his declaration to Mr. Trist, and assuring the department that he should retain the actual command of the army until formally recalled.

"This correspondence is on file at Washington; and although we do not pretend to give the language used by either party, we appeal with confidence to the documents for full confirmation of this statement of their purport."

"This is the difference which has been characterized by the apologists of the Executive as simply a disagreement upon a point of etiquette. It involves, as will be seen from this statement of facts, a direct attempt to degrade Gen. Scott from his position as Commander in Chief, to that of subordinate to a clerk in the State Department, and that, too, upon questions belonging exclusively to the military authority." [NGP]


NNR 72.290-291 July 10, 1847 traits of American character, privates in the volunteers elected to political office

The New Orleans National says the peculiarities of our institutions make common traits of character which take by surprise even those that were familiar with them through birth and education; how must they then appear to those educated under foreign governments. Among the volunteers in Col. Doniphan's command, was a young man who enlisted to keep from running for the Missouri Legislature! This gave umbrage to his constituents, and his name was put up and he was elected by a unanimous vote. The unfortunate individual, who thus had honors thrust upon him, while marching in slow time with his musket on his shoulder over in Santa Fe, is suddenly disturbed by the appearance of an express from the executive of Missouri demanding of Co. Doniphan, on pains and penalties if neglected, the body of a member elect of the Missouri Legislature, now a volunteer on his regiment. The Col. as a military man, was obliged to obey his commander in chief; so he kicked the legislator out of the ranks, and told him that he must foot it back, under a guard, to Missouri, willingly if he would or chained as a prisoner. The representative vented imprecations upon his constituents and upon his sovereign state, and took the back track home perfectly disgusted with his popularity at the polls. Another private in Col. Doniphan's command, now in California, has been elected to congress. Thus it is, our institutions make it consistent for the American citizen to occupy every place under government, whether distinguished or obscure, and each alike, shed honor if faithfully fulfilled. [NGP]


NNR 72.297, July 10, 1847 contradiction of report of Gen. Winfield Scott having advanced or the Mexicans having proposed peace
NNR 72.297 Gen. George Cadwallader, after several conflicts, reaches Jalapa with the train

The report of Gen. Scott having advanced from Puebla towards the city of Mexico turns out to be unfounded as was the report that the Mexicans had sent propositions for peace. General Scott was at Puebla on the 16th June, with a force not exceeding 6000 men, waiting for reinforcements to enable him to advance.

Gen. Cadwallader, who left Vera Cruz on the 7th with some 500 men to reinforce Col. McIntosh, after overhauling the train of which the latter was in charge, and taking command, finally reached Jalapa, after several conflicts with the guerrillas. The entire force of the column was now probably about 1700 men. With these he is said to have proceeded from Jalapa on the 19th, with a view of joining Gen. Scott. One of the latest letters from Vera Cruz states that Alvarez is said to have taken his station with six thousand of his Sonora troops, between Puebla and Jalapa, for the purpose of cutting of Cadwallader’s train, and would probably be reinforced. That we do not credit, but the march will be one of difficulty we have no doubt.

Another reinforcement consisting of about 1800 men, that have arrived at Vera Cruz after General Cadwallader left there, were to march under General Pillow, with a view of joining General Scott.

The utmost that the most sanguine can now flatter themselves with, is that those two columns will join Gen. Scott during the month of June. His forces will then fall short of 10,000 men being less than half the number which it appears the government at Washington wrote to him in one of their latest dispatches, that he should have by the last of June.—The dispatches alluded to were captured by Mexicans and their contents or at least part of them have been published.
[WFF, NGP]


NNR 72.297 July 10, 1847 Gen. Gideon Pillow organizing another reinforcement at Veracruz

        Another reinforcement consisting of about 1800 men, that have arrived at Vera Cruz after General Cadwallader left there, were to march under General Pillow, with a view of joining General Scott. [ANP]


NNR 72.297 July 10, 1847 number of troops under Gen. Winfield Scott after he is joined by reinforcements

Another reinforcement consisting of about 1800 men, that have arrived at Vera Cruz after Gen. Cadwallader left there, were to march under Gen. Pillow, with a view of joining Gen. Scott.

The utmost that the most sanguine can now flatter themselves with, is that those two columns will join Gen. Scott during the month of June. His forces will then fall short of 10,000 men being less than half the number which it appears the government at Washington wrote to him in one of their latest dispatches, that he should have by the last of June. The dispatches alluded to were captured by Mexicans and their contents or at least part of them have been published. [NGP]


NNR 72.297 July 10, 1847 vomito fatal

Vera Cruz June 24th .--The vomito is yet picking our poor follows off, one or two at a time in the city. Col. Banks well known in N. Orleans and here as one of the finest fellows, and most enterprising men in the country, is one of the last victims of which I am informed. He died yesterday morning, after forty-eight hours of illness. The disease cannot be said to be raging, nor do I think it is nearly so fatal in its operation as it has been in other years; but it is a serious matter, and it is impossible to feel any degree of comfort in in its neighborhood. [CCB]


NNR 72.298 July 10, 1847 punishment of various criminals

In the case of the United States vs. Henry P. Norris, found guilty of manslaughter, the court sentenced him to two years' imprisonment or to the end of the American war.

Two notorious robbers, (one of them has already been punished by sentence of the court). Manuel Estradillo and Francisco Montero, have been found guilty of burglary, sentenced each to receive fifty lashes and six month' hard labor.

A. Smith, found guilty of abusing a Mexican woman, to pay a fine of twenty dollars, one week's imprisonment and costs of court. [NGP]


NNR 72.298 July 10, 1847 guerrillas audacious

GUERRILLA AFFAIR--The man we reported a few days ago, as being seen by Captain Cummings lying dead by the roadside a few miles below Reynosa, it has been ascertained was a member of Capt. Faul's company, Massachusetts men, under Captain Walsh, escorting a train to Camargo, passed the spot a few days ago, and identified and buried the body. Capt. W. demanded of some Mexicans residing near the scene of murder to produce the murderers or would burn down their ranchos. The threat had the desired effect, and three incorrigible scoundrels were handed over to him--one of whom was killed in endeavoring to make his escape--the other two are imprisoned at Reynosa. The clothes of the murdered men were upon the Mexican who was killed. [Flag, 3d June

[CCB]


NNR 72.298 July 10, 1847 Gen. Gideon Johnson Pillow marches with 1,800 men and 125 wagons, his skirmish with guerrillas

From the New Orleans Picayune.

GEN PILLOW--More Generalship.--We are assured by a gentleman who came passenger in the New Orleans, and one who has done good service to his country, that Gen. Pillow, who left Vera Cruz with a large force to join Gen. Scott, selected the middle of the day for marching a part of the road, which is the dread of even old soldiers.

The sand between Vera Cruz and San Juan is over ankle deep, and the rays of the sun in mid-day are terrific. The result of this experiment upon raw recruits was the death of six men, who were sun struck, and disabling of near a hundred and fifty more. At San Juan so many of the troops were used up that it was proposed to send them back to Santa Fe and establish a hospital there.

After consultation, and as there was adequate force to protect such a hospital, it was decided to send the men back to Vera Cruz. The Vera Cruz Eagle for the 23d instant says that some thirty of them had then reached there. In this encounter with the sun the poor soldiers had less chance than even Haskell's command at Cerro Gordo enjoyed. [CCB]


NNR 72.298 July 10, 1847 report arrives at Veracruz that Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna was dictator and at head of 30,000 men

        From the New Orleans Bulletin.

        A letter from an officer of the army, at Vera Cruz, states they had received information from the capital, via Orizaba, that Santa Anna had been declared dictator, but without authority to make peace. That he was at the head of 30,000 men, and that Gen. Scott was within 25 miles of the city. Another fight was thought to be inevitable.

        The same letter also states the General Alvarez is between Perote and Puebla, and is making great exertions, with a view to attack and destroy General Cadwallader. His force is reported to be 5000 men and increasing.

        Gen. C., it will be recollected, left Vera Cruz with about 1400 men, nd as he will probably hear of this Mexican fore previous to reaching Perote, he will no doubt halt until joined by General Pillow, who has 1800 men. Two detachments joined will, no doubt, be able to force their way to General Scott's headquarters. [ANP]


NNR 72.298 July 10, 1847 guerrilla affair

You will gather a fair notion of the daring, and audacity of the guerrillas, from their repeated atrocities under the walls of this city. Within the past thirty-six hours, another man has been hanged by them almost within gun shot of our batteries. The victim was one of the most active police officers, a Dane, named Miller. He and a Frenchman were out riding, when they were "lassoed" and carried into the woods. The Frenchman was released, but Miller is said to have been put to death as stated.--arties were out most of the day and night of yesterday, in search of the depredators of the outrage, and seven Mexicans were seized on the roads and brought in. Five of these proved to be gentlemen bound to Medelin, but the others are suspicious characters, and the governor has imprisoned them to await further examination. One of them was taken on the horse which Miller was riding when attacked.

Business is still, of course, at a stand. Another vessel, the Spanish brig Amistad Campecheana has arrived with a cargo of the goods in Havana, nearly the last, I think, of that stock. A vessel is expected soon from Campeachy, where one cargo was stored during the blockade, and that, I fancy, will pretty much close the foreign trade with Vera Cruz, for some months at least.

I am informed that the head of one firm, and one of the very first in the city, has replied to a demand for duties, from the collector, that he has no more and cannot pay. His thirty days are out, and it remains to be seen what will be the result. His goods will not be sold, as nobody can buy them, for the same reason that prevents the payment of his duties.

The brig Petersburg, from New York, is now here, discharging a small, but rather valuable cargo--chiefly silks and drugs, to owners, Hargous & co.

In the case of the United States vs. Henry P. Norris, found guilty of manslaughter, the court sentenced him to two years' imprisonment or to the end of the American war.

Two notorious robbers, (one of them has already been punished by sentence of the court.) Manuel Estradillo and Francisco Montero, have been found guilty of burglary, sentenced each to receive fifty lashes and six months' hard labor.

A Smith, found guilty of abusing a Mexican woman, to pay a fine of twenty dollars, one week's imprisonment and costs of court. [CCB]


NNR 72.297-72.298 July 10, 1847 business at Veracruz at a stand, refusal of one form to pay the tariff

        Business is still, of course, at a stand. Another vessel, the Spanish brig Amistad Campecheana has arrived with a cargo to the goods in Havana, nearly the last, I think, of that stock. A vessel is expected soon from Campeachy, where one cargo was stored during the blockade, and that, I fancy, will pretty much close the foreign trade with Vera Cruz, for some months at least.

        I am informed that the head of one firm, and one of the very first in the city has replied to a demand for duties, from the collector, that he has no money and cannot pay. His thirty days are out, and it remains to be seen what will be the result. His goods will not be sold, as nobody can buy them, for the same reason that prevents the payment of his duties. [ANP]


NNR 72.298 July 10, 1847 Gen. Gideon Johnson Pillow's effort to march his troops in the middle of the day

We are a by a gentleman who came passenger in the New Orleans, and one who has done good service to his country, that Gen. Pillow, who left Vera Cruz with a large force to join Gen. Scott, selected the spot of the day for marching a part of the road with the dead of even old soldiers.

The sand between Vera Cruz and San Juan was ankle deep and the rays of sun in mid day were terrific. The result of this experiment upon the recruits was the death of six men, who were heat struck and the disabling of near a hundred and fifty more. At San Juan, so many of the troops used up that it was proposed to send them back to Santa Fe and establish hospitals there.

After consultation, and as there was adequate amounts to protect such a hospital, it was decided to send men back to Vera Cruz. The Vera Cruz [ . . . ] the 23rd says that some thirty of them had reached there. In this encounter with the poor soldiers had less chance than even [ . . . ] command at Cerro Gordo enjoyed. [NGP]


NNR 72.298 July 10, 1847 destruction of guerrillas by dragoons

General Cadwallader left Jalapa on the [ . . . ] 300 of our dragoons were guided by an [ . . . ] Perote, who led them into a ravine where they surrounded 400 guerrillas, killed 30 of them, and wounded many more, so that these fellows will be very careful how they join another party.

"I understand that for duties as they fall due under the temporary tariff, drafts are given on Jalapa and Puebla. For the heavy amounts due from the British and German houses on the new tariff, the goods are stored. They will give drafts on Mexico as soon as Gen. Scott reaches that city.

Santa Anna, for the present has full powers to defend the city; so it all appears. Another report is, that he will treat with Gen. Scott or some one else.

The English part of "The Sun of Anahuac," of the 24th of June, says "Captain Duperu's company of United States dragoons have received their horses. They paraded through our streets yesterday. A fine company it is. We shall soon learn some of their exploits." [NGP]


NNR 72.298-299 July 10, 1847 speculators harvesting on bounties paid to discharged soldiers

A correspondent of the New York Commercial Advertiser, dated Washington, June 16 says "The speculators have it seems, been very busy at New Orleans in gathering up the fragments that fall from Uncle Sam's table, in the shape of land warrants for discharged soldiers. These warrants are convertible into treasury scrip for 100 dollars, bearing six per cent interest and payable in ten years. Each of the soldiers lately discharged at New Orleans has become entitled to land scrip convertible into stock. Speculators from the north have had agents in New Orleans for the purchase of this scrip. Large amounts have been expanded in these purchases, and the soldiers were doubtless greatly benefited thereby; because in their situation a certain sum in hand was of more value than double the sum a year or two hence. The purchased soldiers certificates came to the pension office, and the chief of that bureau had adopted such a construction as to render it scarcely possible for any speculator to obtain any advantage from these purchases, or even to avoid an almost total loss of the amount invested.

As a proof of this I may mention for the information of all parties concerned, that, a day or two ago, a person came here from New Orleans with five hundred of these soldiers' certificates, convertible into stock worth some fifty three thousand dollars. Col. Edwards applied to the give hundred certificates the square and compass of his legal construction, and threw out and rejected the whole five hundred certificates on one point and another, with the exception of twenty three. But these twenty three certificates which were made special pets were perhaps even worse treated than those that were rejected.

The commissioner of pensions required that these twenty three favored documents should go back in pursuit of the persons from whom they emanated and, in case they should be found in the land of the living, they are required, severally, to confirm the sale already made, and to execute a new transfer of their interest, in order to make good the old certificate. They are not obliged by law to make any new transfer, but may draw the stock themselves. In case of the death of any of the parties, their heirs and representatives can alone obtain either the land warrant or the stock. Thus the speculators have been badly bitten.

From the same caution against speculators. It is a well known fact that immense fortunes were made out of the poor soldiers who shed their blood in the revolutionary war by speculators who preyed upon their distress. A similar system of depredation was practiced upon the soldiers of the last war. And now we find by the "St. Louis Union" of the 8th that the sharpers are already at work at New Orleans, waiting for the volunteers as they return from the war, and pouncing upon them the moment they land in the city. We call upon all our brethren to warn the volunteers of the tricks and frauds which will be practiced upon them in all parts of the country, and to put them upon their guard against these harpies. If they do nothing more, we beg them to republish the following article from the St. Louis Union.

"In conversing with the gallant Illinoisians who have just returned from General Scott's army, we were sorry to learn that many of the privates, whilst in New Orleans were induced to sell their certificates. Not knowing the importance of retaining those evidences of their service, they parted with them to sharpers, who, regardless of the soldiers' welfare, extorted from them the bounty to which they were entitled. Each of those privates is entitled to 160 acres of land, and yet many of them sold their bounty to which they were entitled. We learn that there is a set of person's in New Orleans who make it a regular business to seize upon the returning volunteers, and but their certificates for a trifling sum. It is thus they filch from men who have been battling for their country the fruits of a nation's gratitude. In most cases, gross imposition is practiced. If a volunteer parts with his certificate, knowing its value, no one has a right to complain; but if deceived as to its importance, he is outrageously wronged, and the Shylock who abuses him deserves unmitigated execration."

It is far better for the soldiers to preserve these evidences of their service as long as possible, at all events, not to act too hastily; but take time, and consult with their friends at home about the proper disposition of their certificates. Meanwhile, we may add that, according to the act of February last, all sales, mortgages are null and void prior to the issue of the land warrant or certificate. [NGP]


NNR 72.299 July 10, 1847 return of Alabama and Georgia volunteers to the United States

Some hundred or more of discharged volunteers of the Alabama and Georgia regiments arrived here on the steamer Brad Street, and we are much gratified to find and take by the land several of our own glorious fellows who had stood out the campaign, and though bronzed by a Mexican climate still look as fresh and hearty as ever. We welcome them back with pride and pleasure, as deserving he respect and honor of the community as citizens who have done their duty well and manfully under their countries banner. Many of the volunteers bore trophies, Mexican swords, lances, cacopetes, uniforms and acquired in the campaign. Mr. T.J. Noble of our city, has among other things, a writing desk which belonged to Santa Ann, taken at Cerro Gordo, and which contains his autograph letters to Gen. Salas and others. Owing to circumstances, only seven men out of a full battalion which Montgomery county raised for the field, remained in service; and since so much has been said about whig "aid and comfort," Mexican whigs it may not be deemed invidious to remark that six out of the seven which remained in the field were Whigs. [NGP]


NNR 72.302-303 July 17, 1847 reception of returning volunteers at New Orleans

The citizens of New Orleans have not only distinguished themselves since the commencement of war, by prompt and spirited contributions of supplies, funds, or personal services whenever, they were required, but they have also been conspicuous in their attention and respect to those who have served their country.

Upon the arrival at New Orleans during the month of June, of the volunteers whose term of service had expired, the citizens received them with curious and repeated marks of cordiality. One of these evidences was a public dinner, provided in the most commodious manner for the whole of them, and of which thousands partook. The whole affair was highly gratifying. A number of patriotic toasts and sentiments were given, and a number of admissible speeches were delivered, of which one must serve as a specimen. [NGP]


NNR 72.304 July 17, 1847 peace rumors, &c.

The prospect of peace seems more remote than it was a week ago. The latest accounts from Mexico left Santa Anna in power, the election of president postponed at least until September, and every prospect of a fight if Gen. Scott advanced. The latest prediction of the Washington Union, however, if we mistake not, was, that Gen. Scott, would celebrate the 4th of July in "the halls of the Montezuma." Such an expectation was undoubtedly entertained at Washington. [NGP]


NNR 72.304 July 17, 1847 Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's withdrawal of his resignation

The Mexican general has his own second sober thoughts. In a letter which is published, he says:

"During the time since I gave in my resignation, I have received singular tokens of the confidence of all classes of persons; the most influential in society, all have besought me not to persist in my intentions. I see in them a determined purpose to force me to remain, founded on the necessity of preserving the present state of things without innovation, in order not to endanger the fate of this populous city and the nation. The excitement has been very general, and even the troops in the garrison and most numerous portion of the people have been constant in their solicitations and their prayers."

General Almonte was still in prison, nor can we distinguish exactly for what.

General Arista is also arrested and confined.

General Gutierrez, Gaona, Martinez and Palomino are entrusted with the command of the lines of defense of the city.

Bodies of the National Guards are on their way, and constantly arriving from the adjoining States. It is believed that from seventeen to twenty thousand troops will be concentrated for the protection of the city.

The papers are filled with accounts of great feats performed by the guerrillas.

The Mexicans have certain information that Gen. Scott cannot expect reinforcements to a greater extent that two thousand men and money to the amount of $200,000 nothing more. They therefore think it doubtful whether he will march to the capital, and talk of marching out to meet him. "There are but 6000 men," they say, "from Vera Cruz to Puebla, who lord it over a population of a million of inhabitants, which the two States contain. It can be believed only because it is seen."

On the first of June all the natives of the United States were ordered to leave the city of Mexico for the states of Jalisco or Morelia, or they would be dealt with according to the law of nations. [NGP]


NNR 72.304 July 10, 1847 National Guards collecting to defend, accounts of guerrillas
NNR 72.304 Mexican skepticism about troops and funds available to Gen. Winfield Scott
NNR 72.304 natives of the US ordered to leave Mexico City

Mexico City, accounts of the guerrillas. Mexican skepticism about troops and funds available to Gen. Winfield Scott. Natives of the US ordered to leave Mexico City.

Mexico.-The N.O. Delta received Mexican city papers from the 30th May to the 5th June.

Santa Anna's resignation withdrawn.-The Mexican general has his own 'second sober thoughts.' In a letter which is published, he says:

"During the time since I gave in my resignation, I have received singular tokens of the confidence of all classes of persons; the most influential in society, all have besought me not to persist in my intentions. I see in them a determined purpose to force me to remain, founded on the necessity of preserving the present state of things without innovation, in order not to endanger the fate of this populous city and of the nation. The excitement has been very general, and even the troops in the garrison and most numerous portion of the people have been constant in their solicitations and their prayers."

General Almonte was still in prison, nor can we distinguish exactly for what.

General Arista is also arrested and confined.

Generals Gutierrez, Gaona, Martinez and Palomino are entrusted with the command of the lines of defence of the city.

Bodies of the National Guards are on their way, and constantly arriving from the adjoining States. It is believed that from seventeen to twenty thousand troops will be concentrated for the protection of the city.

The papers are filled with accounts of feats performed by the guerrillas.

The Mexicans have certain information that Gen. Scott cannot expect reinforcements to a greater extent than two thousand men and money to the amount of $200,000, nothing more. They therefore think it doubtful whether he will march to the capital, and talk of marching out to meet him. "There are but 6000 men," say they, "from Vera Cruz to Puebla, who lord it over a population of a million of inhabitants, which the two States contain. It can be believed only because it is seen."

On the first of June all the natives of the U. States were ordered to leave the city of Mexico for the States of Jalisco or Morelia, or they would be dealt with according to the law of nations.

Later.--The N.O. Commercial Times of the 29th ult., received by the streamers New Orleans, Very Cruz dates to the 24th, giving letters from the city of Mexico to the 15th June. One of them states that Santa Anna is elected President, with extraordinary powers to use in the prosecution of the war, but is expressly forbidden to enter in negotiations for peace.

The Editor of "El Arco Iris," the Vera Cruz Mexican papers, says he has information that the election did not come off at the time appointed, but is postponed until the 21st of September. He says the general impression is, that Herrera will be elected and that negotiations for peace will immediately follow his installation.

It is stated that twenty thousand troops are in the city of Mexico and reinforcements constantly arriving. Those under Alvarez now amount to 8000, well armed. Supplies of arms are said to come by way of Acapulco, from abroad. "Taking everything into consideration," says the Vera Cruz correspondent of the Times, "I have no doubt that a bloody battle will precede Gen. Scott's entry into the capital." [SRP]


NNR 72.304 July 10, 1847 consideration of Tuxpan as a port of supply in lieu of Veracruz

        Tuspan.-Is a small town say "half the size of Matamoras" situated between Vera Cruz and Tampico, recently taken possession of by Commodore Perry. It is about seventy mile from Puebla and has long been used as a smuggling port to that department. It would o doubt have become a principal port of entry, but for the bar which prevents vessels of over 5 feet draught from entering the harbor. The road from Tuspan to Puebla is at present a mere mule path through a country of very sparse population. Gen. Cos was the Mexican in authority at Tuspan before Perry captured the place. He owns a large property there. Gen. Scott may have been induced to a direct temporary use of this port and route. The idea of its being substituted for Vera Cruz as the channel for supplying the army and maintaining communications with the interior, can hardly be entertained by any one acquainted with the danger of navigating the gulf coast, and the difficulty of making a port during a considerable portion of the year. A regular "norther" would be apt to settle that point. Is the Vera Cruz to be abandoned?-or are two routes to be occupied and to be defended?  [ANP]


NNR 72.304 July 10, 1847 Position of forces in California

Late from California. A letter has been received at St. Louis from Monterey, Upper California, dated the 14th of April last. It was transmitted through the interior of Mexico. It does not appear that any event of public interest had transpired between the date of the letter and our previous advices. Gen. Kearny was at Monterey; Col. Mason, of the dragoons, had arrived there; Com. Biddle and Com. Shubrick were in port, with their squadrons. Every thing in Upper California was then quiet. Gen Kearny was expected to leave for the United States about the first of July, taking the route by way of Santa Fe. [SRP]


NNR 72.304 July 10, 1847 Rumors, votes for Mexican President

The rumors relative to peace.

The prospect of peace seems more remote than it was a week ago. The latest accounts from Mexico left Santa Anna in power, the election of president postponed at least until September, and every prospect of a fight if Gen. Scott advanced. The latest prediction of the Washington Union, however, if we mistake not, was, that Gen. Scott would celebrate the 4th of July in "the halls of the Montezumas."--Such and expectation was undoubtedly entertained at Washington.

As to the dispute between General Scott and Mr. Trist, we have the most confident, and yet contradictory statements from those who pretend to know most about it. The Washington correspondent of the New York Journal of Commerce, and also the correspondent of the New York Enquirer, state that the whole affair is reported to the department, and that Gen. Scott "takes the responsibility" in the premises. The Washington correspondent of the Baltimore Sun, writes on the 8th inst:

"The difficulty between Gen. Scott and Mr. Trist seems to be of a nature not so easily reconciled as I had at first imagined, and the way to heal it will be to allow Mr. Trist to come home, and Gen. Scott to finish the conquest of Mexico."

The Washington correspondent of the Baltimore Sun, wrote on the 7th inst:

"We expect the arrival of the president tomorrow. I do not know that he hastens back for the special purpose of calling the senate together, to lay before them the Scott and Trist treaty. I advised you on the 3d, that, according to rumor, the treaty had been received here, and that this important intelligence had been transmitted to the north. It was, accordingly, published on that day in Philadelphia, and created a profound sensation. But why the rumor-maker should have postponed the treaty so long as twenty days, I cannot imagine, unless he was pressed to sell his stocks within that time. The president, by the way, could have issued his proclamation from Boston as well as from Washington. Gen. Jackson issued his order for the removal of the deposits, from Boston.

But, unless all signs fail, the president will, soon after his return, be compelled, not perhaps to call congress, but to use whatever power he has under existing acts of congress to raise troops and send them to the support of Gen Scott, in Mexico.

While we are amusing ourselves with the cry of peace, peace, our army of invasion is not only suffering intolerable hardships and privations, but is, at this moment, probably, in a very critical condition. While we are daily assured, by the highest authorities, that all Mexico was for peace, that we have none but friends to meet there, that Scott and Trist are daily begged to come into the capital and assume the government, our army is undoubtedly acting on the defensive, against a numerous, wily, treacherous, and resourceful foe.

We are forsooth, sending instructions to Scott and Taylor how to make peace, when we have not given them the means to carry out war. It would be better, ten thousand times over, to resort at once to the disgraceful alternative of withdrawal of our troops and the abandonment of the war, than to suffer it to languish in the manner that it was done and is likely to do. If General Scott had merely a smart skirmish with the enemy in advancing to the capital, his loss of horses and mules, and the care of his wounded, altogether, would delay his march thirty days. Any practical military man will tell you this.

The enemy, in the meantime, are swarming in his rear, and gathering in his front.

All this talk of sending instructions to our generals begins to be considered as mere nonsense. Send them troops. I do not know what glories may be hereafter acquired by Mr. Trist, in the diplomatic line, but a good deal of fighting is yet to be done, in order to prepare a theatre fro the exercises of the extraordinary functions said to be assigned to him.

By the way, we have a rumor,--and one rumor is as good as another just now, that Mr. Trist has been recalled for some alleged reason, and will be here in a day or two,--but without any treaty, except the project of one that he carried out with him.

Those people who are seriously desirous of a peace, have become convinced that we are not using efficient measures to conquer it. We have nothing to expect, for the next six months, but a languishing, inefficient, and expensive war. The next congress must send a hundred thousand men, and raise one hundred millions of dollars, to bring it to an end." [SRP]


NNR 72.305 July 17, 1847 Refutation by the Washington "Union" of the charge by the "Courier and Enquirer" that the administration has authorized Nicholas Philip Trist to interfere with the operations of Gen. Winfield Scott

From the Washington Union of the 9th July.

The administration and Gen Scott. Several of the more violent of the whig journals, taking their cue from the New York "Courier and Enquirer," which professes to have received special information on the subject from its "southern correspondents," are charging that Mr. Trist has been sent to Mexico in a mission interfering with the military authority of Gen. Scott. They allege that Mr. Trist has assumed for himself a right to order an armistice, and otherwise to interfere with and even direct the operations of the army, under Gen. Scott's command. They express a warm sympathy with Gen. Scott's indignation at thus finding himself, as they allege, placed by the administration in the position of "a subordinate clerk in the state department;" and they profess to see in this alleged movement of the administration additional evidence of hostility on the part of the government towards its commanding general in the hold. The "Courier and Enquirer," indeed, goes so far as to assert that Mr. Trist has not only been guilty of such interference with General Scott's command, but that he has shown "a letter either from the department of state, or the department of war," fully authorizing such a course on his part.

Since the disappointment of the editor of the "Courier and Enquirer" in reference to the object of his visit to Washington last winter, the motive of his virtuous indignation against the government is so well known as to render any charges against it quite harmless, so long as they are confined to its own columns, though put forth in terms intended to create the impression that the material of them may have been furnished to him, duly exaggerated and discolored, "by private advices" from the scene of our military operations. The repetition of these charges in other journals, however, has led us to make careful inquiry into the matter; and we now state positively that all these accusations against the administration, of giving Mr. Trist any authority to interfere in any form, or in the slightest degree, with Gen. Scott's military command, are absolutely and totally without foundation.

Having made these statements thus positively, we deem it proper to suggest to those Federal journals which persist in charging upon the administration an attempt to do injustice to Gen. Scott in this matter, that the intercourse and the relations between the government and General Scott are matter of record. In due time that record may be made to speak for itself. Meantime, it will be no more than prudent for, those journals which now seek to put the administration in the wrong against Gen. Scott, to remember the fate of a similar ill-judged attempt by the professed friends of that officer, which led to the publication, on their call, of the well known correspondence between him and the war department at a previous period of the war. If the success of that experiment warrants, in the judgment of General Scott's friends another call for the record, we undertake to say, on the part of the administration, that such a call, when made in due season, and by due authority, will be cheerfully and at once complied with. We say this, not only without the slightest feeling of unkindness towards Gen. Scott, but, on the contrary, with a full sense of the distinguished services which he has rendered to his country in the field. [SRP]


NNR 72.305 July 17, 1847 Description of Col. Alexander William Doniphan and his men

Col. Doniphan, is described, by the New Orleans National, as, "a man of giant frame, and of that loose carriage peculiar to the west, that deceives the eye as to proportion and strength." "His officers and men (that paper tells) have a strange, uncouth appearance: Piecemeal, the ill made clothing of the volunteers has fallen from them, and they have supplied its place with what chance and the wild beasts of New Mexico have thrown in their way. Their sun-burnt faces, grizzly beards, and withal their devil may care air, is perfectly irresistible. Yet beneath those rough exteriors, are concealed minds of educated and high toned sentiments, full of lofty thoughts and love of liberty--minds that are destined to be felt in the councils of the nation, and to play a prominent part in the stirring events of the times." [SRP]


NNR 72.305 July 17, 1847 British mediation suggested between the United States and Mexico

British Mediation. Lord Palmerston stated in the house of commons recently, that an offer of mediation had been made by the British government between Mexico and the United States, but that as yet it had not been accepted by either of the belligerents. [SRP]


NNR 72.306 July 17, 1847 Connecticut resolutions on the war

Connecticut.--The legislature adjourned, after the longest session (of fifty days) ever held by any legislature of the state.

Mexican war.--On the morning of the adjournment resolutions were passed in the strongest terms of approbation of the bravery and skill displayed by our officers and soldiers in the Mexican war. The resolutions were prefaced by the following preamble:

"Whereas, in consequence of the admission of Texas into the Union, and of the order of the president without the authority of the constitution and the law, directing troops to march into territory in the occupation of Mexico; a state of war exists between the United States and Mexico, conducted at a great expense of life and treasure, and which may result in the acquisition of large portions of territory, hereafter to be made states of the Union: Therefore," &e. [SRP]


NNR 72.307 July 17, 1847 Cuban refusal of passports to the United States or Mexico

Passports from Cuba.--A letter from which we inserted an extract, recently written from Vera Cruz, signified amongst other alarming things to the writer, that officers and adventurers were making their way from Cuba to Mexico, taking command of guerrillas, &e. The La Patria of the 2d, states that the authorities of Cuba are taking measures to prevent their subjects from interfering in the war. The Sol de Anahuac of June 23d, referring to intelligence recently received from Havana, says that the government of Cuba refuses passports to the United States or to Mexico, to every person born in Spain or in that island, except those above thirty-six years of age, or those who can show that they have commercial business in the places to which they wish for passports. [SRP]


NNR 72.307 July 17, 1847 Mexican comments on the American force at Puebla, decree against publishing information on the state of defenses at Mexico City and against intercourse with the part of the country under occupation

City of Mexico--Dates to the 16th June, have been received by the Mobile Herald.

The Diario del Gobierno, of the 12th says: "Trustworthy letters and the evidence of persons of veracity confirm the report that the Yankees in Puebla do not number 6,000, the artillery does not amount to 25 pieces, most of 8, 6, and 4 pounders. What garrison will they think of leaving in Puebla in case they move forward? Certainly not less than 2,000. And with hardly 4,000 will they attempt to come to Mexico? In such cases it is vulgarly and the meat is too little for so much broth."

The same paper of the 13th of June, contains the decree of Santa Anna prohibiting the publication of notices as to the state of defense of the city of Mexico, and cutting off all communication "with the point of the republic occupied by our common enemies, the North Americans." All persons infringing this decree are to be proceeded against according to the laws against spies of the enemy. All persons, therefore, requiring to pass into or to write to such parts must obtain a safe conduct form the supreme government, or from properly constituted military authorities. [SRP]


NNR 72.307 July 17, 1847 "Union" insists that Gen. Winfield Scott will have over 20,000 men

The Washington Union of the 12th, says: "our army in Mexico has already (notwithstanding the dilatory action of congress) been largely reinforced. It is ascertained by the latest accounts from Vera Cruz, that several thousand additional troops have been already reported there, to strengthen General Scott's command. Besides these, a corps of six hundred marines must have ere this time arrived at Vera Cruz, for the same purpose. The battalion from this District, under the command of Colonel Hughes, will start immediately for the same destination. Additional regiments are also now mustering for the scene of action from Illinois, Ohio, Louisiana, and Georgia. Indeed, almost every mail embarkation of new troops for Vera Cruz. In a word, instead of giving General Scott 20,000 troops on the principal theatre of operations, (which Col. Doniphan calls for, and which the intercepted letter of the secretary shows were intended to be assigned to Gen. Scott), the design now is to give him more than 20,000.

"The administration has done all that the action of congress permitted it to do, in furnishing its generals with the amount and description of force which they required. And the feats which our arms have already accomplished--the armed occupation, both of the Pacific and the Atlantic seaboard of Mexico--the subjugation of vast regions of Mexican territory--the prostration of the Mexican military power, and probably presence, at this moment, of an American general in the Mexican capital--attest the power and success with which the efforts of the administration have been put forth. In these efforts there will be no relaxation, until the objects of the war are secured in a just and honorable treaty of peace." [SRP]


NNR 72.307 July 17, 1847 Gen. Gideon Johnson Pillow's letter

MAJOR GENERAL PILLOW is recognized as one of the army officers with whom the president is upon terms of confidential intimacy. Gen. Pillow was on his return from a visit to his residence in Tennessee, at the time of the public reception of the returning volunteers to that state--and an invitation was given to attend. The following paragraph from his letter declining the invitation shows what his notions are of the objects of the war, and considering his peculiar relations to the president, must be regarded as some inclination also of the views of our chief magistrate on the subject:

"My intention is not again to leave the field of active duty to my country until a permanent peace can be secured by such a form of government in Mexico as will guaranty with certainty to the citizens of the U. States those advantages which may be contained in such treaty; or the establishment of a complete military occupation of Mexico, whereby the revenues may be secured to the use of the United States arising from the internal taxes in the Mexican states, besides the present duties on imports, and affording to the productive classes in Mexico that protection from their enormous taxes which they have not heretofore enjoyed, and thereby also teaching them how such taxes can be correctly collected and honestly accounted for to the people from forced loans, levied by their ever changing revolutionary Government." [CCB]


NNR 72.307 July 17, 1847 Gen. Robert Patterson's opinion of the plan for conquering peace

Major Gen. Patterson. The N. Orleans Deltas of the 19th ult. Says--"It is the opinion of officers just returned from Mexico--and we may mention the name of Gen. Patterson in this connection--that the probability of conquering a peace, upon the plan of warfare hitherto pursued is slender indeed. It is thought by them that an army of forty thousand rank and file, should be in the field; that captured cities should be put under the jurisdiction of American citizens; that the revenues of the states should be seized to defray the expenses of the war; that all the resources pertaining to the Government should be held as spoils of war, and that the military authority set up by the United States army should exercise all the powers of taxation and legislation belonging to the civil administration of the country. This plan embraces the idea of actual conquest and absolute jurisdiction, and is deemed the only feasible on of the bringing the war to a close."

"It is the belief of Gen. Patterson and others who have given the subject a large consideration, that an authority embracing all the necessary attributes of sovereignty, set up in Mexico, could collect revenue equal to its wants, and that the people of that country can alone be brought to their senses by the exhibition of such an authority. To permit the alcalde to use his functions in a captured city, or the native civil magistracy to conduct public affairs, is keeping an enemy in power who will be surely contriving against the army. This system as been productive of hurt wherever it has been tried in Mexico, and experience demands its abandonment.

"A military government, administered upon civilized principles, it is contended would be preferable to the one now existing in Mexico. It would be more acceptable to the tax payers, it is supposed, than the present arbitrary and vacillating one. It would be able to maintain itself without greater exactions than the country is able to bear, and might in the end leave the people in a better condition to govern themselves than they now are. These ideas seem plausible, and it might be wise to give them an experiment in some of the captured states. The opinion is becoming more and more general that that United States may conquer Mexico; but a peace--never." [SRP]


NNR 72.307 July 17, 1847  Release of Maj. John Pollard Gaines and other persons. Maj. Edwin Vose Sumner's report on operations of dragoons under his command on 11 and 14 September. Liberated prisoners met and detained by Gen. Jose Urrea en route for Tampico.

Tampico. The U. States transport ship Sarah, Capt. Farwell, reached New Orleans on the 6th inst. With Tampico dates to the 27th and Brazos Santiago to the 30th ultimo.

"Capt. Farwell reports that news was received at Tampico the night before his departure, that Col. Cassius M. Clay, Majors Borland and Gaines, and all other American prisoners in the City of Mexico had been released and ordered to Tampico, under a very large military escort. When within 150 miles of Tampico, it is stated that the liberated prisoners were met by Gen. Urrea, who detained them as captives, and ordered out all the men he could raise for the purpose of attacking Tampico. It is further reported that as soon as the intelligence was received, three companies of the 11th regiment of infantry which had been waiting at Tampico bar for transportation to Vera Cruz, were ordered up to the city; and the authorities fearing an attack, placed every man under arms. It was estimated that including the escort, prisoners, and all others with Urrea, that commander had under him fully 900 men.

The steamship Alabama left Vera Cruz on the 2d. touched at Brazos Santiago on the 4th and reached New Orleans on the 7th. The New Orleans Times publishes letters from the Vera Cruz correspondent "Indicator," of the 28th, 29th, and 30th June. They appear to have had no later intelligence at Vera Cruz from Gen. Scott nor from the trains that were on the road from Perote, to Puebla, where Gen. Scott, according to the latest accounts still remained--Indicator writes:

Vera Cruz, June 28th. Jalapa, I believe has been entirely abandoned by our troops; and, indeed, we this evening have intelligence that the guerrillas have taken possession of that city. Vera Cruz has less than three hundred men in her garrison. The National Bridge, Encerro and Cerro Gordo certainly, and Jalapa, probably, are not all guarded, and the country is flooded with the native enemy.

29th--Lieut. Merrifield, of Capt. Ford's company of Indiana Dragoons, this morning blew his brains out with a pistol.

The health of the city has suffered but little change for the past week or two, and all circumstances considered, may be pronounced good. The mortality has averaged less than ten daily within the time mentioned.

30th--We have news this morning from both the west and the south, from the city of Mexico and from Tobasco. A merchant's express came in from the capital, but with only half a dozen letters, and the political information contained in them is negative in the extreme. One of them, however, tells us that the Government which is of course Santa Anna, has demanded a forced loan of one million of dollars, and is raising the money at the point of the bayonet.--The work of fortifying the approaches to the city is proceeding vigorously; but one of the letters states, that great want of judgment is shown in the selection of portions for defense.

The writer says that the strongest fortifications are placed exactly where the Yankees are sure not to pass, while the most important points are left nearly open. The letters are very cautiously written, except the one which gives us the intelligence; and these are about all the remarks which it contains on the subject of general interest. The dates are up to the 18th only. The British Courier will bring news as late as the 26th, and I hope will be in this evening.

Capture of Tobasco. Commodore Perry and his squadron arrived at Anton Lizardo last evening, from his expedition against Tobasco. Upon his arrival at the entrance of the river, he found that a short distance up, chevaux de frise had been sunk so as to render the passage of his vessel impracticable. He consequently landed his men and his lighter guns, and commenced his march to the town. This was a most tedious business, but he managed to get ahead at the rate of one knot per hour until he reached the neighborhood of the town, where he found the enemy ready to receive him. Drawing up his army of tars into a very respectable column, he advanced within musket range when he received the enemy's fire, and instantly opened upon them his artillery, charged with grape and canister. The Mexicans did not fire again--Perry's single volley scattered them to the winds. Horses with the stampede could not get over the ground as they did. Some three or four of our men were wounded, but I believe none were killed. Lieutenant May lost an arm, and I believe one other officer only was badly wounded.

None of the officers of the squadron have yet been in town, and I have these particulars at second hand, although from good and intelligent authority.

The N. Orleans Times says--"We learn verbally that the British Courier reached Vera Cruz on the 1st instant, but as the Alabama sailed at day light on the following morning, no news, if any were received through that medium, had transpired. The Courier probably left the city of Mexico on the 26th or 27th ultimo."

Passengers per steamship Alabama--Capts. Clarke and Acker, and Lieuts. Gouverneau, of the 2d Mississippi regiment; Captain Kerrinton, and Lieuts. Kinney and Ashley, of the Virginia regiment. [SRP]


NNR 72.308 July 17, 1847 movement and position of corps, reinforcements, ordered back to embark for Veracruz, all hope of advancing abandoned

"Army of Occupation."

        A letter received at Washington from an officer in Gen. Wool's division, inserted in the National Intelligencer, says:

        Saltillo, June 12, 1847.

        "Our troops are nearly all taken off this line and ordered to Vera Cruz, and we are here in rather a bad fix. Gen. Valencia, who has been appointed to the supreme command of the Mexican army, is in San Luis re-organizing his forces for another campaign, while we are doing nothing, and can do nothing, owing to the rawness and fewness of our troops. We hear of troops arriving at Matamoras and Point Isabel, but immediately they are sent for by Gen. Scot and we are left alone. We have here about fifteen hundred men, all told: one regiment of Mississippi, one battalion of Virginia, and one company of North Carolina below, keeping up the line of communication."  [ANP]


NNR 72.308 July 17, 1847 Rumors, General Wool at Agua Nueva or Saltillo

        Matamoras, June 23, 1847.

        Gen. Wool is at Agua Nueva or Saltillo, with only about four hundred men, composed of several fragments of companies of artillery and dragoons. There are scarcely any volunteers of the old levy with Gen. Taylor. He has with him, or approaching Monterey, the Virginia and North Carolina and Massachusetts regiments, an perhaps a few hundred of Texan rangers and Mississippians. The united forces of these regiments and parts of regiments is not more that 2,500. There are at Camargo, Mier, and Reynosa 960 of the 16 infantry, Colonel J. W. Tibbatts, with his staff, passed up the river yesterday morning. OF this regiment 125 are at New Orleans awaiting transportation, together with 400 of the 13th infantry. This camp is formed of he 10th infantry, the New York regiment, under Col. Robert E. Temple, 841 rank and file, and about 400 of the 3d dragoons, under Col. Butler. They are all under the immediate command of Brigadier Gen. Enos D. Hopping, and are impatiently awaiting orders from Gen. Taylor to move up and join him. Major Towler Hamilton, of he 10th , is daily expected with the closing detachment of that regiment, which will complete its full number of 1,100 men. The whole of the 13th will probably soon be here, as, in addition to the four companies an New Orleans, two others have sailed from Mobile. Col. Hays was, two weeks since, on his way t join Gen. Taylor with 350 Texans, three months' men, raised under Col. Curtis' requisition for 3,000 men, but was met with an order to turn back, as the general had nouse for me whose terms of service were so short. A recapitulation of the above details will show that Gen. Taylor will soon have at his disposal 4 or 500 artillery and cavalry of the old regiments, 500 dragoons, or one half the new 3d regiment; about 3,000 effective men of the 10th , 13th , and 16 regiments of infantry; and 2,500 volunteers, including several hundred of the very useful no nondescript Texans above referred to as rangers and scouts. [ANP]


NNR 72.308 July 17, 1847 Preparations for defense of Tampico

Gen. Winfield Scott detained at Puebla for want of reinforcements and supplies. Jalapa evacuated. Less than 300 men garrison Veracruz. Tabasco taken. Gen. George Cadwallader at Perote waiting of arrival of Gen. Gideon Johnson Pillow's forces. Provisions and forage available at Puebla. Capture and condemnation of a Mexican spy. Foraging party attacked. Rumors.

"Army of Invasion"

Later.--N. Orleans papers of the 8th furnish further intelligence brought by the Alabama, including city of Mexico dates to the 29th, and Puebla to the 30th June.

General Scott had not been able to leave Puebla for want of reinforcements. Gen. Cadwallader was at Perote on the 20th awaiting the arrival of General Pillow. Some of the papers mention that Cadwallader reached Puebla on the 30th, but Kendall's letter of that date from there makes no mention of it. Gen. Pillow is said to have been compelled to contest the road with the guerrilla parties till beyond Cerro Gordo. Guerrilleros took advantage of every defile to resist his progress. His loss is said to have been severe.

Lieut. Col. Belton, 3d artillery, is governor of Puebla.

The American Star, published at Puebla, states that Gen Alvarez was at Atlixco on the 14th June, with 300 Mexican cavalry.

The Star says there is three month's provisions in the city for the army, and that the fields around the city supply all the forage necessary.

A Mexican named Heredia detected by his countrymen on his way from the capital to Puebla with drawings of the different fortifications around the capital was tried and condemned as a spy and a traitor, to be shot on the 21st ult.

The Star of the 24th contains an account of a party of eight or ten men not belonging to the army, who left Puebla on the 20th, and proceeded about 18 miles in the direction towards Mexico, to purchase some mules for the government. As they were about to start by a bye path after procuring them and partaking of a repast, they were discovered by a large party of Mexican lancers, from whom they were endeavoring to escape when their passage was interrupted by another party. The pursuing party over took and charged on them. Dickinson the leader, though severely wounded, managed to escape. John Kinsey is supposed to be killed, and all the others are wounded and taken prisoners.

A rumor was current in Vera Cruz on the morning of the 1st instant, that Gen. Scott had entered the city of Mexico, and the Gen. Pillow had been captured by the guerrilla parties. We know the former report to be false, and believe the latter to be. Our Vera Cruz correspondent puts not faith in either story. [WWF,SRP]


NNR 72.308 July 17, 1847 vomito still prevailing at Veracruz

        The vomito still prevailed at Vera Cruz. The deaths were from 30 to 40, of these, it was said, full one half were Americans, including not only soldiers, but also laborers, teamsters, and private citizens; the balance were Mexicans. [ANP]


NNR 72.308 July 17, 1847 Gen. Franklin Pierce at Veracruz organizing reinforcements

         Passengers by the Alabama say that Gen. Pierce, with a large train and a column, said to be 2,000 strong, reinforcements for General Scott, would leave Vera Cruz probably about the sixth. These troops arrived since the departure of the last column, under General Pillow, and embraced nearly all the balance belonging to the ten new regiments, and with the troops of Generals Pillow and Cadwallader, would make an addition to General Scott's army of between 5 and 600. [ANP]


NNR 72.308 July 17, 1847 letter from an officer at Saltillo about lack of troops on that line

"ARMY OF OCCUPATION."

A letter received at Washington from an officer in Gen. Wool's division, inserted in the National Intelligencer, says:
"Saltillo, June 12, 1847.
Our troops are nearly all taken off this line and ordered to Vera Cruz, and we are here in rather a bad fix. Gen. Valencia, who has been appointed to the supreme command of the Mexican army, is in San Luis re-organizing his forces for another campaign, while we are doing nothing, and can do nothing, owing to the rawness and fewness of our troops. We hear of troops arriving at Matamoras and Point Isabel, but immediately they are sent for by Gen. Scott and we are left alone. We have here about fifteen hundred men, all told: one regiment of Mississippi, one battalion of Virginia, an done company of North Carolina below, keeping up the line of communication." [CCB]


NNR 72.313 July 17, 1847-72.314 July 17, 1847 Reception for returning volunteers at New Orleans, tribute to the Mississipians.

The reception of the returning volunteers at New Orleans, including Colonel Davis's 250 Mississippians, on the 10th ult. at New Orleans, is described as an imposing affair. Two columns of the Delta are occupied with all that was said, done, or seen, on this thrilling occasion. The day was brightly beautiful, and the military escort large in numbers and brilliant in appearance. The gallant Mississippians numbered in all about 250 men--what a wreck of this once powerful regiment! It must have been a sight to make "the pulse throb and the heart beat" with redoubled vigor, to see those heroes of Buena Vista! The city authorities, Governor Johnson, &c., were on the platform in the center, from which S. S. Prentiss welcomed them from their triumphs, in behalf of the city, in one of the most stirring speeches. Col. Davis and Lieut. Col. McClung responded. The day's celebration wound up with a grand banquet at the Place d'Armes. The tables were three hundred feet long, and were filled with every thing that the heart could wish. When the gates of the Place d'Armes were thrown open for the reception of the honored guests, a shout arose from the assembled multitude that might have been heard for miles.

Mississippi volunteers---Major Bradford.--Of all the regiments which have repaired to the field of battle and done yeoman service for their country, none perhaps are entitled to more respect and regard, or occupy a larger space in the public mind than the 1st regiment of Mississippi volunteers, commanded by Col. Jefferson Davis, Lieutenant Colonel McClung, and Alexander B. Bradford. No other regiment has acquitted itself more gallantly, and none, it is stated, shares more largely the affections of General Taylor. The current story that the old hero shed tears when he parted with his favorites, is doubtless strictly true, and is entirely consistent with the general's warm attachment to a body of troops commanded by his son-in-law, and with the known sensibility of his character.

Every officer of this heroic band occupies at home considerable distinction. They are all gentlemen of talents and respectability. Heretofore they were distinguished in the arena of political controversy, and had gathered laurels in combats only of intellectual strife; but they have no added military glory to civil honors, and stand forth as accomplished and successful soldiers. The press has circulated for and wide a thousand laudatory notices of Davis and McClung, and these names are as familiar to the people in the remotest of parts of the union, as to their immediate friends and supporters in Mississippi. Less, however, has been said of Major Bradford--not the least worthy and valiant of the noble trio.--We have, therefore, obtained from a friend the material for a slight sketch of his character and career.

Alexander B. Bradford is a native of Tennessee, and is about 47 years of age. His person is commanding and rather handsome. The marked feature in his countenance is his eye, which is black, piercing and full of intelligence. His character has most of the strongly defined attributes of the South. He is brave to rashness--loving danger for the excitement it creates--of rapid perceptions--a nice and jealous sense of honor--eminently endowed with those social and kind qualities calculated to render him popular among his acquaintances. Major Bradford was several years a member of the Tennessee legislature, and in that capacity displayed decided talent and ability. He commanded the Tennessee regiment of infantry in the Florida war, and at the battle of With [lacouche] distinguished himself by his intrepidity and coolness. After serving some time in Florida Maj. Bradford returned home, and shortly after removed to Mississippi, where he at once assumed a prominent position at the bar, as an able advocate and popular lawyer. He was sent to the legislature of his adopted state in 1840. Maj. Bradford is a whig in politics and not only enjoys the utmost confidence of his own party, but is loved by his political opponents. He will probably be the nominee of the whigs in the northern congressional district of the State, and though the democracy have an immense majority, Major Bradford's strength with the people is such as to throw a shade of doubt over the result.

At the storming of Monterey, Major Bradford played a conspicuous part, and was close upon the heels of the intrepid McClung. At Buena Vista he fought like a lion, and was particularly fortunate, it is said, in rallying a portion of the Indianians, when the latter fell back in confusion and jeoparded the day. The stubborn and desperate bravery of Major B. gives him that influence over his men which this first of soldierly qualities generally creates; while his sagacity enables him to act with judgment, and his kindness of heart endears him to those under his command. He is probably without a personal enemy in the world.--N.O. Bee. [SRP]


NNR 72.315-316 July 17, 1847 Reply of Col. William T. Haskell to Gen. Gideon Johnson Pillow concerning the action at Cerro Gordo.

COL HASKELL'S REPLY TO GEN. PILLOW

To the Public.

While on my way from my residence in Jackson to this city, which I was visiting on private business, I met at Huntingdon with the reply of Gen. Pillow to the communication of myself and officers, published in the N.O. Picayune of the 29th of May last, in relation to the operations of Gen. Pillow's brigade at the recent action of Cerro Gordo.

In rejoining to the reply of Gen. Pillow, I shall endeavor to do so with that dignity of manner and temperateness of tone befitting the columns of a public journal; for, however provoking the language of Gen. Pillow may be to me, and however much I might be justified in the employment of harsher terms than I shall use, still, in the absence of Gen. Pillow, I should suffer in my own esteem if ill temper betrayed me to the use of stronger words than such as are necessary simply to convey my meaning.--Besides, I have a high public duty to perform; and although Gen. Pillow professes to treat the communication of myself and officers as coming alone from me, and endeavors to divert the public mind from a contemplation of his own misconduct by making this controversy purely personal between us, still I cannot bring myself to believe that the pages of a newspaper, while the parties are separated from each other by the distance of two thousand miles, are the proper places for the use of personalities or the settlement of personal affairs.

Following the order in which the general has arranged his reply, I notice, first, his attempt at special pleading and mystification in reference to the enemy's position and number of batteries. In the communication of myself and officers, the enemy's line of works is described in the following language: "The right of the enemy extended from the left of the Jalapa road to the gorge in the mountains, through which the river flows. Along this line the enemy had established himself on three different heights, divided from each other by almost impassable ravines.--Each of these heights were strengthened by admirably constructed field works, known to our engineers as Nos. 1, 2, and 3, commencing at the gorge."--This description the general denies to be correct, and says that, "instead of three works in this line of works, as these gentlemen say, there were known to be four before the battle; battery No. 1, situated on the river bluff, and No. 2, at the extreme of the enemy's line of breastwork, and not nearer to the point assaulted than from four hundred to six hundred yards, and batteries Nos. 3 and 4 were still further towards the national road; the place assaulted mad the fifth battery." This singular description of the enemy's work is opposed by General Pillow without one particle of proof to the combined testimony of myself and sixteen of my officers. These counter statements make direct issue of fact between myself and General Pillow. How is it to be determined? So far, the weight of testimony is with me, and if Gen. Pillow desires to relieve himself from the appearance of having endeavored to mislead the public mind by wrongly describing these works, let him produce a map drawn by any intelligent officer of the engineer corps who examined the ground; and if he does, it will prove that he was but only ignorant of the ground before the battle, but that he has learned nothing about it yet; and that if he had his work to do over a second time, he would do it as blunderingly as he did it before. The truth is that there were but four distinct field works on the whole battlefield of Cerro Gordo. Commencing on the enemy's right, they stand in the following order: No. 1, situated on the bluff immediately above the gorge through which the river flows, and totally disconnected from No. 2 by a deep and almost impassable ravine--leaving a space of some hundred years or more where there was no wall or works of any kind. This work mounted some five or six guns. No. 2 next on the left of No. 1, was divided from 3 by a still deeper ravine, and disconnected from it by a still greater space--say two hundred yards of more--each elevation having its separate battery and fortification. This work had seven guns on its front line, three of four on its redoubt, and two more on what General Pillow calls a "retired line." No. 3 contained about six or seven guns. This work extended from the top of the height where the guns were placed, along the side of the mountain and nearly parallel with the national road, to the point where it struck the road, nearly opposite the heights of Cerro Gordo. At this point in the road, where this field work terminated, there was a battery of six large brass guns enfilading the road. The next and last field work was that which encircled the height of Cerro Gordo, which rose on the right of the road. On this height there were six guns, all mounted on carriages. Higher up the Jalapa road, at or near the headquarters of Santa Anna, there were some five or six brass guns, but no field works. It was the second of these works (No. 2) which my regiment was ordered to attack--and one of the strongest and most reckless declarations which General Pillow, has made is, that I "was not ordered to assault battery No. 2, nor was that battery ever assaulted." In the same paragraph which contains this extraordinary misstatement, Gen. Pillow declares that it never was intended that Colonel Wynkoop should assault No. 1. How does this subsequent statement agree with the language of his of his official report of the 18th April, 1847. In that paper he says: "I therefore directed Col. Haskell, who commanded the assaulting force intended for the attack of battery No. 2, to assault that work with vigor, and carry it at the point of the bayonet. His party moved onward to the assault with great energy," &c.

And in a subsequent paragraph of the same report he says: "In the mean time, Col. Wynkoop, who commanded the storming party designed to attack battery No. 1 succeeded in gaining the position where the assault was to have been made, &c. "How flatly the official report and his reply contradict each other! But the general, for the purpose of relieving himself from the ridicule which necessarily follows him for having ordered the attack on No. 2, while the attacking party was exposed to its dreadful fire in front and to the raking fire of the batteries on either flank, asserts that adjacent angles of Nos. 1 and 2 were the intended points of assault! Why, what sort of quibbling is this? Is not the angle of a work a part of the work itself? How attack the angle of a work and leave the work itself unattacked? Ridiculous!

"But the truth is, there were no such angles as he describes there, and Gen. Pillow unwittingly confesses the fact. In one portion of his reply he says, "The position intended to be attacked was what was believed by both the engineers and myself to be the angle of those batteries, &c., in another part he says: "At this supposed angle no guns could be seen," &c.; and that he was deceived in the supposition, if he ever supposed any such thing, is fully admitted by him in the following language: "The assault was made known to these officers; and, though this point turned out to be a strong work, mounting eight pieces of artillery immediately in front, and two more on a retired line, all of which were, to the moment of attack, entirely concealed and completely marked by the stone wall and brush, yet up to that time it was believed to be an angle in the large stone breastwork connecting the batteries Nos. 1 and 2. Such was the position intended to be and actually assaulted."--Yet General Pillow says No. 2 "never was assaulted."

As to "the stone breastwork connecting the batteries No. 1 and 2, " Gen. Pillow knew well enough when he said so that there was no such stone breastwork there. Nos. 1 and 2, I again say, are separated from each other by a deep ravine. Why did not Gen. Pillow acknowledge this at once? The reason is evident. He is unwilling that the world should know the truth, and is endeavoring to mislead it;--and I will just remark in this connection, that Gen. Pillow, contrary to all courtesy and military etiquette failed to call upon his colonels for reports of that day's work. Why did he do so? The answer is easy. These reports would have elicited the truth, and a description of the ground. This failure on his part to call for reports, and his misrepresentations in his own official report, were among the reasons which implied my officers and myself to give the whole affair to the public.

Reviewing the reply of Gen. Pillow in its proper order, I notice next his defense of the manner in which the regiments were moved to the scene of action. As stated in the communication of my officers and myself, and not denied by him, Col. Wynkoop, supported by Col. Campbell, was to assail No.1, and my regiment, supported by Col. Roberts, was to attack No. 2. These regiments were all moved along a narrow path to the scene of action by the right flank. Wynkoop first, followed by me; Campbell next, who was to support Wynkoop; and Roberts in the rear, who was to support me. This order of march placed a regiment between each of the assaulting and their supporting regiments; and yet the general says this was the only proper order of march. Does not any man of common sense see that each supporting regiment should have moved directly in rear of its assaulting regiment; for instance, Campbell in rear of Wynkoop, and Roberts in rear of me? These regiments, also, that is to say, Campbell's and Wynkoop's, should have been moved by the left flank so that when they reached the point at which they were to file square off to the left from the path towards the river, at an intimation from the general the colonels could have given the command, "file left--march," and the regiments, in obedience to the order, moving simultaneously square off to the left, would have crossed the ravine, and, gaining the hill opposite No. 1, would have been in position, in line opposite of battle, parallel with each other and the batter, at one and the same time. In the mean time, while these regiments were reaching their position, having cleared the path, my regiment and Roberts's could have reached the point on the path where they were to file off and at an intimation from the general, at the command of each colonel, "file right--march," our regiments would have moved square off to the right of the path and from the river, and in a moment each regiment would have been in line of battle, parallel with each other, fronting No. 2, the left of each regiment resting on the path. This simple movement could have been executed without the slightest confusion, and in three minutes; yet General Pillow contends that the blundering manner in which he brought up the regiments, "was the only order of march by which it was possible to have placed them." I make no comment here.

The error of the General is too palpable. I attributed it, at first, to inadvertence, on his part, and should have continued to do so yet, but that he has defended the movement as right and proper; and I now find that I did him too much justice in my own mind, and place the error to his want of military skill and capacity.

Gen. Pillow, as he has twice stated, placed my regiment in position. He has denied that he changed its wings and reversed its ranks. And for the purpose of sustaining himself in this denial he has seized hold of an error in my first article, which occurred either from inadvertence or in the hast of copying for the press, and of which error he was previously informed; and for the purpose of exculpating himself and implication me in a blunder, has endeavored to make the world believe what he knows to be untrue. In my first article it was stated that Gen. Pillow directed "to rest my [his] right on the right of the path, extending my [his] left square off to the left, so as to form my line of battle parallel with the center field work of the enemy." Instead of "square off to the left," this sentence should have read "square off to the right." An officer of high rank, who participated in the assault told me in this city, that while at New Orleans, and when Gen. Pillow was reading my publication to him, he pointed out this error, and explained to Gen. Pillow that it was either a typographical error or had been hastily and inadvertently written, and was not according to the fact. He informed me, further, that he explained to Gen. Pillow the effect of this error, and showed him that it would make my regiment appear to be on the left of the path, its right resting on the left of the path and its left square off to the left towards the river, which would have been a proper formation; when, instead of that, as he and the general both knew, its right rest on the right of the path, and its left was square off to the right, from the river--which was all wrong, because it changed the wings and reversed the ranks. Gen. Pillow, who, as my informant believes, had not up to that time perceived this inadvertence, immediately took hold of it, and, outraging all fairness and candor and known fact, has actually made it the chief argument of his defense, endeavoring to make the world believe that my regiment was on one side of the path when he knows it to have been on the other. Will General Pillow deny that my regiment was on the right of the path? He cannot. In one part of his reply he has himself confessed it. I quote his language: "By my order of attack, Wynkoop's assaulting column was to form on the left of the path, fronting the right side of the angle; and Haskell's assaulting force was to form on the right side of the path." In forming my regiment in line of battle, as my officers and myself have previously said, and as I now here repeat, the general directed me to rest my right on the right of the path. If my right rested on the right of the path, where was its left necessarily thrown? Still further out to the right. Would not this, I ask any military man, have changed the wings and reversed the rank? I challenge Gen. Pillow to deny in explicit terms, that the wings of my regiment were changed and its ranks reversed. He has not denied it. He only contends in his reply, that if he ordered me to rest my right on the path, and throw my left square off to the left, that then, by that order, the regiment was properly placed as to its wings and ranks. But have no such order, and he knows it. He rested my right on the right of the path, and threw my left square off to the right, not left, as inadvertently said in the first publication of myself and officers; and this he dare not deny; for, if he does, he well knows that every officer and private of my regiment will testify differently. I have now fully exposed General Pillow's unfair quibbling about a word, and have proved upon him the blunder which my officers and myself first charged him with, and still insist on.

The next point in the general's reply relates to his reconnaissance of the enemy's position. I pass over his admissions of his ignorance of the ground, because, as he says, the works could not be perfectly reconnoitered, with one or two inquiries. Why did he induce Gen. Scott to believe that he had "carefully reconnoitered them? And why did he assault No. 2 at all when he was ordered by the general in chief only, "if circumstances should favor him," to pierce the enemy's line of batteries, and then as near the river as possible? The order of Gen Scott was that Gen. Pillow would "march along the route which he had carefully reconnoitered, and stand ready, so soon as he heard the report of arms on our right, or sooner, if circumstances should favor him, to pierce the enemy's line of batteries at such a point, the nearer the river the better, as he might select." Now where is the point of attack clearly indicated in this order of the general in chief? Certainly battery No. 1, nearest the river. If this battery had been assailed by the whole brigade it would have been carried. Then, turning his own guns upon the enemy, and at the same time attacking him in reverse, he could have been easily driven from the field. Instead of doing this, however, Gen. Pillow assaulted the center battery, it being the strongest of the three, with but one regiment, leaving the other three regiments unemployed! In all this I have contended, and still contend, that Gen. Pillow exhibited a total want of ability to command. [SRP]


NNR 72.316-319 July 17, 1847 "Welcome home" to Col. Alexander William Doniphan's detachment at Saint Louis

The reception of the Missouri Volunteers.

From the Missouri Republican.

The ceremony of receiving the Missouri volunteers, after their victorious march from Missouri, by way of Santa Fe, to Chihuahua and Saltillo, is at an end--and it terminated with great gratification to the citizens, and, we hope, to the volunteers who were the recipients of it.

The uncertainty which attended the arrival of the volunteers--the limited number arriving in each boat, and the very great desire of many of them to return to their homes and friends--all conspired to create solicitude on the part of those who were anxious that everything should go off well. This was the case up to yesterday morning, when, at an early hour, the Clarksville came into port, having on board Major M. L. Clark, Capt. Weightman, Lieutenants Dorn and Chouteau, and other officers, and some of the privates of the battalion of light artillery. Their arrival determined the committee of arrangements to proceed with the ceremonies, and, under their instructions, the chief marshal issued orders to that effect. Thousands of citizens, leaving their usual avocations, turned out to honor the guests of the city, and long before the time appointed for the reception, in front of the Planter's House, and in the streets leading to it, a dense multitude of people were collected. Flags were displayed in every direction and the bells of the churches and of the various engine houses rang a merry peal. Just as everything was ready for the orator appointed to welcome the volunteers, to proceed with his address, it was announced by the chief marshal, that the Pride of the West, having on board Capt. Hudson, and several other officers of the command, and also the artillery capture from the Mexicans at the battle of Sacramento, was in sight, and by common consent any further proceeding was postponed until they could arrive and be participants in it. New spirit seemed to be infused into the multitude by this fortunate coincidence. The committee of arrangements at once repaired to the boat, and, through it. Biennerhassett tendered them the hospitalities of the city, and an invitation to partake in the festival. This invitation was responded to by Captain Hudson, and in a very short time the volunteers, and the train of artillery were on their way to Fourth street, where, in front of the Flanters House, it was arranged that the address welcoming the volunteers to the city should be made.

Judge Bowlin's welcome home.

Judge Bowlin, who had been selected for the purpose, then addressed the volunteers as follows: Colonel Doniphan, officers and soldiers of the Missouri volunteers:

In the name, and on behalf of the people of St. Louis, I bid you a warm and cordial welcome back to the land of your cherished homes, and tender you the hospitalities of their city--a city proud of her identity with your gallant achievements. In doing this, it becomes me to assure you, gentlemen, we are performing no idle ceremonial, in which the heart has no participation; but it is the spontaneous homage which we, as your fellow countrymen, feel proud to award your patriotism--your valor--your self-sacrificing devotion to country. Indeed, we hail your return to your homes with no ordinary emotions; as a long anxiety for your safety, a consciousness of the perils that every where environed you, a dubiousness of your false spread a gloom over the community which your security has been dispelled; and awakened, in lieu of it, mingled feelings of gratitude for your deliverance, and admiration for the heroic deeds that won it. Besides, we feel proud as your countrymen, in sharing that halo of glory which your gallant deeds have thrown around the name of the "Missouri volunteer." You have baptized that glorious title with your blood, and laurelled it with brilliant victories, the memory of which can only perish with the language in which they are recorded. Your deeds have encircled around that hallowed name a wreath of imperishable renown, never to fade or decay:

"For the true laurel wreath which glory weaves,

Is from that tree no bold of thunder cleaves."

We feel, upon the occasion of this meeting, as the stranger cannot feel. We feel that the perils, the privations, the dangers were yours; but that the fame acquired by your heroic achievements, is the common property of our cherished state, and reflects a luster upon the humblest citizen, who reaps, with you, your harvest of glory. What Missourian does not feel proud to be pointed at as the countrymen of the victors of Brazito and Sacramento?

Gentlemen, in thus tendering you the hospitalities of our city, it may not be inappropriate to allude to the condition of the country, the service, and notice some details of your own heroic adventure, which assumes more the character of romance than reality.

On the breaking out of the war, the promptness with which our citizens volunteered in the service not only surprised ourselves, but actually astonished the governments and people Europe. They could not comprehend that feeling of patriotism in the citizens of the young republic, which prompted fifty thousand swords to spring from their scabbards and their tendered service to their country, upon a call for a tithe of that number. They could not conceal their surprise, I might almost say their chagrin, at beholding such a display of patriotism in a country, which presents the last, best hope of republican liberty. But if that astonished them, our victories, won chiefly with those volunteers, and the demonstrations of the vast resources of the country, bare surprised them more. We have been one year in the war, we have maintained thirty thousand troops in the field, victory has everywhere perched upon our standard, the national stocks above par, whilst individual property is such that we are feeding the starving millions of Europe by voluntary contributions. We may be literally said to be conquering one nation whilst we are feeding another. The history of the world presents no parallel to this spectacle of national and individual prosperity. After a year's absence, characterized by wild adventure and heroic deeds, amidst the mountains and plains of Mexico, this is the picture of prosperity with which your country greets you on your return.

But, gentlemen, amidst the glorious achievements of this war, your own gallant march will occupy a prominent place upon the page of history. It assumes so much the air of romance, that the world will contemplate it with mingled feelings of doubt and admiration. Organized upon the frontier of Missouri, your first march was for eight hundred miles across wild and barren plains, whose solitude is only awakened by the low of the buffalo and the yell of the savage. New Mexico received you and surrendered without a blow--determined she should have no foe but yourselves, you immediately followed the conquest by an expedition against the Navaho Indians, the natural enemies of your conquested people, and by chastising them, gave the people a repose from the incursions of those daring marauders.

There being no longer a field for enterprise in New Mexico, you sat out on your daring and perilous march to join the army of occupation, with scarcely exceeding a single regiment in number. --You met the enemy in greatly superior force at Barite, and put them to flight without the loss of a single man, and entered El Paso in triumph--with the trophies of the battle field to adorn your march.--This victory, considering the disparity of numbers, the amount of loss on your side, and the results, would be left almost without a parallel, but for the more brilliant achievement at Sacramento. After a march of twenty days into the interior of the enemy's country, it was your fortune again to encounter them, their fortified position, at Sacramento. You no time to number the foe, or weigh the chances of success, but in the name of your county rushed gallantly to the charge, and with your own good swords, cut your passage to the city of Chihuahua, through hosts arrayed to oppose your advice. The loss of the enemy in this engagement, in men, in munitions of war, in trophies of victory, was great, whilst you lost but one man on your side, who fell gallantly charging upon the enemy--

"With his back to the field, his feet to the foe,
And leaving in battle no blot on his name,
Looking proudly to Heaven from the death bed of fame."

His solitary tomb on the battle-field, will serve to point the future traveler to the spot where his countrymen so gallantly triumphed in arms, and where his own spirit arose amidst shouts of victory to Heaven. Long, long will that solitary tomb attract the passing pilgrim's eyes and demand from his heart the homage of a tear. His lonely tomb shall be the battle's monument; and his fame as imperishable as the field of his glorious death.

This battle opened your passage to Chihuahua; you entered in triumph the proud capital of the north, and unfurled the stars and stripes from her battlements, and dictated terms to her people, as creditable to your humanity as to your courage.--From thence you marched Saltillo, and, having completed your glorious work, you were sent home to repose upon the laurels won by your gallant achievements.

This march, with its battles, its perils, its dangers, and its privations, is unparalleled in this or any other country. One thousand men, entering the enemy's country, and marching through it for fifteen hundred miles, meeting and scattering two armies, like the leaves of autumn before a northern blast, looks more like it belonged to the regions of romance, than sober reality. But, gentlemen, you have left nothing to doubt--your cannons and your flags, the trophies of your glorious triumphs, are spread before us, as witnesses of your glorious deeds.

In conclusion, I again bid you welcome to the shores of our own Missouri--welcome to her proud and favored city--welcome to the hospitality of her people--welcome to all that a generous and chivalrous heart casts at the shrine of valor--welcome to the homage due to the brave, welcome to our hearths and our hearts.

To this address, Lt. Col. Mitchell responded, in a brief, yet very appropriate speech.

Under the escort of the volunteer companies of the city, the procession was then formed, and proceeded to Camp Lucas. Col. Kennett was in command of the volunteer companies. We observed, among the number, the Grays, Captain West; the Montgomery Guards, Captain Watson; the Iagers, Capt. Resick; the Missouri dragoons, Capt. Steitz, and a company of mounted men. Several of the engine companies, in full uniform, were also in the procession. At Camp Lucas, an immense crowd of people had assembled, and very soon the chief marshal introduced, in fitting terms, the Hon. Thos. H. Benton, who had been selected to deliver the reception speech.

Col Benton's Speech.

The orator of the day, Col. Benton, then addressed the returned volunteers, as follows:

Col. Doniphan, and officers and men: I have been appointed to an honorable and a pleasant duty that of making you the congratulations of your fellow citizens of St. Louis, on your happy return from your long, and almost fabulous expedition.--You have indeed marched far, and done much, and suffered much, and well entitled yourselves to the applauses of your fellow citizens, as well as to the rewards and thanks of your government. A year ago you left home. Going out from the western order of your state, you re-enter it on the east, having made a circuit equal to the fourth of the circumference of the globe, providing for yourselves as you went, and returning with trophies taken from fields, the names of which were unknown to yourselves and your country, until revealed by your enterprise, illustrated by your valor, and immortalized by your deeds. History has but few such expeditions to record; and when they occur, it is as honorable and useful, as it is just and wise, to celebrate and commemorate the events which entitle them to be known.

Your march and exploits have been among the most wonderful of the age. At the call of your country you marched a thousand miles to the conquest of New Mexico, as part of the force under General Kearny, and achieved that conquest, without the loss of a man, or the fire of a gun. That work finished, and New Mexico, itself so distant, and so lately the ultima thule--the outside boundary of percolation and enterprise--so lately a distant point to be attained, becomes itself a point of departure--a beginning point, for new and far more extended expeditions. You look across the long and lofty chain--the Cordillera of North America--which divides the Atlantic from the Pacific waters; and you see beyond that ridge, a savage tribe which had been long in the habit of depredations upon the province which had just become an American conquest.--You, a part only of the subsequent. Chihuahua column, under Jackson and Gilpin, march upon them--bring them to terms--and they bind themselves to cease their depredations on the Mexicans, and to become the friends of the United States. A novel treaty, that! Signed on the western confines of New Mexico, between parties who had hardly ever heard such other names before, and to give peace and protection to Mexicans who were hostile to both.--This was the meeting, and this the parting of the Missouri volunteers, with the numerous and savage tribe of the Navajo Indians livi8ng on the waters of the Gulf of California, and so long the terror and scourge of Sonora, Sinaloa and new Mexico.

This object accomplished, and impatient of inactivity, and without orders (General Kearny having departed for California) you cast about to carve out some new work for yourselves. Chihuahua, a rich and populous city of near 30,000 souls, the seat of government of the state of that name, and formerly the residence of the captains general of the internal provinces under the vice regal government of New Spain, was the captivation object which fixed your attention. It was a far distant city--about as far from St. Louis as Moscow is from Paris; and towns and enemies, and a large river, and defiles and mountains, and the desert whose ominous name portending death to travelers--el jornada de los muertos--the journey of the dead--all lay between you. It was a perilous enterprise, and a discouraging one, for a thousand men, badly equipped, to contemplate. No matter. Danger and hardship lent it a charm, and the adventurous march was resolved on, and the execution commenced. First, the ominous desert was passed, its character vindicating its title to its mournful appellation--an arid plain of ninety miles, strewed with the bones of animals perished of hunger and thirst--little hillocks of stone, and the solitary, cross, erected by pious hands, marking the spot where some Christian had fallen, victim of the savage, of the robber, or of the desert itself--no water--no animal life--no sign of habitation. There the Texan prisoners, driven by the cruel Salazar, had met their direst sufferings, unrelieved, as in other parts of their march in the settled part of the country, by the compassionate ministrations (for where is it that woman is not compassionate?) of the pitying women. The desert was passed, and the place for crossing the river approached. A little arm of the river, Bracito (in Spanish) made out from its side. There the enemy, in superior numbers, and confident in cavalry and artillery, undertook to bar the way. Vain pretension! Their discovery, attack, and rout, were about simultaneous operations. A few minutes did the work! And in this way our Missouri volunteers of the Chihuahua column spend their Christmas day of the year 1846.

The victory of the Bracito opened the way to the crossing of the river Del Norte, and to admission into the beautiful little town of the Paso del Norte, where a neat cultivation, a comfortable people, fields, orchards and vineyards, and a hospitable reception, offered the rest and refreshment which toils, and dangers, and victory had won. You rested there till artillery was brought down from Santa Fe; but the pretty town of the Paso del Norte, with all its enjoyments, and they were many and the greater for the place in which they were found, was not a Capua to the men of Missouri. You moved forward in February, and the battle of the Sacramento, one of the military marvels of the age, cleared the road to Chihuahua, which was entered without further resistance. It had been entered once before by a detachment of American troops; but under circumstances how different! In the year 1807, Lieut. Pike and his thirty brave men, taken prisoners on the head of the Rio del Norte had been marched captives into Chihuahua: in the year 1847, Doniphan and his men enter it as conquerors. The paltry triumph of a Captain General over a Lieutenant, was effaced in the triumphal entrance of a thousand Missourians into the grand and ancient capital of all the Internal Provinces! and, old men, still alive, could remark the grandeur of the American spirit under both events--the proud and lofty bearing of the captive thirty--the mildness and moderation of the conquering thousand.

Chihuahua was taken, and responsible duties, more delicate than those of arms, were to be performed. Many American citizens were there, engaged in trade; much American property was there. All this was to be protected, both lives and property, and by peaceful arrangement; for the command was too small to admit of division, and of leaving a garrison Conciliation, and negotiation were resorted to, and successfully. Every American interest was provided for, and placed under the safeguard, first, of good will and next, of guarantees not to be violated with impunity.

Chihuahua gained, it became like Santa Fe, not the terminating point of a long expedition, but the beginning point of a new one. Gen. Taylor was somewhere--no one knew where--but some seven or eight hundred miles towards the other side of Mexico. You had heard that he had been defeated, that Buena Vista had not been a good prospect to him. Like good Americans, you did not believe a word of it; but, like good soldiers, you thought it best to go and see. A volunteer party of fourteen, headed by Collins, of Boonville, undertake to penetrate to Saltillo, and to bring you information of his condition.--They set out. Amidst innumerable dangers they accomplish their purpose; and return. You march. A vanguard of one hundred men, led by Lieutenant Colonel Mitchell, led the way. Then came the main body, (if the name is not a burlesque on such a handful) commanded by Colonel Doniphan himself.

The whole table land of Mexico, in all its breadth, from west to east, was to be traversed. A numerous and hostile population in towns--treacherous Camanches in the mountains--were to be passed.--Every thing was to be self-provided--provisions, transportation, fresh horses for remounts, and even the means of victory--and all without a military chest, or even an empty box, in which government gold had ever reposed. All was accomplished.--Mexican towns were passed, in order and quiet: plundering Camanches were punished: means were obtained from traders to liquidate indispensable contributions: and the wants that could not be supplied, were endured like soldiers of veteran service.

I say the Camanches were punished. And here presents itself an episode of a novel, extraordinary, and romantic kind--Americans chastising savages for plundering people whom they themselves came to conquer, and forcing the restitution of captives and of plundered property. A strange story this to tell in Europe, where back-woods character, western character, is not yet completely known. But to the facts. In the muskeet forest of the Bolson de Mapimi, and in the sierras around the beautiful town and fertile district of Parras, and in all the open country for hundreds of miles round about, the savage Camanches have hold dominion ever since the usurper Santa Anna disarmed the people; and sally forth from their fastnesses to slaughter men, plunder cattle, and carry off women and children. An exploit of this kind had just been performed on the line of the Missourians' march, not far from Parras, and an advanced party chanced to be in that town at the time the news of the depredation arrived there. It was only fifteen strong. Moved by gratitude, for the kind attentions of the people, especially the women, to the sick of General Wool's command, necessarily left in Parras, and unwilling to be outdone by enemies in generosity, the heroic fifteen, upon the spot, volunteered to go back, hunt out the depredators, and punish them, without regard to numbers. A grateful Mexican became their guide. On their way they fell in with fifteen more of their comrades; and, in a short time, seventeen Camanches killed out of sixty-five, eighteen captives restored to their families, and three hundred and fifty head of cattle recovered for their owners, was the fruit of this sudden and romantic episode.

Such noble conduct was not without its effects on the minds of the astonished Mexicans. An official document from the Prefect of the place to Captain Reid, leader of this detachment, attests the verity of the fact, and the gratitude of the Mexicans, and constitutes a trophy of a new kind in the annals of war. Here it is in the original Spanish, and I will read it off in English.

It is officially dated from the Prefecture of the department of Parras, signed by the Prefect, Jose Ignacio Arrabe, and addressed to Capt. Reid, the 18th May, and says:

"At the first notice that the barbarians, after killing many, and taking captives, were returning to their haunts, you generously and bravely offered, with fifteen of your subordinates, to fight them on their crossing by the Puzo, executing this enterprise with celerity, address and braver worthy of all eulogy, an worthy of the brilliant issue which all celebrate. You recovered many animals and much plundered property; and eighteen captives were restored to liberty and to social enjoyments, their souls overflowing with a lively sentiment of joy and gratitude, which all the inhabitants of this town equally breathe, in favor of their generous deliverers and their valiant chief. The half of the Indians killed in the combat, and those which fly wounded, do not calm the pain which all feel for the wound which your excellency received defending the Christians and civilized beings against the rage and brutality of savages. All desire the speedy establishment of your health; and although they know that in your own noble soul will be found the best reward of your conduct, they desire also to address you the expression of their gratitude and high esteem. I am honored in being the organ of the public sentiment, and pray you to accept it, with the assurance of my most distinguished esteem.

"God and Liberty!"

This is a trophy of a new kind in war, won by thirty Missourians, and worth to be held up to the admiration of Christendom.

The long march from Chihuahua to Monterey was made more in the character of protection and deliverance than of conquest and invasion. Armed enemies were not me, and peaceful people were not disturbed. You arrived in the month of May in General Taylor's camp, and about in a condition to vindicate, each of you for himself, your lawful title to the double soubriquet of the general, with the addition to it which the colonel of the expedition has supplied-ragged-as well as rough and ready. No doubt you all showed the title, at that time, to that third soubriquet; but to see you now, so gaily attired, so sprucely equipped, one might suppose that you had never, for an instant, been a stranger to the virtues of soap and water, or the magic ministrations of the blauchisseuse, and the elegant transformations of the fashionable tailor. Thanks, perhaps, to the difference between pay in the lump at the end of service, and driblets along in the course of it.

You arrived in General Taylor's camp ragged and rough, as we can well conceive, and ready, as I can quickly show. You reported for duty! You asked for service! Such as a march upon San Luis de Potosi, Zacatecas, or the "halls of the Montezumas," or anything in that way that the general should have a mind to. If he was going upon any excursion of that kind, all right. No matter about fatigues that were passed, or expirations of service that might accrue: you came to go, and only asked the privilege. That is what I call ready. Unhappily the conqueror of Palo Alto, Resaca de la Palma, Monterey, and Buena Vista, was not exactly in the condition that the lieutenant general, that might have been, intended him to be. He was not at the head of 20,000 men! He was not at the head of any thousands that would enable him to march! And had to decline the proffered service. Thus the long marched and well fought volunteers--the rough, the ready, and the ragged--had to turn their faces towards home, still more than two thousand miles distant. But this being mostly by water, you hardly count in the recital of your march. But this is an unjust omission, and against the precedents as well as just. "The ten thousand" counted the voyage on the Black Sea as well as the march from Babylon; and twenty centuries admit the validity of the count. The present age, and posterity, will include in "the going out and coming in" of the Missouri Chihuahua volunteers, the water voyage as well as the land march; and then the expedition of the one thousand will exceed that of the ten by some two thousand miles.

The last nine hundred miles of your land march, from Chihuahua to Matamoras, you made in forty-five days, bringing seventeen pieces of artillery, eleven of which were taken from the Sacramento and Bracito. Your horses, traveling the whole distance without United States provender, were astonished to find themselves regaled, on their arrival on the Rio Grande frontier, with hay, corn, and oats from the States. You marched further than the farthest, fought as well as the best, left order and quiet in your train, and cost less money than any.

You arrive here today, absent one year, marching and fighting all the time, bringing trophies of cannon and standards from fields whose names were unknown to you before you set out, and only grieving that you could not have gone further. Ten pieces of cannon, rolled out of Chihuahua to arrest your march, now roll through the streets of St. Louis, to grace you triumphal return. Many standards, all pierced with bullets while waiving over the heads of the enemy at the Sacramento, now waive at the head of you column. The black flag, brought to the Bracito, to indicate the refusal of that quarter which its bearers so soon needed and received, now takes its place among your trophies, and hangs drooping in their nobler presence. To crown the whole-to make public and private happiness go together--to spare the cypress where the laurel hangs in clusters-this long perilous march, with all its accidents of field and camp, presents an incredibly small list of comrades last. Almost all return! And the joy of families resounds intermingled with the applause of the state.

I have said that you made your long expedition without government orders; and so indeed you did. You received no orders from your government, but, without knowing it, you were fulfilling its orders-orders which never reached you. Happy the soldier who executes the command of his government; happier still he who anticipates command, and does what is wanted before he is bid. This is your case. You did the right thing, at the right time, and what the government intended you to do, and without knowing it intentions. The facts are these: early in the month of November last, the president asked my opinion on the manner of conducting the war. I submitted a plan to him, which, in addition to other things, required all the disposable troops in New Mexico, and all the Americans in that quarter who could be engaged for a dashing expedition, to move down through Chihuahua and the State of Durango, and if necessary to Zacatecas, and get into communication with General Taylor's right as early as possible in the month of March. In fact the disposable Missourians in New Mexico were to be one of three columns destined for a combined movement on the city of Mexico, all to be on the table land, and ready for the movement in the month of March. The president approved the plan, and the Missourians being most distant, orders were dispatched to New Mexico to put them in motion. Mr. Solomon Sublette carried the order, and delivered it to the commanding officer at Santa Fe, Col. Price, on the 23d day February--just five days before you fought the marvelous battle of Sacramento.

I well remember what passed between the president and myself at the time he resolved to give this order. It awakened his solicitude for your safety. It was to send a small body of men a great distance, into the heart of a hostile country and upon the contingency of uniting in a combined movement, the means for which had not yet been obtained from congress. The president made it a question, and very properly, whether it was safe, or prudent, to start the small Missouri column before the movement of the left and center was assured. I answered that my own rule in public affairs was to do what I thought was right, and leave it with others to do what they thought was right; and that, I believed it the proper course for him to follow on the present occasion. ON this view he acted. He gave the order to go, without waiting to see whether congress would furnish the means of executing the combined plan; and, for his consolation, I undertook to guaranty your safety. Let the worst come to the worst, I promised him that you would take care of yourselves. Though the other parts of the plan should fail--though you should become far involved in the advance, and deeply compromised in the enemy's country, and without support--still I relied on your courage, skill, and enterprise to extricate yourselves from every danger--to make daylight through all the Mexicans that should stand before you--cut your way out--and make good your retreat to Taylor's camp. This is what I promised the president in November last, and what you have so manfully fulfilled. And here is a little manuscript volume (the duplicate of it in the hands of the president) from which I will read you a page, to show you that you are the happy soldier who have done the will of the government, without knowing its will.

"The Right Wing. To be composed of all the disposable troops in New Mexico--to advance rapidly through the states of Chihuahua and Durango, and towards Zacatecas, and to attain a position about on a line with General Taylor in the month of March, and be ready for a push on the capital. This column to move light--to have no rear--to keep itself mounted from horses in the country--and to join the center column, or cut its way out if the main object fails."

This is what was proposed for you in the month of November last, and what I pledged myself to the president that you would perform; and nobly have you redeemed the pledge.

But this not the first, or the only time, that I pledged myself to you. As far back as June, 1846, when a separate expedition to Chihuahua was first projected, I told the president that it was unnecessary--that the Missouri troops under Gen. Kearny, would take that place, in addition to the conquest of New Mexico--and that he might order the column under Gen. Wool to deflect to the left, and join Gen. Taylor as soon as he pleased. Again: when I received a letter from Lieut. Col Mitchell, dated in November last, and informing me that he was leaving Santa Fe with one hundred men, to open a communication with Gen. Wool, I read that letter to the president, and told him that they would do it. And again: when he heard that Col. Doniphan, with a thousand men, after curbing the Navahos, was turing down towards the south, and threatening the ancient capital of the Captains General of the Internal Provinces, I told him they would take it. In short, my confidence in Missouri enterprise, courage, and skill, was boundless. My promises were boundless. Your performance has been boundless. And now let boundless honor and joy salute, as it does, your return to the soil of your state, and to the bosom of your families.

Col. Doniphan's Reply.

In response to this address, Colonel Doniphan said:

Fellow Citizens: I return to you, on behalf of my command, our most heartfelt thanks for the distinguished reception which we have this day received at your hands. Such a reception entitles you to our warmest gratitude, and is deeply felt by those to whom it is extended. The honor conferred is greatly enhanced by the consideration of the medium through which it is presented. No selfish considerations could, we are satisfied, have induced the honorable senator to have passed this flattering eulogy upon us. The part which he has taken here today, can add nothing to his fame. From an early day, his history has been identified with the history of the state of Missouri, and a feeling of state pride has induced him to give a favorable consideration to the services rendered by the volunteers of Missouri. To him, and yourselves, I again return our warmest thanks. The minute description given by the orator of scenes through which we have passed, has excited our wonder. Indeed, so correct and minute are his details, that they resemble history, and I might almost say that they have become a part of history.

The few brief remarks which I shall make to you, fellow citizens, will of necessity, be disconnected. Man seldom speaks of himself, without vanity; and it is a habit in which I do not often indulge. Officers of the regular army, whose lives are devoted to their country, may, by their prowess--by their long continuance in the service, obtain promotion. The ladder of fame is before them; and by their deeds of chivalry, they may at length reach the top-most round. Not so with volunteers. They only enlist for a limited period, at the call of their country in her emergency; and then return, to mingle with their friends. The only reward that awaits a volunteer, is the gratitude, and warm reception, and honor of his fellow citizens. If our services have merited honor, then we have been more than repaid.

Upon returning from our arduous campaign, and when entering upon the bosom of that noble stream that washes the borders of your city--when, in passing the magnificent country seats, bright eyes and smiling faces greeted us, and white handkerchiefs were waived in honor of there turning volunteers, we felt that we were sufficiently rewarded for all our toils. When we arrived at the great city of N. Orleans, we were all unknown. That city is the thoroughfare through which have passed the heroes of Palo Alto, Resaca de la Palma, Monterey, Buena Vista, and Cerro Gordo--indeed, the heroes of all the brilliant victories achieved in Mexico--and it was to be supposed, that they would have been wearied long ago. Yet their patriotism, their regard for their country, is increasing. There was not a volunteer in this corps who was not proffered a welcome hand. The hospitalities of the city were extended to all. Men who arrived there in rags, were clothed--the wealthiest merchants, who never had seen them, proffered them every thing they wished for their comfort and on credit.

Fellow Citizens: It has been said of republics, which have existed heretofore, that they have been ungrateful. However true the charge may be with regard to former republics, it is not true of our own. Patriotism, talent, and virtue, have ever been remembered, in this government; and they ever will be.

It is not for me, fellow citizens, to discuss the merits of this war. But it is natural that I, for one, should say, something in relation to it. It is a strange war: when first commenced, it was denounced by a large party in our county--the party to which I belong--as a war for political purposes. But, when soldiers were to be raised for is prosecution, you find that men of all parties--the opposers and the advocates, the accusers and the accused--were ready to engage in that war, to rally under the same standard, to fight in the same tented field. What a spectacle for the people of the old world to gaze upon.

Men who were engrossed in the strife of political prejudices were willing, like Roderick Dhu and Fitz James, to lay aside those prejudices, for the time, when a common enemy was to be engaged-- to renew their dissensions, if ever, when peace should be restored. Fellow citizens--I wish that the same patriotic feeling had existed in the councils of his nation: I wish that Mexico could have seen the same unanimity in our people, in the prosecution of this war, that they have seen in our forces, in the field. I recollect well, the impression made on my mind, on one occasion, when an express sent by me to General Wool, brought me such stray papers as had found their way to general's camp--the latest dates were to the 29th of November--consequently, we had seen nothing of the proceedings of the last session of congress, or of the president's message. The first thing I cast my eye upon was a speech of Mr. Corwin, senator from Ohio, denouncing the war, and those engaged in it, as little better than a band of robbers. Gentlemen, a winter shower bath would have been pleasant compared with my sensations on reading it! Freezing--chilling! Such speeches might have been deemed patriotic in the United States; but, place yourselves where we have been, and endure what we have undergone, and then imagine our sensations. We were in a city numbering in population at least twenty times our forces, and surrounded by enemies on all sides. We had crossed the Sierra Madre, and found, when we had arrived at Chihuahua, that we were looked upon as little better than a band of robbers! Fellow citizens, the speeches which were made in opposition to this war, are said to come from the peace party; but I say that they are made by those who are postponing the peace internally!

If the honorable senator's (turning to Mr. Benton) plans had been adopted, the war would have terminated long ago. If our government had placed at the disposal of Generals Scott and Taylor, each 20,000 men, they would ere this, have subdued the whole Mexican power. To talk about guerrilla warfare is nonsense, against such forces as this. If General Taylor, with 4,500 men, whipped Santa Anna at Buena Vista, with 20,000 he would have hunted him down and crushed him! If Gen. Scott had had a sufficient force on his march from Vera Cruz to Mexico, to establish a line of communication between his army and Vera Cruz, he would, long ere this, have marched into city of Mexico, and there dictated the terms of peace.

Fellow citizens! What have we gained by this war? Of General Taylor I can safely speak, having been through all his lines of operation. He has gained four distinguished victories--perhaps the most brilliant victories that have ever been gained in this continent-and yet he has gained nothing. Why, sir, (turning to Mr. Benton), is it that the efforts of our army are like the efforts of a fevered patient, who spends all his strength in spasms, and as soon as they are over, is prostrated? After the brilliant victories which they have achieved, they have been forced for the want of men, ammunition, money, and conveyance, to lie idle until the enemy have been able to gain strength anew, and then the battles have to be fought over again. In our victories, nothing has been gained. Suppose General Taylor remains where he is, will we have gained any thing? He has been there ever since last September, and unless some better means are afforded him, he will remain there until next October! The expenses of this war are enormous. I have been told that $1,000,000 a week has been paid to sustain the war, and yet General Taylor lies in the very position he was eight months ago, and there he must lie.

Although I have not been over Gen. Scott's line of operations, yet it is clear that he cannot sustain himself from his want of means. He may take the city of Mexico, but he cannot sustain himself then--take it he may, but it is impossible for him to keep it. For Santa Anna, although he was stoned when went to the city of Mexico, from some cause has gained new strength, (some have thought that it arose from Gen. Scott's proclamation), and he will soon have an army sufficient to cope with General Scott.

It is true, fellow citizens, that this war has not been without its effect. It has had a great moral effect upon Europe. We now present to the world a spectacle such as we have never before presented. It has been said, that the United States could not wage a war of invasion. We have shown that we have waged it successfully. We have shown to the astonishment of the world, that volunteer troops can be depended upon--that private citizens can be transformed into good soldiers by a proper discipline. We have shown it at the battle of Buena Vista, where the whole force was composed of volunteers; and I defy to world to produce a parallel to that battle. The whole left wing was turned, and the myriads of Santa Anna's army came pouring down on that handful of volunteers, almost surrounding them on all sides; yet they were sufficient to drive this superior force, and victory perched on their standards. This, fellow citizens, was done by volunteers alone; it was done by volunteers disciplined in the school of Taylor, and of that scientific officer and accomplished gentlemen, Gen. Wool.

Fellow citizens--I deem it necessary to consume your time by the detailed account of our operations as I had intended to do before I closed, for Col. Benton has anticipated me in many of the remarks which I had intended to make. But, I think it my duty to address something to the soldiers who have been under my command. It is natural, that many of you whom I now address will never meet again. It is natural that I should be endeared to you, after having been united with you for more than a year, and by the battles in which we have been engaged--by the sufferings which we have endured.

You have endured much toil and hardship. It is now about to terminate. You have arrived once more in the land of civilized society, and again we are citizens mingling with our fellow citizens. Your lot has been a hard one in many respects.

Before reaching New Mexico, by two hundred miles, you were on half rations, and never afterwards, for a single day, during our long and arduous march to Saltillo, did you receive full rations. Yet all this you have borne, and you have borne it with fortitude. The order which you received to march in Major Gilpin's command, with a large column, over the Sierra Madre, covered with perpetual snow--proceeding on your march on short allowance, without tents or transportation; and many other comforts, because the Government was unable to furnish them; yet you bore it all, and were ready to resume your march in two days, on the city of Chihuahua. You have traveled over five states of Mexico, and five very large ones, in point of territory. Perhaps the citizens of St. Louis do not know what a Bonava is, but I will answer for every man in my command, knowing what they are. I may assure you, had you crossed them, you too, would have known what they are. The shortest one that we crossed was fifty miles, and one ninety five miles, which we crossed in three days in December, without wood, without water, without tents, at an elevation of 7,000 feet above the Atlantic ocean. In sending expresses to the distance of 600 miles, when I was enabled to furnish them with the means of carrying provisions and other comforts with them over immense sand prairies covered with snow, I have never made a detail, but all were volunteers, or when I have sent out parties for the purpose of watching the enemy who have had to starve for days, I never made a detail in this column, but all were volunteers, and I am proud to say it.

But your labors are over, you are now again to return to the enjoyments of civilized life; you are now to return to your homes: you are now to make glad the hearts of your fathers and mothers and sisters and brothers: you are again to mingle together with your friends. But you have not all returned--many a gallant heart, that rallied at their country's call, now lies cold in a far distant country, whilst the hearts of the fathers and mothers, sisters and brothers of some are made to mourn, others are to be made glad by the return of their friends. No soldier dreads to die upon the battle field; but to be worn down by a slow disease, far from the care of friends and the comforts of home, without the attendance necessary to the sick bed, without the tender care of mother or sister--dragged over a rough country in rougher wagons, for hundreds of miles without water to moisten the fever-parched mouth--to be worn down thus by slow disease, this, this, is death indeed. And many a gallant spirit has thus yielded up his life, and lies buried in the arid plains of Mexico, if the wild fanaticism of the country have not dragged them from their resting place, and left them to bleach in the storms and winds of Heaven. They will be remembered gratefully by their country. Their friends will have the consolation of knowing that they yielded up their lives in a patriotic cause. But you have been more fortunate. You have fulfilled every trust with faithfulness, that has been reposed in you; you have performed faithfully every duty required of you. You carry with you the gratitude of your country; you carry with you my gratitude, which never can be effaced. Your noble, heroic, conduct on the battle fields of Brazito and Sacramento will ever be remembered with gratitude by your countrymen. No peculiar generalship was displayed in these battles. If ever the rank and file of an army should have the honor of a victory, such should be the case at the battle of Sacramento. At the battle field we found the enemy. You were marched until you came in view of the enemy's redoubts planted with cannon. You were told that there was the enemy. You were marched until within the proper distance when you were turned loose! The enemy first recoiled, then gave way, then fled. The charge was impetuous. The battle was won! It was yours. It was the battle of Sacramento. Fellow citizens, I have not time to say any thing about the battle of Okachobee; but it is sufficient to say that whatever annoyance it has been to you, however our fair fame my seem to have been tarnished, you will remember that the battle of Okachobee, and the battle of Brazito were both fought on Christmas day. Fellow citizens, I will not detain you longer; may your destiny be onward, border of your great city. [Tremendous applause.]

As soon as Col. Doniphan's speech was concluded, Capt. Hudson was called for, but upon his suggestion, that a very agreeable part of the entertainment--the collation--remained to be discussed, the company adjourned to the St. Louis Park, and did full justice to the ample cheer provided for them.

Speeches and toasts followed the dinner. In answer to calls of the company, Col. Mitchell, Major Clark, Capt, Weightman, Capt. Hudson, Capt. Reid, and others, made speeches. Responding to a sentiment which had been given, Capt. Reid expressed his high gratification at the cordial reception of the Missouri volunteers on this occasion. He took the opportunity to allude particularly to his conduct while at Parras, on his march to join Gen. Taylor's column, as the advance of Col. Doniphan's command. He spoke of the former kindness of the inhabitants of Parras to Americans and strangers, while Texas and Coahuila, (in which Parras is situated), were an integral portion of the Mexican republic. Upon Gen. Wool's being obliged to fall back from this point, and to leave the hospital at Parras, he spoke in the highest terms of the kind treatment which the soldiers had received at their hands--especially at the hands of the ladies. He adverted to the time of his arriving at this place--when the Comanche Indians had been committing depredations in the very sight of the town, and to his meeting an old acquaintance from Illinois (the son of the Rev. Mr. Peck, as he was understood), who had been left behind in Gen. Wool's hospital, and to his being introduced into families warmly sympathizing with the Americans and their institutions. His sympathies were aroused in their behalf, he said, and this impulse induced him to turn out against the Indians, with only fifteen men; afterwards having been joined by 15 Americans, he attacked and defeated the Indians, and restored a large heard of cattle to their owners. Capt. Reid concluded by giving a sentiment in honor of the distinguished senator then present.

Col. Benton being called on for a toast, said that he would take great pleasure in giving one, which he was sure would be warmly received by every person who had witnessed and enjoyed the day's celebration. The ceremonies of the day had been to commemorate a most extraordinary expedition--extraordinary under many aspects, and especially under that of unparalleled exemption from losses, casualties or accidents. The celebration of the day had been attended with a similar felicity. In the vast multitude which had turned out--in the tens of thousands which thronged the streets, military and citizens, horse, foot and dragoons, carriages and carmen, men, women and children--and in the midst of bring of cannon, beating of drums, waving of standards, not an accident of any kind had occurred to mar the universal joy! All was order and regularity, in the midst of a city of fifty thousand souls, all in motion to honor the return of citizen heroes who had gained honor for themselves, their state and their country. This extraordinary exemption from the slightest accident--this order or regularity where confusion seemed inevitable--is clearly due to the committee of arrangements, the marshal of the day and his assistant marshals, and well were they entitled to what he knew they would cordially receive the thanks of the company in a toast and a glass. Col. B. Then gave:

The committee of arrangements, the marshal of the day and his assistant marshals: to whom the immense concourse of this day are indebted for the unalloyed happiness they have felt in a celebration as happy as the expedition it commemorates is glorious. [Drank with great applause.

Colonel Grimsley, being loudly called for, came forward and stated concisely, that he did not intend to make a speech but that he would condense the sentiment of all into this--"The North American continent to the Isthmus of Darien--the progress of the Anglo Saxon and his institutions!"

Soon after, the crowd dispersed, and Colonel Doniphan and a large number of volunteers took passage on the Little Missouri for home. [SRP]


NNR 72.320 July 17, 1847 Movement of government funds to New Orleans

Money matters. The Boston city loan of $1,000,000 at 5 per cent. has been taken by various bidders, at from 90 to 99 per cent. --general average 94 cts. on the dollar. It is to be applied for the introduction of water into the city.

The New York Herald of the 15th, states that according to the custom house returns, about 25,000,000 of specie has been received in this country since the 1st of January, besides about 5,000,000 brought by emigrants.

The New York Tribune of the same day, says that there is two and a half millions of specie in the sub treasury there. The receipts at custom house average $125,000 per day. Within the last month two millions in specie have been sent to New Orleans, and half a million to the Philadelphia mint. Yesterday half a million was paid out at the counter of the sub treasury on drafts from Washington.

The New Orleans Bulletin, says that government has ordered in all six millions to that point, from the north, and that the transportation and insurance costs 11 per cent.; whole cost of moving it $67,500.

The New Orleans Picayune of the 9th says: "One million of dollars in gold arrived here yesterday on the steamboat Paul Jones, Capt. Williamson, from Cincinnati. It is for account of the government."

Government funds. We notice some fluttering in Wall street owing it is said, to the government having ordered on a few more millions of specie from thence to new Orleans, in which direction several millions have been sent within a few weeks, to defray the war expenditures. [SRP]


73.320 July 17, 1847 Col. Sterling Price at Santa Fe, Attack by Indians on government wagon trains

Col. Price was Santa Fe, with portions of several companies of volunteers. Of his movements and plans we know nothing.

On his way in, Mr. Murphy met Mr. Wethered, some other traders and two government trains of wagons, at the crossing of the Pawnee fork, detained there for three or four days by a freshest in the river. The Indians annoyed them very much, and succeeded in killing 150 head of cattle belonging to the government train.--Mr. Goodrich also lost 27 in the same way. The cattle were all speared, and their tails cut off close, to be used as trophies of victory. A Mr. Smith, of Platte county, who was on guard at the time, received seven spear wounds, one of which struck him in the throat. About this time, this party, who were traveling the river road, heard the discharge of cannon on the ridge road, and as a train of government wagons, having a piece of artillery with them, were on that route, it is supposed that an attack had been made upon them by the Indians.

Lieut. Love's command of dragoons, with the money for the pay of the troops at Santa Fe, was met a few hours' travel from the Pawnee fork, going on well.

Eight miles from Council grove, met Cunifee and other traders, waiting until reinforcements should come up. Met Capt. Shepard's company of infantry near Council grove. The companies of mounted men under Capts. McNair and Korponay, were met 15 miles from 110, going on well.

Col. William H. Russell, secretary of the territory of California, came in with Mr. Murphy, bearer of despatches from Col. Fremont for the government at Washington, stopped at his residence in Calloway county to see his family. We expect a full account of operations in California.

Mr. Murphy heard nothing of the news brought to Westport, by the "Delaware Indian," some days ago, of the attack upon a train of government wagons, and the killing of some 50 teamsters and others, near Walnut creek. [TNW, SRP]


NNR 72.320 July 17, 1847 Battle at Red River Canyon

SANTA FE.—Mr Murphy, an intelligent gentleman, says the St. Louis Republican, of the 7th instant, left Santa Fe on the 29th May, and arrived this morning.

A BATTLE AT THE RED RIVER CANYON, 150 miles southeast of Santa Fe, took place on the 27th May, between Major Edmonson with 175 men, and a party of Mexican and Apache Indians supposed to number 400, who, having stolen 150 of our horses, the major was despatched in pursuit of. He encountered them unexpectedly and under disadvantageous circumstances as he was crossing a miry place at the mouth of the Canon. He was obliged to abandon his horses, and a fight on foot continued for two hours. Two Americans were killed and a third was wounded and left on the ground when a retreat was ordered. Lieut. Elliot, in command of 27 men, principally Kaclede rangers, rendered very efficient service at this juncture. He occupied a point of rocks, and kept the enemy from advancing upon the retreating force until they had got out of difficult position. In doing the service, he had two men wounded, M.W. Wash and John Eldridge, but neither of them dangerously. All the horses were either shot down or captured.

On the 3rd June, Lieut. Col. Willock, with about 115 men, was met on his march from Taos, in pursuit of the Mexican and Indian forces. He has got upon their trail, and was resolved upon an engagement with them. He had Mr. Boggs with him as a guide. Circumstances had led him to suspect Jim Beckwith, mulatto, born in this city, but for many years employed in the mountains, as having been concerned with the Mexicans and Indians in the affair with Major Edmonson. He was found in Taos, and arrested by Col. Willock, and was taken with him on his expedition. A garrison of only fifteen soldiers was left at Taos, all of whom were on the sick list. [TNW]

Col. Price was at Santa Fe, with portions of several companies of volunteers. Of his movements and plans we know nothing.

On his way in, Mr. Murphy met Mr. Wethered, some other traders and two government trains of wagons, at the crossing of the Pawnee fork, detained there for three or four days by a freshet in the river. The Indians annoyed them very much, and succeeded in killing 150 head of cattle belonging to the government train.—Mr. Goodrich also lost 27 in the same way. The cattle were all speared, and their tails cut off close, to be used as trophies of victory. Mr. Smith, of Platte county, who was on guard at the time, received seven spear wounds, one of which struck him in the throat. About this time, this party, who were traveling the river road, heard the discharge of cannon on the ridge road, and as a train of government wagons, having a piece of artillery with them, were on that route, it is supposed that an attack had been made upon them by the Indians.

Lieut. Love’s command of dragoons, with the money for the pay of the troops at Santa Fe, was met a few hours’ travel from the Pawnee fork, going on well.

Eight miles from Council grove, met Cunifee and other traders, waiting until reinforcements should come up.—Met Capt. Shepard’s company of infantry near Council grove. The companies of mounted men under Capts. McNair and Korponay, were met 15 miles from 110, going on well.

Col. William H. Russell, secretary of the territory of California, came in with Mr. Murphy, bearer of dispatches from Colonel Fremont for the government at Washington, stopped at his residence in Calloway co., to see his family. We expect a full account of operations in California.

Mr. Murphy heard nothing of the news brought to Westport, by the “Delaware Indian,” some days ago, of the attack upon a train of government wagons, and the killing of some 50 teamsters and others near Walnut creek. [WFF]


NNR 72.321 July 24, 1847 Bustle of exports from Cuba to Mexico after announcement of the American administration regarding the tariff imposed on Mexico

American Mexico Tariff. A Washington letter in the New York Courier says:

"I hear from Havana, that the recent pledge given to the president, to exempt all imports under our Mexican tariff from confiscation, or any further duties to be imposed by Mexico, after a peace, has produced great excitement there, and that immense shipments of sugar, molasses, coffee, tobacco, sugars, and especially segaritos will be made from Cuba to Vera Cruz, a part to be sold during the war; but chiefly in the expectation of realizing an immense profit in the moment of peace. No doubt the same course will be pursued in Europe, on hearing of this pledge; and since the imports into Mexico will be very large and the revenue very considerable. You must bear in mind that this pledge was not contained in Mr. Walkin's Tariff, as promulgated; but the suggestion came from Scott and Taylor, and has been adopted by the administration. [SRP]


NNR 72.322 July 24, 1847 List of Killed and Wounded in the attack on Tabasco

The Attack on Tabasco. The following is an official list of the killed and wounded:
Killed: James White, seaman, Spitfire.
Wounded
Mortally - James Mitchell, ordinary seaman, Potomac, since dead.
Dangerously- James Hoy, ordinary seaman, Mississippi; Crosby, Etna, from explosion of gunpowder; Geo. Brown, ordinary seaman, Etna, from explosion of gunpowder.
Slightly.- Geo. Jonson, Potomac, from explosion of gunpowder. [TNW]


NNR 72.322 July 24, 1847 Order of Com. Matthew Calbraith Perry commending the forces involved in the seizure of Tabasco

The attack on Tabasco. The following is an official list of the killed and wounded:

Killed: James White, seaman, Spitfire. Wounded: Mortally.--James Mitchell, ordinary seaman, Potomac, since dead. Dangerously.--Wm. Trest, ordinary seaman Potomac. Severely.--James Hoy, ordinary seaman, Mississippi.--Crosby, Etna, from explosion of gunpowder; Geo. Brown, ordinary seaman, Etna, from explosion of gunpowder. Slightly.--Geo. Jonson, Potomac, from explosion of gunpowder.

U. S. Flag Ship Missouri. Off Tabasco River, June 25, 1847.

The commander in chief, on returning to his ship from the expedition undertaken to capture and occupy the city of Tabasco, seizes upon the earliest seamen and marines, composing the force engaged in the attack, for the gratifying proofs of zeal and courage manifested by them on the occasion.

Notwithstanding the extensive and judicious arrangements made by the Mexicans for defense, they exhibited little gallantry in maintaining their well-chosen position, and the only disappointment evinced by the brave officers and men, proceeded from the fact that the enemy did not stand more firmly to their arms. M. C. Perry, Commanding home squadron.

The commodore arrived at Anton Lizardo on the 30th June, with the squadron. [SRP]


NNR 72.326-327 July 24, 1847 Correspondence between Mexico and the United States concerning the mission of Philip Trist to Mexico

Mission of Mr. Trist

Correspondence between the Secretary of State and the Mexican government, relative to the mission of Mr. Trist.

An extra of the Republicano of Mexico, of the 28th of June, has been received at the department of state, containing copies of two notes from the minister of foreign affairs of Mexico, dated the 22d of June last, and a translation of the letter addressed to the Mexican government, by our secretary of state, on the 15th April previous. We here present translations of the two notes first mentioned, together with a copy in the original of Mr. Buchanan's letter; all of which will doubtless be read with interest in every part of our country. [Washington Union.

Historical documents published in the Republicano of the 28th of June, 1847. [translation]

Department of Internal and Foreign Relations. To the most excellent secretaries of the sovereign congress: God and Liberty--Mexico, June 22, 1847.

Most excellent sirs: By order of his excellency, the president ad interim of the republic, as resolved in a council of ministers, I have the honor to place in the hand of your excellencies, that you may submit it to the sovereign congress, at its first meeting, a copy of the official note, addressed by the secretary of state of the United States to this government, under date of the 15th of April last, in which he declares that the president of that republic intends to dispatch, as a commissioner, to the headquarters of the army operating in Mexico, Nicholas P. Trist, esq, with full powers to conclude a definitive treaty of peace with the Mexican United States.

I likewise transmit to your excellencies, for communication to the sovereign congress, a copy of the answer which the most excellent president resolved, in a council of ministers, to have made to the above mentioned note; his excellency feeling assured that the august assembly, to which is reserved the determination on the affair to which the present communication relates, will dispatch it with the promptness and wisdom to be expected from its patriotism and its distinguished enlightenment.

I repeat to your excellencies, on this occasion, the assurances of my high consideration.
Domingo Ibarra.

To his Excellency the Minister of Foreign Relations of the Mexican republic: Department of State, Washington, April 15th, 1847.

Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your excellency's note, of the 22d February last, in answer to mine of the 18th January, proposing, on the part of the president of the United States, immediately to "dispatch either to the Havana or Jalapa, as the Mexican government may prefer, one or more of our most distinguished citizens, as commissioners, clothed with full powers to conclude a treaty of peace with similar commissioners on the part of Mexico, as soon as he shall be officially informed that the Mexican government will appoint such commissioners."

The president deeply regrets the refusal of the Mexican government to accede to this friendly overture, "unless the raising of the blockade of our (the Mexican) ports, and the complete evacuation of the territory of the republic by the invading forces, shall by previously accepted as a preliminary condition."

The president has instructed me to inform you that this "preliminary condition" is wholly inadmissible. Such a condition is neither required by the honor, nor sanctioned by the practice of nations. If it were, this would tend to prolong wars, especially between conterminous countries, until the one or the other power was entirely subdued. No nation, which, at the expenditure of blood and treasure, has invaded its enemy's country, and acquired possession of any considerable portion of his territory, could ever consent to withdraw its forces, as a preliminary condition to the opening of negotiations for peace. This would be at once to abandon all the advantages it had obtained in the prosecution of the war, without any certainty that peace would result from the sacrifice. Nay, more: should such a negotiation prove unsuccessful, the nation which had thus imprudently withdrawn its forces from the enemy's territory, might not be able to recover, without a cost of blood and treasure equal to that first expended, the advantageous position which it had voluntarily abandoned.

Fortunately for the cause of peace and humanity, the history of nations at war affords no sanction to such a preliminary condition. The United States are as jealous of their national honor as any power on the face of the earth; and yet it never entered into the contemplation of the great statesmen who administered our government during the period of our last war with Great Britain, to insist that the latter should relinquish that part of our territory of which she was in actual possession, before they would consent to open negotiations for peace. On the contrary, they took the initiative, and appointed commissioners to treat for peace whilst portions of our country were held by the enemy; and it is a remarkable fact, that the treaty of Ghent was concluded by the plenipotentiaries of the two power whilst the war was raging on both sides; and the most memorable of the conflicts to which it gave rise took place upon our own soil after the negotiators had happily terminated their labors. History is full of such examples. Indeed, so far as the unsigned is aware, there is not to be found, at least in modern times, a single case, except the present, in which it has been considered a necessary preliminary that an invading army should be withdrawn before negotiations for peace could commence between the parties to the war.

It would, also, be difficult to find a precedent for the course pursued by the Mexican government in another particular. The president, anxious to avoid the war now existing, sent a minister of peace to Mexico for this purpose. After the Mexican forces had attached the army of Gen. Taylor on this side of the Rio Grande, and thus commenced the war, the president, actuated by the same pacific spirit, made repeated overtures to the government of Mexico to negotiate for its termination; and although he has, from the beginning, solemnly declared before the world that he desired no terms but such as were just and honorable for both parties, yet the Mexican government, by refusing to receive our minister in the first place, and afterwards by not acceding to our overtures to open negotiations for peace, has never afforded to this government even the opportunity of making known the terms on which we would be willing to settle all questions in dispute between the two republics. The war can never end whilst Mexico refuses to hear the proposals which we have always been ready to make for peace.

The president will not again renew the offer to negotiate--at least until he shall have reason to believe that it would be accepted by the Mexican government. Devoted, however, to honorable peace he is determined that the evils of the war shall not be protracted one day longer than shall be rendered absolutely necessary by the Mexican republic. For the purpose of carrying this determination into effects with the least possible delay, he will forthwith send to the headquarters of the army, in Mexico, Nicholas P. Trist, Esq., the officer next in rank to the undersigned in our department of foreign affairs, at a commissioner, invested with full powers to conclude a definitive treaty of peace with the United Mexican States. This gentleman possesses the entire confidence of the president, and is eminently worthy of that of the Mexican government.

The undersigned refrains from all comment upon the concluding paragraph, as well as some other portions, of your excellence's note; because the strong sense which he entertains of their injustice toward the United States could not be uttered in the friendly tone which he desires to preserve in the present communication. He turns from these, therefore, Caldwell--as he does with unfeigned pleasure--upon the sentiment contained in an early part of the same note, where the Mexican government expresses how painful it is "to see disturbed the sincere friendship which it cultivated with your [our] republic, whose continued progress it has always admired, and whose institutions have served it as a model."

This feeling is most cordially reciprocated by the president, whose earnest desire it is that the United Mexican States, under institutions similar to our own, may protect and secure the liberties of their people, and maintain an elevated standing among the nations of the earth.

The undersigned embraces this occasions to offer to your excellency the assurance of his most distinguished consideration.

JAS. BUCHANAN.

[SRP]


NNR 72.327 July 24, 1847 Article from the New York "Herald" about forces in the field

The Washington correspondent of the New York Herald writes on the 15th inst.

The forces in the field.--It appears to us that Father Ritchie has been playing the jack-o-lantern with reference to the actual and even the prospective forces of Scott and Taylor. The administration has been active; but we understand a great number of volunteers have been declined, who would now do efficient service if they were in the field.--We understand that the whole force of Scott is as follows:

At Puebla 6,000 men
At Vera Cruz 500 do
Along the road with trains, &c. 1,000 do
Sick at Vera Cruz and along the road 500 do
Total 8,000 men

His expected reinforcements in process of arrival at Vera Cruz, deducting casualties, cannot exceed, we suppose, in all the reinforcements for June, 3000 garrison Puebla, leaving for the march upon the city of Mexico a force of 6000 men. And if Gen. Scott has celebrated the 4th of July in the imperial city of the Aztecs, he has done it, in default of reinforcements, with less than 5000 men. So that if he is there, and fails of dictating a peace, the question will next recur how is he to get back?

Gen. Scott has conducted the invasion with singular boldness, enterprise, and success; but has he provided for the "fire in the rear?" He has not had the means. He has done the best that could be done; but how is he to progress or retrograde? He can do neither, and unless Gen. Taylor is dispatched to his relief, the prospect appears to be that General Scott must stand fast at Puebla.

But Gen. Taylor has not the men. To march with even five thousand via San Luis, he must break up all his depots in the rear, and abandon entirely the Northern departments to the enemy. Will that answer? We think not.

The prospect is, therefore, that both armies will have to stand fast till more troops are sent down.--Ten thousand more men are wanted in Mexico, and they can be had. [SRP]


NNR 72.327 July 24, 1847 Letter from Maj. John Pollard Gaines

Letter from Major Gaines--The New Orleans Picayune of the 14th instant, has the following:--City of Mexico, June 26, 1847.

Dear Sir--I am very sorry that I have it not in my power to advise you our release from bondage.--This execrable government, in violation of repeated promises and a solemn engagement entered into with Gen. Taylor the day after the battle of Buena Vista, still detains us as prisoners of war.

On the 3d instant, I received a note from the government to present myself at the Castle of Santiago, our late prison, and there received the final determination of the authorities in our case. At the castle we were informed that we were exchanged, and that we should depart the next day for Tampico--the officers only, without the men--and were directed to go to the palace, receive our instructions, expense money, &c., &c., preparatory to our departure.

At the palace we were told to call the next day, and on the next day we were informed that they were without means to send us, and that we could not go. Thus were our hopes blasted, after having made all necessary preparations on our part for the trip. This disappointment was the more galling because the reason assigned was known to be a mere subterfuge, and it turned out that four days afterwards our men, one hundred and seventy in umber, were sent off to the same place without our knowledge, which required a much larger sum than it would have required to end the officers.

Indeed, it would have taken a very small additional sum to have sent us with them, and that we would cheerfully have paid ourselves. By sending off the men without our knowledge, they were subjected to great suffering and inconvenience on a long road to Tapioca, without the preparation necessary in the way of clothing, shoes, &c., which were then in fact being furnished them. The true reason why the officers were not allowed to accompany them remains to be seen. Since that time (the 4th) I have heard from this infernal government, if government it may be called, but today I have received an assurance from Gen. Scott that immediately upon his arrival in the vicinity of the city, which will surely be within twelve days, he will make a peremptory demand for us. It will be complied with, I think. You may therefore look for me early in August.

Gen. Scott we are assured has made every possible effort to procure our enlargement, but to no purpose. His approach to this city will certainly take place in a very few days. His measures preparatory to moving are all taken, and preparations nearly complete. He comes with a force sufficient to accomplish his object effectually.

I have received no letters from the states except one from A. K., since my captivity, so that the world as to me may be said to be hermetically sealed up. [Here follow passages of a nature altogether private and domestic, and the letter concludes as follows:]

I have now the most positive information of Gen. Scott's readiness to move on his capital within the next three or four days. He will have an easy conquest.

My intercourse with Gen. Worth is frequent. By his generous conduct towards me, he has endeared himself to me for life.

Your affectionate brother,
JNO. F. GAINES.

The Picayune remarks--

We regard these remarks of Major Gaines upon the movements of General Scott as of the utmost interest. He is a cool and cautious gentleman, guarded in what he says or writes, and must have strong grounds for the judgment he expresses as to the Mexican means of defense. We confess that our opinion as to the degree of resistance General Scott will encounter from the Mexicans has been modified by this letter; but that Gen. Scott would promptly and thoroughly flog the Mexicans when he met them, we have never doubted. This letter confirms the expectation of our Vera Cruz correspondent, and of the editors in the city of Mexico, that General Scott would advance from Puebla about the last of June. We look eagerly for further arrivals from Vera Cruz. [SRP]


NNR 72.327 July 24, 1847 Account of the Tennessee Regiment when Starting for the War and when Returning from the Campaign

Tennessee Volunteers- The Jonesborough Tennessee Whig has the following statements respecting the two regiments of Tennessee volunteers who went through a year's service in Mexico.

Colonel William B. Campbell's first regiment of Tennessee volunteers numbered one thousand brave men on their march to Mexico. Only three hundred and fifty me, rank and file, of this gallant regiment, returned with their colonelcy to their homes.

Colonel William T. Haskell's second regiment of Tennessee volunteers numbered 1040 on their march to Mexico. Only 360 of those gallant men, rank and file, returned with Col. Haskell to their homes and friends- their wives and children- their fathers, mothers, sisters, brothers, and other relatives and friends.

The rest of the, thirteen hundred and thirty, sickness and bullets, disease, and shot and swords, have consigned to an early grave in a foreign land, far from their native home, without coffins and winding sheets, or headstones, to tell who they are or where they are. [TNW]


NNR 72.327 July 24, 1847 Gen. Franklin Pierce still at Veracruz

        Gen. Pierce had not left Vera Cruz with his detachment of troops. It was expected that he would do so in two or three days. [ANP]


NNR 72.327-328 July 24, 1847 rumors of British mediation

On the 26th ultimo rumors which the Republicano calls very alarming were in circulation in the capital. It said that the Mexican government had acceded to the mediation of England; and that the English secretary of legation had been down to Puebla and returned on the 24th; that the object of his visit to negotiate with Gen. Scott a treaty of peace; that the terms agreed upon between them would be the surrender of the Californians to the Americans, the recognition of the independence of Texas, and the acknowledgement of the line 36 degrees as the northern boundary between the United States and Mexico.- The line would give Santa Fe and over a third of New Mexico to the United States.

The Republicano has no faith in these rumors. It denounces them as false, but at the same in such a manner as to betray its fears lest the rumors should be true. The existence of these rumors confirms the information we derived from a distant source in Vera Cruz, that Mr. Buchanan's letter was transmitted through the English embassy. The same considerations may lead the reader to attach some faith to the terms of treaty, which are enumerated above. The English secretary returned to the city of Mexico on the 26th, and at the same time these rumors obtained general currency. [KAM]


NNR 72.327 July 24, 1847 Report of Naval Activities, Incident Near Tabasco

Mexico- The U.S. brig Washington, Lieut. S.P. Lee, arrived below Mobile on the 12th instant; in eight days from Anton Lizardo.

Nothing later had been heard from Gen. Scott, No news at Vera Cruz.

The Raritan and the Potomac, the former from Tabasco and the latter from Vera Cruz, had sailed for Norfolk.

There were lying at Anton Lizardo the steamships Mississippi and Vixen, and the ships Albany, Germantown, John Adams and Decatur. The health of the squadron was good.

The Washington left Anton Lizardo on the evening the 4th. On the morning before she sailed the steamer Vixen arrived from Tabasco bringing intelligence that shortly after Com. Perry left Tabasco, Commander Bigelow, who had been left in charge of that post, went out about six miles from the town and attacked and put to rout a largely superior force of the Mexicans, with the loss of two killed and some six of eight wounded. The Mexican loss not ascertained. Lieut. Rodgers understood the Mexicans were commanded by Col. GarciA, and that they numbered some five or six hundred. Com. Bigelow's command consisted of some three hundred sailors and marines. Com. Perry was preparing to sail for Tabasco.

The steamer Mississippi. On the night of the 2nd of July, about 10 o'clock, shortly after the officers and crew of the war steamer Mississippi had turned in, an alarm was caused on board by an apprehension of the ship being on fire, which was induced by the smell of burning wood and an unusual quantity of smoke in the engine room. The fire was at last discovered in one of the coal bunks, and soon extinguished. It is attributed to spontaneous combustion on account of there being an unusual quantity of sulphur in the coal. [TNW]


NNR 72.327-8 July 24, 1847 Mexican Congress summoned, apparently to consider appointment of Nicholas Philip Trist. Rumor of British mediation in arranging a peace. Forces in the field.

City of Mexico.--The Picayune says:--Our files of papers from the city of Mexico, by the way of Vera Cruz, come down to the 29th of June. A summons for Congress to assemble we find in almost every paper we open. We presume it is summoned to take into consideration Mr. Buchanan's letter announcing Mr. Trist's appointment. It is certain that no quorum had been assembled up to the 29th ultimo. The Republicano publishes daily the list of members present and absent. They have several times come very near a quorum, and there is doubtless a sufficient number of members in the city to from one. Seventy one are required; sixty were present on the 25th.

The papers of the city appeared to expect that the American army would move from Puebla by the end of June. They say not a word in their later numbers of their own means of defense, or indeed of their own army. In this particular they show perfect acquiescence in the wishes of Santa Anna. We see no allusion in the papers to the fact which we have stated elsewhere upon the different authority that Gen. Scott had given the government to the 39th ultimo to consider of Mr. Buchanan's letter before pushing on the capital. The Republicano says our army is too insignificant to advance, but hopes it is true that Gen. Scott intends doing so, as it will afford a good test of the fidelity of those Mexicans who have pledged themselves to defend the capital till death. This reads much like a sneer at the Mexican officers--a thing the Republicano is very capable of doing.

On the 26th ultimo rumors which the Republicano calls very alarming were in circulation in the capital. It was said that the Mexican government had acceded to the mediation of England; that the English secretary of legation had been down to Puebla and returned on the 24th; that the object of his visit to negotiate with Gen. Scott a treaty of peace; that the terms agreed upon between them would be the surrender of the Californians to the Americans; the recognition of the independence of Texas, and the acknowledgment of the line 36 degrees as the northern boundary between the United States and Mexico. The line would give Santa Fe and over a third of New Mexico to the United States.

The Republicano has no faith in these rumors. It denounces them as false, but at the same in such a manner as to betray its fears lest the rumor should be true. The existence of these rumors confirms the information we derived from a distant source in Vera Cruz, that Mr. Buchanan's letter was transmitted through the English embassy. The same considerations may lead the reader to attach some faith to the terms of treaty which are enumerated above. The English secretary returned to the city of Mexico on the 24th and Mr. Buchanan's letter was published on the 26th, and at the same time these rumors obtained general currency.

The Republicano gives the following as the result of the election for president made on the 15th May:

Aguascalientes, Sonora, Sinaloa, and Tamaulipas voted for Gen. Almonte.
Queretaro, Oajaca, and Michoacan voted for Gen Herrera.
Mexico, Guanajuato, and San Luis Potosi voted for Senor Angel Trias.
Puebla voted for Senor Ocampo.
Chiapas voted for Senor Anaya.
Chihuahua voted Gen. Santa Anna.
Durango voted for Senor Elorriaga.
Zacatecas voted for Senor Lafragua.
Jalisco, Coahuila, Vera Cruz, Tabasco, Yucatan, New Leon, the Californians, and New Mexico did not vote.

There is too, a dispute about the vote of Oajaca; a revolution having occurred there since the vote was given to Gen. Herrera, and the new legislature voted Gen. Santa Anna.

The eighty first article of the constitution provides that, to make an election valid, three fourths of the states entitled to vote must vote. As there are twenty three states entitled to vote at the election and only fifteen votes were cast, being less than three fourths, the election has failed. Nor can congress proceed to elect, says the Republicano; for, having concluded its mission of forming a constitution and sworn to the fundamental code, it has no power left to exempt itself from the operation of the law. [SRP]


NNR 72.328-329 July 24, 1847 General Hopping

From the Matamoras Eagle of June 30

Camp of Instruction.- General Hopping, now in this city, proceeds immediately to Mier, to superintend the formation of a camp of instruction at that place, for the troops now here and to arrive out for Gen. Taylor's column. The 18th regiment entire, is now at Camargo, and will be the first at the camp. Two companies of the 18th regiment passed up the river on Monday; one company is in fort Paredes, where it will remain for the present, and two more are at the Brazos, expected up. The other five companies of this regiment are yet to arrive. The 10th regiment, complete, is in camp of instruction, when relieved by the Illinois troops, understood to be on the way out. The battalion of third dragoons, now here are under orders to remove the camp, but their march is delayed in consequence of the non-arrival of horses.

In addition to the troops above mentioned, the following forces, raised and to be raised, under the recent call for volunteers, and assigned to Gen. Taylor, will enter Gen. Hopping's school at Mier as fast as they arrive:

One regiment of infantry from Indiana and one from Ohio; one battalion ( 5 companies ) from N. Jersey; one battalion ( 5 do. ) from Delaware and Maryland; one battalion ( 5 do. ) from Alabama; one company of foot from Florida; four companies of horse from Illinois, Arkansas, Ohio, and Alabama; two companies of foot from Virginia, and one company from North Carolina.

The troops will be exercised in their studies at this school under Col. Belknap, and when they shall have passed through a course of instruction under him, they will be fully prepared to fight under Gen. Taylor's invincible banner. [TNW]


NNR 72.328 July 24, 1847 Article from the Baltimore "American" about the inadequacy of troops in the field

From the Baltimore American, July 15th.

"If General Scott had had a sufficient force," said Colonel Doniphan, in his speech at St. Louis, "on his march from Vera Cruz to Mexico, to establish a line of communication between his army and Vera Cruz, he would long ere this, have marched into the city of Mexico, and there dictated the terms of peace."

This declaration is not likely to be doubted. But instead of supplying men enough, Gen. Taylor was stripped of his regulars and left in a perilous position while Gen. Scott's force, increased by the deprivation of Taylor, was still left inadequate. Peter was robbed and Paul was not paid.

It was known to the government that a large portion of Scott's army when he landed at Vera Cruz consisted of twelve months men whose period of service must soon expire. The entire aggregate of his force was never large enough to allow him to march three hundred miles into the heart of an enemy's country, leaving garrisons at every town, with troops sufficient to escort the trains and to keep up communications with Vera Cruz--and not only to do this, but to fight his way as he advanced, and then at the end of his long and dangerous march to assault and carry and occupy the capital of the enemy's country--a city of more than one hundred and fifty thousand inhabitants.

Scott's entire force, we say, when he landed at Vera Cruz, was not sufficient for all this. He had scarcely more than half enough men--taking into the account detachments for garrisons and escorts and the losses in battle and by the diseases of the climate. Yet of his aggregate force a large portion soon left him--their period of enlistment being at an end. The Union talked much of reinforcements which were to arrive in time to supply and more than supply the places of the twelve months' men. By the last of June or the first of July we were told that Scott would have 20,000 men under his command and Taylor 10,000. The fact is not so. There are rumors that Taylor has been stripped again; that the reinforcements which had been sent him, in reliance upon which the old hero had made all ready for an advance on San Luis Potosi, have been withdrawn from him to be added to Scott's army.

Whether this be so or not to the full extent, it is very certain that the assurances of the Union as to Scott's 20,000 and Taylor's 10,000 men by the first of July, are not made good by facts. The case is altogether otherwise. At the last advices Scott was at Puebla, awaiting reinforcements; and as for the brave old chief at Monterey, he has been kept for eight or nine months in the valley of the Rio Grande without the power to advance. If he had been supplied with men and means the storming of Monterey, last September, would have been the thundering prelude to the fall of San Luis--the capture of Zacatecas--the procession of the city of Mexico. But as fast as he accumulated men they were taken from him and he has had to do garrison duty for nearly a year, with one grand episode at Buena Vista.

During all this period in proportion as our gallant soldiers have brought honor and glory to our arms in the field, the administration has been making itself ridiculous at home. Last fall it was announced that no more men were needed for the army; and companies of volunteers offering for service were rejected. In a little while afterwards came the president's call for nine new regiments. This was in November. The administration had passed through one of its intermittent hallucinations concerning negotiations and pacifications and all that. These fits come on periodically, it would seem, and are followed by spasms. There was the Santa Anna admission crisis, which paralyzed operations on the Rio Grande for a while. Why reinforce Taylor when peace was so surely at hand by the good offices of Santa Anna? Next followed the Buchanan negotiation through Com. Conner, which was so confidently relied on for peace that the secretary of war in November declared that no more men would be needed. Afterwards came the Atocha mission--a miserable abortion; and now we have the Trist overture, which is likely to be worse.

These are the hallucinations. The spasms follow immediately after the patient has obtained a lucid interval; they exhibit themselves in paroxysms of martial fury and incoherent patriotism. The Union vents columns of enthusiasm and speaks of nothing but "gun, drum, trumpet, blunderbuss, and thunder." These tones are raised with anathemas against "Mexican Whigs" and eulogies upon Mr. Polk, with occasional rhapsodies about the halls of the Montezumas.

But in truth the patience of the nation is sorely tried by these repeated and aggravated exhibitions of irresolution, infatuation, and imbecility, which are persisted in with an insane obstinacy which is as provoking as it is foolish. In the meantime the lives of our gallant men are wasted in Mexico; treasures are squandered; debts are accumulating; the war drags on, and every body is growing sick of it. What next? Mr. Trist is coming home, the newspapers say, with his finger in his mouth. No peace; no signs of peace. Gen. Scott, too weak to advance, cannot remain where he is without danger of having his communications cut off. If he had twenty thousand men, apart from garrisons and detachments, twenty thousand fighting men in one body, he could enter the city of Mexico as a conqueror should, and from the National Palace he could dictate with dignity the terms of an adjustment which Mexico would have to observe and in due time sanction. This is what the government should have enabled him to do long since. [SRP]


NNR 72.328 July 24, 1847 Article from the Alexandria "Gazette" questioning the administration's energy and vigor in prosecuting the war

From the Alexandria Gazette.

The Washington Union says that "it is the fixed determination of the government to prosecute the war with all possible energy and vigor" until peace be obtained. With all due respect, we must be permitted to doubt it. Our gallant soldiers fight with energy and vigor, whenever an opportunity is afforded them, but as to any energy or vigor on the part of the administration in its management of the war, we have yet for the first time to see it, save on paper. In the very first war message of Mr. Polk, on the 11th of May, 1846, he invoked congress "to place at the disposition of the executive the means of prosecuting the war with vigor, and thus hastening the restoration of peace." Two days after, congress placed at his disposal fifty thousand volunteers and ten millions in money. On the 16th of June following, Mr. Polk states his determination to prosecute the war, "vigorously," and asked, in order that "no contingency should be permitted to occur in which there would be a deficiency in the treasury for the vigorous prosecution of the war," that "authority be given to issue treasury notes or to contract a loan." This was granted. All the men and all the money subsequently asked for have been granted, and all the messages of Mr. Polk have reiterated the determination of the administration to prosecute the war with all possible energy and vigor. Notwithstanding all these professions, and notwithstanding the fact that congress has granted all the supplies of men and money asked for, (except the lieutenant general), the war has never to this day been "prosecuted vigorously," in the sense in which the administration journals use that term.

Our troops have done all that brave men could do, but they have always been left by the administration with such limited means, both of men and supplies, that they have never, in a single instance, been able to follow up their victories as they might have done had the administration performed its duty. So far from adopting or encouraging a "vigorous prosecution" of the war, the administration appears to have done every thing in its power to prevent it. Instead of retaining and employing the volunteers raised by General Gaines, at a time when their services would have proved of more importance probably than at any subsequent period of the campaign, and when they could have been employed under the act of 13th May, 1846, they were disbanded. Subsequently thousands of volunteers who offered themselves have been rejected, and it is but a few weeks since the services of a company raised in Wilmington (Del.) were refused, although both Gen. Taylor and Gen. Scott are well known to have their hands tied for want of troops. The Union some weeks ago published elaborate statements showing that by the first of July, Gen. Scott would be at the head of 20,000 men, and Gen. Taylor at the head of 10,000; and yet, at the last dates from Gen. Scott, his force did not exceed 8,000 effective men, including the garrisons at Jalapa and Perote, while only about 3,000 were on the march from Vera Cruz to reinforce him; and General Taylor had only about 5,000, including every man bearing arms, from Brazos to Buena Vista. Thus has it ever been; and while the president has authority to employ (regulars and volunteers) something like 80,000 men, we doubt whether at any one period since the war commenced we have had one-fourth the number in the field. With these facts staring us in the face let us hear no more from the administration or its organs about "a vigorous prosecution of war." [SRP]


NNR 72.328 July 24, 1847 Article from the Washington "Union" about the troops in Gen. Winfield Scott's Army

The Washington Union of the 19th, has the following statements respecting the armies in Mexico:

Troops in Gen. Scott's army. We learn at the adjutant general's office that more than 7,000 troops (new regiments and reorganized companies of the old) have been sent to reinforce the army under Major Gen. Scott; and that official reports have been received which show that nearly 5,000 had arrived at Vera Cruz between the 24th of May and 26th of June, and which we understand have been pushed forward to join the advancing column of the army with all practicable expedition.

The entire force in advance of Vera Cruz, operating in the interior, and moving in the direction of the capital, exceeds fifteen thousand. These are of course exclusive of the garrisons at Tampico and Vera Cruz. It is impossible to determine what deduction should be made on account of the sick; but, according to the best judgment of the military men, it should be put down at not less than 2,000; which would make the efficient force in the heart of Mexico about thirteen thousand, exclusive of staff corps.

The army under Gen. Scott must soon be further increased, since more than 2,500 are known to be en route for Vera Cruz; among which are six companies of the United States infantry, and several companies of marines, &c. In addition to these, a respectable number of troops, of an effective character, are now rising, and will be promptly en route for General Scott's army.

We will say, once for all, that the pay rolls--that infallible test of numbers--will show that the forces in Mexico, under Major General Scott and Major General Taylor, in the month of July, will exceed 30,000. [SRP]


NNR 72.329 July 24, 1847 Letter from Monterey

Monterey, Mexico, June 20, 1847.

Nothing of any note has transpired since my last, and we are all in pretty much the same condition now as then, except that the prospect of moving upon San Luis has grown a little brighter; and we look forward to the arrival of the 1st of September with considerable importance--at least the majority of those here do. I understand that Gen. Taylor has been apprised from headquarters that three of the ten regiments and one battalion of the 3d regiment of dragoons are assigned to his column, and that three of the volunteer regiments recently called for are also to be assigned him. They will probably be in the field by the latter part of August and ready to march by September.

Accounts of the crops in the interior are very flattering; the wheat crop is said to be unusually fine and corn also gives token of an abundant harvest. This is very cheering, as by the time a movement is made the corn harvest will be at its very height, and there will be no difficulty in foraging the animals. The army will probably be subsisted upon fresh beef on the route, to avoid the necessity of transporting salt provisions, and levies will be made on the surrounding country. I am perfectly elated with the prospect of going to San Luis and coming home by the other route. I imagine that General Taylor will visit the states late in the fall, after penetrating into the interior and uniting with Gen. Scott. If his return to the states does not create a sensation exceeding anything of the kind within the memory of "the oldest inhabitants" I shall be most egregiously mistaken; and never was there a more deserving object of admiration and respect than the brave old general who has so valiantly and bravely sustained the honor of our flag, borne it from the bleak sand hills of Corpus Christi, and planted it triumphantly over the yawning gullies of Buena Vista, which were red with the blood of the conquered foe. Never did that spot so well deserve the name of Buena Vista as when our flag unfolded its beauties over that field of deadly strife. In the space of one short year how many brave deeds have been accomplished--what victories won! and in the short space of time how firmly and closely has the brave leader of brave men become "enshrined in the hearts of his country men?"

A Mexican of considerable intelligence arrived direct from San Luis Potosi a few days since, and reports that General Taylor has been expected there for some time. He states that there are some regular troops there, but no very large force, and that but little had been done towards fortifying the place.

By far the most important news he brings is a report which was in circulation in San Luis, and of the correctness of which no doubt was expressed, that Santa Anna had resigned the command of the army and his office of president and retired. If the reports of the general feeling against him have any foundation, he perhaps resigned none too soon to save his precious life. Mexicans here state that Urrea has levied a tax upon all the inhabitants in this region for the support of his forces, and that he has agents attending to its execution. All those who have arms are directed to keep them in good order and be ready at a moment's warning to stand forth again to protect their soul. It is thought by the Mexicans here, and they could not be made to believe otherwise, that Gen. Taylor contemplates a very speedy movement upon San Luis, in consequence of all the troops being sent on to Saltillo immediately after their arrival here, and Urrea is said to have expressed his intention of retaking Monterey as soon as Gen. T. departs. I am afraid that he will be disappointed in his expectations. That Urrea has issued orders and promulgated an address I cannot and do not doubt. Why should he not as well as Canate?

Eight companies of the North Carolina regiment, Col. Payne, part of who arrived with the last train from below, marched up to Saltillo on Thursday, and apparently with pretty full ranks. A part of the Massachusetts regiment is at Cerralvo and the rest at Camargo, and are soon expected up. There have been a great many discharges in the Virginia regiment of sick; incompetent to perform duty, and the great portion of them were never fit to perform duty when they were mustered into the service in Virginia. Government has been put to the expense of bringing them out here to be kept on the sick list the greater part of the time and finally discharged. The mustering officer of course is the person to blame for not having the men properly inspected. Captain Carrington and Lieutenants Kinney and Ashby are under orders to proceed to Virginia to raise recruits to fill up the companies to their proper standard.

Gov. Early, in consequence of the exorbitant prices demanded for all sorts of marketable matters, meats and vegetables, has been compelled to fix prices for everything at reasonable and remunerative rates. The Mexican hucksters are in a great rage about it, but, to make use of a vulgar expression, have to "grin and bear it." J.E.D. [SRP]


NNR 72.330 July 24, 1847 News of Naval Operation in the Pacific

Brig. Gen. U.S.A. and Governor of California.

From a private letter received yesterday, we learn that Monterey has been fixed upon, by Governor Kearny and Com. Shubrick, as the temporary seat of Government for the territory.

The point for the permanent seat of government has not been determined upon, and probably will not be by the existing authorities, but will be left to the people.

The entire northern Pacific squadron of the U. States are, no doubt, at Monterey, with the exception of the Cyane now at this port. Their destination is not yet know; but it is probable that a greater part of them will be stationed along the coast. The Warren will be sent home if, after inspection, she is not considered seaworthy. The Savannah, it is thought, will also be sent home.

The members of the legislative council have not yet been appointed; and it is not likely that they will be, until the nominations from the various parts of the country are sent in.

Our Monterey correspondent informs us that Capt. Turner left that place on the 2nd inst. for the Pueblo of the Angels, with orders from Governor Kearny to disband or reorganize the California battalion, and to forward all the Government archives to Monterey. Col. Fremont has been ordered to Monterey. [TNW]


NNR 72.330 July 24, 1847 Establishment of civil government in California, proclamation, choice of a seat of government

From California. The Washington Union says the latest dates from Mazatlan are to the 1st May. Commodore Shubrick, in the Independence, was blockading that port, but would probably leave for the Sandwich Islands to refresh his crews, having had no vegetables since leaving Valparaiso in December. He will return from the Islands to Monterey. Commodore Biddle was at Monterey on the 19th April. The Preble had not arrived. The Congress was at San Diego, but was expected soon at Monterey. The Portsmouth was off San Jose on the 27th--all well. The Warren was employed transporting volunteers from San Pedro to San Francisco. The store ships Xylon and Mount Vernon had both reached Monterey, and the squadron is well supplied with provisions. The Portsmouth had been employed in taking possession of the towns in Lower California, on the gulf; but at no place was there the means of making resistance to our flag.

A file of "The California Star," a weekly journal edited by E. P. Jones, at Yerba Buena, in California, extends through January and February, and down to March G, inclusive contains very little intelligence which has not been received by previous arrivals. The "Star" of the 27th February gives the following: "Civil Government. Gen. Kearney sailed from this port in the United States frigate Savannah, Capt. Mervine, on Thursday last, for Monterey, where it is understood, in conjunction with Com. Shubrick, he will immediately commence the important work of organizing a civil government for California.

From the California Star, March 6.

We are indebted to our Monterey correspondent for a copy of the circular just issued by Gen. Kearny and Com. Shubrick, which will be found in our paper today. It will be seen by the circular that Gen. Kearny is now Governor of California, and has already entered upon his duties as such. It will also be observed that Com. Shubrick, according to the present arrangement of our government, is to have command of the northern Pacific squadron, and to have control of the important trade of California and the general supervision of the American commerce in the Pacific:

Circular--To all whom it may concern, be it known:

That the president of the United States, desirous to give and secure to the people of California a share of the good government and happy civil organization enjoyed by the people of the United States, and to protect them at the same time from the attacks of foreign foes, and from internal commotions, has invested the undersigned with separate and distinct powers, civil and military; a cordial co-operation in the exercise of which, it is hoped and believed, will have the happy results desired.

To the commander in chief of the naval forces, the president has assigned the regulations of the import trade, the conditions on which vessels of all nations (our own as well as foreign) may be admitted into the ports of the territory, and the establishment of all port regulations.

To the commanding military officer, the president has assigned the direction of the operations on land, and has invested him with administration functions of government over the people and territory occupied by the forces of the United States.

Done at Monterey, capital of California, this first day of March, A. D. 1847.

W. BRADFORD SHUBRICK, Commander in chief of the naval forces. S.W. KEARNY.
Brig Gen. U.S.A. and Governor of California.

From a private letter received yesterday, we learn that Monterey has been fixed upon, by Governor Kearny and Com. Shubrick, as the temporary seat of Government for the territory.

The point for the permanent seat of government has not been determined upon, and probably will not be by the existing authorities; but will be left to the people.

The entire northern Pacific squadron of the U. States are, no doubt, at Monterey, with the exception of the Cyane now at this port. Their destination is not yet known; but it is probable that a greater part of them will be stationed along the coast. The Warren will be sent home if, after inspection, she is not considered seaworthy. The Savannah, it is thought, will also be sent home.

The members of the legislative council have not yet been appointed; and it is not likely that they will be, until the nominations from the various parts of the country are sent in.

Our Monterey correspondent informs us that Capt. Turner left that place on the 2d inst. For the Pueblo of the Angels, with orders from Governor Kearny to disband or reorganize the California battalion, and to forward all the Government archives to Monterey.  Col. Fremont has been ordered to Monterey.

Distressing account of a party of emigrants. The Star gives the most distressing details of the sufferings of the party of emigrants, of whose destitution in the mountains, on account of the snow, we have already heard. The company was composed of twenty three wagons and some sixty or eighty persons, and was a part of Colonel Russel's company, which left Missouri a year ago last May. Through some neglect or mismanagement they parted company with other wagons which reached the settlement in October last, and losing their way, were overtaken by impassable snow. After suffering much for want of water and grass, and losing many oxen, they sent forward two of their men to find assistance. These men reached Fort Sacramento, where Capt. J. A. Sutter furnished them with seven mules and two Indian vaquetos, and a supply of flour and beef. With these they returned to the company.

This was about the middle of November last, and from that time until the first of February nothing more was heard of them. Then a message came to Fort Sacramento from Capt. Wm. Johnson's, the first house of the California settlements, bringing the astounding information that five women and two men had arrived at that point, almost entirely naked, with their feet frost bitten. They said that the company had reached a small log cabin near Tucker's Lake, on the east side of the mountains, and about 100 miles from Johnson's, where they found the snow so deep they could not travel. Fearing starvation, 16 of the strongest, (11 males and 5 females) agreed to start for the settlements on foot. Scantily clothed and ill provided with provisions, they commenced a journey over the mountains, in comparison with which Napoleon's feat on the Alps was child's play.

After wandering a number of days, bewildered in the snow, their provisions gave out, and, after long hunger, they resorted to the horrid step of casting lots to see who should give up their lives and bodies as food for the remainder. As the weaker ones began to sink under their sufferings, however, it did not become necessary to take life. One after another, nine of the men died, and their bodies were eaten by their companions. Mr. C.S. Stanton, a young man from Syracuse, New York, was the first who died. He was one of those who went forward to Sutter's fort, as we have mentioned, and returned to the relief of his companions. After traveling thirty days, the seven survivors of this band of pioneers reached Capt. Johnson's settlement, as stated above.

All the five females withstood the horrors of the journey, and it seems, but only two of the eleven men, and one of them was so exhausted that he was brought into Johnson's on the back of an Indian. The party were at one time 36 hours in a snow storm without fire, and they had but three quilts in the company. One woman was obliged to eat part of the body of her father and of her brother; and there are other statements in regard to their sufferings which are too horrid to repeat. [SRP]


NNR 72.332 July 24, 1847 Letter From Aboard the Raritan About the Taking of Tabasco

THE TAKING OF TABASCO. A characteristic letter from one of our gallant tars.

Frigate Raritan, 27th June, 1847.

Tabasco, you must know, is a fine city, situated on a high bluff, on the right bank of the river, 80 miles from its mouth. The river is narrow, the banks are high and steep, and covered with trees, chaparral, and flags, interwoven with hanging vines and the densest foliage I have ever seen. Fifty determined men could have swept every one of us from the decks as we passed up, without ever seeing an enemy. The channel runs close to the right bank of the river, which looked immediately down on our decks, packed with men.

The vessel frequently became entangled among the branches of the trees, and in this way, about midnight several men were swept out of the boats and from the decks of the vessels. This, with the burning of the blue lights ( the preconcerted signal for any accident ) and the rowing about of the boats, in this sepulchral glare of the light, to pick up the lost, rendered the whole scene strikingly picturesque and intensely exciting from the beginning to the ending of the expedition.

On the 12th the squadron anchored off the river Tabasco, and on the 14th, all things being ready, we made sail. The steamer Scorpion, bearing the commodore's broad pennant, having in tow the Washington and Vesuvius, followed by the steamers Spitfire, Vixen, and Scourge, towing the Etna, Stromboli, Bonita, and Captain Taylor's little vessel, the Spitfire, with the patent India rubber camels, for lifting our vessels over the shoals and obstructions thrown across the river, the boats of the squadron, about the fifty in number, towing astern of all, presented a beautiful sight.

About sundown we left Frontera, and with an occasional interruption from the overhanging branches sweeping our men overboard, we passed on very gently until 3 o'clock next day, when we captured a canoe with two Indians, from whom we learned that Bruno lay in ambush, with a large force, at two favorable positions, at points 15 to 20 miles farther up. The tops were at once filled with sharpshooters, and officers kept aloft on the look out. The place designated as the first point of attack being passed without interruption, we were beginning to feel secure, when a heavy volley opened on us from the banks.

In an instant the fire was returned from the heavy guns of the Scorpion, Washington, and Vesuvius, and from the small arm on deck and aloft. The firing lasted about ten minutes; the big escopetter balls whizzed through the rigging of the old Vesuvius in most mournful strains. Strange to say but one of our men was wounded, the balls nearly all passing over us.

The awning of the Scorpion, I was told was cut up pretty badly. The Vesuvius's sides were pretty well peppered; but for the foresight of the Commodore in stationing sharpshooter aloft, we must have suffered severely, but they had heard of our being armed with the revolving rifle, and had a most awful horror of exposing themselves to its effects. They were afraid of raising their heads to take aim, for fear of showing themselves to the men aloft, and being shot.

We kept on up the river and anchored at sundown at a place called the Devil's Bend. About two hours after, the rest of our forces came up and anchored in line astern. Here is a long reach of a mile and a quarter length; the river narrow, and an obstruction was thrown across the bar, with a strong breastwork commanding it. As the shades of evening stole over us, we were fired upon again from the bushes, the discharge breaking a man's leg on board of the Vesuvius. We opened the big guns on them again, cleared the woods of the mosquitoes, and went to bed.

At daylight Lieutenants May and Alden were sent ahead some 100 yards, to sound on the bar, and examining the obstructions, which could be seen projecting out of the water. This was a perilous undertaking, but they went boldly to work, when a shower of balls were poured down upon them from the breastwork and bushes. Lieut. May's boat, being in advance, received the fire, severely wounding him and several of his crew, compelling the boats to return to the vessel. The order was then given for the forces to embark in the boats and form into line, three deep, in the middle of the river. This was done with great dispatch and in beautiful order.

While forming into line, a heavy cannonading was kept up from the vessels. At a signal given from the commodore, the steamers ceased firing, the men gave an awful shout, 700 men dipped their blades into the water, and a thousand Yankee tars stood on the banks of the Tabasco.

The forces were now drawn up in the order of march; the pioneers and scouting party, commanded by Lieut. Maynard, in advance, then the marines, in the command of Capt. Edson, then the "old hoss" and suite, with his broad pendant in front, the artillery, by Capt. Mackenzie, and infantry, in two divisions, by Captains Forest and Breese, the ambulance party following after, to pick up the killed and wounded.

Marching about 300 yards brought us out of the woods into an open space; the grass and flags up to our armpits and an occasional marsh to wade through, rendering our advance extremely painful and laborious. We had ten field pieces dragging after us, with twenty rounds of grape and canister, yet our tars never flinched, but dragged them through muck and mire until we planted them in the Plaza in Tabasco.

As we neared a dense chaparral skirting the woods, the Mexicans opened on us again. Capts. Mackenzie and Buchanan immediately brought forward the artillery, and opened on the thicket, the marines and infantry advancing and returning the fire at the same time. About this time the ran along the line that the enemy was advancing on the right, the field pieces were turned on them, and in the act of firing, when it was discovered to be Lieut. Maynard, with his prisoners, returning from a scouting expedition; five seconds later and they had been dead men.

The Mexicans retreated before us as we advanced, keeping up a running fire, but, rarely showing themselves. It was impossible to charge them for the marshes and chaparral; there was no means of forcing our way through the woods, the undergrowth of briars, vines, snakes, scorpions and other vegetables, rendering it perfectly impregnable. We now struck into a foot path, which we kept until we got in sight of Tabasco.

It was with the greatest difficulty that the artillery could be got along, and but for the indomitable energy and perseverance of the officers commanding them they must have been left on the road.

Our march now for two or three miles was uninterrupted by the appearance of a Mexican, but the roadside was strewn with cartridges, beds, haversacks, and other indications of people moving in a hurry. Scouting some distance in advance of the main body, the pioneers suddenly came upon a large party of the enemy waiting in a close chaparral to give us a volley as we approached. Maynard charged in upon them in gallant style and routed them out, and now you should have been there to have seen what a Texan would call a specimen of "tall walking," the Mexicans running and the pioneers after them.

This was our last brush, and toward evening the advance guard came in sight of the fort commanding the approach to the city by land and water. I have never seen a more commanding position, constructed on a bluff, taking in a line of the river one mile and a half long, exposing our vessels to a raking fire the whole distance. In the fort they mounted three long 32's, three heavy field pieces, and a 24 pound carronade, and a s the Scorpion and Spitfire came around the bend of the river, they opened on them from the fort with grape and round shot.

The two little steamers came steadily along, paying more attention to steering clear of the shoals than to the shot. The Scorpion coming up first opened her fire as she got abreast, the Spitfire joining in; the grape fairly rained, and soon drove the enemy from their guns, their fire slackening, and Capt. Bigelow, thinking the fort silenced, put on steam and passed on up to the city, when the fire reopened from the fort, which the Spitfire returned most gallantly, again driving them from their guns.

The Scorpion at this time landing a party of men to take possession of the town, and thinking in the fort that they were about to be attacked in the rear, prepared to limber up their field pieces, when Lieut. Porter landed with a force from the Spitfire and gallantly rushed up the hill to board, when the enemy fled, leaving two of their field pieces behind all limbered up for moving off. He then spiked the guns and hoisted the American flag.

The wheelhouses of the Scorpion and Spitfire were driven in, by the shot of the fort, paddles shattered, wheel shot away, and several men and an officer wounded. With the assistance of Capt. Taylor's camels the Etna and Scourge were subsequently brought over the bar. We now formed into line, and with flags flying marched into the city.

On reaching the public plaza, the men and officers were quartered in the public buildings around the square, the commander and suite occupied the government house. Every Mexican had left the city. Not an officer of the government civil or military, could be found in the place. We were in the city nine days, during which time not an outrage was committed by a man, and private property respected most rigidly. At night our jolly tars would assemble together in squads of a hundred in the plaza, and sing their sea songs.

The ladies always assembled in the balcony of the Spanish consul's house every evening, and never left until the last note was sounded. The guns were all put on board the steamers, and the forts and magazine razed to the ground. On the 26th we left Tabasco. Capt. Van Brunt is left as governor. The Etna, Spitfire, and Scourge remained to hold possession of the place. Bruno is still in the woods, in command of 1400 men, and will no doubt annoy the vessels from the river banks. [TNW]


NNR 72.336 July 24, 1847 Prisoners Detained at Huejutla, Col. Lewis Gustavus DeRussy's Expedition to Relieve American Prisoners

From the N.O. Picayune, July 15.

From Tampico we have some verbal intelligence not without interest. The American prisoners had not arrived there, but were at a place about forty leagues distant, probably Huejutla. On the 8th inst., Col. DeRussy, of the Louisiana regiment, left Tampico, at the head of about two hundred men, intending to proceed to the relief of the prisoners.

He took with him a small force of the regular artillery, a portion of his own regiment and some of the mounted men of Tampico- a serviceable description of force raised in the town. It is more than probable that the colonel will have a brush with the enemy before he gets back. There are said to be pretty strong parties of guerrillas on the route to be followed. [TNW]


NNR 72.336 July 24, 1847 Health of Tampico Reported more Favorable

Our accounts of the health of Tampico, and especially of the Louisiana regiment are more favorable.

There is very little yellow fever in the town, and the cases have been confined to the civil hospital.- The fevers which prevail are becoming more malignant as the season advances. [TNW, SRP]


NNR 72.336 July 24, 1847 Capt. J. Mayo's expedition in search of Caledonio Domeco Jarauta (guerrillas)

The U.S. steamer Vixen, Captain Smith, arrived at Anton Lizardo on the 4th instant from Tabasco.

Capt. Mayo of the navy and Governor of Alvarado having received intelligence that Father Jarauta was in the vicinity and designed to surprise and take Alvarado, went off in pursuit of him at the head of one hundred and fifty men, proceeding up the river. At last dates the expedition had now returned to Alvarado, nor had any account been received from it. [TNW, SRP]


NNR 72.336 July 24, 1847 celebration of the Fourth at Veracruz, train still not started from Veracruz

Vera Cruz, July 6, 1847.
               
Such a celebration of the glorious fourth as took place in Vera Cruz would do credit to any place in the United States.

The train which was to hale left yesterday has not yet started, and will not probably get off until next Saturday. [ANP, WWF, SRP]


NNR 72.336 July 24, 1847 Gen. Winfield Scott's council of war, whether to advance or delay for reinforcements, Mexican account of Scott's force. "Republicano" on peace. Rejection by the Mexican Congress of communications on peace. Gen. Winfield Scott leaves Puebla for the Mexican capital. Gen. Franklin Pierce nearly ready to start for Jalapa and Puebla.

By the way of Tampico, (from Mexico), we received a copy El Repulicano from the city of Mexico, of the 30th June; also the number of the 28th, which was missing from our previous file. Both papers contain matter of the great interest.

A postscript in the paper of the 28th contains a report of the proceedings of a council of war said to have been held in Gen. Scott's camp on Thursday, the 24th, the business of which was to determine whether or not to advance upon the capital. One general, whose name is not given, is said to have argued that it would be imprudent, nay, an act of madness to advance upon the city with less than twenty thousand men; that upon the supposition that every thing should work favorably for them, it was evident that they could not enter the capital without resistance: and that supposing in their different engagements they should lost half of their force or more, they would be left with some four thousand men, with which number it was extremely hazardous to attempt to hold so populous a city.

General Worth was of a different opinion. He maintained that every invader who hesitated was lost; that in their situation a single retrograde movement involved the most disastrous consequences, and that this had already been proved. He added proudly that six or eight thousand Americans were sufficient to conquer twenty thousand Mexicans; that their triumph was certain, and there was no reason for not pressing on.

Gen. Scott and others are said to have approved these sentiments, so that it was at last determined that they should commence the forward movement on the 28th, but upon the suggestion of some one that it might not be proper to act so promptly after having just dispatched the communication from the government of the United States with renewed offers of peace, General Scott replied that he would wait some days at Rio Frio to receive the answer of the Mexican government.

The American force at the time of this council was set down by the Mexicans at eight thousand five hundred men, thirty pieces of artillery, and one mortar.

The Republicano remarks upon this information: "We believe the Americans have compromised their situation beyond measure; and even in the event, certainly very difficult, that they win triumphs upon triumphs, their very victories will cause their ruin."

The council above spoken of was held on the 24th. It is not alluded to in the Star of Puebla of the 26th, nor in Mr. Kendall's letters, which came down to the 30th. Yet the facts are said to be derived from a responsible source, and they look plausible--General Worth's opinions particularly so. The Republicano of the 26th says nothing about the subject, but in that paper of the 30th is another postscript to which is prefixed in large letters "Very Important."

This postscript mentions the receipt of letters announcing the debarkation of 1,800 men at Vera Cruz from Tampico, who had marched immediately for Puebla. (This is probably Gen. Cadwallader's detachment). The letters further said that General Scott had already ordered the march of the first brigade, consisting of fifteen hundred troops with ten guns and a mortar towards the city of Mexico, when he learned that the train was detained at Nopalucan (forty-two miles this side of Puebla and fifty one beyond Perote); that he thereupon countermanded the march upon Mexico, and dispatched a force to the assistance of the train coming up.

The letter then speaks of the review of the troops which took place on the 26th. The number of troops is again set down at 8,500 men, without including those who occupy the fortifications of San Juan, Loreto, &c. But the most important paragraph is that Gen. Scott would probably postpone his march upon the city until the 10th July, to allow these reinforcements to come up. We give these various pieces of news as we find them, but the reader will constantly bear in mind that our advices from Puebla are later than those by the city of Mexico.

The Republicano, in the same postscript, thinks it very probably that Gen. Taylor will abandon Saltillo, Matamoras, and other towns in the north of Mexico, and shortly proceed to Vera Cruz to assist in the taking of the capital, which is now, it adds, the objects of the aspirations of the Americans. It is very anxious that the government should direct Generals Valencia and Salas, now at San Luis, that they harass the retreat of Gen. Taylor.

The Repulicano blames the Government for not communicating at once with Mr. Trist, without referring the subject matter of Mr. Buchanan's letter to congress. It holds that it is the business of the executive thus to manage negotiations, and refer the result to the wisdom of congress. Besides it says, that in all probability it will be impossible to procure a quorum of congress. To refer overtures thus is to break them off in the outset.

That paper takes good care to prevent the inference from this remark that it favors peace. It is on the contrary opened-mouth for war. It would not grant a truce for a single day, nor omit preparation for defense. However, it concludes its article by trusting that the executive as well as congress, will show themselves "extremely difficult" in relation to peace, and not consent to one unless the conclusion of it shall protect in every particular the honor, the good name and the interests of the nation. We regard this as a concession on the part of the Republicano and of good omen for peace.

The New Orleans Timesheet of 15th inst. has the following:

Most important-Again a rejection of the olive branch! Mexico declines treating. At the moment when the Galveston was leaving Vera Cruz, a courier, with the mail from the capital, entered the city, bringing dates to the 5th instant. The principal item of intelligence brought from the city of Mexico, is of momentous character, viz: The Mexican congress, with some difficulty, had been brought together, and Mr. Buchanan's communication, containing the president's overtures for peace, were laid before them.

Their decision was immediate, and to the effect that Mexico would listen to no terms for peace. Gen. Scott left Puebla, at the head of his army, for the capital, on the 30th ult. We received this news from a passenger, and have every reason to believe that is authentic.

From the New Orleans Bulletin, July 15.

Gen. Pierce, with the reinforcements that were at Vera Cruz, exceeding 3000 men, was nearly ready to start for Jalapa and Puebla. [SRP]


NNR 72.336 July 24, 1847 Complaints Among Troops in Command at Gen. Gideon Johnson Pillow

From the New Orleans Bulletin, July 15.

Gen. Pierce, with the reinforcements that were at Vera Cruz, exceeding 3000 men, was nearly ready to start for Jalapa and Puebla.

By a passenger in the Galveston, we learn that a great deal of excitement existed at Vera Cruz, in consequence of the numerous deaths among those men of General Pillow's command, that had broken down and been compelled to return to Vera Cruz, in consequence of the mid-day's march, in the hot sun and burning sands, when they first left Vera Cruz.

The " Sun of Anahuac," printed at Vera Cruz, thinks that General Scott will not advance until he receives further orders from Washington, and is of opinion that the reply of the Mexican minister to Mr. Buchanan, informing him that his letter will be submitted to congress, denotes a disposition to deliberate upon the question of peace, instead of abruptly rejecting all overtures. [TNW]


NNR 72.337 July 31, 1847 Members of a legislature nominated in California

California affairs. A letter dated Monterey, Feb 1st, says:

"Seven persons have been nominated to form a legislature. They are to hold two sessions this year; the first in the town of Angeles, in March; and the second some time in autumn, at Monterey. The persons nominated to form this legislature, are the Ex-Governor of Alvarado, Gen. Valleyo, David Spencer, Esq., Thomas O. Larken, Esq., Don Juan Vandine, Don Santiago Arguelir, and E. Grimes, Esq. It is very much doubted if either of the three first mentioned persons will accept of the office to which they have been appointed; neither does this proceeding meet the approbation of the community. Perhaps it would have been better, if the legislatures had been elected; and there is some expectation that ultimately such will be the course pursued; at all events it is the method most desired. [SRP]


NNR 72.339 July 31, 1847 Resolution on slavery and acquired territory in the Maine legislature. Resolutions of the New Hampshire Democratic Party convention against the extension of slavery in acquired territory

The legislature of Maine, now in session have adopted the following resolutions. It will be recollected that the administration party have the ascendancy of both Branches of the legislature.

Resolved, That Maine, by the action of her state government, and by her representation in congress, should abide cheerfully by the letter and spirit of the concessions of the constitution of the U. States; at the same time resisting firmly all demands for their enlargement or extension.

Resolved, That the sentiment of this states is profound, sincere, and almost universal, that the influence of slavery upon productive energy is like the sight of mildew; that it is a moral and social evil; that it does violence to the rights of man, as a thinking, reasonable, and responsible being. Influenced on such considerations, this state will oppose the introduction of slavery into any territory which may be required as an indemnity for claims upon Mexico.

Resolved, That, in the acquisition of any free territory, whether by purchase of otherwise, we deem it the duty of the general government to extend over the same the ordinance of seventeen hundred and eighty seven, with all its rights and privileges, conditions and immunities.

Resolved, That our senators in congress be instructed, and our representatives requested, to support and carry out the principles of the foregoing resolutions.

Resolved, That the governor be requested to transit a copy of the above resolutions to each of our senators and representatives in congress, and to the governors of several states.

The New Hampshire Democracy. The Democratic members of the New Hampshire Legislature, responding to the message of the governor, have proposed the following resolution:

Resolved. That in all territory which shall hereafter be added to or acquired by the United States, where slavery nor involuntary servitude, except for the punishment of crime, whereof the party has been convicted, does not now by law exist--the same should ever remain free; and we are opposed to the extension of slavery over such territory; and that it also approve the vote of our senators and representatives in congress in favor of the Wilmot proposal."

It will be recollected that these are the gentlemen were endorsed by the Editor of the Union, their selection heralded as a great Democratic triumph, and Virginia was call on to imitate the example of "Glorious New Hampshire!" [Charleston Mercury

The Ohio Statesmen contains a letter from Camargo (Mexico), which thus describes an incident of an occurrence in that place:

"A sooty Mexican, in no respect superior to the longest scented darky in Columbus, called upon the commandant of that post, and demanded his assistance in securing an eloped slave. An investigation followed. A senorita of much fairer complexion and superior in every respect to her master, her master's wife, or any of his children, had fallen, as her fairer ones of the north often do, into Cupid's snare. She married. Her hombre, either not having the means or the inclination to pay the debt for which she had been enslaved by her parents, the difficulty alluded to ensued. The then commandant, though not an abolitionist, had too much gallantry to comply with the sordid demand of the sooty master. The newly wedded pair still love, and live together in the fully enjoyment of all the connubial bliss of Mexican matrimony. Should Mexican laws, however, be again extended over Camargo, neither the tears of our heroine, nor all their Abolition brethren, could save her from the heartless grasp of her former master's tyranny." [SRP]


NNR 72.341 July 31, 1847 Gen. Taylor’s reply to Mexican inquiry as to manner of conducting war

         SIR: I received yesterday your communication of the 10th instant which informs me that you are instructed by the President Substitute of the Republic to address me, with a view to demand from me a categorical reply  “whether my wishes and my instructions are to prosecute the war in conformity to the  laws of nations and as war is conducted by civilized countries, or as barbarous tribes carry it on among themselves, it being understood that Mexico is disposed and resolved to accept the manner which is proposed or carried out, and awaits the result in order to dictate its measures accordingly.

         If these instructions were not communicated to me through an authority so highly respectable as yourself, I should refuse to believe they emanated from the chief magistrate of the republic, containing as in fact they do contain in my judgment, an implied but not less deliberate insult towards me and towards the government which I have the honor to represent. Viewing them in this light; I shall decline giving the categorical reply which is demanded of me, which I do with the respect due to his excellency the president.

         As you have thought fit to communicate to me the instructions of your government at some length upon the manner in which the war has been carried on upon my part, I improve this opportunity to make some remarks upon the subject.

         The outrages to which especial reference is made came to my knowledge after they had been perpetrated, and I can assure you that neither yourself nor the president of the republic can have felt deeper pain than that which I felt on the occasion. All the means at my disposal within the limits of our laws were employed, but in the greater number of cases fruitlessly, to identify and punish the delinquents.- I cannot suppose that you have been so ill informed as to believe that such atrocities were committed by my connivance, order, or consent, or that they by themselves give an idea of the manner I which the war has been prosecuted in the part of Mexico. They were in truth unfortunate exceptions, caused by circumstances which I could not control.

         It appears to me in point to inform you that from the moment the American army set foot upon the territory of Mexico it has suffered individually the loss of officers and soldiers who have been assassinated by Mexicans, sometimes almost in sight of their own camp. An outrage of this character preceded the melancholy affair at Cantana. I do not mention these truths with the view of justifying in any manner the practice of retaliation, because my government is sufficiently civilized to make a distinction between the lawless acts of individuals and the general policy which governs the operations of an enemy; but you have endeavored to make a comparison between our respective governments in regard to the manner in which they conduct the war, which I cannot pass without remark. In this connection it should be borne in mind that the Mexican troops have given to the world the example of killing the wounded upon the field of battle.

         It is with pain that I find myself under the necessity of addressing you in a manner to which I am little accustomed; but I have been provoked to do so by the object and the manner of your communication, which is objectionable, in my estimation, as well in its insinuation as in its tone. With respect to the implied threat of retaliation, I beg you to understand that I hold it at its true worth, and that I am at all times prepared to act accordingly, whatever may be the policy or mode of carrying on the war which the Mexican government or its generals may think it proper to adopt. I am, sir, with much respect, your obedient servant.

         As you have adverted to the requisition which I have made upon the people of these states to make indemnity for the losses incurred by the destruction of one of our trains, I take the liberty of informing you that this was not the act of the Mexican troops exclusively, but that the rancheros of the country were chiefly concerned in it; and that the subsequent assassination and mutilation of the unarmed teamsters were marked by an atrocious barbarity unequalled in the present war. [BRR]


NNR 72.341 July 31, 1847 Items “Unions implied censure of Gen. Winfield Scott relative to Nicholas Phillip Trist’s proposals

         A whole month has transpired since we have had direct accounts from Gen. Scott’s division of the [ . . . ]. Indirect accounts reaching us through the city of Mexico, lead us to believe that the General has felt himself in sufficient force to advance upon the capital.

         We have no distinct account as yet of either Gen. Cadwallader  or Gen. Pillow having joined gen. Scott. [ . . . ] no doubt have joined him, or we should have [ . . . ] from the Mexicans the cause that prevented it. [ . . . ] they join him, Gen. Scott’s force will fall considerably below 10,000 (disposable) men. A reinforcement was preparing to march from Vera Cruz [ . . . ] the last accounts left that city, (July 9) com[ . . . ] about 3,000 men, accompanied by two companies of dragoons, (one of them Capt. Duperu’s) [ . . . ] companies of artillery with six pieces, six companies of voltigueurs, and 500 marines, forming in the [ . . . ] about 4,000 men. So writes a member of Captain Duperu’s company to the N.Orleans Times. [ . . . ] Pierce, who was in command of this division, [ . . . ] with fever. The letter states that the health [ . . . ]Vera Cruz is far from being good. The yellow fever was making some ravages, and together with dysentery, was carrying off a considerable number of persons every day.

         [ . . . ] Gen. Scott is waiting for reinforcements, the Mexicans are diverted from measures for defense by propositions from Mr.Trist through the agency of the British minister at Mexico.

         Meantime a general assortment of rumors are kept afloat here, calculated to tantalize the community. Yesterday we had one which stated that Gen. Scott had arrived within twenty five miles of Mexico, and ascertained the enemy to be in such formidable force, that he commenced a retrograde. The day before yesterday we had a rumor far more probable, derived from the N. Orleans Times, that the Mexican  congress had rejected the proffered negotiation, unless the invading forces were withdrawn.

         The Washington Union inserted an article a few days since, which implied that if General Scott had immediately after the battle of Cerro Gordo, forwarded the propositions for peace with which Mr. Trist was charged, we should ere this, have had a treaty.

         To this it has been replied, that the battle was fought on the 18th of April, thirty days before Mr. Trist reached Gen. Scott’s headquarters. Mr. Buchanan’s letter to the Mexican secretary of state, of which Mr. Trist was bearer, is dated at Washington, April 15th. The Mexican minister’s answer doubt, in correspondence between Mr. Trist and Mr. Bankhead, the British minister, in arranging the interposition of the latter, through whom the proposals ultimately found their way to the Mexican secretary of foreign affairs.

         The “Union” in an explanatory article, admits that the propositions could not have followed immediately after the battle, but again implies a censurable defray. By the way, the Union and one of the New York journals are at direct issue as to the facts in the alleged misunderstanding between Gen. Scott and Mr. Trist. The former asserts positively that he speaks from the record.

         An anxious, feverish suspense is now felt to know whether the war is to be terminated or continued to indefinite period. [BRR]


NNR 72.341 July 31, 1847 peace rumors, “Union's” remarks

         A whole month has transpired since we have had direct accounts from Gen. Scott’s division of the [ . . . ]. Indirect accounts reaching us through the city of Mexico, lead us to believe that the General has felt himself in sufficient force to advance upon the capital.

         We have no distinct account as yet of either Gen. Cadwallader  or Gen. Pillow having joined gen. Scott. [ . . . ]no doubt have joined him, or we should have [ . . . ]from the Mexicans the cause that prevented it. [ . . . ] they join him, Gen. Scott’s force will fall considerably below 10,000 (disposable) men. A reinforcement was preparing to march from Vera Cruz [ . . . ]the last accounts left that city, (July 9) com[ . . . ] about 3,000 men, accompanied by two companies of dragoons, (one of them Capt. Duperu’s) [ . . . ]companies of artillery with six pieces, six companies of voltigueurs, and 500 marines, forming in the [ . . . ] about 4,000 men. So writes a member of Captain Duperu’s company to the N.Orleans Times. [ . . . ]Pierce, who was in command of this division, [ . . . ]with fever. The letter states that the health [ . . . ]Vera Cruz is far from being good. The yellow fever was making some ravages, and together with dysentery, was carrying off a considerable number of persons every day.

         [ . . . ] Gen. Scott is waiting for reinforcements, the Mexicans are diverted from measures for defense by propositions from Mr.Trist through the agency of the British minister at Mexico.

         Meantime a general assortment of rumors are kept afloat here, calculated to tantalize the community. Yesterday we had one which stated that Gen. Scott had arrived within twenty five miles of Mexico, and ascertained the enemy to be in such formidable force, that he commenced a retrograde. The day before yesterday we had a rumor far more probable, derived from the N. Orleans Times, that the Mexican congress had rejected the proferred negotiation, unless the invading forces were withdrawn.

         The Washington Union inserted an article a few days since, which implied that if General Scott had immediately after the battle of Cerro Gordo, forwarded the propositions for peace with which Mr. Trist was charged, we should ere this, have had a treaty.

         To this it has been replied, that the battle was fought on the 18th of April, thirty days before Mr. Trist reached Gen. Scott’s headquarters. Mr. Buchanan’s letter to the Mexican secretary of state, of which Mr. Trist was bearer, is dated at Washington, April 15th. The Mexican minister’s answer doubt, in correspondence between Mr. Trist and Mr. Bankhead, the British minister, in arranging the interposition of the latter, through whom the proposals ultimately found their way to the Mexican secretary of foreign affairs.

         The “Union” in an explanatory article, admits that the propositions could not have followed immediately after the battle, but again implies a censurable defay. By the way, the Union and one of the New York journals are at direct issue as to the facts in the alleged misunderstanding between Gen. Scott and Mr. Trist. The former asserts positively that he speaks from the record.

         An anxious, feverish suspense is now felt to know whether the war is to be terminated or continued to indefinite period. [BRR]


NNR 72.341-342 July 31, 1847 “the war and its generals”

THIS WAR AND ITS GENERALS.

         I do not propose, Messrs. Editors, to favor or to trouble you with a critique (as you might infer from my caption) upon a new work lately announced, and which has no doubt been suggested by the success of Mr. Headley’s works and of “Taylor and his generals,” rather than by that of those heroes of a day whose deeds are about to be commemorated, in the forthcoming work alluded to, styled “Polk and his Martials.

         However inviting a theme, the martial renown of Generals Polk, Cushing, and Pillow and “Lieutenant General” Benton may be, I must leave it to the Louisville Journal and the American Punch. Of these four worthies, only one has given any evidence of his merits and this has involved him in a dispute, which, however decided, cannot but tarnish his laurels. I suppose that his abilities were not very erroneously described, when the editor of the Louisville Journal said that Gen. Pillow was only a little softer than Gen. “Cushing.”  The latter unfortunately has shown his prowess by breaking his own leg, instead of those of the enemy.

         But to be serious:-What I wished to say was this, whatever animadversions are made upon the administration in reference to the Mexican war, however true and well timed they may be, are attributed to federalism, party spirit, and the like, and supposed to be adequately answered by the charge of  “giving aid and comfort to the enemy.”  But there is a voice that speaks not from the present aspect of our affairs,- that belongs to no party,- that utters only the warnings of the past for the guidance of the present,-the voice of impartial history. To what can its lessons be ascribed, should they be found applicable to the existing condition of our affairs?  We have been at war before, and events then have left their teachings behind them.

         A few of these may be found in a work which lies before me,-written before the war of 1812 and have no reference to any immediate purpose to be subserved:  It is “Lee’s Memoirs of the revolutionary war in the southern department of the  U. S.”-a work of considerable ability and great fairness and liberality.

         “Little minds,” says the author, “always, in difficulty, resort to cunning, miscalling it wisdom:  this quality seems to have been predominant in the Cabinet of Great Britain, and was alike conspicuous in its efforts to coerce and its proffers to conciliate.”*

         What quality predominated in our cabinet, when the miserable cunning was resorted to of letting Santa Anna into Mexico, in hopes that he would prove traitor to his country?  Or what, in the proffers of conciliation to the Mexicans, in the various proclamations issued, and the proposal to seize all their church property?  Or what, in the various arrangements for “conquering a peace” by force of arms?-The field of discussion is wide and inviting, but I shall only briefly survey it.

         But again, if Col. Lee had been announcing the appointments and promotions in our army, or describing the carious efforts to put Thomas H. Benton, over it and its veteran officers, or giving an account for the battle of Cerro Gordo, how could he have closed more appropriately than in the following language.

         “Thus it is,” says he, ”that the lives of brave men are exposed, and the public interest sacrificed. Yet, notwithstanding such severe admonitions, rarely does government honor with its confidence the man whose merit is his sole title to preference: the weight of powerful connexions, or the arts of intriguing courtiers too often bear down unsupported through transcendant worth.”

         And how often has this war changed its face?  First volunteers for six months-then, for twelve, and many ardent ones offended by a violation of the terms of their enlistment, now they are called for the whole war. This should have been done sooner. Here comes in the wise voice of the :Father of his Country;” and how forcibly has the immoral hero of Buena Vista,-as his troops have daily melted away from him, leaving him on the borders of Mexico’s sultry deserts with a handful of men-felt the truth of Washington’s sentiments and the strength of his apposite and original figure. Washington, writing to George Mason , of Virginia, October 22 1781, says:  “We must  have a permanent force; not a force that is continually fluctuating, and sliding from us, as a pedestal of ice would leave a statue in a summer’s day; involving us in expense that baffles all calculation.”  Such expense will be the sad result of this mismanaged war.

         President Jefferson is the political stock from which the modern democratic party claim to have descended. Yet, this administration have set at nought one of his best examples. When Governor of Virginia, he adopted a system by which “Continental officers were substituted, in the higher commands, for those of the militia; which although not very well relished by those who retired, was highly grateful to the soldiers; who perceiving the perils before them, rejoiced in being led by tried  and experienced men.”  President Polk has not only disregarded this system of Mr. Jefferson, but reversed it-by which the soldiers are led by untried and inexperienced civilians, suddenly elevated from merited mediocrity over the heads of scientific, experienced and able generals. Should any thing take General Scott now from his command, Gen. Pillow, late of the Tennessee militia, now under the serious imputations of Colonel Haskell and others, would command the whole army in Mexico!!  Far, far better had the door keeper of the White House presided over the levees of the East room, or the merest pettifogger be chief justice of the U. States. Now, may doctors suddenly turn judges; carpenters, saddlers; and cabinet makers, statesmen, and philosophers!

         Once more to history and I am done: - “When presidents, kings, or emperors confide armies to soldiers of common minds, they ought not to be surprised at the disasters which follow.”  This observations, too, is called forth by a review of the career of such men as Gage, Howe, and Clinton,-British generals bred and inured to arms. It is true that few disasters have befallen our arms, but their splendid successes have been achieved by those whom the administration endeavored to supplant and dishonor.

         May its unworthy favorites never have an opportunity to verifying the evils of a system which has called them to such responsible stations- a system so unjust, impolitic, and imbecile, that it requires no disasters to cover it with opprobrium.

SUUM CUIQUE

[Richmond Whig.

[BRR]


NNR 72.342 July 31, 1847 Gen. Zachary Taylor’s orders No. 68, assigning posts to be occupied, &c., volunteers under him 

GEN. TAYLOR’S COLUMN.
ORDER-NO.68.
Headquaters, Army of Occupation,
Camp near Monterey, June 17th, 1847

     I. Matamoros and the posts, camps, and departments below that city, to Brazos

Santiago inclusive, will constitute a military district, known as the “Lower Rio Grande,” under the command of Colo- Wm. Davenport, U.S.A., whose headquarters will be established in Matamoros.

     II. Camargo and its dependencies, from Reynoso to Ceralvo, inclusive, will constitute the district of the Upper Rio Grande, under the command of Brig. Gen. Hopping.

     III. With a view to perfect the instruction and discipline of the troops, “regular and volunteer,” ordered to this column, and at the same time secure their health, a comp of instruction will be established by Brig. Gen. Hopping, at some healthy position near the town of Mier.

     The 3d dragroons (five companies) and the 10th, 13th, and 16th regiments of infantry, will be concentrated at that camp as soon as practicable.

    IV. The 3d dragroons and 14th infantry may occupy that camp without delay. Also the 16th infantry except such portions (say four companies)as Brigadier General Hopping may deem sufficient to hold Camargo. General Hopping will establish his headquarters at the camp of instruction.

     V. Of the numerous regiments and battalions of volunteers destined for this line, it is supposed that the Illinois regiment has already arrived, or will be the first to arrive at the Brazos, under the direction of Colonel Davenport; it will relieve the 1st infantry at Matamoros, where the latter corps, without delay, will join the headquarters of its brigade at the camp of instruction. All other volunteer troops, as they land at the Brazos, will be ordered forward by Col. Davenport to that camp, except one of two companies of volunteer horse, which he is authorised to retain at Matamoros, if he deem their services necessary at that place. An exception will be made of companies from Virginia or North Carolina, which, as they arrive, will be ordered, without delay, to Saltillo.

     VI. As soon as the camp of instruction shall be established, Colonel Belknap will be relieved in the command at Camargo and in his capacity of inspector general, attached to the headquarters staff, will superintend the police discipline and instruction of the troops concentrated at that camp. He will report for that duty to Brig. Gen. Hopping, and by letter to headquarters on all subjects connected with his duty.

By order of Maj. Gen. TAYLOR
W. W. S. Bliss, Act. Adj. Gen.

[BRR]


NNR 72.342 July 31, 1847 ESCAPE OF EIGHT AMERICAN PRISONER- THEIR ARRIVAL IN NEW ORLEANS.

The schooner Home, Captain Kinney, arrived at New Orleans on the 15th from Tampico, bringing over eight of the American prisoners who have been so long and so unjustly detained in Mexico. The names of these men are A.W. Holeman, W. P. De Normandie, William Funk, John Thomas, John A. Scott, Robert S. Cockrill, John Swigert, and Wm. Russel. The last named belonged to the Arkansas cavalry, the others to the two regiments from Kentucky.

The Picayune gives the following account of their escape.

They left the city of Mexico on the 5th of June, with other prisoners, it being understood that their destination was Tampico. They marched with a small escort in charge of a colonel and two or three other officers. On the 17th they reached Huejutla, where they were turned over as prisoners to General Garay, in command of that town, where several hundred troops were stationed. The prisoners were treated with much consideration by Gen. Garay, and much more kindness that they had before met with. They were informed by him that he had no orders to dispose of them, and although he presumed it was the purpose of the government to send them on to Tampico he had no instruction to that effect. The prisoners were furnished with twenty five cents each daily for their expenses. This money Gen. Garay appears to have raised by contributions among the town's people. After waiting here some days, seeing no prospect of release, and fearing lest events at the capital might induce the government to chance its intention of forwarding them to Tampico, they determined to effect their escape. They attempted this in small parties of five at one time, two at another and five at another. Seven in all left on the 27th- the first five were all retaken and carried back to Huejutla, but one of them again escaped and with the other seven reached Tampico. They marched principally by night and were from four to six or seven days on the route.

After their arrival at Tampico, news reached there by a Mexican that about thirty of the men had also attempted to escape, that twenty-five of them had been retaken, and three others shot in the pursuit. These were the reports in Tampico, but our informant does not place implicit confidence in them. He has little expectation that Col. De Russy's expedition will prove of any avail in procuring the release of the other prisoners. He thinks it certainly will fail, if the intention be to rescue the men by force. The movement of the colonel will inevitably be reported to Gen. Garay in advance, and if he does not feel himself strong enough to receive and attack he can very readily send off the prisoners further into the interior.

The fate of these men is greatly to be deplored and we cannot but think there has been remissness on the part of Gen. Scott in not obtaining their release. With a number of Mexican officers in our power, we would have brought that government to sense of its obligations to our prisoners, by hanging up some of their own to the first tree. [TNW]


NNR 72.342 July 31, 1847 effects of illness among the Virginia volunteers in Mexico

         THE VIRGINIA VOLUNTEERS IN MEXICO.-A recent letter from the editor of the Staunton (Va.) Spectator, who commands one of the companies of the Virginia regiment of volunteers at Buena Vista states that there was a good deal of sickness among his men. His report on the morning of the date of his letter (the 15th June) told a melancholy tale- twenty-nine on the sick list, and but two officers, seven non-commissioned officers, and thirty-one men fit for duty. In speaking of this fact he says:

         “It is deeply painful to me to look upon my thinned ranks. When we arrived in Mexico, not yet four months ago, we mustered eighty strong- now we are the mere skeleton of a company. But [ . . . ] of our number as yet have died, but many have become disabled by sickness, and either have been or will be discharged. As to our sickness here-I do not know how to account for it. The climate is pretty much like our own, and the water excellent.”

         He refrains from mentioning the names of the sick, (thinking it probable that many of them will recover in a short time) to avoid giving undue alarm or uneasiness to their friends. In a postscript to the same letter, dated at Saltillo, June 20, to [ . . . ] place his company had been unexpectedly ordered in consequence of a representation from the American governor that a greater force was needed [ . . . ] states that the health of his men had somewhat improved, and that three officers, seven non commissioned officers, and thirty-eight men were reported as fit for duty, and the remainder of the sick, with few exceptions, were getting better. [BRR]


NNR 72.342-43 July 31, 1847 Disturbances in and Around Tabasco

From Tabasco.-- The editors of the N. Orleans Times have been favored with the following extract of a letter, dated,

" Tobasco, June 30, 1847

" We have been far from tranquil ever since departure of Commodore Perry; small parties of Mexicans having entered the town at night and fired upon the sentries.

" This has led to the burning, the day before yesterday, of about two hundred houses at the back and south end of the city, by order of our governor and military commander. Yesterday reinforcements of about 110 marines and sailors were sent up by Commodore Perry from the bar, and this morning about 250 men have gone out to try and meet some of the Mexican forces that are in this neighborhood, and drive them away."

" The city remains deserted and no business at all doing; not a single shop in the place being opened, and all our usual supplies from the neighborhood suspended. We understand Com. Perry has declared his intention to retain possession of this city unless he receives orders to the contrary from the government in Washington.

" July 1.--The result of the expedition yesterday appears to have been in favor of the Americans, but with a loss of two men killed in ambush and four wounded. The Mexican force waited for them in ambush at Tamulte, but after about twenty minutes' firing retired -- it is not yet known with what loss. [TNW]


NNR 72.343 July 31, 1847 Letter from Lt. William T. Barbour, A Prisoner in Mexico

AMERICAN PRISONERS IN MEXICO.

From the New Orleans Picayune of July 20.

We have been allowed the use of a letter from Lieut. Barbour, of the 1st regiment Kentucky volunteers, who is now a prisoner in the city of Mexico. It will be recollected that he was taken prisoner when in command of the escort of a train cut to pieces by the Mexican. After the publication of the paragraph in this paper which elicited the letter, intelligence was received of Lieut. Barbour's fate, and published, yet the letter is interesting for some of its details, and we give it, omitting paragraphs of private nature.

City of Mexico, June 29th, 1847.

Dear Sir: I was surprised on receiving a number of the New Orleans Picayune of the 5th instant, to find that nothing was known of me and my command since our capture on the 24th of February inst. A correspondent of the Picayune supposes that we were murdered and the editor concurs with him in opinion. I had written repeatedly and had confidently hoped that some of my letters had reached their destination; indeed, I was very certain that my friends in Monterey had received intelligence of us. I regret this the more, as it has doubtless caused my family and friends much unnecessary uneasiness.

On the 4th of this month 190 of our prisoners (among whom were Charles and John Swigert ) left the Castle of Santiago in this city for Tampico, there we were told they were to be released, but it is with regret that we learn through the city papers where that they stopped at an Indian village 150 miles from this by order of Gen. Santa Anna and that they were starving. Gen Garay, who has them in charge, writes to the government here that he cannot obtain provisions, &c. I refer you to the paper El Republicano, which I send you.

We have suffered great hardships, particularly the men, They have been in a state of nakedness, famine, and disease for the last five months, and many of them would have died had it not been for the foreigners here through whom aid was given them.--We have been on our parole since the 20th of April last, and this city is assigned us as our chartel. The government has paid us during part of this time four rials ( 50 cents ) per diem, and they charge us the same to obtain it; so in fact we get nothing. But we have not been in want, for mercantile houses here are willing to supply us with whatever funds we want.

It is known officially to us that Majors Gaines and Borland, Capt. Clay, Heady, and Danley, Lieuts. Churchill and Davidson were agreed to be exchanged at the battle of Angostura. Capt. Smith quartermaster, Midshipmen Rogers, of the navy, and myself were not provided for. But this government, or rather Santa Anna, has no idea of releasing any of us. It is his wish to send us to Acapullo on the Pacific. The most rigid and compulsory measures on the part of our government will ( alone ) do us any good. -- ( There is evidently a word wanting in this sentence in the original, and we have ventured to supply it.-- It is but a conjecture. )

As I send this by the British courier, thence by the packed via Havana to New Orleans, I cannot mention any news of a local or military character ,as it would compromise his neutrality. Respectfully your friend and servant.
WM. T. BARBOUR.
[TNW]


NNR 72.343 July 31, 1847 rumors about a descent on Reynosa by Gen. Jose Urrea, troops sent there, suspicions of Urrea’s object

FROM THE BRASOS.

From the New Orleans Bulletin, July 20.

         The steamer Mary Kingsland  arrived yesterday from the Brasos, which place she left on the 15th, but brings no intelligence of interest.

         There were various reports of large bodies of the enemy being about to attack the posts on the Rio Grande, but they obtained but little credit.

         We learn from Capt. Davis, of the steamship, that the steamer Rough and Ready, with troops on board, had started for Mier, where a Camp of Instruction has been formed, under General Hopping and Col. Belknap.

         It was rumored at Brasos, when Capt. Davis left that Gen. Urrea, with a force of 3,000 men, was about making a descent on Reynosa. One company, belonging to one of the new regiments, on their way to Camp Instruction, had been landed at Reynosa, and the quartermaster was making every preparation to defend the place.

         Several bodies of Mexicans had been seen on the river lately, and it is supposed that Urrea’s object was to attack some of the depots of wagon trains between Camargo and Monterey.

         A gang of desperadoes, commanded by a man of the name of King, composed of Mexicans and others had been near the Brasos. Some of them had been taken prisoners-the balance of them were dispersed, and the rancho burnt to the ground.

         The tenth regiment, stationed at Matamoros, is highly spoken of for its discipline. It is commanded by Col. Temple, an accomplished officer. The regiment is composed of men from the states of Maryland and New Jersey. [BRR]


NNR 72.343 July 31, 1847 letter from Lt. William T. Barbour, a prisoner in Mexico NNR 72.343 refusal of the president to sanction Gen. Stephen Watts Kearny’s actions conferring rights on citizens of New Mexico
NNR 72.343 Col. Russell’s speech in favor of Col. John Charles Fremont
NNR 72.343 need to relieve the “military mob” at Santa Fe

SANTA FE.

A mail from Santa Fe was brought to ST. Louis on the 16th, containing some interesting information. The latest dates are to the 27th of May, the time at which Mr. Murphy, Col. Russell and others left Santa Fe.

One of the letters which the Republican has seen, states that there were instructions from the war department, which had been received by the last mail brought by Mr. Boggs, directed to the colonel commanding in Santa Fe, in which it was announced that the president refused to sanction any of the acts of Gen. Kearney, so far as they confer any rights upon the citizens of the territory of New Mexico, as citizens of the United States; and General Kearney, or the officer commanding, was directed not to permit to be carried into effect such part of the organic and statute laws of the territory as confer such rights. On the strength of these instructions, Col. Price officially demanded the release and remission of sentence of Antonio Maria Trujillo, convicted of treason against the government of the U. States. The accused was thereupon set at liberty.

The next step to be taken, says the letter, will necessarily be to announce to the natives that, not being citizens of the United States, they cannot elect a delegate to congress.

“The instructions go on to say, that the laws for the internal government of New Mexico received the full sanction of the president, and of course we shall proceed to elect members of a legislative council, and do all other acts and things that a people not quite slaves may do.”  This is the writers deduction, says the Republican, from the instructions, but if they, as citizens, can elect members of a legislative body, the distinction must be very nice which will prevent them from electing a delegate to congress.

Except in the particulars which we have stated, the letter says all goes on as before. “Some fugitives from the valley of Taos, combined with guerrillas and Camanches, are committing depredations beyond the Moro. A day or two ago, they run off from Santa Clara, or the Wagon Mounds, with 250 horses, killing one, and wounding two of the party in charge.”

Col. Russell, the letter says, made a speech on the public square on Sunday, taking the Fremont side of the quarrel in California.

The writer, alluding to the condition of things in Santa Fe, says: “One thing must be done speedily. This military mob must be relieved, or we must be relieved of them soon: they become more lawless and insubordinate every day.”  “By the instructions lately received here, all the officer created under the government for this territory are declared temporary-to continue only until such time as the country shall be declared annexed, or its possession shall be renounced.”  [BRR]


NNR 72.343 July 31, 1847 Depredations by Fugitives from Taos

SANTA FE

A mail from Santa Fe was brought to St. Louis on the 16th, containing some interesting information. The latest dates are to the 27th of May, the time at which Mr. Murphy, Col. Russel and others left Santa Fe.

One of the letters which the Republican has seen, states that there were instructions from the war department, which had been received by the last mail brought by Mr. Boggs, directed to the colonel commanding in Santa Fe, in which it was announced that the president refused to sanction any of the acts of Gen. Kearney, so far as they confer any rights upon the citizens of the territory of New Mexico, as citizens of the United States; and General Kearney, or the officer commanding, was directed not to permit to be carried into effect such part of the organic and statute laws of the territory as confer such rights. On the strength of these instructions, Col. Price officially demanded the release and remission of sentence of Antonio Maria Trajillo, convicted of treason against the government of the U. States. The accused was thereupon set at liberty.

The next step to be taken, says the letter, will necessarily be to announce to the natives that, not being citizen of the United States, they cannot elect a delegate to congress.

" The instructions go on to say, that the laws for the internal government of New Mexico received the full sanction on the president, and of course we shall proceed to elect members of a legislative council, and do all other acts and things that a people not quite slaves may do." This is the writer's deduction, says the Republican, from the instructions, but if they, as citizens, can elect members of a legislative body, the distinction must be very nice which will prevent them from electing a delegate to congress.

Except in the particulars which we have stated, the letter says all goes on as before. " Some fugitives from the valley of Taos, combined with guerrillas and Camanches, are committing depredations beyond the Moro. A day or two ago, they run off from Santa Clara, or the Wagon Mounds, with 250 horses, killing one, and wounding two of the party in charge."

Col. Russell, the letter says, made a speech on the public square on Sunday, taking the Fremont side of the quarrel in California.

The writer, alluding to the condition of things in Santa Fe, says: " One thing must be done speedily. This military mob must be relieved, or we must be relieved of them soon: they become more lawless and insubordinate every day." " By the instructions lately received here, all the officers created under the government for this territory are declared temporary-- to continue only until such time as the country shall be declared annexed, or its possession shall be renounced." [TNW]


NNR 72.343-44 July 31, 1847 THE ATTACK ON LIEUT. LOVE--DEPREDATIONS OF THE INDIANS

Camp on the "Arkansas," June 17, 1847.

Sir: I have the honor to report, that company "B," 1st dragoons, marched from Fort Leavenworth on the 7th instant, to join the army in New Mexico, escorting some three hundred and fifty thousand dollars-- government funds. On our arrival at "Pawnee Fork," ( about three hundred miles from Fort Leavenworth, ) we found two "trains" of wagons bound for Santa Fe, and one returning to the United States. The day before our arrival, one of the "trains" for Santa Fe, and the one for the United States, ( encamped about one mile apart,) were attacked by the Indians, supposed to be either Pawnees or Osages-- ( each tribe receiving an annuity.) All the oxen of the return " train" were driven off and killed in sight of Pawnee Fork. One man of Mr. Wethered's trading party was severely wounded lanced in five or six places. I at once determined to travel with the trains for Santa Fe, and give them all the protection in my power. Our first day's march from Pawnee Fork brought us on the Arkansas river, where we encamped; one train a quarter of a mile from the river; the other nearly the same distance from the river, and three or four hundred yards from the first. With my company I encamped on the bank of the river between the two trains.

On the morning of the 26th-- just as the oxen of the first train were turned out of the coral, ( a pen formed by the wagons,) the oxen of the second about turning out to graze, and the horses of the company were picketed-- the Indians made their appearance a half mile distant, in full chase after the oxen.-- The herdsmen used every effort to drive the oxen back into the coral; but, unable to do so, placed themselves between the oxen and Indians, hoping to prevent their being driven off. The Indians charged boldly amongst the oxen, frightened them, and drove them into the prairie; wounding in the charge two or three herdsmen. As soon as I saw the Indians, I ordered the company to saddle. Some Indian, seeing my intention to pursue, immediately appeared on the opposite bank of the river, numbering fifty or one hundred men. It now became necessary for me to protect our own camp; I therefore dismounted all but 25 men I ordered, under Sergeant Bishop to pursue the Indians, and recover the oxen.-- When the sergeant arrived in the vicinity of the oxen, the Indians swarmed in from all directions, and completely surrounded his platoon; he charged fearlessly amongst them, but our horses being wild, and unaccustomed to the yells of the Indians and shaking of blankets, ( all done to frighten the horses, ) could not be held by the riders. So great was the number of Indians-- supposed to be three hundred on the north side, and two hundred on the south side of the river-- that all hope of cutting a way through to the oxen was abandoned. It is with the deepest regrets that I have to report five of our best men killed: privates Arledge, Dickhart, Gaskill, Short, and Ylake; and Sergeant Bishop and five men wounded. Sergeant Bishop ( who so gallantly led the charge) and privates Lovelace and Vankastar are severely wounded; privates Bush, Wilson, and Ward slightly. With pride, I call your attention to the gallant conduct of this platoon of the company, as shown in the list of killed and wounded we have no means of telling, as their dead were carried off the field.

The oxen of one train having been driven off, I have encamped both trains together, and shall remain with them until enough trains together, and shall remain with them until enough trains arrive to take the government property to Santa Fe. I would respectfully call your attention to the fact, that it is the determination of the Indians, headed ( as I have every reason to believe ) by white men and Spaniards, to destroy all the government property in their power. It would seem at first sight that one company of soldiers ought to be enough to secure any number of oxen and mules from spies to watch our movements, never attacked unless by the Indians, but, sir, you must reflect that the animals of a train have to be scattered over a large extent of country for grazing; that in an attack, it is nearly as much as a company of dragoons can do to prevent their horses from taking a "stampede;" that the Indians, thoroughly acquainted with the country, and constantly having everything is in their favor; that being the most expert horsemen I the world, they are enabled to make an attack, alarm the animals, and be out of sight in an incredibly short time. You can judge, when from the time they were first seen approaching on the 26th, until they had the oxen over the river and out of sight, was not more than half an hour.

The only way, then, sir, to insure safety to public property on this road, is, in my opinion, to station about 300 mounted men at Pawnee Fork, 300 near the crossing of Arkansas, and 300 more at or near the upper Cimeron spring. These troops to have their permanent encampments at these points, but to scour the country in all directions, and at least keep the Indians in check, or they cannot catch them.-- Scarcely a party has crossed the prairie this spring in summer without being harassed by them. I deem it my duty to make this report to you, believing a proper representation has not been made to you of all the outrages committed by the Camanches and other Indians during the last six months; and to represent the importance of taking active measures to insure safety to the provision trains. There was a fort or depot established by the quartermaster's department near the crossing of the Arkansas; but this was worse than useless, as the Indians kept the few men there penned up, and have eventually succeeded in compelling them to abandon and burn the fort. This I learn from a wagon-master. The only way to deal with these Indians is to station a force in their country, to pursue and whip them for any misconduct.

With the highest respect, I am, sir, your obedient servant,
JNO. LOVE,
lieut. 1 dragoons, comd'g. comp. B.

Brigadier General R. Jones,
Ad't. General U.S. Army, Washington.
[TNW]


NNR 72.344 July 31, 1847 dictatorship suggested for Mexico

MEXICO

         A DICTATORSHIP, has been suggested as one of the expedients for meeting the threatened emergency.

         The Republicano opposes the dictatorship as unnecessary, in consideration of the immense powers with which the government is already invested by a law of congress, passed on the 20th of April last which powers have been construed with the utmost latitude. There are in fact, says the Republicano, only the following six restrictions upon the government:  It has not power to make peace; to conclude a negotiation with foreign powers; to alienate the territory of the republic; to enter into colonization contracts; to impose penalties; or, lastly to confer other civil and military employments than those expressly sanctioned by the constitution. To perform any of these six prohibited acts, the co-operation of congress is required.

         Our readers, says the Washington Union of the 27th, “will readily perceive what bearing this has upon such a treaty as Mr. Trist may enter into with any government de facto which may grow up on the fall of the capital. For all the purposes of carrying on the war, the powers of the government are already ample. It is only to make peace that there is any need of a dictatorship; and the project of a dictatorship, having been broached and discussed, has been generally condemned and abandoned. Should, then, congress skulk- as they probably will- from the responsibility of advising peace, the course to be pursued by Mr. Trist and Gen. Scott to secure a treaty is not very obvious.

         In reading the Mexican papers, it is very clear that the different states have ceased to anticipate a prolonged resistance on the part of the capital to the American arms. In view of the speedy fall of the city, they are congratulating themselves upon the wisdom of the federal system. Had they been placed under the rule of a consolidated central government, the fall of the capital would have involved the subjection of the whole country. The federal system (they reason) has created new centres of action; and even if the capital succumbs, the states, each one for itself, will resist the ascendency of the American arms, and refuse to recognise a treaty which may be forced upon the central government.

         “Out of views of this nature has grown a coalition among the states of Jalisco, San Luis Potosi, Zacatecas, Mexico, Queretaro, and Aguascalientes- the latter claiming to be a state, though not so recognised by the constitution of 1824. The new combination of states is regarded by the editors of El Republicano as an alarming feature of the times, threatening to aggravate the anarchy which before prevailed in Mexico. The coalition have published a long address to the nation. The document is almost as important to this country as to Mexico. In it are represent3d the views of reading men in the most powerful states. It will be seen that they look to the triumph of our arms, to the occupation of the capital by Gen. Scott, and the conclusion of a treaty of peace. To such a treaty these states do not propose to submit.”  [BRR]


NNR 72.344 July 31, 1847 Coalition of states in defense of federalism

Address of the commissioners of the coalition of the states of Jalisco, San Luis Potosi,  

            Zacatecas, Mexico, Queretaro, and Aguascalientes, to the nation:

           Grave and sacred were the objects which impelled the states to form a coalition. Their independence being in danger, and their institutions attacked, it became necessary to strengthen the ties of the confraternity which unites them; it became urgent not only to maintain the relations which constitute their unity by means of the reciprocal obligations which bind the parts to the centre, but also to invigorate the parts themselves, in order to oppose a staunch and vigorous resistance to the tendencies of centralism, and to the attacks, more or less covert, that have been made on the sovereignty of the states; and finally to maintain, at all hazards, the federal institutions which, in less stormy times, secured the happiness of the republic.

         The bloodthirsty enemies of these institutions, who at every step have raised difficulties to the peaceable development of the federal system, have assumed every color, have sown distrust and excited party interests, have complicated more and more the state of public affairs, have relaxed the moralities of society, which now presents the confused and strange image of a nation proceeding with out a guide, and with uncertain steps, from precipice to precipice.

         By a lamentable fatality, the Mexican nation has had to contend under such sad circumstances, not only with domestic misfortunes, but also with an enemy, who, disguising his unlimited ambition, has, without even a plausible complaint to justify his hostility, violated our territory and seized one of our ports as soon as the fate of arms was adverse to us at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma. And although the spirit of a free people and the noble pride of the Mexicans have since made numberless and costly arms and to erase from its escutcheon the blot which disgraced it, a fatality presiding over our destiny has rendered our efforts useless and futile, and on the field of battle we have succumbed not to the valor and daring of the enemy, but to the fate that persecutes us.

         Far from being disheartened by such a concatenation of adverse events, farm from having recourse to disgraceful preliminaries which would lead to degrading treaties, the states, aware of the value and power of a people for whom love of country and of liberty are not merely idle words, have called into action the means of defence and the resources on which they rely, not only to maintain their independence, but also the federal institutions adopted by the nation; free, sovereign, and independent, they are conscious of their duties; they have obligations to fulfil, and also rights to maintain and to make respected. As intregal parts of the Mexican republic, they cannot be indifferent to the insult which has been brought upon them by the reverses of their arms; they cannot look with tranquility and serenity on the combinations of a weak and infamous policy which drags them into miserable and disgraceful compromises, but, free and independent they will never permit themselves with impunity to be under any pretext whatsoever reduced to the dependence and servility. A free people identified with the institutions which govern them are the only one capable of grand and heroic actions; but a degraded people pass without emotion from one hand to another, the name of their master being entirely indifferent to them. The Mexican nation, which feels and knows its dignity and calls to mind the glorious actions of its ancestors, cannot submit to the domination of foreigners, no can it suffer the attacks of its internal enemies; it has superabundant forces to repel the former; and to inspire respect into the latter.

         Mexicans!  The coalition has been formed not to be the echo of paltry interests. Its noble mission has no other object than to defend the independence of their country, and the free institutions by which it is governed. The coalition has met, not to call to account the high dignitaries and generals of the republic, but to aid them with the private resources of our nationality. It has not met to cause divisions, but to united all minds, and to make all Mexicans fix their attention on two capital pints- “independence” and “liberty.”

         In these solemn moments, the commissioners have judged it to be of the greatest importance to explain to the people the object of their meeting, and the sacred ends which so important and delicate a mission had in view. Upon this principle, the coalition, in the names of the states which it represents, declares to the nation that their object is no other than to maintain the independence and the republican federal system; that in the event that the national representation should by any accident be unable to exercise its functions, or if, without any fault of its own, the sovereign general congress should not have the requisite liberty in its deliberation, in the opinion of the coalition, then the coalition will reassume the representation of the confederate states as a  centre of union for them. They protest that never will they consent to, nor be bound by, and convention or treaty of peace with the North American enemy, as long as he threatens or occupies the capital or any other point of the Mexican republic; they also will not recognise any general suspension of arms which should comprise all the belligerent forces of the nation. The main objects of the coalition being to defend independence and the federal system, they protest in the same manner, that so far from seperating from the national union, the states which represents are determined to aid with their private resources the general government, independent of the assistance they are by law bound to give; so that the one cause- common to them in its disgraces and in its perils- may be sustained, the nation credit and honor  re-established, and all possible opposition and resistance made to every attack upon the popular federal representative system.

         Lagos, June 6, 1847.  Antonio Escudero for the state of Mexico, vice president; for the state of Jalisco, Cayetano Perez Castro; for the state of San Luis Potosi, Mariano Avila, Luis Guzman; for the state of Zacatecas, Teodosio Maria Herrera y Zavala, Manuel Maria Vertiz; for the state of Aguascalientes, Jesus Teran, secretary; and for the state of Mexico, Eulogio Barrera, secretary.

         The above coalition has been thought worthy of several able denunciatory articles in the Republicano, although, in the principal end it has in view-the prevention of peace with the United States-it has had the Republicano for an ally. This is but one piece of evidence we could present of the hostility of the different states to a peace, even should the central government enter into a treaty with us. We might multiply similar statements, indefinitely, but it were useless. [BRR]


NNR 72.344 July 31, 1847 Letter about the collection of American troops at Puebla

The New York “Sun” contains a letter written at Puebla, 28th June, which says:

General Worth arrived here with the van of the army about 43 days ago, and

General Scott, with the division of Gen. Twiggs, about a month ago- making in all about 6,000 effective men, which is quite sufficient to make a paseo in the country, but without being of any other utility that I can perceive; and had they money enough, they might pass a tolerable good time here, as it is a fine climate and fine season of the year. But money is scarce, and the enemy knows it, unfortunately, and care very little about the American troops, as they do not molest them in any manner whatever. It is supposed that; on the arrival of more troops and trains, we will move on to the city of Mexico- the possession of which city will be beneficial to us in some small respects; but I doubt if the advantage we are to gain will repay the cost of out long separation from the coast, and we shall only finish our paseo to sit down and wait some other move on the board. I of course speak confidently of our entering the city without any difficulty, because, although the Mexicans have lots of people badly armed, they cannot deserve the name of an army. The last good troops of the government having been entirely dispersed at Cerro Gordo, Santa Anna resigned, but knew at the same time that he had a majority in congress that would not accept his resignation, and in fact he never will let go the reins of power as long as he can hold on to them. [BRR]


NNR 72.344 July 31, 1847 letter of the Mexican Gen. Juan Alvarez about his plans

         A letter from General Alvarez, dated [ . . . ]June 18th, says that he has just learned that Rebolledo had attacked a train from Vera Cruz for Puebla, and killed over three hundred. Alvarez was upon the point of marching to join him with 600 cavalry, to see if they could not destroy the whole account, but the conclusion is as follows:  “I leave in the immediate vicinity of Puebla some guerrillas to protect deserters, and prevent the introduction of provisions, and keep up the communications I have established.”  We imagine that this is about all the harm our main army will receive from the redoubtable Gen. Alvarez. [BRR]


NNR 72.344 July 31, 1847 description of Puebla

         PUEBLA.- an army correspondent of the Raleigh Register says:  “We have no city in the U. States which can equal Puebla, in solidity of buildings, and general beauty, although we doubtless possess many cities of greater extent and mercantile importance. But this city, with its well paved, broad, well lighted, and clean streets- its numerous churches, everyone of which is a specimen of architectural beauty and splendor of decoration- its picturesque and charming suburbs, and its no less delightful public walks and fountains, in a mild and superb climate- render Puebla one of the most attractive cities on the continent of America.”  [BRR]


NNR 72.352 July 31, 1847 Gen. Franklin Pierce's Train Attacked, Returns to Vera Cruz for Reinforcements, Advances Again

Postscript--Battle Between General Pierce's Division and the Mexicans.

Just as the Register was going to press, a telegraphic dispatch from Richmond, Va., reached here with later news.

Gen. Pierce left Vera Cruz with the most formidable train and force that had yet marched to reinforce Gen. Scott. Previous letters from Vera Cruz estimated his command at about 4000 men, the train at 150 wagons and seven hundred mules, conveying besides other things, about one million of dollars in specie.

The telegraphic dispatch states that General P's. force consisted of 2,500 men, -- that on reaching the national bridge-- which is 23 miles from Vera Cruz, they were intercepted by a body of 1,400 Mexicans, and a severe fight ensued, in which the Mexicans were routed, with the loss of 150 men;-- 30 Americans killed and wounded.

General Pierce, not considering it prudent to push on, had returned to Vera Cruz for artillery and reinforcements. The opinion seemed to be that an immense Mexican force had lined the whole road, not only with a view to intercept the valuable trains, but to cut off General Scott from reinforcement, so as to embarrass him in his onward movement, as well as to make his army a more easy conquest to the forces concentrated at the capital.

General Scott, at the latest accounts, was still at Puebla, waiting the reply of the Mexican congress. General's Cadwallader and Pillow were at Perote, awaiting the summons of Gen. Scott to join him in his forward movement against the capital. They had routed the Mexicans at Lahoya.

Col. De Russey attacked twelve hundred Mexicans at Haginetta, with a few hundred men, and was surrounded and placed in great peril. He, however, succeeded in cutting his way through the enemy, with a loss of 20 killed and 10 wounded. A reinforcement having arrived at a very opportune moment.

Amongst the killed we regret to learn, was Capt. Boyd, who commanded one of the companies, of the Baltimore battalion, and remained at Tampico in service after the battalion was discharged.

Capt. Boyd's lieutenant, Tauneyhill, was mortally wounded.

Another account states that 16 of the Louisiana volunteers were killed, and 16 of other regiments lost or missing, -- killed on the Mexican side one hundred and eleven.

De Russy's detachment reached Tampico on the night of the 16th. They lost their horses and pack mule.

The steamer New Orleans left Vera Cruz on the 14th, -- the same morning that Gen. Pierce marched from thence. She arrived at Tampico the 15th, and was dispatched back to Vera Cruz by Col. Gates, with a requisition for four companies of infantry and two steamers, to go to the rescue of Col. De Russy. She arrived at Vera Cruz on the 16th, at 2 P.M., -- found the city in great excitement. General Pierce had returned for reinforcements, and had marched again with 700 additional, making his force 3,200,-- but leaving the city in apprehension of an attack-- The aid could not be furnished. [TNW]


NNR 72.352 July 31, 1847 Gen. Winfield Scott at Puebla awaiting response from the Mexican Congress

POSTSCRIPT- BATTLE BETWEEN GENERAL PIERCE’S DIVISION AND THE MEXICANS

         Just as the Register was going to press, a telegraphic despatch from Richmond, Va., reached here with later news.

         Gen. Pierce left Vera Cruz with the most formidable train and force that had yet marched to reinforce Gen. Scott. Previous letters from Vera Cruz estimated his command at about 4000 men, the train at 150 wagons and seven hundred mules, conveying besides other things, about one million dollars in specie.

         The telegraphic despatch states that General P’s. force consisted of 2,500 men,-that on reaching the nation bridge- which is 23 miles from Vera Cruz, and a severe fight ensued, in which the Mexicans were routed, with the loss of 140 men;- 30 Americans killed and wounded.

         General Pierce, not considering it prudent to push on, had returned to Vera Cruz for artillery and reinforcements. The opinion seemed to be that an immense Mexican force had lined the whole road, not only with a view to intercept the valuable trains, but to cut off General Scott from reinforcements, so as to embarrass him in his onward movement, as well as to make his army a more easy conquest to the forces concentrated at the capital.

         General Scott, at the latest accounts, was still at Puebla, waiting the reply of the Mexican congress. Generals Cadwallader and Pillow were at Perote, awaiting the summons of Gen. Scott to join him in his forward movement against the capital. They had routed the Mexicans at Lahoya.

         Col. De Russey attacked twelve hundred Mexicans at Haginetta, with a few hundred men, and was surrounded and placed in great peril. He, however, succeeded in cutting his way through the enemy, with a loss of 20 killed and 10 wounded. A reinforcement having arrived at a very opportune moment.

         Amongst the killed we regret to learn, was Capt. Boyd, who commanded one of the companies of the Baltimore battalion, and remained at Tampico in service after the battalion was discharged.

         Another account states that 16 of the Louisiana volunteers were killed, and 16 of other regiments lost or missing,- killed on the Mexican side one hundred and eleven.

         De Russy’s detachment reached Tampico on the night of the 16th. They lost their horses and pack mules.

         The steamer New Orleans left Vera Cruz on the 14th, the same morning that Gen. Pearce marched from thence. She arrived at Tampico the 15th, and was despatched back to Vera Cruz by Col. Gates, with a requisition for four companies of infantry and two steamers, to go to the rescue of Col. De Russy. She arrived at Vera Cruz on the 16th, at 2 P. M.,- found the city in great excitement. General Pearce had returned for reinforcements, and had marched again with 700 additional, making his force 3,200,- but leaving the city in apprehension of an attack- The aid could not be furnished.

         MEXICAN COMMISSIONERS APPOINTED TO CONFER WITH MR. TRIST.- The despatch goes on to say that the letter of Mr. Buchanan seems to have received a more favorable reception in the Mexican congress than was reported or anticipated. They have appointed two commissioners to confer with Mr. Trist, and it was asserted that General Santa Anna had declared himself in favor of peace. Santa Anna is a much more successful negotiator than general, and with doubtless endeavor to reinstate himself in the favor of his countrymen by his management of the negotiations that may ensue.

         This news caused a great sensation at New Orleans on the 23d, and was fully relied upon. The commissioners were to meet Mr. Trist at San Martin, eight leagues from Puebla. [BRR]


NNR 72.352 July 31, 1847 Col. Lewis Gustavus DeRussy's Detatchment Attacked, Returns to Tampico, Alarm There
NNR 72.352 Col. William Gates’ requisition
NNR 72.352 another report that mexican commissioners were appointed to treat
NNR 72.352 disposition of the forces of the Army of Occupation
NNR 72.352 toast to Gen. Zachary Taylor as next president of the United States

“ARMY OF OCCUPATION.”

Col. De Russy attacked twelve hundred Mexicans at Haginetta, with a few hundred men, and was surrounded and placed in great peril. He, however, succeeded in cutting his way through the enemy, with a loss of 20 killed and 10 wounded. A reinforcement having arrived at a very opportune moment.

Amongst the killed we regret to learn, was Capt. Boyd, who commanded one of the companies, of the Baltimore battalion, and remained at Tampico in service after the battalion was discharged.

Capt. Boyd's lieutenant, Tauneyhill, was mortally wounded.

Another account states that 16 of the Louisiana volunteers were killed, and 16 of other regiments lost or missing, -- killed on the Mexican side one hundred and eleven.

De Russy's detachment reached Tampico on the night of the 16th. They lost their horses and pack mule.

The steamer New Orleans left Vera Cruz on the 14th, -- the same morning that Gen. Pierce marched from thence. She arrived at Tampico the 15th, and was dispatched back to Vera Cruz by Col. Gates, with a requisition for four companies of infantry and two steamers, to go to the rescue of Col. De Russy. She arrived at Vera Cruz on the 16th, at 2 P.M., -- found the city in great excitement. General Pierce had returned for reinforcements, and had marched again with 700 additional, making his force 3,200,-- but leaving the city in apprehension of an attack-- The aid could not be furnished. [TNW, WWF]

         Gen. Wool at the last dates, 27th June, was at Buena Vista with the Virginia, Mississippi, and North Carolina volunteers, and Shermans’s, Washington’s and Pren[ . . . ]batteries,- in all about 2700 men.

         General Taylor was at Walnut Springs with the 16th regiment, Bragg’s battery, and two squadrons of dragoons.

         General Hoppin is near Camargo, “at the camp of Instruction,” drilling about 2000 of the new levies.

         About the 13th of June, Gen. Wool was notified of the advance of about 1000 cavalry, from Matahula, under Alvarez and Minon. The Mexicans believed that these were to be joined by a large force under Valencia and Salas, and that an attack was to be made on Gen. Wool. Valencia was otherwise occupied. The ‘advance corps’ became dissatisfied; at the last accounts they were retrograding.

         There was a great dinner given at Monterey on the 4th of July, and a volunteer toast given to “Gen. Taylor, the next president of the United States.”  This brought out the old hero, in a speech of some length, which described by those who heard it to have been a very able and eloquent one, indeed, and one calculated, if reported in full, to create quite a sensation in the country. [BRR]


NNR 72.352 July 31, 1847 advance and retreat of Mexicans at Buena Vista

        "Army of Occupation."

        Gen. Wool at the last dates, 27th June, was at Buena Vista with the Virginia, Mississippi, and North Carolina volunteers, and Sherman's. Washington's and Prntiss' batteries,-in all about 2700 men.

        General Taylor was at Walnut Springs with the 16th regiment, Bragg's battery, and two squadrons of dragoons.

        General Hoppin is near Camargo, at the 'camp of Instraction," drilling about 2,000 of the new levies.

        About the 13th of June, Gen. Wool was notified of the advance of  1000 cavalry, from Matahula, under Avalez and Minon. The Mexicans believed that the se be Joined by a large force under Valencia and Salas, and that an attack was to be made on Gen. Wool Valencia was otherwise occupied. The 'advance corps' became dissatisfied; at the last accounts they were retrograding.

        There was a great dinner given at Monterey on the 4th of July, and a volunteer toast given to "Gen. Taylor, the next president of he Untied States."  This brought out the old hero, in a speech of some length, which described by those who heard it to have been a very able and eloquent one, indeed, and one calculated reported in full, to create quite a sensation in the country. [ANP]


NNR 72.352 July 31, 1847 Carmelita, brig, Seized by Mexican Privateer, Released

The Carmelita.-- A letter from Barcelona, June 17, says that " the Carmelita, Littlefield, from Mayaguez to Trieste, which was brought in here, 2d ult by a Mexican privateer, has this day been declared by the authorities to be released and it is expected will be able to put to sea about the 20th instant. [TNW]


NNR 72.357 August 7, 1847 spirit of the Mexican press, index of popular feeling in Mexico, threat of enslavement of the Mexican people 

MEXICO.

         Spirit of the Mexican press:  The following article translated from a San Luis Potosi paper, sent to a gentleman in this city by a distinguished officer of our army, has been placed at our disposal, and we publish it as an index of the popular feeling in that part of Mexico.

[Troy Adv.

         Can it be possible that the Mexican people can for a single moment doubt the justice, the holy justice with which the government of our republic defends itself against the atrocious barbarity of the war which our deceitful neighbors of the north wage against us?  Can there be any doubt to the right to resist the assassin who attempts to take our lives, the robber who attempts to break into our house, or the infamous raptor who disturbs the peace of our families?  Mexicans! we are in our own country, bequeathed to us by the heroic patriarchs of liberty, and purchased at the price of their venerated blood and who by all manner of sacrifices burst the bonds which, for a period of three hundred years, had enslaved the unhappy Mexicans; they burst them for the purpose of making us free and independent and to restore to us the territory usurped by the Spanish conquest.- Spain, together with the other nations, recognized our independence, but notwithstanding this recognition, the nation which is called enlightened and whose government is held up as a model for a free people, from a blind caprice of their basted government, stimulated by covetousness and the insatiable envy of the host of infamous speculators who she calls her citizens, prosecutes against us a war, condemned by reason and by all laws both human and divine, and those whom she entitles her generals execute this war, not after the manner permitted by humanity and civilization, but much more cruel, more bloody and desolating than that of savages?  Can we hesitate for a single moment to reflect whether or not we are justifiable in defending ourselves?  But there is not, nor ever can be the least doubt of the justice of our cause.

         Is it possible that the Mexican people can hope for compassion from these frantic adventurers full of rapacity and lasciviousness, who with their detestable vices and unbridled appetites have come to satiate themselves upon our wealth and our women?  Can we hope for compassion from those who destroy our crops, set fire to our barns and houses, profane our temples of worship, scoff at the emblems of our religion, violate the chastity of our virgins, employ brutal force with our wives, and surrounded by general licentiousness, stain our soil with all manner of crime!

         If the Mexican people, if the inhabitants of Potosi wish to be slaves, let them bear in mind that the chains of the Americans will not be of the same temper as those broken by the heroes of the 16th of September 1810; let them bear in mind that the slavery with which they wish to oppress us will be more insupportable than that of the African negroes. Let them bear in mind that the hordes of banditti, of drunkards, of fornicators, of heretics who have neither country, religion, families nor generous sentiments of any kind, are those who wish to subjugate our country. Let the people of Potosi bear in mind that there is near their doors a horde of shameless, daring, ignorant, ragged, bad smelling, long bearded men, with hats turned up at the brim, thirsty with the desire of appropriating our riches and our beautiful you females. Bear in mind people of Potosi, that a multitude of pirates, galley slaves, prisoners escaped from the penitentiary, and fugitives from justice, burning with the brutal desire to corrupt the virtues of our delicate and handsome damsels-these are those who come to establish within our walls the ignominy of slavery!

People of Mexico! People of Potosi! People descended from the curate Hidalgo! Do you wish to become the slaves of such men? Do you wish, people of Mexico, that your women be the humble servants of such a vile rabble? Do you wish, people of Potosi, that in your holy temples, where you have placed the cross of God; where the holy sacrament of the altar is; where the immaculate and holy virgin, the pure and undefiled mother of God resides; that there, this and of drunken pirates, should revel in their fierce licentiousness, commingling all their brutal passions?  Do you wish, people of Potosi, that within the precincts of the church, where are heard the sacred hymns of christianity; where the ministers of God send up to heaven their praises of our Creator, and the sincere prayer for the welfare of our country, from whence rises the pure incense which elevates our supplication to Jesus Christ for a remission of the misfortunes to which we are condemned, and pardon for our sins, that from this same place we hear the hoarse voice of these robbers, who breaking cups of earthenware, and with loud shouts and disgusting sacrilegious words and laughter, with loud knocks upon the tables, and frightful curses, celebrate the triumph of their arms and the ignominy and servitude of our children?  And this, people of Potosi, where you full of faith and hope, assemble to adore the holy sacrament- do you wish this species of slavery?

[BRR]


NNR 72.357-358 August 7, 1847 WAR WITH MEXICO, Battle of Huejutla

THE BATTLE OF HUAJUTLA.
FROM THE CORRESPONDENT OF THE NEW ORLEANS TIMES.
TAMPICO, ( MEXICO, ) JULY 18, 1847.

Gentlemen-- Considerable excitement has existed in this city for the past two weeks, in relation to the detention, by General Garay, at the town at Guautala ( pronounced Wahoutla ) 140 miles from here, of one hundred and eighty Americans, who were recently liberated in the city of Mexico, and sent towards this city of Mexico, and sent towards this city with a small escort. They are those who were taken last February at Encarnacion. The renowned General Garay, were not correct, and that he would be under the necessity of detaining them at Guautla, until he could hear from his government.

Six of them made their escape, and arrived in safety in this city, and immediately communicated the above facts to our governor, Col Gates.

An expedition was fitted out on the 8th instant by order of Col. Gates, and the command of it given to Colonel De Russy, of the Louisiana regiment. The expedition consisted of 120 men, and one six pound field piece; 40 men third artillery, commanded by Captain Wyse; 40 dragoons, mounted on untrained mustang horses, and commanded by Capt. Boyd and Lieutenant Tanneyhill, late of the Baltimore battalion; and 40 mounted men from the Louisiana regiment, commanded by Captains Mace and Seguine-- Lieutenants Lindenbergoer, Campbell, and Heimberger, of the Louisiana regiment, accompanied the expedition, to act in such capacities as might be required.

Their march for four days was uninterrupted, passing through the towns of Puebla - Viejo, Tampico- Alto, Ozuama and Tantoyuca, in all of which the people made professions of friendship, and got within seven miles of Guatla, eight miles beyond the last mentioned town, and one mile from the Rio Calabosa. Here the Colonel met an Indian, who informed him that a large force of Mexicans, under the command of Garay, had heard of his approach, and was in ambush on both sides of the river. Col. DeRussy immediately dispatched Lieutenant Lindenburger, acting Adjutant, with an order to halt the column., ( advanced guard ) under command of Captain Boyd. The Captain had halted at the river for the purpose of watering his horses, and while in that act, he received a destructive fire from an unseen enemy. As I said before, the horses were all mustangs, and at the report of the musketry they became unmanageable, threw most of the riders and created great confusion. [TNW]


NNR 72.359, August 7, 1847 march of the train under Col. James Simmons McIntosh from Veracruz to Perote

MARCH OF THE TRAIN FROM VERA CRUZ TO PEROTE.
From the correspondent of the Missouri Republican.
JALAPA, Mexico, June 17, 1847.

This is the last letter I shall write you from this place, and I pen this without knowing how or when I shall be able to give it a direction that will insure its ever reaching even the Gulf Coast. On the morning of the 15th inst., a train of about three hundred wagons, principally loaded with ammunition, succeeded in reaching this place. They were fourteen days coming from Vera Cruz, a distance of seventy miles, have been attacked by the guerrillas, twelve miles out from Vera Cruz, and skirmishing from that point to the hacienda Encerro, kept up during the whole way. The principal object of attack was the large amount of specie in the train—between three and four hundred thousand dollars—which had drawn together between fifteen hundred and two thousand guerrillas. They were principally commanded by three priests, Spanish Carlists, who had been banished from their own country for their ferocity, their fanaticism, and bigotry. They gave us a great deal of trouble, and succeeded, during the entire route, in killing and wounding between forty and fifty of our men. We lost, also, about thirty public wagons, number of a horses and mules, and a great deal of subsistence that was thrown from the wagons, with a view of lightning the loads. Our loss in property, trifling as it is—and especially which compared to the loss of men—is, of course, greatly magnified by the enemy, and the report is industriously circulated by them, throughout the entire country, that they have captured half of the train, and killed half of the escort.

The train left Vera Cruz with an escort of about five hundred men, under Col. McIntosh, under whose management most of the disasters to the train took place. An express was sent to Vera Cruz, informing Col. Wilson, in command of that post, of the number of guerrillas that were annoying the escort, and of the danger that surrounded the train. Gen. Cadwallader, with what men he had there, immediately left to reinforce them, and reached them a short distance the other side of the National Bridge. So soon as he took command, something like order and system was restored, where, before, nothing but confusion and alarm prevailed; and although constantly attacked by the guerrillas from their ambush, he had but little trouble, comparatively speaking, or met with but little loss, after leaving the National Bridge. At the National Bridge the enemy made a regular stand, availing himself of the fort and breastworks upon the heights and sides of the hills that had been thrown up with a view of intercepting General Scott, in his march upon Jalapa. Here, the heaviest of our loss in men occurred, and here the most obstinate attack was made upon the train by the guerrillas. To the prudence, and military skill and experience of Gen. Cadwallader, is solely to be attributed the rout of the enemy and the preservation of the trai, specie, mail, &c.

On the 8th instant, a part of citizens, with a number of discharged officers and the wounded men of the 4th Illinois regiment, left here, taking with them some five or six wagons, in one of which was contained a large and important mail. So soon as the news reached us of the number of guerrillas, and the obstinacy of their attack upon the upward train, the greatest solicitude was felt for the company of between one and two hundred men who had left here for Vera Cruz. They were, at best, but poorly armed, were without any organization whatever, and generally composed of better running than fighting material. In the event of attack, all here concluded that the brave wounded Illinoians, and their attendants, would be abandoned, and that the whole would have their throats cut by the merciless and bloodthirsty guerrillas. At the National Bridge they were attacked, and lost five of their number, the greater portion preferring trusting to the speed of their horses, rather than the prowess of their arms. Most fortunate was it for them that Gen. Cadwallander happened in their vicinity at the time, with his command; but for that, not one would have been left to tell the tale of the fate of the rest. The General most kindly detached a company of cavalry, under Captain Duperu, to protect them from further attack, and the whole succeeded in reaching Vera Cruz in safety.

    The above incidents will give you some little idea of the state of the road between this and Vera Cruz, and of the immense hazard a man runs, even in a large body, of losing his life in attempting to reach the sea coast. General Scott is in a far more precarious situation than ever General Taylor was in at Buena Vista, and if he succeeds in cutting his way with the small number of men he has, to the city of Mexico, and holding his position, the battles of Buena Vista and Cerro Gordo will sink into utter insignificance, compared with such an achievement.

    An express reached Colonel Childs from the generals-in-chief, night before last, placing him on his guard against a contemplated attack on the part of the enemy, upon the train, between this and Perote, and Perote and Puebla. General Bravo had been thrown upon the road, by Santa Anna, with a force of three thousand men, a portion of whom are cavalry, sent from the city of Mexico. General Scott also wrote, that he was now satisfied we should have one of the severest, and most obstinate battles, this side of the capital of the republic, that had yet been fought in Mexico, and he was waiting with the most anxious solicitude to hear of the arrival of more troops at Vera Cruz, and of their being on their march to reinforce him. I rather think, by this time, the general-in-chief has abandoned the idea of celebrating the 4th of July in the city of Mexico, and that his mind is somewhat changed as to the facility with which he would lay the basis for peace by the above mentioned period. A short time more, and you will be able to ascertain from passing events, who has understood the Mexican character and their policy best, your humble correspondent, or the commanders of our armies, who, according to public opinion in the United States, as well as from their own reports, have “conquered a peace” every successive battle that has been fought, from that of Palo Alto to the most signal one of all Cerro Gordo.

    To-day, this post is to be evacuated, and our troops take up their line of march for the advance of the army. Colonel Childs, with the garrison, leaves this morning, at 10 o’clock; and, in the afternoon, or very early to-morrow morning, Gen. Cadwallader leave with his command. The aggregate of the strength of the two commands, will not exceed twenty-two hundred men, and the number of pieces of artillery we shall take along is six. With this strength and materiel we expect to fight ourselves through, let the number of guerrillas be what they may. The strongest point of attack is a pass in the Perote mountains, about a day’s march from here, which is said, by those acquainted with the topography of the country, to be equally as formidable a position for the enemy as was that of Cerro Gordo. The present object of the guerrillas, is more to secure the large amount of money, and the ammunition we have along, than to capture or destroy the forece that is protecting it.—The “hope of reward” has induced a large number to join the guerrillas, who, but for the money, never would have risked their necks, even in a skirmish.—When I reach Perote, I will again write you, though it will be without any assurance that the letter will get off for weeks to come.

It is bad enough to be so hemmed in, in an enemy’s country, as scarcely to be able to leave the garrison of a post with safety; but, to have your line of communication entirely cut off, and the means of communicating with your friends and your country, even by letter, successfully checked, is insupportable. If the general in chief will only give Colonel Harney one regiment of dragoons, a piece of artillery, well manned, and a “carte blanche,” I will guaranty he keeps the road clear, from one end of the line to the other..I would not answer for the necks of a few alcaldes, Spanish priests, &c., but the thing would be done, and that in a right way too.
                                        GOMEZ
[WFF]


NNR 72.359-360 August 7, 1846 troops from Jalapa reach Perote

PEROTE, Mexico, June 22, 1847

         Yesterday, about noon, the entire force that was at Jalapa succeeded in reaching here in safety, and without any loss whatever to the train. The march was conducted under the immediate command of Brigadier General Cadwalllader, who, although slow in his movements, is generally sure and safe. We were parts of four days in making a distance of thirty five miles, owing to the unwieldiness of the train and the annoyance the guerrillas gave us. They had posted themselves along the heights of the La Hoya for nearly two miles, and were about a thousand strong. The pass of the La Hoya is much longer than that of the Cerro Gordo, though not so formidable, in my judgment; and in the hands of any thing like a warlike people, it would have been very difficult to have got the train through without immense loss.

         On the 20th, we encountered the guerrillas, and after some six hours’ skirmishing, in which we took eighteen prisoners, and killed between seventy and eighty of them, they were completely and effectually routed. We threw out, in the first instance, large flanking parties, and then scaled every height both with our infantry and cavalry. Two caves were discovered by the 1st artillery, in which were stowed large quantities of provisions, some ammunitions, and a few fire arms. Among the former were American hams, sugar and hard bread. After occupying the heights with our forces, so as to effectually command the pass its entire distance, the train was passed through and halted at the village of Las Vigas, a short distance this side of the La Hoya. The evening previous to our attempting to force our way through the pass in the mountains, Col. Wynkoop, who is in command at this place and the castle  of Perote, hearing of the number of the enemy that had posted themselves at La Hoya with a  view of cutting off the train, left at eight o’clock in the evening with the greater part of the 1st Pennsylvania regiment and Capt. Walker’s company of mounted riflemen. They were engaged with the guerrillas , on this side of the pass, from eleven o’clock that night up to the time we got through the next morning, and did most excellent service. They drove the enemy for several miles back from the road, and burnt every rancho in their route, leaving desolate the whole country over which they passed. On our reaching Las Vigas, a pretty and flourishing little town, it was found that the dwellings were entirely deserted by the Mexicans, and was satisfactorily ascertained that they had identified themselves with the guerrillas. With the consent of the commanding general, the torch was applied to the buildings, and in a few moments the entire town was one universal scene of conflagration. Every building in it, numbering between eighty and one hundred, was destroyed by fire- the only one that was spared being the neat little Catholic church that adorned the town. Its solitary appearance among the smouldering ruins of the town, created sensations better imagined than described; and the example set in this instance, it is greatly to be hoped, will have the effect of restraining the enemy in future in their murderous course of warfare.

         Our loss was, comparatively speaking, nothing.- Capt. Guthrie, of Iowa, attached to the 15th infantry, was badly wounded in the knee, the ball having lodged between the bones, where it is impossible for the surgeons to reach it, without his undergoing an operation that he is unwilling to submit to. The opinion of the surgeons is, that it will not require amputation, though he will, of course, have a stiff leg, and be rendered unfit for service  In Captain Walker’s company there was one private slightly wounded in the leg, and they had eleven horses killed. Captain Walker himself was very slightly wounded in the hand, scarcely enough to call it a wound. This was the sum and substance of our loss.

         On reaching here, Gen. Cadwllader was met by an express from Gen. Scott, desiring him not to advance with the train, except in conjunction with Col. Childs’ command, and the force that was to go forward from theis post, as a large body of cavalry, between two and three thousand strong, with a small field battery, under the command of Generals Bravo and Alvarez, had posted themselves between this and Puebla, more with a view of securing a part of the train than in any expectation of doing much injury to our forces. We shall, therefore have another brush with these gentlemen robbers before we reach the advance of the army. But as the country is generally a plain, we can have fari chance at them, and cut them up more effectually than was done at La Hoya. From here, we take six companies of the 1st Pennsylvania regiment, under Colonel Black, in addition to our force that we left Jalapa with; and the train will be materially lessened, in consequence of the number of wagons we leave here, that brought forward the sick and some subsistence designed for this post. The sick, alone, required nearly forty wagons, all of which are to remain here.

         Colonel Wynkoop, with four companies of the 1st Pennsylvania regiment, Capt. Taylors’s battery, and Capt. Walker’s company of mounted riflemen, remain to garrison the castle of Perote and this town; which, when considering it is the principal hospital and the depot of subsistence between the advanced of the army and Vera Cruz, is certainly a very small force. But there is no other alternative, if General Scott is ever to get to Mexico, so slow are the reinforcements in reaching him. In addition to the force now going forward under Gen. Cadwallader, it is expected that about two thousand more are now on their march from Vera Cusz to Puebla. If they arrive within four or five days after we do, they will be in time for the big battle that is to be fought this side of the city of Mexico.

         Among the eighteen prisoners taken by us on the 20th inst., at La Hoya, were two Germans, deserters, from our army. There are four others among the guerrillas that I regret we could not have secured. The doom of the two captured, will be that of a traitor’s death. Among the Mexicans taken were three men of influence and wealth. One of them was an extensive coffee dealer, and has a large coffee plantation in the vicinity of Jalapa. He had been treated with the greatest kindness by the army while garrisoning Jalapa, and the commissary of subsistence, Lieut. Blair, had paid him several thousand dollars for coffee and other articles purchased of him for the use of the army. He always professed the greatest friendship for the Americans, received a great many favors at their hands, which he reciprocated by selling us property at the highest rates, up to the last day we were in Jalapa, and then hastening to the fastnesses of the Perote mountains where he joined a guerrilla party to rob the train and cut the throats of every American they could lay hands on. I hope he will be hung, ”sans ceremonie.”  Another of those taken, was also from Jalapa, and was at once recognized by a number of our men and officers as a clerk in a store at that place. A third, who had a very genteel appearance, maintained he was a professor in the college of Jalapa. How he came to be out in the mountains of Perote among guerrillas, is a question. Being a literary character, however, I suppose he was studying natural philosophy. I trust he will receive a lesson in hanging philosophy, that he as well as his associates will profit by. We are taking time all on to headquarters, where, if the views and feelings of the entire army are consulted, they will at once be shot or hung.

         I was in hopes we would have left here to day, but in consequence of the insufficiency of the quartermaster’s department, we shall not get off before tomorrow, if we do then. We ought to get through to Puebla in five days, and flog all the Mexican forces besides, that there is between this and the advance of the army; yet if we do not move with more rapidity than we did from Jalapa here, it will take us from eight to ten days.

         The castle of Perote, next to that of San Juan de Ulloa, is the strongest fortification in Mexico. It is however, in a most filthy condition, and the sick are dying out of the hospitals in large numbers, daily. Disease is making far greater havoc among our forces, than is the enemy. Perote is a most miserable little place even for Mexico, though the country that surrounds it, is picturesque and grand in the extreme. The valley of Perote is a very fertile soil, and the fields of corn, barley and wheat, are immensely extensive. Upon the whole, it is more generally cultivated than any other section of Mexico for the same extent, over which I have passed.

                                                                    GOMEZ.

         [This command had not arrived at Puebla on the 30th, nor had any thing been heard of it- so that greater difficulties must have been encountered than our correspondent appears to have anticipated.]  [BRR]


NNR 72.361-362  account of the national anniversary celebration at Monterey, speeches, toasts   August 7, 1847

A SPEECH FROM GEN. TAYLOR.

         At the celebration at Monterey, in Mexico, of the anniversary of the Independence of the United States, the whole company assembled on the occasion was agreeable surprised by a speech from the old soldier who has so often led them to battle and to victory. An account of the incident as given by the correspondent of the New Orleans Picayune:  We had in type, but a more detailed statement was furnished in the National Intelligencer of the 3d instant from which we abstract the following:

Monterey, Mexico, July 6, 1847.

         The morning of the 5th was cloudy and portended rain, but the bright sun soon dispelled the heavy mist that clung to the mountain’s side, and ere noon the heavens were as clear and bright as a lovely woman’s smile. Early in the forenoon the American ensign was displayed from the governor’s quarters and the Spanish flag from the residence of the Spanish consul nearly opposite. The five companies of Massachusetts volunteers were assembled, all but the guard, with the colors of the regiment presented them by the governor of their state. A little after 9 o’clock they formed and marched out towards Camp Taylor. An American flag borne by a citizen was carried near the regimental color. Colonel Wright and the members of the regimental staff and others preceded the regiment, and on the road received the marching salute. At Camp Taylor all was ready; under the wide-spread awning in front of General Taylor’s tent were the brave old hero and the members of his staff and the officers attached to the forces stationed at camp. On the right of the awning the soldiers of Major Bragg’s light artillery were drawn up in line, on the left the 2d dragoons, and in front the Massachusetts regiment.

SPEECH OF GEN. CUSHING.

         As soon as the latter had formed into line Gen. Cushing made his appearance and Gen. Taylor and his officers all rose. Gen. Cushing then proceeded to address him as follows:

         GENERAL:  The veteran officers and soldiers whom you have so many times led on to victory and do fame; those yet untried in the field, who ardently long for the day when your voice shall bid them also tread triumphantly in the same noble path of honor and of duty; and others your fellow citizens present, who, though not called to fight the battles of their country, are not the less animated with the same devoted love towards her which we feel, have desired on this anniversary of our separate existence as a sovereign people, to present their respectful salutations to you as the official representative here of the power and authority of the United States.

         We come to rejoice with you on this day of glorious memories in the prosperity and greatness of our country, and to rekindle in our hears the sacred fire of patriotism by remembering together the virtues and sacrifices of our wise and brave forefathers, who have transmitted to us the splendid heritage of the land hallowed by their blood, of the institutions they founded, of their own immortal names.

         It is indeed a day never forgotten by an American; for, whether in the home of our affections and interests, surrounded by all that is dearest to the human hear, or on the broad expanse of the fathomless ocean, or wondering over some far distant land, on this anniversary, wherever we may be, our thoughts are turned spontaneously to the same pint as truly as the needle to the pole, as devoutly as the Moslem to his holy Mecca.

         And well it is for us that it is so, since no warmth of gratitude is intense enough to be commensurate with the debt of thankfulness we owe to our patriot sires- no language of eloquence is powerful enough to express adequately the emotions of pride which our country’s career awakens-no homage of the soul is profound enough to render due adoration to that gracious providence which has continued to guide and to guard the destinies of the Union.

         Meanwhile let us be just the memory of our fathers, and just to ourselves in the measure of regard which we bestow on this day.

         Men who have but superficially studied the history of the United States are accustomed to speak of this day as the anniversary of our emancipation from bondage, and vague ideas of that vaguest of all things, called liberty, are attached to the very name of our national independence. But the people of the United States were never in a state of bondage. The war of the revolution was not a war for liberty. On the contrary, it was a struggle in arms to determine whether the two great subdivisions of the British race, one inhabiting Europe and the other inhabiting America and both equally free, should continue to constitute a single empire, or whether they should be reconstituted separately into two independent empires. The God of battles decided that we, the American colonies, were as competent for independent self-government as the mother country; and England, with that practical good sense which distinguished her from other nations, manfully acquiesced in the decision which split her power asunder, and gave to us separate dominion in America.

         And the mysterious order of Providence seems to have predestined the American to surpass the European subdivision of the original empire, for, of that high minded, bold hearted, and strong hand British race, which, wheresoever it appears, appears but to command, the more numerous part will ere long be found in America; and the British Isles have already reached that fatal term in the history of nations when their native land can no longer feed its sons, while the people of the United States are still expanding with a rapidity and strength of possession which defies calculation, over the rich virgin soils of the New World.

         This reflection acquires new force from the circumstances under which we this day meet, a conquering American army, here in the heart of the Mexican republic, in sight of the captured redoubts and heights of Monterey, amid the venerable trees, and by the side of the se living waters of the wood of San Domingo; which, occupied by you, general, and your victorious troops, has acquired a place in history as enduring as poetry ever gave to the fountain of Vaucluse, or eloquence to the grove of Academus.

         Yes, millions of men will have assembled to day within the broad limits of the United States, to do honor to the traditions of the revolution, to ponder on the excellent beauty of the federal constitution, to congratulate one another on the happy condition of our country, and to look forward with inquisitive eye into the sublime future of the American republic. They will call to mind the names of the stricken fields of that first war of independence which vindicated our national rights on the land, of that second war of independence which vindicated our national rights on the sea; and of the heroes who illustrated each; but while Bunker Hill, and Saratoga, and Yorktown, and New Orleans will not be forgotten, Palo Alto, Resaca de la Plama, Monterey, Buena Vista, Vera Cruz, and Cerro Gordo will yet more

         “Be in their flowing cups freely remembered,”

and earth and sky will re-echo with shouts of enthusiasm at the mention of the names of Scott and Taylor, and of the brave men who under their lead have borne the banner of the Union in triumph over the wild plains and through the mountain passes of Mexico.

         But we assembled in this grander than all human temples, the outspread sky of the bright firmament of heaven, treading with our own feet the conquered savannas of New Leon, surrounded by that lofty Sierra  which rises on either hand as though placed by nature to be the boundary of empires, we, I say, can best appreciate, with the sober but strong conviction of the palpable reality, how vast are the strides which the United States have made in greatness since the day, not yet remote, when we were humble colonies, scattered in a narrow line along the shores of  the Atlantic, until now, when we have swarmed across the great central valley of the continent, have struck over to  the shores of the Pacific, and, unembarrassed by the burden of a war, which has already given to us the possession of two-thirds of Mexico, are yet able, from the superabundance of our overflowing prosperity, to nourish at will  the starving nations of the Old World.

         Honor then, to the bold hearts who, on the great day whose anniversary we celebrate, dared to comprehend their country’s capabilities, and to proclaim it independent!  Honor to the heroes and the sages who have conducted it so gloriously on to our times!  Honor to the statesmen whose vigorous hand at this time so ably and successfully administer its government!   Honor to the generous minded people of our country who freely send forth their sons to fight her battles in this foreign land!  Honor to the brave soldiers who live to enjoy the renown they have so nobly earned in the battle field!  Honor, above all, to the gallant men who feel in the hour of their country’s triumph, whose blood was the sacrificial incense of victory, and who, though dead, yet live immortal in the affectionate memory of their countrymen!

         We trust and believe that our brethren in arms, whom Scott has been leading in triumph from Vera Cruz to Puebla, will celebrate this day in the capital of the Mexican republic, and on the site of the great teocalli of the Aztecs; and, if Mexico shall then continue in the blind obstinacy of her fatal infatuation, and still refuse the proffers of peace which the President of the U. States, with honorable solicitude to terminate the evils of war, has at all times been ready to conclude, then we look to you sir, in the unbounding confidence of perfect faith in you r generalship, your wisdom, your courage, and your fortune, to conduct us in similar triumph along that lofty table land before our eyes, and to complete, on the plains of the Bajio, that which you so gloriously commenced on those of the Rio Grande, namely, the total subjugation of New Spain.

         Once more, general, in the name and as the humble instrument of your fellow soldiers and fellow citizens whom you see before you, I tender to you their felicitations on occasion of this auspicious anniversary, with sentiments of admiration for the high achievements which have marked your life, or deep respect for you personally, and for the sincerest aspirations for your future happiness and honor, in whatever else of danger or duty you may hereafter be called to by the providence of an all wise God.

         Gen. Taylor. who had listened with great attention to the remarks of Gen. C., and evidently powerfully affected by the mention of his name, briefly but feelingly responded as follows:

         “GENERAL: In reply to your eloquent and complimentary allusions to the services of the army under my command, I can only briefly express my thanks and those of the brave men of my command, to whose exertions and gallantry alone our success are due. For myself I can claim no merit beyond that of sharing and encountering danger with them. You have traced up and depicted in most faithful colors the rapid progress of four country from the commencement to its present condition of greatness and prosperity- occupying the front rank in the nations of the world. The existing war may show the world that in great national enterprises and interests we are firm and united; and that the flower of our country, without distinction of party, is always ready to vindicate the national honor on the battle field. Should it be our lot to resume offensive operations on this line, I shall move with every confidence in the gallantry and success of the forces. I have but little doubt that those who have but recently come into the field, and have not been able to participate in active service as yet, will distinguish themselves as greatly as those who have gone before. That thousands of volunteers who have, many of them, been brought up in affluence, have left their pursuits and comfortable homes to encounter the hardships of an active campaign is a sufficient guaranty that the rights and honor of our country will always be maintained.”

         A general shaking of hands and congratulation here took place for some moments; after which Col. Wright, of the Massachusetts volunteers, by invitation, read the Declaration of Independence. The company then partook of a substantial lunch provided by the hospitable commander, who had a smile and a pleasant word for all, and seemed happy in being able to make others so. He was dressed in undress uniform, and he looked a little more like the brave old hero than he is, and a little less like the plain, unaffected gentleman- a very little- than I have yet seen him. At 12 o’clock, while the company were yet at camp, a national salute was fired by Bragg’s battery, and before the sound of the last gun had died away, the booming of cannon from the black fort seemed to echo back the salute.

         About 3 o’clock Gen. Taylor and staff with an escort of dragoons came into town, and with General Cushing and the officers of the Massachusetts regiment proceeded to Arista’s garden, or Arista’s house I should should say, where a table was spread in the broad corridor, opening into the garden, with is bright green shrubs, its crimson rose bushes covered with fragrant flowers, its well-kept walks, and the gurgling stream that meanders through it. Every one was surprised at the profusion of good things and the variety that was placed upon the table, &c.

         When the substantials had been discussed and removed, Gen. Cushing, who presided at the head of the table, with Gen. Taylor on his right, and after some remarks complimentary to the committee of arrangements for the faithful manner in which they had cared for their guests, proceeded to announce the following regular toasts:

         The day we celebrate- As dear to us in a strange clime and the midst of war as when welcomed at our peaceful homes.

         The president of the United States.

           The memory of Washington- Brightening with time, all nations will at last behold and admire its lustre.

         The army and the volunteers of the United States

           The navy of the United States- With amphibious facility, finding no enemy on the waters, it has constantly sought and successfully encountered him on the land.

         The constitution- May it ever be administered in the spirit which controlled its first formation.

         The surviving heroes of the revolution- Length of days has been vouchsafed to them that they might behold the marvellous results of their youthful toil- all honor to their venerable names.

         Our brethren in arms at the south- They have lighted their paths with a blaze of victories.

         Mexico- Blessed with a genial clime and the physical elements of greatness and power, she is a prey to civil strife and bad government: may the influence of wise rulers and fee institutions restore her to her proper rank among the nations of the earth.

         The Spirit of ‘76- It burns as brightly among the mountains of Mexico as of old at Trenton. “Skies, not souls, they change who cross the sea.”
           The Mexican war- Waged to secure an honorable and a lasting peace, may such be its early consummation.

         The illustrious dead- From Palo Alto to Cerro Gordo every field is consecrated by the sacrifice of gallant spirits; a sympathizing country yields spontaneous and grateful homage to their memory.

         The American fair- Worthy descendants of the women of the revolution; their hearts and prayers are with those who uphold their country’s cause in a foreign land.

         These sentiments having been all drank with the strongest testimonials of admiration, volunteer toasts being called for, Lieut. Crowninshield, of the Massachusetts regiment, gave

         Andrew Jackson- Sacred be his memory. [Drank standing in silence]

         Lieut. Fuller, of Massachusetts volunteers, gave-

         “Gen. Taylor- We hail him as the next president; may his civil be as brilliant as his military career.” [This sentiment was drunk with three times three.]

         General Taylor rose and responded to this sentiment:

         “Mr. President and Gentlemen- I have never had the vanity to aspire or to look for that elevated situation which has just been alluded to, but if my fellow countrymen think proper to elevate me to so distinguished and honorable a position, I certainly shall do my best to discharge the duties of that responsible position faithfully. But, if any other candidate is preferred by the people as more competent than my self, I need not say that I shall acquiesce most cheerfully in their decision, and shall rejoice that there is one more worthy to represent them in the highest office in their gift.”

         The general then gave as a toast:

         “The state of Massachusetts and the city of Boston- The place where our liberties were cradled; whose sons have borne so conspicuous a part in the establishment and maintenance of the principles of our independence and the constitution, and have gallantly maintained the same by sea and land.”

         Col. Wright responded; he then gave

         “The past and present- Palo Alto, Resaca, Monterey, and Buena Vista, the Bunker Hill, Princeton, and Yorktown of the present century.”

         By Captain Montgomery, U.S.A.- The orator of the day, scholar, statesman, and soldier- An ornament to his country at home and abroad. We doubt not that his sword will prove as irresistible as his eloquence.

         Gen. Cushing responed. In conclusion he offered this sentiment:

         “The United States-  Baptized in the blood of the revolution, consecrated by the sacrifice of our fathers, rendered glorious by the courage and glory of their sons, may her future prosperity correspond with her present grandeur.”

         A number of other volunteer toasts were given.

         By Capt. Montgomery, A.Q.M.U.S.A.- Henry Clay- He has devoted a life to his country and a son to his country’s glory.

         By Capt. Hoyt, a commissary U.S.A. Mass. Reg. Peace- Whenever it comes may it be a permanent one, which shall result in the national prosperity of both the United States and Mexico; a peace which shall bring to the people of Mexico liberty and happiness- to the people of the United States  union and all the blessings of a free and and united nation.

         By Captain R. A. Arnold, 2d reg. dragoons- The square of the circle- The discovery of perpetual motion, and the “conquered peace.”

         By Lieut. Sturgis, 2d dragoons.- Henry Clay- He brought to the altar of his country the highest talents that ever adorned it, and sacrificed his son upon the plain of Buena Vista.

         You will perceive that this dinner and celebration was got up entirely without distinction of party, and the prominent men of each of the two great political divisions were indiscriminately toasted, and the sentiments met with equal applause; a proof of the good feeling and harmony which prevailed, and that it was not intended to have and did not have any party purpose. [BRR]


NNR 72.362-365 August 7, 1847 ceremony at Frankfort, Kentucky, in honor of those who fell in the Battle of Buena Vista

FUNERAL HONORS TO THE GALLANT DEAD!

    From the Frankfort Commonwealth, July 27.

         The interment of the remains of Col. William R. McKee, Lieut. Col. H. Clay, Capt. Wm. T. Willis, Capt. W. H. Maxey, Adjut. Edward M. Vaughn, Lieut. Joseph Powell, W. W. Bayles, Wm. Thwaits, N. Ramey, Thomas Weigert, Alex. G. Morgan, C. Jones, Henry Carty, T. McH. Dozier, H. Trotter, C.B. Thomson, and W.C. Green, soldiers of Kentucky, who fell at Buena Vista, took place on the 20th ult., in the presence of a concourse of people whose numbers were variously estimated, from fifteen to thirty thousand. The notice given, was so short, that the citizens from distant parts of the state, were not able to attend; several of the companies belonging to the regiments to which the deceased belonged, were not advised of the day fixed for the ceremonies until it had  passed. The intense and almost overpowering heat of the weather, prevented many from attending; notwithstanding these things, there came together on that day, the largest concourse of paople ever assembled in Kentucky.

         But little more than twelve months ago, in obedience to the requisition of the presisdent of the U. States, Kentucky sent to the army near three thousand of her citizen soldiers- the pride and flower of the commonwealth. After moths of toil and privation, the little army to which it was the fortune of a part of them to be attached, met the enemy.- that little army, though fighting against fearful odds, was victorious. The courage, the devotion, and the noble bearing of Kentucky’s sons in the dreadful conflict, has been the theme of many a Poet’s song- is and will ever be, the pride and glory of the state. Kentucky’s sons there laid the cap stone to the monument of her fame. The page on which the historian shall chronicle the events of that day, will be the brightest in the history of Kentucky.

         But rich and luxuriant as were the laurels won at Buena Vista, it was the decree of the God of battles, that they should be closely intertwined with the cypress. Kentucky paid high toll on that memorable day. One fourth of her sons engaged in the battle were left dead upon the plain. The blood of the brave was the price of victory!

         The survivors were unwilling that their brave officers and men, who fell on that day, should lie in the land of the enemy. The ashes of the gallant dead, were too dear to the living, to be subjected to the possibility of dishonor at the hands of a rude and semi-barbarous enemy. The regiment when about to return disinterred the ashes of their officers, brought them back to their native soil, to find a resting place in the land, to whose great name their deeds and death had added such undying honor. Several of the bodies of the privates have been brought back by the citizens of the counties to which they belonged. Others are now on the way in custody of trust-worthy messengers. The ashes of all who remain, will, we are sure, be reclaimed by the commonwealth. They were all equally distinguished in the hour of trial; their memories are equally dear to the people. They fell on the same field; met death in a common cause. A common grave should receive their ashes, and a common monument tell the story of their fall! 

         (Much of the details of the imposing ceremony and procession, we have to omit.)

THE FRANKFORT CEMETERY

         The Commonwealth says: “The Frankfort Cemetery Company have conveyed to the state, a beautiful spot near the centre of their wild romantic grounds, as a burying place of the illustrious dead of Kentucky’s honored sons, who fell so nobly battling for their country, on the bloody field at Buena Vista!

         “The cemetery is situated on a high and commanding eminence, about three hundred feet above the level of the plain on which the capital is built; and overlooking the Kentucky river, which winds around the bade of the bluff, and beautifully encircles the capital of the state. It is forever consecrated and set apart as a place to bury the dead. The remains of Daniel Boon and his wife are interred here, at a point overlooking the deep valley, immediately on the brow of the cliff. What place there more suitable to deposit the remains of those who have so nobly sustained the high name of Kentucky and Kentucky chivalry, than  that which contains ashes of the first pioneer of “the dark and bloody land.”  Mckee, Clay, Vaughn, Willis, and many of its noble soldiers, were citizens of the same commonwealth. Together, they shed their blood for their country and their chivalry has contributed to the high return of their native state. As Kentuckians they fought; as Kentuckians they met the same glorious death. A [ . . . ] people will express their gratitude, by erecting a monument to their memory. Let them sleep together in the land of their birth, on a spot dedicated for that purpose, that those who may come after us, many know here rest the mighty dead.”  Let them rest together in a common grave, and let the monument which marks a resting place, tell the story of their fall!”

         From the platform erected for the chaplain and ora[ . . . ]of the day, Gen. Leslie Combs, invited the relatives of the dead soldiers, the volunteer officers [ . . . ]late and present war, and officers of the U. army and navy, to come forward and occupy a [ . . . ]on the portico which had been prepared for [ . . .].

         The surviving officers and the company of mourners filled the space. Amid the throng of mourners [ . . . ]present, we observed the form of Henry Clay, venerable and distinguished father, of the late [ . . . ]Col. Clay. Beside him sat the dear little [ . . . ]children of tat gallant soldier- may heaven [ . . . ]watch over them. Around this venerable man and those little orphans, stood the parents, the brothers, and sisters, and friends of the dead, a sad sorrowing company. On the stand we observed Richard M. Johnson- the guest of the McKee [ . . . ]a gallant soldier of the last war.

         A prayer by the Rev. J.H. Brown, of Lexington, [ . . . ]of the day.

         The orator of the day, John C. Breckenridge, of Lexington, then delivered the following

ADDRESS

         We are assembled on a mission of gratitude, to honor the memory of those who evinced the loftiest [ . . . ]by giving their lives for their country. The place of sacrifice was Buena Vista- a name carved on every American heart. While our [ . . . ]country was represented there, to the lot of [ . . . ] fell an uncommon portion, both of glory [illegible…ereavement]. The mortal remains of a part of sons who perished in that battle, lie before us, will be consigned to the grave with every circumstance of honor. Other citizens fell there, whose [ . . . ]lie not beside these, their comrades; but the [ . . . ]is not eternal.  The commonwealth will be careful to recover the ashes, as well as to cherish the memory of all her children; not one will be forgotten; to all belong a common grave, and a common [ . . . ].

         These solemn obsequies are the offspring of emotion as universal as they are noble; confined to no land, clime, or people. The customs of preserving the remains of the dead, of honoring their memory, and perpetuation their remembrance, exist in every nation. The most savage tribes bear from the [ . . . ] bodies of their slain, and celebrate in rude [ . . . ]their virtues and exploits. In many countries [ . . . ]of the departed, at each return of spring, [ . . . ] flowers over their graves, and thus gave the [ . . . ]of life to the solitude of the tomb.  The [ . . . ] is covered with memorials of the dead. The cherished relics of friends- their forms preserved in marble of the sculptor and the colors of the [ . . . ]- the public cemetery- the family graveyard every monument set up to human memory- the [ . . . ]of the great- the simple stone that marks the resting place  of the humble and obscure- all, all, [ . . . ] the depth and extent of this common feeling about nature. In obedience to such sentiments, the remains of our heroes were recovered from the land of an enemy, and re now restored to the pro[ . . . ]of their country. Amidst these external [ . . . ]of respect and honor, it is proper to express a grateful sense of their courage, their services, their worth. Wherefore, on this occasion, I relate some particulars of their lives and cha[ . . . ], as an act of gratitude to them, and for the [ . . . ]of the living.

WILLIAM R. M’KEE

             Born in the county of Garrard, on the 24th day of September, 1808, and at his death was in the [ . . . ]year of his age. He came of patriotic blood. [ . . . ]McKee, his grandfather, was one of the pioneers of Kentucky, and bore a conspicuous part [ . . . ]early battles. His father, the late Samuel McKee, was a distinguished citizen of the state, and [ . . . ]years a representative in congress. In the War of 1812, though still holding that trust, he [ . . . ]his musket as a private soldier, and ser[ . . . ] campaign in the northwest, declaring that the times required every citizen to do his duty, and show his readiness to serve his country in any capacity.- The subject of this sketch was early imbued with  similar sentiments of duty, which afterwards bore their proper fruit. His education was received at West Point, where he graduated with distinction in 1829, and immediately entered the army as lieutenant in a company of the third regiment of artillery. He continued in the service until 1836, when, the claims of his family demanding attention, and the army in time of peace opening no avenue to fortune or distinction, he reigned his commission and removed to Lexington. Here, for ten years, he was prominent station in society, and adorning that station with all the virtues of social life.

         When the war was declared, and a requisition for volunteers made on Kentucky, McKee was among the first to offer his services. He volunteered, in his own modest language, “to serve in any capacity in which he could be useful.”  It was an offering of pure patriotism. The sacrifice was great, for it involved the abandonment of extensive and profitable pursuits, and separation from an affectionate family and devoted friends. It promised no other reward than the gratitude of his countrymen. He never had been in public life; his path led not towards political honors; his feelings were all domestic and social. He esteemed it a privilege to serve is country; and, in addition, a peculiar duty. Having been educated at a military academy of the union, with the highest sense of honor and obligation, he recognised the nation right to his services.

         It was not reserved for him to serve in the ranks. With a proper estimate of his merit, the governor appointed him colonel of the second regiment of Kentucky infantry. His connection with his command continued, with reciprocal sentiments of love and confidence, until it was severed by his fall at Buena Vista. It is well know that the regiment possessed the high confidence of the commanding general. Afterwards, transferred to the centre of the field, it fought under the eye of the general.-  When the enemy, in the last combined effort to force Gen. Taylors’ position, poured his masses from the left and front upon the centre, the second Kentucky infantry formed a part of the handful who met the shock. It was here, while leading his regiment with gallantry above all praise, and contesting the ground against odds of more than four to one, McKee fell; fell in the right line of duty- full as became his name and life. His affectionate comrades bore his body from the field; his grateful country restores it, with the last honors, to is kindred dust.

         Of such a man it is difficult for a friend to speak, except in the language of warmest eulogy; he won favorable opinions from all men; all who knew him loved him. His character inspired at the same time respect and affection. Nature had endowed him with a temper of uncommon firmness. His countenance wore an habitual expression of calm intrepidity; it sat on each feature- it spoke in each lineament. This native resolution was tempered by a kind and noble hear- his life was filled with good offices. Perhaps there is not one who knew him, with in whose memory is not recorded some act of his courtesy or kindness. He was prudent, without timidity-amiable, without weakness-firm, without austerity- generous, open and true. He is gone, but his memory remains to testify that he lived not in vain. To his country he left his glorious example, and to his bereaved widow and orphan children, the great inheritence of a spotless name.

HENRY CLAY JR.

         On the same field, and at the same time, perished another son of Kentucky, who bore a name honored in this, and other lands- a name, for more than forty years identified with the history of the commonwealth and the union. Henry Clay, jr. was born at Ashland, on the 11th day of April 1811. His childhood received the double benefit of excellent precepts and high examples. His mind began to retain lasting impressions at a period propitious to the formation of elevated and patriotic sentiments. At that day, the principles and events of the revolution yet engrossed the thoughts and conversation of the people; our nation anniversaries were celebrated with enthusiasm; the youthful heart of the country glowed with high and almost romantic patriotism. At the same time the nation was involved in war. Kentucky embarked with ardor in the cause of her country, and freely she her blood in its defence. At the family hearth, young C., caught inspiration from the same spirit that infused it s power and temper into the councils of the union- and the flame, then kindled, burned until it was quenched in his own blood. He was educated at West Point. His father was his companion to the academy: and when they were about to separate, taking the boy by the hand, and pointing to the surrounding hills, made memorable by the events of the revolution he said:  “Remember, my son, that form these heights the spirits of our revolutionary heroes are the witnesses of you conduct.:  Thus nature and education combine to form the high bearing and honorable sentiments that marked his social intercourse. For several years Colonel Clay lived in his native county of Fayette, and represented her, with honor, in the general assembly. When he entered the service of his country he was a citizen of Louisville. At the first call to arms, he tendered his services, and was appointed Lieutenant Colonel of the second Kentucky infantry. At Buena Vista, he was with the noble regimen- through all the vicissitudes of the day, he filled his station with distinguished courage, and fell at the moment of victory.*

         *Mr. CLAY accedes to a request of his fellow citizens, in the state which has always delighted to honor him, honored as it is, by him,- in the following touching terms:

Ashland, April 12, 1847.

         GENTLEMEN: I have received this day your official letter, addressed by you, as the organ of the people of Louisville, to me, in which after adverting to the resolutions adopted by them, at a public meeting, expressing their feelings arising out of “the mournful but glorious intelligence” of the battle of Buena Vista, and of their desire to have brought back to this state the remains of the brave officers and soldiers from Louisville who died on that day in the service of the nation, you conclude by requesting my permission to bring back to his native sate the body of my son, Lieut. Col. Henry Clay, Jr., “ to administer the last sacred right of sepulture, and afterwards to erect a monument to commemorate his virtues and perpetuate his deeds.”

         I yield, gentlemen, readily, the permission requested. Louisville now contains the remains of his beloved wife, and was the place of his own residence at the time of his death. There is, therefore, a peculiar fitness that those who, in life, were united together by the strongest bonds of affection should sleep together in death.

         For the kind and friendly interest which the people of Louisville have taken on an occasion so distressing to me, and for the generous sympathy manifested by you in your obliging letter, I tender an expression of my profound gratitude and thanks.

         I am, gentlemen, with the highest respect, your friend and obedient servant,

H. CLAY.

         The following letter from Mr. Clay to a citizen of Athens, Ga., we find in the Southern Whig:

Ashland, 13th April, 1847.

           DEAR SIR: I thank you for your friendly letter of the 5th inst. It comes to me when I am suffering under one of the heaviest afflictions that has ever befallen me, deep as I have drunk out of the cup of domestic sorrow. Could the most tender and touching expressions of sympathy and condolence, which reach me from every quarter, and in every form, assuage my grief, it would be much alleviated. But alas! there are some wounds too deep and too painful to be healed by any other remedy, than one which flows from Him, by whose incomprehensible dispensations they have been inflicted.

         It is some consolation to me to know that my beloved son, if death were to come, preferred meeting it on the field of battle in the services of his country.  With friendly recollections of our meeting in Augusta and Charleston, I am truly, your friend and obedient servant,

H.CLAY

         The New York Express says: “A gentleman of this city has received a letter from Mr. Clay, which concludes with the following noble allusion to his recent affliction:

         “My life has been full of domestic affliction, but this last is one of the severest among them. I derive some consolation from knowing that he died where he would have chosen, and where, if I must lose him, I should have preferred; on the battle field, in the service of his country.”

         A letter from Mr. Clay, dated Ashland, April 8th, to S. Schenick, of Auburn, N. York, in allusion to the Mexican war, says: “For our common country I do regret the issue of the contest. Had it been otherwise, we should have preserved the protective policy under which we had made such rapid and encouraging advances; the march of improvement in our rivers and harbors would not have been arrested; and, above all, we should have avoided this unnecessary war of aggressions. The brilliant achievements and the glorious laurels acquired during its prosecution, gratifying as they are to our national pride and character, can never was begun, the brave and patriotic lives which have been sacrificed, and the tearful issues which, I tremble in contemplating, may grow out of its termination. But I have not now a heart to dwell on this painful theme. I turn from it with hope and dutiful submission to Him, whose no doubt wise but inscrutable dispensation has permitted this awful calamity to visit our beloved country.”

         Col. Clay was a man of great nobleness and chivalry. To an impetuous and ardent nature ere united the kindred qualities of honor, generosity and truth. For every object of his affections he felt an enthusiastic devotion. One of these objects was his country; he served her with the alacrity of a devoted heart, and when he died in her defence, there remained not behind a braver man, or a better patriot.

CAPTAIN WILIS.

         On that field, also, fell Captain William T. Willis, at the head of a company of infantry from the county of Jessamine. His eulogy may be best expressed in a few words of simple narrative. An eminent lawyer, and past the meridian of life, his position and age might have exempted him from the toils of war; but he sought no exemption. Three noble boys of war were his companions to the field; they shared his perils, followed his brave example, and happily survive to bear their fathers honors and their own. Captain Willis was ill at Monterey when the intelligence came of the Mexicans advance. He rose from his bed, hastened forward to the army, and gallantry commanded his company in the battle, until at the close of the day he fell wit McKee and Clay, in the last terrible onset. This was patriotism indeed- this was an act to reveal the governing motives of conduct. Oft times, inhuman life, some signal achievement performed at is close, reflects its character on the past, and discloses the true temper of the heart. Let all men judge William T. Willis in the light of these truths- that he loved his country and freely died in her cause.

EDWARD M. VAUGHN.

         It remains to speak of one whose courage and fate excite mingled emotions of pride and sadness- Edward M. Vaughn, adjutant of the Kentucky cavalry, fell at Buena Vista, at the close of a successful charge. His early death, though crowned with honor, quenched high hopes and ended a bright career. He was young, but had known adversity and borne it well. His soul panted for distinction, and he purposed to achieve it. Solitary, but self relying, his noble resolution depended alone on its own strength. Having mastered the past, he looked with confidence to the future. NO borrowed light shone on his path- n avenue to fame was opened before him by power, patronage or wealth. When the moment of departure came, took by the hand his trusted friends- embraced his venerable parents, far descending in the vale of years- and then all ceremonies of separation were over. The public ear was filled with other names; yet he was followed by true hears that felt he would return with honor, or return not all. When the day of trail came, his gallant spirit responded to the call of duty; his chosen place was in advance, ”on the perilous edge of battle,” and there he fell, pierced with four and twenty wounds.

         Thus perished young Vaughn, in the morning of life- a man gifted with noble and lovely qualities. His heart was full of tenderness and honor. His whole being was instinct with elevated sentiments. Among his associates, he stood conspicuous in the chivalry of his nature. In a great cause he would have dared whatever man might accomplish; for his country he would have encountered certain destruction; with Roman devotion, he would have held the bridge against a host, or leaped in the yawning gulf.

         Beside the bodies of the officers lie those of the private soldiers. The spirit of our people is illustrated in the equal tribute paid to the memories of all these patriots. The distinctions of rank exist no longer. Upon them all, death had set the seal of equality. The limit of devotion was reached in a common death for a common country. They owned the same allegiance- shared the same perils- fell on the same field. It is most meet they should together find soldiers’ graves. The names of these brave men were W.W.BAYLES, WM. THWAITE, N. RAMEY, THOMAS WEIGERT, ALEX G. MORGAN, C. JONES, H. CARTY, T. MCH. DOZIER, H. TROTTER, C. B. THOMPSON, and W. T. GREEN; let them be remembered and recorded. Theirs was no reluctant service, but the free gift of citizens who felt that the public honor was their won. Some of them had filled other stations, and were qualified to command where they obeyed. Others were mere boys, transferred from the tenderness of home to the terrors of the battle field, and well they illustrated amidst its trying scenes the native heroism of their blood.

         Such were the characters of these soldiers- such their actions. For the rest, theirs was a happy fate; to all concerned belongs congratulation rather than sympathy. Are there here any relatives or friends who mourn for these dead, and in the bitterness of their grief refuse to be comforted?  If there be, let them consider the vicissitudes, the temptations, the sorrows of human life-and then rejoice that these were spared to the signal glory of such an end- that they escaped death in every other form, to meet it at a time and in a manner to fix their fame forever, and leave their names a precious legacy to the whole country.

         The fate of Powell and Maxey may indeed excite emotions of sadness. It was not their fortune to reach the field, where honors might be won. Struck down by disease, they perished ere they had attained the mark of their honorable ambition, but they died on the path that led to glory, and that path they trod at the call of their country. Therefore, with equal gratitude, let them be interred beside their more fortunate comrades.

         Amidst the recollections of that day, much must remain unsaid; yet one character commands the especial tribute or our praise; for who can image that battle to himself, and not pause to view the greatest figure in the scene?  The spontaneous feeling of this people is to honor Zachary Taylor, the man, in whom, to the courage of the hero is united the heart of the philanthropist. The blaze of military glory cannot obscure the greater lustre of his moral qualities. In the storm of battle, hold him, stern, immovable, self-poised; but when the carnage is over, and to the excitement of strife succeed the wants and suffering of the soldier, see the noble exhibition of tenderness, compassion, humanity, to friend and foe; these things more adorn him than all the honors of the battle field. Four times has it been his peculiar fate to be lost to the sight, and almost the hopes of his countrymen, and as often has he emerged from apprehended disaster, covered with glory. Hence, his name has sunk into the hearts of the people; it has become a house hold word with every class, from the summit of society to its lowest foundations. Amidst these great events, how striking does he appear in his grand simplicity, a mode of true greatness, without ostentation. The simple narrative of his deeds will be his eulogy.

         For all the dead, the limit of eulogy is to say hey were present at Buena Vista, and performed their duty. The contemplation of that great engagement fills the mind with wonder. The resolution to meet the enemy there, presents an example of moral grandeur without a parallel. General Taylor, being at the head of less than five thousand men, learned that the Mexican army was advancing in force of over twenty thousand. Well do we remember the gloomy apprehensions that pervaded the Union, as rumors came thick and fast of the situation of our troops, and the numbers of the foe; the best hope was, that after a toilsome and bloody retreat the exhausted remnant of our army might he panting behind the fortifications of Monterey. Gen’l Taylor resolved to give battle; his purpose taken, he chose his position and calmly awaited the approach of the enemy. The odds were fearful, but nothing was desperate to the hero of Palo Alto, Resaca, and Monterey. On the 22d of February, (an auspicious day to the Americans,) the long lines of the Mexican army were seen advancing up the beautiful vale from which the field derives its name. They came confident, exulting, and already in imagination driving before them the handful of their enemies. At Buena Vista, the American army, drawn up in order of battle, was prepared to receive them. The Mexican chief, paused before that firm array, as doubting the reality of the purpose it indicated. An indecisive skirmish, proved the temper of our troops; and their resolve to greet him with bloody welcome. The valley was narrow, a range of mountains rose on either hand- the action must needs be face to face. The remainder of the far spent day sufficed not for the great struggle! Each army slept in position on the filed, and on the morning of the 23d, the terrible conflict began.  With impetuous valor the vast columns of the enemy advanced to the onset; every element of war performed its dreadful part- lance and bayonet did their work- the earth shook beneath the rush of cavalry- the mountains trembled to the roar of artillery. The shock was met by spirits worthy to hold the honor of their country. Upon the right, the left, the centre, the conflict raged with unabated fury. The field was narrow, yet too large for its few defenders. From point to point they rushed with ardor, wherever danger threatened most.

         “From rank to rank their volleyed thunder flew,” and celerity, constancy and courage atoned for want of numbers: yet the combat deepens; can human valor, strength and skill combined, longer sustain the unequal contest- must not the brave perish, must not our flag go down? not on that field- not before that foe; for see! the freshening breeze throws aside the shroud of battle- and behold! That spartan band with unbroken ranks, press back the routed masses of the foe- their standards full [ . . . ] advancing, and the voice of victory on their lips. Again and again followed the charge, the struggle [ . . . ] the repulse; as rooted to their position as the eternal hills around them, the diminished, exhausted but unconquered few, from sun to sun, sustained the censeless shock, and fought as if conscious that the genius of their country hovered over the scene, and pierced with anxious eyes the cloud of battle, discern the bearing of her children there. [ . . . ]strife is ended- the day is won- the American army is victor of the wondrous field!  Honored-thrice honored be the living and the dead. To the memory of the fallen, we render the last honors due to exalted services; to the survivors we pay the willing tribute of admiration and gratitude.

         The mind in vain attempts to think of that battle as an event of this generation; it grows on the imagination as some grand dream, or talk of conflict fought in the heroic ages, and transmitted by tradition. Far from their country, their communications cut off, encompassed by over whelming numbers , and in the presence of a relentless foe- our little army stood like the ten thousand Greeks in the midst of the Persian empire, the history of whose retreat is classic story. That was retreat- this was victory.

         In the deeds of her sons, our country possesses precious inheritance of glory. To illustrate the devotion, and her own renown, she may point [ . . . ] Trenton, Saratoga, and Yorktown; to the Thames with its memorable charge- to the vain valor of her sons at the Raisin- to the invaluable victory of New Orleans; these, with many others, form a galaxy whose splendor is not obscured by a comparison with the achievements of any other people. Conspicuous in the cluster, shines the great light of Buena Vista. Here, for the first time in history, a body of [ . . . ]citizen soldiers defeated, on an open field, [ . . . ]times their number of veteran troops. The [ . . . ] pauses before this great achievement, and seeks [ . . . ]cause. The arms were equal- the battle face to face. None of the accidents that sometimes decide the fate of fields, governed the result; it must be referred to the character of the troops- and their character, to the spirit of their government. America contains an army of three millions of men, ever ready for their country’s service. Every soldier a citizen,- every citizen, if need be, is a soldier. Political and  social equality , and the great principal of popular supremacy, foster a spirit of personal independence and honor. Each citizen is a part of the state; his voice is heard in her councils, his influence is felt in the all her acts. The general welfare is his won: the public glory is his glory- the public shame, his shame. In battle he raises a freeman arm, and strikes to execute his own will; then, more glorious than all the honors of the field, he converts the sword into the ploughshare, and in peace guides that country whose interests and honor he asserted in war.

         Such armies are irresistible- such citizens give prosperity and renown to the republic. Thus the national history is illustrated by the noblest moments. For more than half a century it has presented to the world the spectacle of a happy people- their light a beacon to all who would be free- their path marked by beneficence- their charity [ . . . ]closing nations in its large embrace. It is the [ . . . ]prayer of every patriot, that this great career [ . . . ]not closed in darkness and dishonor, but that our beloved country may fulfil some destiny not unworthy of the past.

         To these solemn ceremonies belong a two-[ . . . ]motive. While they honor the dead, and acknowledge the obligations of gratitude, they teach us, the living that his people will preserve the memory of heroic deeds. The nation that rewards the devotion of her sons will never want defenders. [ . . . ] the patriot, no consolation can be more precious than the assurance that he will be remembered by his country. On the bloody field it never his army and at the moment of dissolution soothes his parting spirit.

“Come to the bridal chamber, Death!
Come to the mother when she feels
For the first time her first born’s breath;
Come in consumption’s ghostly form,
The earthquake shock, the ocean storm,
Come when the heart beats high and warm
With banquet song, and dance, and wine
And thou art terrible.
But to the hero, when his sword
Has won the battle for the free,
Thy voice sounds like a prophet’s word,
And in its hollow tones are heard
The thanks of millions yet to be.”

         We will bury our dead in that beautiful cemetery over looking the river of the state, and in view of the capital. The voice of their great example will [ . . . ] the public servants, and quell the tumults of [ . . . ]. Discord, ere she tears the vitals of the [ . . . ]will pause, rebuke by the silent eloquence of [ . . . ]place. In times of public peril, the ashes of these dead will better serve their country than a thousand bayonets. In the extremity of the commonwealth, though all else should be lost, the worth and patriotism of the state will rally to the great memories that cluster here, as around household gods and draw from them inspiration to redeem [ . . . ].

         The field whereon our heroes fell, will remain their monument forever. Another is theirs, erected by the hearts of their countrymen. To mark the consecrated spot where their remains repose, the state will set up a column to their memory, and inscribe on it the narrative of their actions. When, hereafter, Kentuckians, as they muse amidst these memorials of the dead, shall look upon that column, pointing heavenward, and read the inscription on it, and remember the sacred dust beneath it, they will [ . . . ] their hearts in gratitude to Almighty God that he gave the commonwealth such children, and [ . . . ]from the sad but glorious spot, purer men and better citizens.

         The Rev. Mr. Brown then addressed the assembly after which General Leslie Combs offered a [ . . . ]and resolutions, recommending to the next legislature of the state, to make a suitable but liberal appropriation for the erection of a monument for the remains of all the officers and soldiers who[ . . . ] be buried in the state grounds of the Frankfort cemetery. The preamble and resolutions were adopted unanimously.

         Testimonies of respect were evinced at every [ . . . ]at which the remains of the deceased were [ . . . ]a moment deposited on their route from the dead where they fell. At New Orleans the  ceremony was very impressive. The remains were re[ . . . ]at Louisville, Kentucky, on the 21st ultimo, the military companies and citizens, with every demonstration of public esteem and honor. Business was entirely suspended, and all the stores closed along the streets through which the funeral procession moved.

CAPTAIN LINCOLN

         The funeral obsequies of this brave young officer, [ . . . ]at Buena Vista, were performed on Thursday. The remains were escorted from Boston to Worcester, the residence of his father, by a large military [ . . . ], and the interment took place in the afternoon. The occasion called out a large concourse of people, and the procession was unusually large. The rich [ . . . ]walnut coffin, covered with a pall over which [ . . . ] American ensign was thrown in graceful fold, [ . . . ]upon the funeral car, which was hung in black, and drawn by four white horses, each covered with a black pall and led by a soldier. The bearers, six in number, were officers of the army, of the same rank as the deceased, and marched three on each side of the car, accompanied by the customary attendants. Upon the coffin were laid two swords, the arms of the deceased- one of them bearing the [ . . . ]which he used at the battle of Resaca de la [ . . . ], Buena Vista, &c.; and the other one which was presented to him a few months since by the citizens of Worcester. Beside them, were his cap, plume, and belt; and upon the breast of the coffin, thin but rich silver plate, with this inscription:

“GEORGE LINCOLN
Capt. 8th reg’t inft’y U.S.A.
FELL at Buena Vista, Mexico, Feb. 23, 1847
Aged 29 years.”

         Next came the white charger rode by Captain Lincoln, and from which he fell  at Buena Vista. He was led by a corporal of the United States army, and was covered with a black pall decorated with [ . . . ]carpet trimmings, and wore the saddle and holsters containing the pistols of the deceased own-

         Over the sides of the saddle were suspended long military boots, spurred as if for battle. [New Haven Register.  [BRR]


NNR 72.368, August 7, 1847 correction of account of attack on Gen. Franklin Pierce's division

    A postscript inserted in our last just before going to press, gave in substance the first version of a telegraphic dispatch from Richmond, Va., of recent affairs in Mexico, which, when the mail arrived, was ascertained to be erroneous in one particular. No battle had taken place between Gen. Pierce’s division and the guerrillas prior to the return of that officer to Vera Cruz for reinforcements. The killed and wounded attributed to an affair with his division, were the numbers, killed and wounded in the affair between Col. De Russy and the Mexicans, of which an account is inserted in this number. [WFF]


NNR 72.368 August 7, 1847 intense anxiety for news about overtures for peace, rumors relating to mission of Nicholas Phillip Trist
NNR 72.368 Gen. Winfild Scott to march from Puebla to Mexico City, Gen Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna to give him battle

         A postscript inserted in our last just before going to press, gave in substance the first version of a telegraphic despatch from Richmond, Va., of recent affairs in Mexico, which, when the mail arrived, was ascertained to be erroneous in one particular. No battle had taken place between Gen. Pierce’s division and the guerrillas prior to the return of that officer to Vera Cruz for reinforcements. The killed and wounded attributed to an affair with his division, were the numbers killed and wounded in the affair between Col. De Russy and the Mexicans, of which an account is inserted in this number.

         During the week there has been intense anxiety for further intelligence from the seat of war, and especially as to the turn which the overtures to negotiate for peace would take. It seemed to be conceded that the account of the Mexicans having appointed commissioners to meet Mr. Trist was entitled to little credit. Letters from the city of Mexico, of two days later date than the one on which the tale was predicated, make no allusion whatever to such a circumstance.

         In this state of anxiety, contradictory rumors followed each other almost every hour. At one time we had it settled to a certainty that a treaty would be made,- a few hours after it was just as certain that our proposals had been rejected. One had it that Santa Anna was only shamming the resistance whilst his real purpose was to finger those three millions. The next report was that he had met, repulsed, and wounded Gen. Scott!

         LATEST. The prevailing rains have swelled the rivers of the south so as to interrupt the mails from N. Orleans, in consequence of which, we have but a very disjointed account of the latest intelligence received there on the 30th  July, by the U.S. transport steamer Massachusetts, which left Vera Cruz on the 23d. The following is the substance of what has reached us:

         No intelligence  direct from the city of Mexico, or even from Puebla, traceable to any authentic source, had reached Vera Cruz. since the date of our last advices. All was in a state of doubt and suspense.

         The Vera Cruz Sol de Anahuac  of the 22d, endeavors to account for the delay of negotiations on one hand, and on the other hand admits that rumors were in circulation quite unfavorable to the success of Mr. Trist’s mission. Indeed, from letters which had come to hand from Puebla, it was certain that the commission had not been installed, and “consequently that the hopes of peace, which had been founded thereon, had completely vanished.”

         A letter dated Mexico, July 6th, gives the items of the Trist proposals which were said to have leaked out, and which were so favorable that great rejoicings were taking place at Mexico. The letter admits however that the tree commissioners named to meet Mr. Trist, were self appointed.   It was probably one of them that wrote the letter.

         General Scott was still at Puebla when last heard from. “Indicator,” the reliable correspondent of the N. O. Times writes on the 20th, “that all hopes of peace are entirely crushed, and that General Scott was to “march on the capital on the 15th instant. Santa Anna, at the head of a large army, supposed to be 22,000 strong, intended to give him battle at some point between Puebla and Mexico.”  [BRR]


NNR 72.368 August 7, 1847 Gen. Pierce and the train from Vera Cruz

Gen. Pierce had again left with his train. During his advance as firing had been heard along the road. He must have met with some obstacles. His force, however, was so overwhelmingly strong-- three thousand men with one hundred and fifty wagons Two hundred men, who set forth from Vera Cruz after the train were attacked a short distance from Santa Fe. The Mexicans had a strong force, but were defeated. [TNW]


NNR 72.368 August 7, 1847 Santa Fe Burned

Burning of Santa Fe.-- Lieut. Fitzgerald had been sent on an expedition with twenty five men. They went to Santa Fe, took away some provisions belonging to the army, and set fire to the town. [TNW]


NNR 72.368 August 7, 1847 vomito declining at Veracruz

     The Vomito at Vera Cruz, still claimed its victims though less virulent than usual at this season.

      Gov. Wilson, was taken alarmingly ill on the 22d. [ANP]


NNR 72.368, August 14, 1847 train of wagons and pack mules attacked between Camargo and Monterey

ARMY OF OCCUPATION
By the steamer Ohio, arrived on the 5th at N Orleans from Brazos Santiago, dates from thence to the 31st and from Galveston to the 2d, are received.

The Matamoros Flag, of the 27th ult., states that for more than a week they have had reports there of Gen. Scott having entered Mexico. The Flag appears to credit the report, but on tracing it, it appears to have reached Matamoros from Monterey, and to have arrived at Monterey on the 14th, at which time it is certain that Gen. Scott had not left Puebla.

The commandant at Matamoros, on the 36th July, received a letter from Gen. Hopping, stating that he had information of Gen. Urrea being on this side of the mountains at the head of 4,000 men, and requesting a squadron of dragoons. The Flag says, however, that their colonel chooses to remain here until he has received his complement of horses, in the mean time drilling his men as thoroughly as could be done elsewhere. A company of mounted men from Ohio, recently arrived, was sent up to Gen. Hopping.

    Col. Carvajal. We understand from several sources that this worthy was on Friday last at Lavacaria, some twenty-five leagues distant, on the road to Linares, with 250 men, having been joined by Galan, another guerrilla chief. They were said to have detained a large number of mules loaded with corn, soap, sugar, and other produce, destined for this place, besides one hundred cargoes of goods which had been sent from here to Monterey.

    Letters from camp Buena Vista to the 18th July; state that Gen. Cushing and suit reached Monterey on the 16th. The Mississippi and North Carolina troops were suffering by diarrheas, &c., average three deaths a day. Of the former, 100 sick, of the latter 150. The Virginia regiment had 150 sick, but no deaths.

    Numerous reports are given in those letters, hardly worth detailing here. [WFF]


NNR 72.368 August 7, 1847 financial pressure on the administration because of expenditures for the war

         The Washington correspondent of the Baltimore Sun, writes on the 5th August- “The administration have, I am certain, very strong reasons for wishing a speedy peace with Mexico. The war cannot be vigorously prosecuted, much longer, without a large addition to the means of the revenue. The expenditures on account of the army alone, for the last quarter, ending 30th June, were sixteen millions. The resource of the loans has been nearly exhausted. Active and extensive preparations for the continuance of the war are, at this moment, in progress. The eighteen million, treasury note loan, will be entirely exhausted during the present, or the next month. The war expenditures cannot be met by any estimated revenue that will accrue after the first of October next. This is a dark and gloomy side of the prospect. Peace is the more desirable on account of the embarrassments which a continuance of the war must bring upon the treasury. That the administration wish it, is to say that they wish well to themselves, and their individual and future popularity.” [BRR]


NNR 72.369 August 7, 1847 tariff receipts at Tampico

         THE MEXICAN TARIFF. A correspondent of the New Orleans Delta, writing from Tampico, says:  “About seventy thousand dollars have been collected at this ort since the first of May. With a few modifications it will be a source of much benefit to our government.”

         We confess this statement disappoints us. Tampico has been the second port in Mexico, and lately has outstripped Vera Cruz itself. If, therefore, in two months and a half only $70,000 have been received there in duties, the annual receipt will not reach $350,000. Put Vera Cruz at as much more or even twice as much more, and the receipts at both ports will only reach $1,050,000. Yet the government has estimated that $15,000,000 can be derived from the trariff!

         A correspondent of the N.O. Times writing from Vera Cruz, says on this same topic:  “Five millions might have been secured by the establishment of a common-sense rate of duties, and reasonable facilities of payment and trade; but I can assure you , that under those adopted, not one million, including all dues received, and all bonded, will be realized within one year from the date of opening the ports.

         The Times is a Whig paper, the Delta is a neutral one, with Democratic sympathies. When, therefore, journals of such opposite political sentiments corroborate each other on a matter of fact, their statements must be taken as correct. We fear that our own government has sadly deceived itself in relation to the [ . . . ] of this tariff as a source of revenue. [N.O. Bulletin [BRR]


NNR 72.369-370 August 7, 1847 article on the state of government finances

GOVERNMENT FINANCES.

From the New York Courier and Enquirer.

           The Banker’s Magazine for this month opens with a remarkable article on the National Finances, and the public revenues and public debt of 1847- of which we propose to offer some analysis to our readers.

         Before doing so however, we must reiterate our testimony to the general value and excellence of this periodical,-which now amounts to a valuable volume.

         The publication commenced in Baltimore a year ago last July, and the numbers are now gathered in handsome volume, of which the value is enhanced by a well digested general index.

         To return to the number now before us for the present month of August.

         The first article sets out with furnishing a condensed summary from official sources of the commerce of the Port  of New York for seven months of the present and of the past year- as follows:

Commerce of the port of New York.

Imports.  June, 1847 . June, 1846.
Free goods  $401,358  $1, 239, 006
Dutiable  5,689,109  4,695,527
Specie 547,843   29,122

$6,638,280 $5,873,635

Duties Received June, 1847,   June, 1846,

$1,444,771 $1,462,098
Six mos. Previous  9,315,854  9,080,202
Total 7 months  $10,760,625  $10,542,300

Exports.  June, 1847  June, 1846
Domestic merchandise $5,810,203 $3,745,687
Foreign  311,756  321,462
Specie  134,330

7,256,290  4,037,246
Six months previous  23,366,386  14,739,381
Total, seven months  $30,622,676  $18,806,631

The imports now in public
warehouses are not included above.


Aggregate imports for the seven months.

Dutiable  $41,626,427  $33,889,840
Specie  7,988,374  422,178
Free  6,215,148  6,270,561
Total  $55,819,949  $41,682,579
Duties received  10,760,625  10,542,300

         The average rate of duty under the new tariff is 48 per cent; under the old it was 24 per cent.

         The following result appears from the above tables that with an increase of dutiable goods in seven months of 1847- of $7,036,587-the increase in duties was only $218,325.

         The discouraging fact here is, that with such a very large addition to our debt to Europe, by the importation of such an excess over ordinary importations of foreign fabrics, we add so little comparatively to our revenue.

         At the rate apparent from the above tables, an addition of fifteen millions of dollars of dutiable goods imported, has not produced an addition of  half a million to the revenue.

         This seems a startling statement, but the authority is said to be derived from official sources.

         Now the difficulty in such a state of things is that the moment the temporary and accidental demand for breadstuffs for Europe is removed- as in a very considerable degree it will be; by the coming harvest- the mode of paying for their excessive imports-can only be by the re-exportation of that coin which the recent extent of our shipment of breadstuffs to Europe, has brought to our shores.

         But a drain upon our banks for coin, couple with the operation of the sub treasury now in full force, and which, so long as the exchanges rather favor the importation than the exportation of coin, is comparatively inoperative-would then paralyse and derange all commerce and all the banks.

         For these latter are now much expanded- secure in the state of the foreign exchanges.

         A sudden revulsion would take them unawares.

         The amount of debt actually owing to the United States is also brought into view in this paper, and is thus stated:

Abstract of the public debt of the United States on the 1st day of July, 1847. Showing first, the the amount of loans, and second, the amount of treasury notes issued and outstanding:

1st. As to the amount of the debt:

Of the loan of1842$8,343,886 03
   “          1843$6,604,231.35
   “          1846$4,888,149.45
   “          1847$4,447,650.00
Mexican 5 percent.1846298,754.36
Bounty land scrip 11,650 00-$24,594,321.10

2d. Treasury notes outstanding:

Of the issue prior to1846279,139.31
Of the issue of18461,933,200.00
“    “184711,155,750.00- $13,318,089.10
Of the old funded and unfunded debt130,000.00
Debt of the corporate cities ofthe District of Columbia, assumed by congress1,080,000 00
Total public debt existingJuly 1, 1847$39,122,410.00

With such a debt existing among us; with a continued drain of coin at this period

to Mexico; with a war that has already consumed upwards of thirty millions, and may call for thirty millions more; with a tariff which requires the importation of one hundred millions of goods to produce the same revenue which seventy-two millions produced in 1845-6; with the prospect of an abundant harvest in Europe, and the consequent decline in price of grain; with these facts and indications before us, prudence would dictate the husbanding of our resources and renewed caution in our importance from abroad. [BRR]


NNR 72.370 August 14, 1847 Lt. Col. John Charles Fremont Arrested for Disobedience of Orders, Dispute Between Gen. Stephen Watts Kearny and Com. Robert Field Stockton

Lieut. Col. Fremont had been arrested for disobedience of orders by Gen. Kearny, and had been ordered home to the United States to take his trial before a court martial. This difficulty grew out of the feeling and contradictory movements of General Kearny and Commodore Stockton, and the question of authority which existed between them. It was announced some days ago by Colonel Russell, who came with dispatches that General Kearny was about to arrest Colonel Fremont, and have him hung as a rebel. No body, of course, believed the latter part of the statement; but the arrest of Fremont proves that quarrel between Gen. Kearny and Com. Stockton was more serious than was at first apprehended.

Commodore Stockton had left, and was on his way home. [TNW]


NNR 72.370 August 14, 1847 American fleet off Lower California

The American fleet was off Lower California engaged against Mazatlan, Acapulco, and other towns in that quarter. The troops had all been ordered to concentrate in the same direction. There is no detail given of contemplated movements, but it is doubtless to enforce the blockade proclaimed by Com. Biddle.

General Kearny was about to leave California, and expected to reach the states in the month of September.

The affairs of California generally appear to be in a very unsettled condition.

Messrs. Shaw and Thompson learned from Brannon additional details of the sufferings experienced by the parties of emigrants which failed to reach California before the last winter came upon them. They add to the horrors of the previous accounts; seventy-five perished from cold by exposure to snow and from starvation! The survivors were reduced to the dreadful alternative of subsisting upon the dead bodies of their companions!

The whole Reed family, in connection with that of Donnor, reached the sutler's settlement in safety, after enduring incredible sufferings.

Com. Drake of the British ship Modeste, is on his way to the United States, overland, with small party. He will probably be attacked by the Pawnees. [TNW] 


NNR 72.370  August 14, 1847 Col. John Charles Fremont arrested and sent home for trial, Gen. Stephen Watts Kearny and Com. Robert field Stockton returning

TWO MONTHS LATER FROM OREGON AND CALIFORNIA

The Philadelphia Ledger of the 12the through the medium of the telegraph at Zanesville, Ohio, received and published the following:

Trade of western emigration- Route of the Mormons- Col. Fremont arrested for disobedience of orders- Sent home for trial- Movements of the Pacific squadron- Return of Kearny and Stockton- Sufferings of emigrants- Cannibalism and starvtion-Com. Drake, R. N. coming overland.

         Messrs. Shaw and Bolden arrived at St. Louis, on Thursday last, (the 5th) direct from Oregon, having left the frontier settlement on the 5th of May, and made the trip to ST. Joseph’s in 83 days.

         The party met but little difficulty on the route. The various parties of emigrants to Oregon and California were making rapid progress. Davidson and his company, were met at the Big Sandy, and two other companies at Green River.

         The Mormons with their immense train of wagons were met near the Forks of Platte river on their rout to California, and their rulers, the “Twelve Apostles,” as they are called, were met at Fort Bridges. It was understood that the Mormons would not proceed this season further than Salt Lake.

         At Fort Hall, Messrs. Shaw and Thompson met Samuel Brannon, and from him they obtained news from California down to the 25th May.

         Lieut. Col. Fremont had been arrested for disobedience of orders by Gen. Kearny, and had been ordered home to the United States to take his trial before a court martial. This difficulty grew out of the ill feeling and contradictory movements of General Kearny and Commodore Stockton, and they question of authority which existed between them. IT was announced some days ago by Colonel Russell, who came with despatches that General Kearny was about to arrest Colonel Fremont, and have him hung as a rebel. No body, of course, believed the latter part of the statement; but the arrest of Fremont proves that the quarrel between Gen. Kearny and Com. Stockton was more serious than was at first apprehended.

         The American fleet was off Lower California engaged against Mazatian, Acapulco, and other towns in that quarter. The troops had all been ordered to concentrate in the same direction. There is no detail given of contemplated movements, but it is doubtless to enforce the blockade proclaimed by Com. Biddle.

         General Kearny was about to leave California and expected to reach the states in the month of September.

         The affairs of California generally appear to be in a very unsettled condition. Messrs. Shaw and Thompson learned from Brannon additional details of the sufferings experienced by the parties of emigrants which failed to reach California before the last winter came upon them. They add to the horrors of the previous accounts; seventy-five perished from cold by exposure to the snow and from starvation!  The survivors were reduced to the dreadful alternative of subsisting upon the dad bodies of their companions!

         The whole Reed family, in connection with that of Donnor, reached the sutler’s settlement in safety, after enduring incredible sufferings.

         Com. Drake of the British ship Modeste, is on his way to the United States, overland, with a small party. He will probably be attacked by the Pawnees. [BRR]


NNR 72.371 August 14, 1847 the Col. Yell lost on Aransas Bar August 14, 1847

NAVAL JOURNAL.

         The U.S. ship Albany, Capt. Breese, reached Hampton Roads on the 6th from Havana, where she [ . . . ]on the 26th ult, in 16 days from Anton Lizar[ . . . ]

         The Albany has been actively employed since [ . . . ]New York on the 28th November last, on its first cruise, having partaken in most of the [ . . . ] enterprizes since that period on the Gulf coast.

         The Albany brings home the remains of Midshipman Shubrick, who fell at the Navy Battery, while [ . . . ]doing his duty.

         Captain Mayo, U.S.N. who is a passenger in the [ . . . ], will be greeted with enthusiasm by the cities of his native state. His bearing in the Gulf [ . . . ] the admiration of all.

         Commodore G. W. Storer, will go out in the U. [ . . . ]frigate Brandywine (his flag-ship) as commander of the squadron on the Brazil station. Capt. Thom[ . . . ], who commands the Brandywine, arrived in Norfolk some days since.

         Lieut. J.L. Parker, of the navy, died on the 12th on board the steam frigate Mississippi. Lieut.Parker was saved from the Somers, was severly wounded at Tuspan, was at the capture of Tabasco, [ . . . ]had been amongst the foremost in almost every surprise undertaken by the navy. He was noble [ . . . ]and generous, and beloved by all who knew him. The Philadelphia Evening Bulletin says:- “We understand that a meeting of the friends of this gallant deceased officer, will be held in this city shortly, [ . . . ]measures to erect a monument to his memory. He died of epidemic fever, the board of health will [ . . . ]object to his remains being brought hither; were it possible to do so, we could wish that his [ . . . ]might repose in this his native city.”

         U. S. steamer Col. Yell was totally lost on Aranasas [ . . . ]on the 22d ult.- no lives lost.

         [ . . . ] hauling the steamer Anson upon the new ways [ . . . ]Brazos, the outer end settled and let the [ . . . ]fall through, leaving her bow on the ways and in the water. Two steamboats had made an unsuccessful attempt to get her off.

         The Water Witch.- The new machinery for this [ . . . ]which is destined for use in the Gulf, was completed at the navy yard Washington city, on Saturday last. The boat, having on board a number of [ . . . ]officers under the government, made a trial run on that day, and performed remarkably well. [ . . . ] engine is the cross head engine, with side rods, [ . . . ] at an inclination downwards, thus bringing the engine below the shafts. Cylinder 37 1-2 inch diameter: stroke 6 feet; wheels 17 feet diameter average pressure of steam 18 inches- with Sic[ . . . ]n “cut off,” adjustable to any point of stroke. The vessel is 130 feet long; beam 20 feet, and draws[ . . . ]five inches aft, and six feet forward, having to hold 60 tons of coal and 35 of pig iron.

         [ . . . ]. C.G. Hunter. A silver pitcher was last being presented to Lieut. Hunter, U.S.N., by a number of citizens of Trenton, of which city he is native. Lieut. H. was received at the ears yesterday noon by a military escort, and in the evening a [ . . . ]civic and military, was formed, which [ . . . ]to the court house, where the ceremony of presentation took place, the pitcher being presented [ . . . ]Beasly Esq:, who complimented him   The pitcher bears this inscription:

Presented by his fellow citizens of Trenton, N.J.

TO

LIEUT. CHARLES G. HUNTER,

Testimony of their admiration of his gallant con[ . . . ]in  capturing, on the 31st of March, 1847,

THE TOWN OF AVALRADO,

[ . . . ]on the night of April 1st, the town of

TLACOTALPAN.

         On the other side the motto:

“NEC IMPAR PLURIBUS.”

[ . . . ] H. in reply made a brief history of his con[ . . . ]Alvarado, and expressed his gratitude for the [ . . . ]of this reception in his native place. Among other persons present were Lts. Marins, Mor[ . . . ]Rowan of the navy, Capt. Bongars, aid of [ . . . ]Shields, and Lieuts. Burnside and McIntosh of [ . . . ]. [Newark Daily Adv   [BRR]


NNR 72.371 August 14, 1847 United States requisition for volunteers for service on the Plains
NNR 72.371 United States requisition for volunteers for service on the Plains
NNR 72.372 some Arkansas volunteers return to New Orleans, new company formed
NNR 72.372 eight new companies of Indiana volunteers arrive at New Orleans
NNR 72.372 company of Pennsylvania volunteers enrolled by Cap. Edward Watts accepted for service in Mexico
NNR 72.372 Gen. Joseph Lane expected to leave for seat of the war
NNR 72.372 reduction in the force of the Virginia regiment in Mexico

ARMY JOURNAL

         Reuben Davis, Esq. has resigned his commission as Colonel of the 2d regiment of Mississippi riflemen, in consequence of impaired health and the pressure of private affairs.

         More Volunteers. A requisition has been made on the Governor of Missouri for another battalion of volunteers, to be employed in service on the Plains. The requisition is for three companies of mounted men, one company of infantry and one of artillery.

         The Washington Union says:- We understand a large corps of Texas Rangers, headed by Jack Hays, has been ordered to Vera Cruz. They will assist in enabling Gen. Scott to keep open the communication between Vera Cruz and the capital. The General will also have the assistance of the fine corps to be despatched under Col. Hughes; for a similar purpose, if it should be directed on that service by the commanding general.

         The Arkansas Regiment- Eight companies of the Arkansas regiment of  cavalry, returning from the war, arrived at New Orleans on the 3d instant.- They number but 233. A new company has been formed out of the regiment for and during the war, consisting of 103 men, rank and file, which is commanded by Capt. Means, formerly Lieutenant Colonel of the regiment.

         Eight companies of the new volunteers from Indiana arrived at New Orleans on the 3d instant, on their way to the seat of war. They arrived in separate detachments of four companies each, one commanded by Col. Gormat, and the other by Lieut..Col. Dumont.

         The remains of Col. Hardin and Capt. Zabrishie, of the Illinois volunteers, and of Col. Yell and Capt. Porter, of the Arkansas volunteers; all of whom were amongst the slain of Buena Vista, have been conveyed to New Orleans by late arrivals from the Rio Grande, on their way to the places of their former residence.

         The N. Orleans Bulletin of the 4th August says: The steamship Galveston, Captain Haviland, left last evening for Tampico and Vera Cruz, having on board $520,000 in specie; for the quartermaster’s subsistence departments. Brevet Col. Miles of U.S. infantry; Capt. J.M. Wells and Lieut. O.D. Wynche, with 85 men of the 12th regiment U. S. infantry; Surgeon Finley and Assistant Srugeon Halstead; Capt. Jordon, U. S. quartermaster’s department; Drs. Summers Halsey, and Mcginnis, destined for hospital service at Vera Cruz, Messrs. H. Guher, N.Y. Lew and A.H. Hays went passengers. Seventy nine teamsters and fifty horses went down in her.              [N.O. Bulletin, August 4

         Enlisted Soldiers- Two men, named George Burnett and James Flemming, absconded from the schooner St. Mary’s, Captain Black, a few days ago. Warrants were issued against them by Justice McAllister, and put into the hands of officer Graham for service, who found the parties at Fort McHenry, where they had enlisted and had received the United States bounty money. They were arrested and brought before the justice, who ordered the discharge of the men, deciding that they ease was not within the jurisdiction of a justice of the peace, and that parties enlisted in the service of the United States could only brought into court on  a writ of habeas corpus.

[Balt. Sun.

         Volunteers.- Capt. Edward Watts of Carlisle Pa., has received official notice that the company enrolled by him last winter, has been accepted for service in Mexico, and is ordered to reorganize the company immediately.

         We learn from the Indiana Democrat that Brig. Gen. Lane, having received a reappointment, will leave home in a few days for the seat of war. He will join the division of the army under Gen. Scott.

         Capt. Bragg’s battery, to which belongs the honor of having saved the day at Buena Vista, was we understand, discharged, each gun, over two-hundred and fifty times during the battle. We are told by the one whose authority is unquestionable, that when the battery opened upon the Mexican cavalry, as they were making their last and seemingly overwhelming charge, the horsemen were so near that as the ramrods were drawn from the guns for the first fire they struck the enemy’s men and horses. The next discharge stayed the charge, and the next send them to the right about.

[New York Courier.

         Capt. A.R. Heizel, of the army, died at Louisville on the 21st ult. He had arrived there but a few days previously from Vera Cruz, where he discharged the duties of assistant quartermaster.

         Capt. Martin  Moore, of the 11th U.S. infantry, a native of Pennsylvania, died on the 25th ultimo on board the schooner Velasco, on her passage from Tampico to New Orleans.

         Lieut. Moore, of the 12th infantry, died at the hospital at San Francisco on the 17th ultimo.

         A letter from Matamoros, announces the death of Sergeant Yates and private Buroughs, both of St. Mary’s county, Md.

         Virginia Regiment.  The Charleston Free Press learns by a letter from the army, that the Virginia regiment now number some 200 or 200 less than when it was mustered into service.

         Colonel Doniphan is a native of Kentucky, but for the last twenty years he has been a citizen of Missouri. As to talented influence he is among the first lawyers of the state, and as a criminal lawyer, he has, perhaps, no equal in the state. His personal appearance is prepossessing and commanding; his stature is about six feet two inches, in weight, about two hundred and ten pounds; he is of the sanguineous, nervous temperament, and is about the meridian of his physical and mental vigor- being about forty-four years of age.   Cincinnati Inquirer.

           Captain Weightman. This young officer, who commanded the artillery at the battle of Sacramento and who accompanied Colonel Doniphan throughout his long march, has a fact upon which he may be congratulated almost as much as upon his gallantry in battle. An extract of a letter from Capt. Weightman, published in the Richmond Republican, says: “I have, as far as I am at this moment informed, to congratulate my self upon a circumstance peculiar to my company. In a campaign of one year, marching as we have, a distance of 5000 miles, I have not lost a man by sickness or from wounds received in battle. I will go home with my whole company, except the arm of one man, amputated in consequence of a wound received in battle.”

         Major Henry Bainbridge.  The N. York Courier says that a number of the friends of Major Henry Bainbridge of the United States army, have determined to testify their appreciation of his gallantry and soldierly conduct, but presenting him with a sword  bearing upon it the names of the hard fought fields of Palo Alto, Resaca de la Palma, Monterey, Vera Cruz and Cerro  Gordo:  The Courier adds: ”We notice that of amount already subscribed, ninety five dollars are from ladies!  What a tribute to the good conduct and gallantry  of the army!  Coming in fact from such a source, the compliment of a sword cannot fail to be doubly acceptable to the gallant Bainbridge, who, it is scarcely necessary to add, is an eleve of West Point.

         Lieutenant Emory. Of the topographical engineers, left Washington on the 6th of June, 1846, and returned there about the 1st of May, 1847. During that time he traveled by steam 6,900 miles, by land 3,600, rode on horses and mules 2,500 miles, made 3,000 astronomical observations, laid out and assisted in laying out two forts, and was engaged personally in one skirmish and three pitched battles, with the enemy. It will be recollected that this officer went out as chief topographical engineer of Brig. Gen. Kearny, and was sent home by him as bearer of despatches from California.  After crossing the continent, he was appointed Adjutant General to the combined naval and army forces that marched from San Diego to the Puebla de los Angelos, which force fought the battle of the 8th and 9th of January. He was in charge at San Pasqual, and one of the few who were not killed or wounded in that fierce little conflict which opened General Kearny’s road to the naval forces in San Diego. When lieutenant Emory was ordered to this service he was just from a two years’ campaign on the North Eastern Boundary survey. The scientific manner in which he executed his work amid the exposures of the north drew forth the praises of even the British commissioners, and caused him to be warmly recommended for a brevet to the American commissioner; Major Smith, and by Major James D. Graham, the head of the scientific corps of the survey.

         Lieut. E; we believe is at present on a visit to his native place and friends on the Eastern Shore of Maryland.

         The price of a Colonel’s commission.  The commission of an officer in the British army has a state value, just as much so as a pound of butter or a pint of beer. IF an officer wished to leave the service, he sells his commission to the one next below him in rank, who, on his resignation, steps into his shoes. We learn from a Dublin paper that “Col. Persse, of the 16th Lancers, who for 52 years served with some distinction in the Peninsula, America and India has retired from the army. Col. Persse received eleven thousand guineas by the sale of his commission.”

         The Maryland Battalion.  This fine corps which rendezvoused at Fort McHnery under Lieut. Col. Hughes, have nearly all embarked from thence, for Vera Cruz. The transport ship Alexandra [ . . . ]out of three companies, viz. the mechanical volunteers. Capt. Brown, of Baltimore, and the companies of Captains Henrie and Barry, of Washington. The whole are under the command of Major John Kenly. Three other companies, Capt. [ . . . ] Washington, the Watson Guards, Captain [ . . . ]Twiggs’ Riflemen, Captain Taylor, the detachment under the command of Captain Degges, embarked on board the transport ship Napier, Capt. [ . . . ]. The two vessels carry out  about 420 men, a [ . . . ]able bodied set of troops.

         The Washington “Union” says- “We learn that the battalion of volunteers, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Hughes, raised mainly from the District of Colombia and state of Maryland, are under orders for immediate transportation to the [ . . . ]seat of war. It is intended that Col. H. shall [ . . . ] the road from Vera Cruz to Jalapa, and to [ . . . ]that important town for the purpose of securing Gen. Scott’s line of operation. With this view, the battalion will be greatly increased. At least one company will be taken from Carlisle, Pennsylvania; another, (if its organization should be speedily completed), from Wilmington , Delaware; besides a battery of field artillery from Baltimore. Other independent companies may, perhaps, be added to [ . . . ] last  as they are ready. The addition of a squadron of mounted men would be very desirable- thus [ . . . ]in fact, a corps of what is called in European [ . . . ]“eclaireurs,” admirable adapted to a guerrilla [ . . . ] fare; but we understand that there is some practical difficulty apprehenced in the transportation of [ . . . ]at this season of the year, for so long a voyage, [ . . . ]may prevent such an organization. As it is, [ . . . ] from a beautiful and, we doubt not, a most [ . . . ] command, well calculated to do good service [ . . . ]the organization of this force, the president has [ . . . ]the beginning, taken a deep and almost paternal interest, and has a disposition to render it as useful as possible: and now shows his continued interest and confidence in the battalion, by assigning to it a distinguished and honored duty.

         It is announced that Mr. John T. Hughes accompanied Colonel Domphan in his whole [ . . . ] through Mexico, designs publishing a full and accurate account of the expedition. It will be [ . . . ]by maps and ornamented with various [ . . . ]designs, representing the most important [ . . . ]of the present war. Mr. Hughes was the [ . . . ]of many interesting letters written during the campaign, and will, no doubt, make a very interesting book. [BRR]


NNR 72.372 August 14, 1847 Texas Rangers under Capt. Jack Hays sent to Veracruz

        The Washington Union says:-W under stand a large corps of Texas Rangers, headed by Jack Hays, has been ordered to Vera Cruz. They will assist in enabling Gen. Scott to keep open the communication between Vera Cruz and the capital. The General will also have the assistance of the fine corps to be dispatched under Col. Hughes, for a similar purpose, if it should be directed on that service by the commanding general. [ANP]


NNR 72.372 August 14, 1847 departure of the steamship Galveston for Tampico and Veracruz

        The N. Orleans Bulletin of the 4th August says: The steamship Galveston, Captain Haviland, left last evening for Tampico an Vera Cruz, having on board $520,000 in specie, for the quartermaster's subsistence departments. Brevel Col. Miles of U. S. infantry; Capt. J.M. Wells and Lieut. O.D. Wynche, with 85 men of the 12th regiment U.S. infantry; Surgeon Finley and Assistant Surgeon Halstead; Capt. Jordon, U.S. quartermaster's department; Drs. Summers Halsey, and McGinnis, destined for hospital service at Vera Cruz, Messrs. H. Guher, N. Y. Lew and A.H. Hays, went passengers. Seventy nine teamsters and fifty horses went down in her. [ANP]


NNR 72.372 August 14, 1847 account of Braxton Bragg's battery at Buena Vista

        Capt. Bragg's battery, to which belongs the honor of having saved the day at Buena Vista, was we understand, discharged, each gun, over two hundred and fifty times during battle. We are told by one whose authority is unquestionable, that when the battery opened upon the Mexican cavalry, as they were making their last and seemingly overwhelming charge, the horsemen we so near that as the ramrods were drawn from the guns for the first fire they struck the enemy's men and horses. The next discharge stayed the charge, and the next sent them to the right about.                [New York Courier]  [ANP]


NNR 72.372 August 14, 1847 departure of the Maryland battalion for Veracruz, their mission

        The Maryland Battalion. This fine corps which rendezvoused at Fort McHenry under Lieut. Col Hughes, have nearly all embarked from thence, for Vera Cruz. The transport ship Alexandria to out thre companies, viz. The Mechanical volunteers Capt. Brown, of Baltimore, and the companies Captains Henrie and Barry, of Washington. The whole are under the command of Major John Kenly. Three other companies, Capt. Degges' Washington, the Watson Guards, Captain Dol--Twiggs' Reiflemen, Captain Taylor, the detachment under the command of Captain Degges, embarked on board the transport ship Napier, Capt. Sanford. The two vessels carry out about 420 men, a fine able bodied set of troops. [ANP]


NNR 72.372-373 August 14, 1847 report that the capital was taken

REPORT THAT THE CITY OF MEXICO HAS SURRENDERD TO GENERAL SCOTT

         By telegraphic despatch from Richmond Va., received on Sunday night last, and by the [ . . . ]subsequently arrived, bringing the New Orleans National, of the 31st ult., all were elated with the idea that General Scott was in possession of the capital of Mexico.

         The National alluded to, announced that- [ . . . ]is news in the city from the city of Mexico [ . . . ]as July 17th. It came through by a [ . . . ]courier, who came by the way of Orizaba and [ . . . ]rado to Vera Cruz. General Scott entered [ . . . ]on the 17th of July. He met with no opposition [ . . . ]his way from Puebla until he arrived at [ . . . ]8 miles from the city. Here a slight skirmish between his advance and the Mexicans, [ . . . ]latter fell back. The civil authorities [ . . . ]out to meet Gen. Scott. Stipulations were [ . . . ]into by which the persons and property of the citizens of Mexico were to be respected, this accomplished, our army marched quietly into the city of Montezumas.

         This important news reached here in the Massachusetts, but has been withheld for purpose that we do not understand. The authority upon which we publish it seems to us undoubted. The courier that brought this news could come from the city of Mexico via Orizaba to Vera Cruz in five days if the weather was good, seven under any circumstances. The Massachusetts left Vera Cruz on the 23d. It will be perceived that this allows seven days for the news to reach Vera Cruz by the route we have stated.

         We know upon the highest authority that there is a letter now in this city of the 17th of July from the city of Mexico. The gentleman who gave us the information has a letter of the 15th, in which is mentioned the preparations of families about leaving from the approach of the Yankees.

         Santa Anna and Canalizo had quarreled about the defence of the city. Canalizo did not want the city injured, as there was no hope of successful resistance. He preferred to meet our troops in the plain, and there decide the contest. Santa Anna would not agree to this, so no opposition was made.

         The entrance of Gen. Scott in Mexico is a rumor, from the letter of the 15th we know positively of the preparation of the families in the city to move on the approach of Gen. Scott, and of the quarrel between Santa Anna and Canalizo as to the defence of the city, and we know that there is a letter in the city of the 17th from Mexico.

         The courier that brought through the letter of the 15th brought news of Gen. Scott’s entering the city. We have no doubt of the report.

         Other papers from N. Orleans, of the day following, discredited the report, and assigned a number of reasons for doing so.

         The Picayune concludes an article by saying: “we learn that a Spanish gentleman now in New Orleans, who arrived on the Massachusetts, saw Gen. Scott in Puebla on the 14th ult. IF this be so, there is an end to the whole story at once.”

         The Delta  of the same date copies the extra of the National and adds:

         It seems strange that this news should come by the steamer Massachusetts, when arrived here on Thursday last, and that up to this time, those in official correspondence with Gen. Scott should not be apprised of it. Extraordinary, however, as it may appear, we have every reason to believe, from information confidently communicated to ourselves, that is substantially true- that the main fact of Gen. Scott’s entrance into the city of Mexico is a fixed [ . . . ]. A few days and the statement will be either confirmed or authoritatively contradicted, till which time or readers must bide with what patience they [ . . . ]may.

         The La Patria discredits the entire statement, and [ . . . ]the last accounts from Puebla were to the [ . . . ]and that tat the time General Scott had made [ . . . ]preparations for a forward march; yet to reach the city of Mexico on the 17th ult., he must have [ . . . ]about the 11th or 12th. Knowing that he had no idea of moving at the at time the Patria [ . . . ]the whole account as preposterous and on [ . . . ].

         The Washington “Union” appeared at first to place but little credit in the report, but subsequently gave a shadow of countenance to it.

         The Union of Wednesday says:

         “ A young lady at the city of Mexico is said to have written to a Mexican in New Orleans, on the 15th ult., that the families were quitting the city in consequence of the advance of the Yankees, and adds postscript on the 17th (by the courier,) that Gen. Scott was then entering the city. This letter was kept back by the Mexican, from a tender rogard to the fair authoress.

         “We understand, too today, that another letter has been received at the department from a high military officer, stating that the receipt of the letter from Mexico has been made known to him from the most authentic source.”

         The New York Journal of Commerce of Tuesday says, on the contrary:

         “A gentleman worthy of all reliance, informs us that he has seen a gentleman just arrived by the steamer Southerner, from Charleston, who in New Orleans saw a gentleman who was in Puebla on the [ . . . ], and saw Scott then there.”

         El Penon, at which point General Scott is said to have met the Mexicans, is an extinct volcano eight miles from the city of Mexico. The road passes between it and the great Lake of Mexico.

         Meantime the steamer Washington reached New Orleans with something like a confirmation of the account. She left Vera Cruz the 22d, Tampico the [illegible], and Brazos the 27th. The Bee says:

         “We learn by passengers from Matamoros, on board the propeller Washington, that on the day they left Matamoros an express arrived from the city of Mexico with letters to Mexican merchants of that place stating that General Scott met the Mexican army at Rio Frio and had a battle, in which the enemy were defeated and totally routed, with a loss on the part of the Americans of 300 men; after which General Scott, with his victorious troops, entered and took possession of the city of the Montezumas.

         “The news was publicly read to the troops at Matamoros, and although it savors somewhat of improbability, may, nevertheless be wholly true, for our readers will bear in mind that of all the battles fought and victories won on the fields of Mexico, our first news of them was received from the Mexican authority, and afterwards confirmed through American  sources. We incline to the opinion, (though somewhat doubtful) that our army under General Scott has again been victorious, and were then as now in possession of the city of Mexico.”

         The New Orleans Times says- There was a vague report at the Brazos, when the Washington left, that a Mexican express had reached Matamoros, bearing the intelligence that Gen. Scott had entered the city of Mexico.

         The National publishes the following, and claims that it fully sustains the account of its extra.

Brazos St. jago, july 27th.

         Sir: I hasten to inform you that Mr.Fischer has just arrived here from Matamoras, and was informed that the Colonel Commanding had read on parade last evening, that General Scott had entered the city of Mexico with the loss of 300 men. The news was brought by express to Matamoros, from San Fernando; by a Mexican to the Alacalde, and was generally believed to be true. There is no doubt as to the information having been imparted to the troops at Matamororos. I would have given you more particulars, but Mr. Fischer has gone back tow miles, in hopes to get his baggage here in time for the Washington. I cannot give you more as the boat goes; and he has not returned in time to go to New Orleans in her.

         The Vera Cruz correspondent of La Patria, after mentioning that no commission of peace has been appointed, states that Santa Anna is extremely anxious to prevent congress from assembling, in order that he may be enabled to create an assembly of notables., which shall take into consideration the proposition of Mr. Buchanan. Santa Anna is presumed to desire peace, and the assembly will of course be a mere puppet that will move in response to his controlling will. But before this can take place, the correspondent is of opinion that General Scott and his troops will hasten the negotiations for peace by frightening the Mexicans into forms. Recent letters from Puebla bring assurances that the commander in chief began his march towards the capital on the 15, leaving two fortified points at Vera Cruz, the writer had reached [illegible], situated only eight leagues from the city of Mexico. The correspondent of the Patria puts faith in the rumor.

         The public have remained in suspense ever since the publication of the foregoing intelligence; each day rather weakening than strengthening confidence therein- Many entertained fond hopes that even if premature, a few hours more would realize such a result.

         The following which, upon what authority we know not, we find attributed to Col. Wilson. Governor of Vera Cruz, is as late as anything we have from that place.

         The Picayune of the 31st ult. Says:

         We are permitted to make an extract of the latest date from Vera Cruz, written by a gentleman who certainly possesses more than ordinary facilities for getting at authentic news. It shows how meagre are the materials of the Vera Cruz editors for forming opinions of the course of events above. The later is dated:

Vera Cruz, July 22, 1848.

         Gen. Pierce, with his brigade, is fairly off at last, with, I am told, some 3,000 men- a pretty good force, but not enough, however, to frighten off the guerrillas, who commenced firing on them by the time they were well out of the city. The place is very quiet now; all fear of an attack seems to have died off.

         Pickett was ordered by the quartermaster last Sunday to divide off the quartermaster’s men- there are about five hundred of them all- into companies of 50 or 60 men each, and select a captain and two lieutenants to each, in order that they might receive arms. This was done, but the officers would not receipt for the arms, and the mater seems to be dropped.

         There is no news here from headquarters that I know of; the last from Puebla was up to the 22d ult. It was stated that Gen. Scott would certainly leave there on the 15th of this month for the city of Mexico.

         It is very difficult to get anything from the interior in an authentic shape; we have nothing but rumors and reports. Everything from Mr. Kendall goes through to his paper, of course, and whatever comes to Col. Wilson or is intended for the government does not transpire here. [BRR]


NNR 72.373 August 14, 1847 Gen. Franklin Pierce leaves Veracruz with 3,000 men to join Gen. Winfield Scott

        Vera Cruz, July 22, 1848.

Gen. Pierce, with his brigade, is fairly off at last, with, I am told, some 3,000 men-a pretty good force, but not enough, however, to frighten off the guerrillas, who commenced firing on them by the time they were well out of the city. The place is very quiet now; all fear of an attack seems to have died off. [ANP]


NNR 72.373- 374  August 14, 1847 “Union’s statement of forces

         TROOPS IN GEN. SCOTT’S ARMY.- We learn at the Adjutant General’s office (says the Union) that more than 7,000 troops (new regiments and reorganized companies of the old) have been sent to reinforce the army under M j. Gen Scott; and that official reports have been received, which show that nearly 5,000 have arrived at Vera Cruz between the 24th of May and 26th of June, and which, we understand, have been pushed forward to join the advancing column of the army with all practicable expedition.

         The entire force in advance of Vera Cruz, operating in the interior, and moving in the direction of the capital, exceeds 15,000. These are, of course, exclusive of the garrisons at Tampico and Vera Cruz. It is impossible to determine what deduction should be made on account of the sick; but, according to the best judgment of military men, it should be put down at not less than 2,600; which would make the efficient force in the heart of Mexico about 13,000, exclusive of staff corps. The army under Gen. Scott must soon be further increased, since more than 2,500 are known to be en route for Vera Cruz; among which are six companies of U.S. infantry, and several companies of marines, &c. IN addition to these, a respectable number of troops, of an effective character are now raising, and will be promptly en route for Gen. Scott’s army.

         We take the present as a fit occasion to say to our readers, that we shall henceforth forbear to make any corrections of the errors and oft repeated misstatements of our forces in the field, which appear in certain prints. But we will say, once for all, that the pay rolls that infallible test of numbers- will show that the forces in Mexico, under Major General Scott and Major General Taylor, in the month of July, will exceed 30,000. [BRR]


NNR 72.374 August 14, 1847 order for organization of the corps of American citizens in Veracruz

        "Army of Occupation."

        [Orders No. 24.]

        Headquarters, Vera Cruz, July 16, 1847.

1.Capt. Cozzens, the former authorized commander of American citizens, having left for the U. States, MR. William S. Tippetts is hereby appointed captain of he corps of American citizens in this city, which corps is to be raised and organized as follows,

Viz:                 Every American citizen not in the employ of he quartermaster's department in this city, will without delay report their names and residences to said Capt. W.S. Tippets, at he store of Humphreys, Gray & Co. for enrollment. All American citizens residing in Vera Cruz will on the first alarm immediately turn out and repair to the Governor's quarters, and there await further orders. Any person failing to comply with this order, either as to organizing or turning out, shall, on conviction, (unless a good and sufficient excuse be offered) be sent out of the country by the first vessel going to the U. States.

        2. In the event of an alarm, which will be known by the discharge of a single gun all Mexican men, women and children, (watchmen included) residing in town, will repair tot he northern end of the city in rear of Fort Conception, where they will be secure from injury.

3.        At a signal from the town, the guns of the castle will open a fire upon the city.

4.        Captains of vessels in the harbor are requested, in case of an assault, to repair with a part of their crew to Forts Santiago and Conception, as they may be nearest.

5.        Any inhabitant of he town found to be acting in concert with the enemy will be immediately arrested nd dealt with either at the moment of afterwards, as the nature eof he case may require.

By order of Col. Wilson.
B. H. Arthur, adjutant

[ANP]


NNR 72.372 August 14, 1847 Capt. John Holliway’s account of Maj. Edmonson at the battle of Grand Canon

“ARMY OF THE NORTH.”

         MAJOR EDMONSON AT THE BATTLE OF GRAND CANON. A correspondent of the St. Louis, Missouri Republican, dated Camp near Santa Clara Spring New Mexico, June 16th, 1847, says- “Having heard that a garbled and incorrect version of the battle of the Grand Canon of Red River, of the 26th May last, had reached Santa Fe through persons ignorant of the affair, or, what is still worse, designing individuals, calculated to prejudice the public mind against the commanding officer on that occasion ; and supposing that such reports might reach your city- as falsehood takes wings, whilst truth is the emblem of sloth- and knowing that the person referred to is a member of your community, I feel it my duty, as the officer second in command of that occasion, to disabuse the public mind in reference to the matter.

         “I was the first man to enter the canon, being at the head of a small spy party, the Major taking the precaution to reconnoitre the canon before entering with his troops. I was near his side during the whole engagement, heard every order given, and executed them to the best of my ability- believing them then, as I do now, conceived in wisdom and calmness; and I positively assert, that he entered the canon at the head of his troops, (they marching necessarily in single file); that at the commencement of the battle although he ordered the troops to dismount and take advantage of the rocks, which was done, he himself disdained to take any such advantage, remaining on his horse during the fight, in the most exposed part of the field, closely noticing the movements of the enemy, and calmly directing the operations of our little army.

         After fighting as long as we had daylight and ammunition, and it because necessary to leave the canon for the time, the Major brought up the rear; was amongst the last to cross the river, and the very last out of the canon, it being then dark.

         On the day after the battle, the Major urged the propriety of returning into the canon, in which I concurred, but was overruled by a majority of the officers, who urged the want of sufficient ammunition.

         After we re-entered the canon, we found that the enemy had abandoned it on the night after the battle, in great haste and confusion; and I am fully convinced that if we had returned to the canon next day, as Major Edmonson wished, that we would have overtaken the enemy in the plains, have completely vanquished them, and recovered all the animals. I feel it due to state that upon a second entrance into the canon, leaving time to examine the locality and circumstances which surround us, I am more than ever convinced of the prudence and wisdom of Major Edmonson’s orders; and concur fully in the opinion I have more than once heard expressed by Captain Robertson, who was third in command on that occasion, that the affair could not have been better managed, or possibly result more favorably to the American arms, under the circumstances.

         Major Edmonson is justly entitled to the gratitude of his country, and the highest regard of his fellow citizens, for the coolness and wisdom displayed by him during the engagement, as also for the energy with which he pursued the enemy during their retreat.

         In consequence of the want of time, the train having already left, I am under the necessity of making the foregoing statement rather in form of certificate than latter; and for the same reason, beg leave to refer you to the Major’s official report for the particulars connected with the battle.

           Yours respectfully, 
       JOHN HOLLIWAY,
Capt. Co. C. 2d Reg’t Mo. Mtd. Rifles.

[BRR]


NNR 72.374 August 14, 1847 affairs at Veracruz, spy arrested by the Mexicans with dispatches

        The Vera Cruz Arco Iris of the 14th ult. copies several items from the Boletin de Noticias, a new Mexican paper published at Jalapa. The Boletin of the 6th says that a Mexican, acting as a spy for the Americans, was that day arrested in the vicinity of Jalapa, and was speedily to be tried.

        The public of Jalapa were clamorous against the spy, charging him with having killed two Indians in that town just before he was taken. Upon the spy were found twenty five or thirty letters; among the various articles for the papers of the United States (newspaper correspondence we take it.)  The letters generally were said to contain exaggerated accounts of the encounter at La Hoya, representing that guerrilla force was two thousand strong, and lost [ . . . ] killed, twice that number wounded, and a considerable number of prisoners; the Americans having only eight horses lost, and one soldier slightly wounded .

        The Boletin of Jalapa says this is absolutely ridiculous that every body knows that the loss of - Americans exceeded thirty men; that the guerrillas lost only seven or eight, and that their whole force was about seven hundred only. The Boletin makes this statement to prevent people at a distance from being misled.

        Among the letters found on the spy was one from Gen. Pillow, written in pencil twenty miles beyond Perote, with instructions for Gen. Price. It represented that the men were dying on an average - eight a day in Perote, and gives some other delay which the Boletin deems it imprudent to print . According to this authority, all the letters agree that the person arrested was a courier, and I so - made him a  spy. The letter to Gen. Pierce represented that he was the same person who had previously taken a letter from Gen. Pillow to Perote and that he would return with letter from Vera Cruz to the garrison of Perote. [ANP]


NNR 72.374-375 August 14, 1847 Gen. Stephen Watts Kearny’s proclamation to the people of California

GEN. KEARNY’S PROCLAMATION.

To the People of California.

         Translated from the Diario del Gobierno (city of Mexico) of the 25th of June.

         The president of the United States having devoted upon the undersigned the civil government of California, he enters upon the discharge of his duties with an ardent desire to promote as far as posses the interests of the country and well being of its inhabitants.

         The undersigned is instructed by the president to respect and to protect the religious institution of California, to take care that the religious rights of its inhabitants are secured in the most ample manner, since the constitution of the United States lows to every individual the privilege of worship his Creator in whatever manner his conscience [ . . . ]dictate.

         The undersigned is also instructed to protect the persons and property of the quiet and peaceable inhabitants of the country, whether foreign or domestic; and now assuring the Californians that his [ . . . ]nations, no less than his duty, demand the fulfilment of these instructions, he invites them to use their efforts to preserve order and tranquility, to promote harmony and concord, and to maintain the authority and efficacy of the laws.

         It is the desire and intention of the United States to procure for California as speedily as possible free government, like that of their own territory and they will very soon invite the inhabitants to exercise the rights of free citizens, in the choice  of their own representatives, who may enact such laws as they deem best adapted to their interests and being. But until this takes place, the laws acting in existence, which are not repugnant to the constitution of the United States, will continue in [ . . . ] until they are revoked by competent authority; persons in the exercise of public employment for the present remain in them, provided they [ . . . ] to maintain the said constitution and faithfull discharge their duties.

         The undersigned by these presents absolve the inhabitants of California of any further allegiance to the republic of Mexico, and regards them as citizens of the United States. Those who remain quiet and peaceable will be respected and protected in their rights; but should any take up arms against the government of this territory, or join such as do so, or instigate others to do so [ . . . ] these he will regard as enemies, and they will be treated as such.

         When  Mexico involved the United States in [ . . . ]the latter had not time to invite the Californians to joiin their standard as friends, but found themselves compelled to take possession of the country to prevent its falling into the hands of some European power. In doing this there is no doubt that some ex[ . . . ]some unauthorised acts were committed by people in the service of the United States, and that in consequence some of the inhabitants have sustained losses in their property. These losses shall be investigated, and those who are entitled to [ . . . ]shall receive it.

         For many years California has suffered great domestic convulsions; from civil wars, like [ . . . ]fountains, have flowed calamity and pestilence [ . . . ] this beautiful region. These fountains are now dried up; the stars and stripes now float over California, and as long as the sun shall shed its light they will continue to wave over her, and over the natives of the country, and over those who shall seek a domicil in her bosom; and under the protection of this flag agriculture must advance, and the arts and sciences will flourish like seed in a rich and fertile soil.

         Americans and Californians! from henceforth one people. Let us then indulge one desire, one hope; let that be for the peace and tranquility of our country. Let us unite like brothers, and mutually strive for the improvement and advancement of this our beautiful country, which within a short period cannot fail to be not only beautiful, but also prosperous and happy.

         Given at Monterey, capital of California, this 1st day of March, in the year of our Lord 1847, and of the independence of the United States the 71st.

           S.W. KEARNY, Brig. Gen. U.S.A.,
And Governor of California.

[BRR]


NNR 72.375 August 14, 1847  Com. James Biddle’s blockade order on the Pacific

BLOCKADE ON THE PACIFIC.

         Com. Biddle- As we expected, (says the New Orleans Bulletin,) Com. Biddle, on taking command on the Pacific, has at once commenced reforming some of the arrangements of the great governor and commander in chief, Capt. Stockton. His first act was to annul the paper blockade, and to establish such blockades as he could maintain by an actual force, agreeable to the system always advocated by the United States, they having invariable resisted these nominal blockades established by Great Britain in her former wars.

         The following is a copy of Commodore Biddle’s order:

         “The blockade ‘of all the ports, harbors, bays, outlets, and inlets on the west coast of Mexico, south of San Diego,’ declared by com. Stockton, of the navy of the United States, on the 19th  day of August last, is hereby annulled.”

         “In virtue of authority from the president of the United States, I do hereby declare the ports of Mazatlan and Guaymas, on the western coast of Mexico, to be in a state of blockade; and, with the view to the strict enforcement thereof, competent force will be stationed before the blockaded ports at as early a period as practicable.

         “Neutral vessels lying in either of the blockaded ports will be permitted to retire twenty days from and after the commencement of the blockade.

         “Given on board the United States ship Columbus, at Monterey, this 4th day of March, A.D. 1847.

 “JAMES BIDDLE,
“Commanding the United States squadron in the Pacific.” 

   [BRR]


NNR 72.375 August 14, 1847 affairs at Santa Fe

FROM SANTA FE AND THE PLAINS. The Jefferson (Mo.) Enquirer, of the 3d ult. publishes a letter from Lieut. Eastin, of the Cole county infantry, dated at Independence, where he arrived on the 23d ult. He left Santa Fe on the 21st of June, and was thirty two days on the route. A portion of the company had been discharged; the remainder were yet in the service, and would be mustered out at Fort Leavenworth. Lieut. Eastin left the command at the Little Arkansas, two hundred and ten miles from Independence, all making very good progress.

         Capt. Augney, who commanded company A, was left at Santa Fe. So, also, was Lieut. Irvine, who had not recovered from his wound. He had suffered much, and it was apprehended that he might be a cripple for life

         Every thing was quiet at Santa Fe. The country was rile with rumors of revolution and rebellion, but no confidence was to be placed in them. The people of Taos were said to be discontented and restless, but Lieut. Col. Willock had returned from his expedition to the Red River Canon, and would soon quiet all dissentions. No news had been received of any troops being ordered to Santa Fe, and Col. Price was in perfect ignorance of what the Government intended doing in this matter. H e was discharging his men, or sending them back as fast as their time expired. The other company of the infantry battalion was to be discharged on the 27th of June, and Cap. Dent’s and Capt. Fisner’s companies in tow or three days there after. They were to start for home on the 1st July, and Col. Price’s force in Santa Fe would then be very small. He intended to call Willock’s battalion from Taos, and the two companies of dragoons from Albuquerque, and to concentrate his whole force at Santa Fe.

         Lieut. Eastin was attacked on the 4th of July by the Indians. They came on him in the middle of the day, when he least expected them, and succeeded in taking one mule and killing another. Judge Brown, at the same time, lost seventeen oxen. Mexicans were engaged in this party, and the second day thereafter a number of them came into the camp, who were recognised as being from Taos. They made profession of friendship, and said they were hunting buffalo.

         The day before Lieut. E. arrived at Pawnee fork, a Government train of wagons was attacked, and the Indians captured twenty oxen, and killed a negro man belonging to Moses Payne, of Boon county, within 150 yards from the camp. A white man narrowly escaped with is life.

         The Indians are congregated in large numbers on the Arkansas, and commit their depredations with impunity. It is high time , Lieut. Eastin thinks, that the Government was taking some steps to protect her citizens and herself from these repeated outrages. Mr. Hayden in charge of a Government train of wagons, had lost two hundred head of oxen.

         Lieut. Love was met eight miles this side of the crossings of the Arkansas, going on, on the 10th  of July. The infantry battalion under Col. Easton, and Capt. McNair’s dragoons were met, on the 20th, at Cotton wood Fork- Capt. Simmons’ and Smithson’s companies, a few miles beyond Council Grove, on the 21st. Capt Simonds was at the Grove very sick, through getting better. The Ralls county company was met at Council Grove; and next day met four companies of the Illinois regiment, eleven miles this side of the Grove. Soon after, three other companies of same regiment at Willow Springs. Some seven or eight of the company remained at Santa Fe. The others were expected to reach  Jefferson City about the present time, after an absence of thirteen months. [BRR]


NNR 72.384 August 14, 1847 rumors at Matamoros of Gen. Winfield Scott’s having entered Mexico
NNR72.384 August 14, 1847 Gen. Enos D. Hopping’s requisition for dragoons
NNR 72.384 August 14, 1847  operations of Col. Carvajal

ARMY OF OCCUPATION.

         By the steamer Ohio, arrived on the 5th at N. Orleans from Brazos Santiago, dates from thence to the 31st and from Galveston to the 21, are received.

         The Matamoros Flag, of the 27th ult., states that for more than a week they had reports there of Gen. Scott having entered Mexico. The Flag appears to credit the report, but on tracing it, it appears to have reached Matamoros from Monterey, and to have arrived at Monterey on the 14th, at which time it is certain that Gen. Scott had not left Puebla

The commandant at Matamoros, on the 26th July, received a letter from Gen. Hopping, stating that he had information of Gen. Urrea being on this side of the mountains at the head of 4,000 men, and requesting a squadron of dragoons. The Flag says, however, that their colonel chooses to remain here until he as received his complement of horses, in the mean time drilling his men as thoroughly as could be done elsewhere. A company of mounted men from Ohio, recently arrived, was sent up to Gen. Hopping.

Col. Carvajal.  We understand from several sources that this worthy was on Friday last at Lavacaria, some twenty- leagues distance, on the road to Linares, with 250 men, having been joined by Galan, another guerrilla chief. They were said to have detained a large umber of mules loaded with corn, soap, sugar, and other produce, destined for this place besides one hundred cargoes of goods which had been sent from here to Monterey.”

         Letters from camp Buena Vista to the 18th July; state that Gen. Cushing and suit reached Monterey on the 16th. The Mississippi and North Carolina troops were suffering by diarrheas, &c., average three deaths a day. Of the former, 100 sick, of the latter 150. The Virginia regiment had 150 sick, but no deaths.

Numerous reports are given in those letters, hardly worth detailing here.    [BRR]


NNR 72.384 August 14, 1847 Gen. Caleb Cushing Reaches Monterey, Troops Suffering with Disease

Letters from camp Buena Vista to the 18th July, state that Gen. Cushing and suit reached Monterey on the 16th. The Mississippi and North Carolina troops were suffering by diarrhea's, &c., average three deaths a day. Of the former, 100 sick, of the latter 150. The Virginia regiment had 150 sick, but no deaths.

Numerous reports are given in those letters, hardly worth detailing here. [TNW]


NNR 72.384, August 14, 1847  peace rumors contradicted, Gen. Franklin Pierce's train

POSTSCRIPT—The steamer Fashion arrived at New Orleans, brings accounts from General Scott, who was still at Puebla, on the 30th of July. General Pierce had reached Perote with his train.—All the accounts above peace contradicted.
[WFF]


NNR 72.386 August 14, 1847 war tax on exports from Mexican ports discontinued by Com. Matthew Calbraith Perry

WAR TAX ON MEXICO.

         Commodore Perry has issued the following notice and order:

U.S. Flagship Mississippi, Anton Lizardo,
July 28, 1847.

         “Notice is given that the war tax of ten per cent. ad valorem, hitherto imposed on exports from the ports of the Gulf of Mexico occupied by the naval forces of the United States, is hereby ordered to be discontinued.

         “All officers under my command having charge of the collection of duties under war tariff of April 7th, 1847, will act accordingly.

M.C. PERRY, Com’g home sqaudron.

[BRR]


NNR 72.386 August 14, 1847 Orders to West Point cadets to the seat of war

WEST POINT CADETS.

         The Auburn Daily Advertiser states that the class which has just graduated at West Point has been commissioned and ordered to the seat of war. Augustus A. Seward, eldest son of Governor Seward, who was a member of that class has received a commission as 2nd lieutenant in the 8th (General Worth’s) regiment of infantry, and left Auburn on Wednesday to join his regiment, which he will probably find in the “Halls of Montezuma.”  [BRR]


NNR 72.386 August 14, 1847 Court of inquiry on actions of Gen. William Jenkins Worth at Puebla

GEN. WORTH. A letter in the New Orleans Picayune, from Mr. Kendall dated June 27, states that a court of inquiry, had been in session for a day or two. It seems that General Scott in some way expressed himself dissatisfied with noT only the terms by Gen. W., but also with some of the acts of the latter while in command of the city. Gen. Worth promptly called for an investigation. [BRR]


NNR 72.387 August 14, 1847 Washington’s “Union”

PEACE OR WAR?  The Washington Union of the 12th, in relation to Mexico says:

If the enemy are not yet cured of their infatuation, they must ultimately see with all these evidences in all directions before their eyes, that they cannot cope with our troops, and that they must reap nothing but defeat and disgrace. We have beaten them everywhere, with inferior forces. They have men enough, but few soldiers. They are deficient in arms and in money. We overcome every disparity of numbers by the superiority of our discipline, steadiness and skill. Every hope upon which they relied will be dissipated. The vomito is disappearing. Troops (and a peculiar species) are about to assail and overwhelm the guerrillas, and restore the line of our communication between the capital and the coast. Should the Mexicans now incline the olive branch, we must strike the harder, and make them feel more sensibly the pressure of the war. We will then see men of some moral courage arise to brave all the consequences of public opinion- in fact, to give it a new direction, and to smooth the way to pacification. Every intelligent Mexican will see- if he as not already seen- that they cannot withstand our arms; that they cannot resist the force that we will bring against them; that they can gain nothing by the war and that their wisest policy is peace. [BRR]


NNR 72.388 August 14, 1847 Washington "Union”

         The Washington Union says:- “A letter has been received in Washington, from an officer of the army, as late as the 29th and 30th July. It states that General Scott would move upon the capital as soon as Gen. Pierce arrived with his reinforcements- about the 2d or 3d of August. Mr. Trist had been quite ill, but was then convalescent. We are happy to hear that Gen. Scott had waited upon him during his indisposition, to confer with him about the public concerns.”

         The Union also says: “We can find nothing to confirm the statement which some of the letter writers from Washington are giving, as if appears in the Baltimore Sun of this morning, viz: that “a letter to which I referred in my last, has been received from Mr. Bankhead, by the British legation here. in which he states, as I learn, the same thing, and adds, that the attempt, in which he assisted, to induce the Mexican government to listen to these proposals, utterly failed.”  [BRR]


NNR 72.388 August 14, 1847  deaths of sailors of the squadron at Tabasco

NAVAL JOURNAL

United States flag ship Mississippi,
Anton Lizardo, July 25, 1847.

         SIR:  Having this moment returned from Tabasco, I write a brief line to inform the department that the sick of the squadron are doing tolerable well; though we have numerous case, but few have terminated fatally. We have had nine deaths, including Lieut. Parker, the only officer who has died. I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

  M.C. PERRY,
Commanding Home Squadron

 Hon. J.Y. Mason,
Secretary of the Navy, Washington.
[BRR]


NNR 72.389-72.390 August 14, 1847  general orders on the recruiting service

[GENERAL ORDERS, NO. 26]

WAR DEPARTMENT.

Adjutant General’s Office
Washington , July 23, 1843.

         GENERAL RECRUITING SERVICE. The measures taken to fill the ranks of the army having been communicated from time to time by special instructions since the promulgation of “General Orders,” Nos. 2, 8, and 17, it becomes necessary to publish these in- instructions to the army, and for the better information and guidance of the officers concerned.

1-Recruiting for the old Establishment.

Col. I  B. CRANE, (Superintendent, Eastern Division 1st Artillery,)   - Head Quarters N. York.
Lt. Col. J ERVING, (Superintendent, Western Division  2d Artillery,)   - Head Qrt’s Cinncinatti.
           Officers of the 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th regiments of infantry, who may be sent from the army in Mexico, with a view to the recruiting service, will, on their arrival at New Orleans, report in person to Brig. General Brooke, who will them orders according to the instructions he may receive from Washington.

2- Recruiting for Ten additional Regiments.

For the 9th and 10th Infantry,) Col. J. BANKHEAD, 2d Artillery, Superintend’t, Head  Quarters, New York.
For the 11th Infantry, and Voltigeurs,) Maj. E.W. MORGAN, 11th Regiment, Superintend’t, Baltimore.
For the 12th,  13th and 14th Regiments,) Grig. Gen. G. M. Brooke, Com’dg West’n Division, (assisted by Maj. A. G. BLANCHARD, 12th Reg.) –Head Qrs., N. Orleans.
For the 15th and 16th Regiments- Lt. Col. J. ERVING, 2d Artillery, Cincinatti.

3.- The men enlisted for the 1st and 2d Dragoons will be sent to Carlisle

Barracks, to be under the command of an officer of one of the regiments. The recruits for the 3d Dragoons and Mounted Rifle Regiment, will be sent to Jefferson Barracks.  The Commanding officers will enforce a strict system of discipline and instruction according to regulations.

4-Recruiting for the Volunteer Regiments.

         For the Massachusetts, New York and New Jersey Volunteers- Col. J. B. BANKHEAD, 2d Artillery, New York.
           For the Pennsylvania, District of Columbia, and Maryland Volunteers- Maj. E.W. MORGAN, 11th  Regiment, Baltimore.
           For the Virginia Volunteers-Col. J.B. WABACH, 4th Artillery, Fort Monroe.
           For the North and South Carolina Volunteers- Col. W. WHISTLER, 4th Infantry, Fort Moultrie.
           For the Georgia; Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana Volunteers- Brig. General G.M. BROOKE, New York.
           For the Illinois and Missouri Volunteers- Lt. Col. T. STANIFORD, 8th Infantry, Jefferson Barracks.
           For the Indiana, and Ohio Volunteers- Lt. Col. J.ERVING, 2d Artillery, Cincinnati.

         Volunteer officers selected for the recruiting service by their respective Colonels pursuant to the provisions of “GENERAL ORDERS,” No. 17, of April 15, will report by letter to the field officers charged with the superintendence of recruiting for the their respective regiments, to who they will make all their reports and returns.

         5- As soon as 50 or 60 recruits are enlisted for any one regiment, the superintendent will report for instructions to the Adjutant General’s Office, when  measures will be taken to concentrate and organize detachments for the field of not less than 250 men.- The officers sent to Mexico with recruits, (both regular and volunteer,) wil not return to the United states, but replaced by other officers to be selected by the commanders of their regiments.

         6- The public interest requires that the recruiting service be pushed with the greatest vigor, by every officer employed in it; and at the same time the strictest economy is enjoined in all expenditures and arrangements, &c. “Superintendents will report all commissioned or non-commissioned officers who may be incapable or negligent, or unsuccessful, in the discharge of their functions,” &c. (See par 757 army regulations, 1847.)

         7- Proceedings of courts martial in the trial of recruits on charges of alleged desertion from the rendezvous afforded strong grounds to believe that there are instances in which the recruiting party have contrived to make out the case of desertion for the sordid purpose of obtaining and dividing among themselves the authorized reward of $30. The records show that recruit *   * enlisted on the 24th day May, that leave was  granted him until 3 o’clock, that not returning at the hour he was seized before 6, at the house of the friend who had accompanied him to the rendezvous in the morning, that he was confined as a deserter by the Sergeant, and that on the certificate of the recruiting officer five of the party, received and divided the reward.

         If the recruiting officer performs his duty of the service, these fraudulent schemes to obtain money at the expense of a recruit, not a deserter in fact, would rarely be successful. It is the special duty of the officer to examine thoroughly every case of absence without leave, and in no instance should be given the usual certificate of apprehension, until well assured that the recruit was really a deserter according to the articles of war and army regulations. If the rule prescribed in paragraph 764 had been observed, the short absence of the man on the 24th of May referred to above, could not have been regarded as a desertion.

         The Secretary of War directs that the recuuting officers give strict attention to the subject. It is expected they will diligently watch the public interest, and protect the recruits against all imposition attempted to be practiced upon them.

         8- All packages and letters relating to the recruiting service, will be endorsed on the upper right hand corner- “Recruiting Service.”

         9- Packages containing “Certificates of Disability,” or “Certificates for Pensions,” will be endorsed, accordingly, on the lower left hand corner of the envelope.

By order:
R. JONES,
Adjutant General.

[BRR]


NNR 72.394 August 21, 1847 Receipt of Dispatches from Gen. Winfield Scott at Puebla, Gen. Franklin Pierce's Affairs with the Guerrillas, Gen. Persifor Frazer Smith's Brigade to Meet Pierce

"A respectable person of the city has informed us that a letter has been received yesterday morning by a citizen of this place, from a guerrilla chief, stating that the guerrilleros, about 600 in number, attacked the train commanded by General Pierce near the National Bridge. The letter says the Americans approached under the fire of the Mexicans until they arrived within a hundred yards of them, when the American infantry opened a deadly fire on them forcing them to retreat. While the Mexicans were retreating the American cavalry rushed on them sword in hand, and killed about one hundred Mexicans. The position of the Mexicans was one of the strongest that can be found in the country. The Americans passed the bridge after this successful engagement."

General Scott dispatched Gen. Smith's brigade to meet General Pierce at Perote, and accompany them up. As soon as joined by his reinforcement and replenished by the supply of which he had charged Gen. Scott would probably advance on the city of Mexico. No doubts is expressed in any of the accounts that we have seen, of his being able with the force he will then have ( say 12 to 13,000 men. ) to enter the "Halls of the Montezumas" in triumph.-- Whether he will meet with but a feeble, if any, resistance, -- or whether he will have to encounter a bloody contest, is a point in warm dispute, -- but in either case his success seems to be admitted. [TNW]


NNR 72.394 August 21, 1847 Gen. Valencia reaches Mexico with reinforcements

After our last was at press intelligence reached here by telegraph, the substance of which we inserted in a half a dozen lines of postscript. The reports with which the public had been tantalized for the preceding week,- of General Scott having entered the city of Mexico on the 17th July, like the reports which we had the week preceding, of Mexican commissioners having been appointed to treat with Mr. Trist, prove to be totally unfounded.

         The steamer Fashion reached New Orleans on the 6th, with accounts from Gen. Scott to the 30th July, a month later than previous authentic accounts.. He was still at Puebla, waiting for the arrival of the forces and supplies that Gen. Pierce was taking up. The latter had reached Perote in safety, once account says after a smart conflict with guerrillas, who attempted to defend the pass at Nation Bridge. Of this affair the Sun of Anahuac, (Vera Cruz) gives the following account. It is regarded only as rumour however.

         “A respectable person of the city has informed us that a letter has been received yesterday morning by a citizen of this place, from a guerrilla chief, stating that the guerrilleros, about 600 in number, attacked the train commanded by General Pierce near the National Bridge. The letter says thee Americans arrived within a hundred yards of them, when the American infantry opened a deadly fire on them, forcing them to retreat. While the Mexicans were retreating the American cavalry rushed on them sword in hand, and killed about one hundred Mexicans. The position of the Mexicans was one of the strongest that can be found in the country. The Americans passed the bridge after this successful engagement.”

         General Scott despatched Gen. Smith’s brigade to meet General Pierce at Perote, and accompany them up. As soon as joined by his reinforcement and replenished by the supply of which he had charged Gen. Scott would probably advance on the city of Mexico. No doubts is expressed in any of the accounts that we have seen, of his being able with the force he will meet with but a feeble, if any, resistance, - or whether he will have to encounter a bloody contest, is a point in warm dispute,- but is either case his success seems to be admitted.

         General Valencia, at the head of 4,000 men, has reached the city of Mexico from San Louis Potosi all full of fight.

         Lieut.Whipple who was supposed to have been killed, was taken prisoner, is treated well and expects soon to be exchanged.

         Letters are received at New Orleans from the American officers, prisoners in Mexico, to the 15th July. They were all well.

         A private letter dated 29th July, says “Mr. Trist’s health has improved.”

         Mr. Kendall perseveres in sending couriers to Vera Cruz, though he has had three captured. One has been killed. He fought bravely for his life, and was faithful to the last. The Picayune says- “By singular good fortune the letters by this courier we have recovered. They are not of a late date, but it is rather singular that they should have reached their destination against the wishes of the Mexicans, when once in their possession.”  [BRR]


NNR 72.395 August 21, 1847 Letters From Puebla, money arrived for the army, Mexico City fortifications

Puebla, ( Mexico, ) July 30, 1847

We have a story, tolerably well authenticated, that more than a million of dollars recently arrived at Vera Cruz for the army. A day after the fair again; for how is this money to find its was up in season to relieve the great necessities of those who have so long been suffering? The straits to which our commissaries and quartermasters have been driven, as well as the army agent, Mr. Hargous, to raise the means for the absolute support of the men, has beat the kite flying and skinning days of '37 all to pieces. A dollar is a dollar, and more than a dollar, here in Puebla.

In relation to the movements of the army, I can give you no other than the impression that General Scott will march immediately on the arrival of Gen. Pierce. The men composing the divisions of General Worth and Twiggs are probably better soldiers than any at present in the world. In the first place, the material is equal if not superior to any; they are equally well drilled; have the best officers to lead them; and what is of the greatest importance, a great portion of them have been in the front rank of battle in numerous fights. Nor is the division of General Quitman, who will doubtless take an active party in any operations yet to take place, much behind the others. The regiments composing it, the New York, South Carolina, and 1st and 2nd Pennsylvania, have been long enough in the field to become well drilled, while Steptoe's admirable battery is attached to it. The army that will set down before Mexico will be the strongest and best appointed we have yet had in the field, and , let the Mexicans fight as they will, the result of any contest that may take place cannot be double.

I have seen a gentlemen who left the capital two days since. He says that the Mexicans were quietly awaiting the approach of General Scott, having all their works and fortifications completed. The story that the city was partially overflowed is confirmed, but the reports of the extent of the mundation, and of the sickness it had occasioned, have been exaggerated. There was a strong relief of among many of the foreigners that there was a perfect understanding between Gen. Scott and Santa Anna, and that a peace would grow out of it. The congress was still at loggerheads with the president, all business was completely at a stand, and the only law known was that of the military.

Copies of the Diario del Cobierno up to the 27th instant have been received here. It is the only paper now published at the capital, and contains little save government orders and decices, or articles published under the express sanction of Santa Anna.-- In one of the latter the editor asks the people not to forget their great and glorious victory over "los Yankees" on the triumphant field of Buena Vista, nor the three pieces of cannon and the standard then and there taken from General Taylor! He himself has probably entirely forgotten the seven or eight hundred cannon captured from his countrymen within the last eighteen months, as well as the flags innumerable that have been sent on to Washington. [TNW]


NNR 72.395-396 August 21, 1847 rumors, George Wilkins Kendall

Puebla, (Mexico,) July 30,1847

         We have a story, tolerable well authenticated, that more than a million of dollars recently arrived at Vera Cruz for the army. A day after the fair again; for how is this money to find its way up in season to relieve the great necessities of those who have so long been suffering?  The straits to which our commissaries and quartermasters have been driven, as well as the army agent, Mr. Hargous, to raise the means for the absolute support of the men, has beat the kite-flying and skinning days of ’37 all to pieces. A dollar is a dollar, and more than a dollar, here in Puebla.

         In relation to the movements of the army, I can give you no other than the impression that General Scott will march immediately on the arrival of Gen. Pierce. The men composing the divisions of General Worth and Twiggs are probably better soldiers than any at present in the world. In the fist place, the material is equal if not superior to any; they are equally well drilled; have the best officers to lead them, and what is of the greatest importance, a great portion of them have been in the front rank of battle in numerous fights. Nor is the division of General Quitman, who will doubtless take an active part in any operations yet to take place, much behind the others. The regiments composing it, the New York, South Carolina, and 1st and 2d Pennsylvania, have been long enough in the field to become well drilled, while Steptoe’s admirable battery is attached to it. The army that will set down before have yet had in the field, and, let the Mexicans fight as they will, the result of any contest that may take place cannot be doubted.

         I have seen a gentleman who left the capital two days since. He says that the Mexicans were quietly awaiting the approach of General Scott, having all their works and fortifications completed. The story that the city was partially overflowed is confirmed, but the reports of the extent of the mundation and the sickness it had occasioned, have been exaggerated. There was a strong relief among many of the foreigners that there was a perfect understanding between Gen. Scott and Santa Anna, and that a peace would grow out of it. The congress was still at loggerhead with the president, all business was completely at a stand, and the only law know was that of the military.

         Copies of the Diario del Gobierno up to the 27th instant have been received here. It is the only paper now published at the capital, and contains little save government order and decrees, or articles published under the express sanction of Santa Anna.-  in one of the latter the editor asks the people not to forget their great and glorious victory “los Yankees” on the triumphant field of Buena Vista, nor the tree pieces of cannon and the standard then  and there taken from General Taylor!  He himself has probably entirely forgotten the seven or eight hundred cannon captured from his countrymen within the last eighteen months, as well as the flags innumerable that have been sent on to Washington.

         I must close this letter with a few speculations of my won. There is now every indication that the army will move upon the capital in the course of the coming six days, and it is more than probably that the hardest fight will yet be at the city of Mexico- this is the opinion of the majority. Santa Anna, however much he may be averse to it, can hardly avoid a battle, although he will creep out of if it possible.

         Gen. Shields is here and good health. The health of the army continues to improve, and a large portion of the soldiers may now be said to be acclimated.

G.W.K.

[BRR]


NNR 72.395 August 21, 1847 accounts from the capital

The Picayune of the 8th instant publishes one of the latest letters from the city of Mexico, which it avouches to be from a most respectable source, and may be presumed to afford a just idea of affairs in the capital. It is later than any papers from the city which Mr. Kendall had seen when he last wrote:

Mexico; July 29, 1847.

         We are still waiting, and very impatiently, to see the end of the present state of affairs. Latterly it has been very generally believed that negotiations for peace would be entered into, but it appears that expectations to this effect are likely to be disappointed, peace now appearing to be more remote than ever.

         A junta of the principal generals of the army took place yesterday. Some were of opinion that the wisest course was to march out with all their disposable forces and attack the Americans at Puebla; but this opinion did not prevail. They determined that they would await tranquilly the enemy within the walls of the city, continuing to fortify themselves as strongly as possible. We know not, therefore, what will happen, or whether the Americans will commence their march forthwith. I doubt whether they will do it before the arrival of further reinforcements.

         In the meantime affairs are going on here from bad to worse, and heavy contributions are levied, the collection of which is effected with extreme difficulty, so that the government has great trouble to provide the means for the subsistence of a large army. Santa Anna is at this moment sole dictator. Congress can do nothing because there is never a sufficient number of members present to form a quorum for business. They say that the government is seeking a closer union with European powers, and with this view has given orders for the liquidation of the claims of their subjects. [BRR]


NNR 72.396 August 21, 1847  Tabasco evacuated

TABASCO EVACUATED-  The following, in relation to the evacuation of Tabasco, is from the Sun of Anahuac of the 27th ultimo:

         “The U.S. steamship Mississippi, Com. Perry, arrived yesterday at Lizardo, bringing with him the steamers Scorpion, Spitfire, and Vixen.

         “The forces have been withdrawn from the  city of Tabasco, in consequence of the severe sickness which prevailed among them, till the sickly season shall have passed.

         “Every thing was taken on board, and the evacuation was effected without molestation from the enemy, who was in considerable force outside. The defences were all destroyed when the place was first occupied six weeks since.

         “Commander Van Brunt, with the bomb brig Emma, the steamer Scourge, and the gunboat Bonita, were left at Frontera, a few miles from the mouth of the river, (it being a healthy location) to take charge of the custom house there, and guard the passages leading to the capital.”

         It is due to the truth to say that the Sun of Anahuac, on its Spanish side, represents the evacuation of Tabasco in a less favorable light for our arms than the above account. It attributes our withdrawal to the overwhelming forces of the enemy. Our commandant feared he would be unable to resist an attack, and determined to evacuate the place rather than rise the issue. [BRR]


NNR 72.396-397 August 21, 1847 Col. Lewis Gustavus DeRussy’s report on his expedition to Huejutla

COL. DE RUSSY’S REPORT

Tampico, (Mexico), July 18, 1847

         SIR  In obedience to your special order, No. 41, Garay, of the Mexican army, stationed at Huejtla, and claim from him certain prisoners of war, who, in your judgement, and for reasons which you authorised me to suggest, should be entitled to liberation, and in case of his compliance, to bring back said prisoners to Tampico, I proceeded with an escort of one hundred and twenty six men in its execution. My force was composed of Wyse’s company third artillery, 34 men, with one field piece; Boyd’s company, cavalry, 35 men; a detachment of my own regiment of 44 men, commanded by Capts. Mace and Seguine, and eleven men of the volunteer company of Tampico rangers. The officers assigned to troops were Capts. Wyse, third artillery; Boyd, cavalry; Mace and Segume, Louisiana volunteers; with Lieutenants Tanneyhill, cavalry, Linderberger, Campbell, and Hemberger, Louisana volunteers. The first of these acting adjutant for the command, the two latter as company officers to Captains Mace and Seguine; and Lieutenant Wells, commanding the rangers. There was also with the party Sergeant Singleton of “La.” company, acting Sergeant Major, and Mr. Pemberton, an amateur volunteer. I left this place with my command on the morning of the 8th instant, and reached the town of [ . . . ]on the 9th, which I learned was within the district commanded by Gen. Garay. Here I inquired for any military officer to whom I might communicate the purpose of my mission. I was informed by the alcalde; or chief magistrate that none were there. I applied to this functionary for corn and other necessaries, which were supplied cheerfully, and informed him that my tour, although accompanied by a military escort was not in hostility, but to claim of the commandant general some American prisoners in his custody, but the orders of Col. Gates, commanding in Tampico, and which I trusted would be turned over to me, for reasons which I should explain. Thence I continued my journey to the next town upon the route to General Garay’s head quarters, called Tantayuca, which we reached on the 11th. Here, also I was furnished by the alcalde with corn, and beef, &c. again communicated the character and purpose of my mission; and again inquired, to no purpose, for any military officer with whom I might communicate, and who might accompany me to the generl’s headquarters at Huejutla, now distant about twenty five miles. While here, I perceived indications of uneasiness, producing some apprehension, that notwithstanding my assurance of the pacific nature of my visit, formal preparations of defence were being arranged before me; but I could not suspect to meet these short of the town occupied by the commanding general, at the approach to which I relied upon the white flag, (or sooner, should I meet any one to whom I might show it), to make all right and safe. On next morning, early, we moved towards Huejutla, Capt Boyd and his company being now the advance guard, with orders not to be more than two hundred yards before us. Having reached a point eight miles from our last camp at Tantayuca, and about one mile from the river Calaboso, we met with a Mexican Indian, whom we interrogated in reference to the road, &c. From this man we had learned that the Mexicans had made an ambuseade at the river; that General Garay was there himself with a large force, and that it was intended to attack us three. Immediately despatched the adjutant and the sergeant major to order Capt. Boyd to fall back to the main body; it was too late; they no sooner started to communicate the order than heavy discharge of musketry was heard and many single shouts after. We hastened to the river- Captain Boyd with six of his men had fallen, the remainder of his company had dispersed or fled back to us. As I reached the ground, I perceived the enemy had cleared away the ground of all bushes for the space of 150 yards, on either side of the road, leaving beyond that a dense hedge of chaparral, in rear of which had been constructed a fence to prevent charges of cavalry; in front upon the opposite back was heir main body, also protected by thick chaparral. A charge was instantly made upon the left. Capt. Seguince and his men, and the field piece, protected by Captain Wyse’s campaign, was ordered forward to scour the ground upon the opposite bank. These moves were nearly simultaneous, and were gallantly performed. At the first discharge the enemy were driven from the left; two charges on the right also dislodged him from their right, and compelled him to unite in one mass upon the opposite bank.

         In this position the battle continued for a full hour, Capt. Wyse gallantly serving his piece, and being during the whole of the engagement, exposed to the most destructive fire from the enemy directly to his front, so well concealed and protected by the thick undergrowth as but seldom to be sufficiently seen to be fired upon with any perfect precision. There were wounded during the service of this piece, six men of its squad. Finally, the enemy sounded their trumpet!- whether for retreat or a charge, I do not know; there was, at all events, a [ . . . ]of their fire. At that moment Capt. Wyse delivered a discharge of canister, so fortunately formed as for the time entirely to paralyze their further action. I took this opportunity to examine our condition. We had exhausted all our field piece cartridges but three. The road to Huejutla lay along the gorge between steep activities. The prisoners, we knew, had been removed from that town. Our fear and our flanks were now attacked by multitudes of men of the towns left behind us on our advance, who had already come so near us as to take from us all our mules, packed with every thing we had, in provisions, money, and clothing. There seemed but one way to make our return possible, it was to [illegible], if possible, the position we had occupied in [illegible]. I immediately ordered a retrograde; we [ . . . ] and retraced our steps; immediately there fell upon our flanks and rear large bodies of the enemy, at such distance, however, as to  make their efforts [ . . . ]slightly efficient. At every opportunity to reach them, our rear, commanded by Capt. Mace, delivered their discharges of musketry, generally most fatal to our pursuers. While ascending a hill in the road, about one mile from Tantyuca, a very spirited resistance was made by the enemy stationed on the summit, but they were soon driven forward and dispersed by as many of Capt. Wyse’s men as could [ . . . ]spared from the piece, who were in the advance, getting as light infantry. At this critical moment, [ . . . ] piece was made again to play a very important part in the safety of our retreat; for it had scarcely reached the summit of this hill before the enemy [ . . . ] rushing on our rear, driving in the rear guard, pack mules, and everything else in confusion around the gun, but Captain Wyse promptly unlimbered, [illegible], and elevated his gun himself; and when within short musket shot, he touched her off, sending death and confusion into the column of the advancing enemy; and before they could recover from this shock, he gave them another well aimed discharge [ . . . ]canister, which effectually prevented further back from the rear. In this manner we advanced one miles back to Tantayuca- the whole round [ . . . ]one continued fight. When arrived at that town, we found an organised force there to oppose [ . . . ]Capt. Seguine, then in advance, was ordered to prepare his men for a charge; and Captain Wyse advanced his piece to a favorable position, discharged upon our opposers one of our last charges of canister, and immediately thereon the charge was made. The enemy fled and dispersed in all directions.

         We gained the town, and immediately crossed it to a favorite mound overlooking and entirely commanding it.   Thus, masters here, we had leisure to rest and restore our condition to better capabilities of defence. Men were despatched to the stores in the town, to procure powder and ball; from which a number of cartridges were prepared, using champagne bottles half filled with balls, with the remaining space packed with earth- a substitute for tin cylinders. Other munitions were also inspected and equally distributed. These preparations being complete, we had nine or ten good canister charges and an average of nine musket cartridges per man. During this afternoon I found the men were coming to camp, some of them richly laden with spoils of all kinds from the shops and private house; and although I had not authorised it, I didn’t regret so just a retribution for the hypocrisy of people, who, after affecting kindness and hospitality as we left them in the morning, had subsequently fallen upon us, to annihilate us, and had despoiled us of about ninety mules, and all our private baggage and provisions.

         While here, we perceived the enemy passing round us from all directions, and moving to some pint upon the road by which we had come from Aselhuama. We remembered a most favorable place we had passed for any purpose of ambuscade, called Monte Grande, at which Captian Wyse had been obliged to dismount his piece; and rightly conjectured it was determined to strike us there. We determined, therefore; to take any other road for return, that there was; and on leaving our position at night, the road by Panuco was selected by which to attempt retreat. These arrangements being adopted, we were called upon at 9 o’clock at night a flag, bearing to me a letter from General Garay. I informed the two officers who bore it, that I did not wish to appear disrespectful to General Garay, but that I had neither lights nor conveniences for writing in the camp; that therefore, if they knew the purport of the note, and would communicate it, I would send by them the reply. They said it was a demand for honorable capitualation. I answered that there was no possibility for any such result; that I felt strong in my position, and able to move when and where I please. I then complained in strong terms , of the attack upon my command- more like assassination than anything else- stating that I  had repeatedly explained to the alcades of the towns within the districts commanded by Gen. Garay, the friendly character of my tour, and had diligently sought to see an officer of his command for an explanation and escort to him. I understood that these officers expressed regret, saying that it was attributed to information received from Tampico, by their general, that I was coming to take away the prisoners by force, adding that it was probable the general would like to see and converse with me. I  appointed 10 o’clock as the hour I would see Gen. G. and it was agreed that Captain Wyse would meet the general at that time upon the plaza, and bring them to me, or assign a place for our meeting. Captain Wyse repaired at the time fixed to the place appointed, and waited till near 12 o’clock, when he returned to give the information that they failed to meet him. We immediately prepared to depart, and at 2 o’clock on the morning of the 13th we left camp, during a rain, and gained the Panuco road. It was not until 9 or 10 o’clock that day that the enemy, having ascertained our retreat, were again down upon our flanks and rear; we managed, however, to keep him at bay, and on more than one occasion he was made to pay the cost of his temerity, when approaching within musket or cannon range. We were thus pursued for a distance of fifty miles after we left Tantayuca, but always at the cost of he enemy, many of whom were destroyed in their pursuit of us.

         In the engagement at the river, which is called the Calaboso, we sustained the following loss, viz:

         Boyd’s company.- Captain Boyd, killed; Lieutenant Tanneyhill, mortally wounded; Serg. Baker, killed, Corporal Bruner, killed; Private Tubiff, Brown, Mullican, and Burk, killed; and Privates Luxton, Wilson, and O’Hara, slightly wounded.

         Wyse’s company.- Private Allen mortally wounded; and five privates slightly wounded.

         Non commissioned stff.- Principal musician, Rose; missing.

         Louisiana volunteers.- Lieut. Heimberger, severely wounded; G. Schmidt, G Colson, G. Zeller, John Brwon, and L. Scott, killed; L. Durnan, mortally wounded; L. Davis, and L. Lambino, missing;-Ogg, slightly wounded.

         Having no surgeon or means of transportation, Lieutenant Tanneyhill and two privates, all mortally wounded, with a man as nurse were left at the house of the alcalde in Tanatyuca, with a letter to that functionary demanding for these unfortunate men the common rights of humanity; and also in the conversation with the bearers of Gen. Garay’s flag the disposal made of these wounded was mentioned, and it was mentioned they should be cared for.

         For the conduct of every man composing my command, I have praise to bestow. There were instances, however of extraordinary gallantry. Captain Wyse, during the engagement at Calabosa river, acted with that steady courage and gallantry, constitution the highest grade of military character, being constantly under the most direct fire of the enemy. His indefatigable service and endurance, during the two subsequent days of skirmishing by day and watching by night are also gratefully remembered by me, and entitle him to the highest commendation.

         Captains Mace and Seguine, of the Louisiana regiment of volunteers, are brave men and excellent soldiers. They charged the enemy most gallantly at the river engagement, and in entering Tantayuca. Their exertions and services were constant and untiring, from the morning of the 12th until the night of the 14th. Lieutenant Tanneyhill bay possibly survive his wound. It is but justice to say that his conduct admirable, and deserving the highest compliments. Lieut. Heimburger is also entitled to our most complimentary notice. After being severely wounded, and suffering with consequent fever, he did not hesitate to report for duty when the enemy appeared, and when it was thought hard fighting was our only resource. Lientenants Lindenbruger and Campbell acted with gallantry and zeal whenever an opportunity presented. Mr. Aldridge, who, as proprietor of the mules engaged as packs, was with us, rendered most essential and gallant service, being forward and active in every charge made upon the enemy. Mr. Laller, one of the Tampico rangers, rendered very important service in coming with the express to Tampico by night when I thought my self so surrounded as to be in the greatest doubts whether there was any possibility of escape without succor. Mr. Pemberton, a gentleman who accompanied us as an ameteur, also rendered essential and gallant services. The small detachment of Tampico rangers, armed as they were merely as cavalry, could not be so advantageously employed as the other troops; they were, however, generally ready and willing to discharge such duties as they were called on for.

         Among the non commissioned officers of my command, I have to notice the acting Sergeant Major Singleton, of the Louisiana regiment, who, on several occasions, distinguished himself as a brave and gallant soldier; he had a horse shot under him.

         Another was the sergeant in charge of Captain Wyse’s gun, who, with as gallant a gun quad as ever served a piece, bore the brunt of the action upon the river bank. The names of these brave men have escaped my memory. I will procure and hand them to you

         There were also Sergeants Moore, Woody and Townsend, of the Louisiana regiment, all of whom are entitled to honorable mention.

          I have omitted to state the force of the enemy engaged against us, and the probable number of their loss. Their strength must have near fifteen hundred; and although were not actually engaged at any one time against their whole force, yet we were compelled to meet them all in turn  I have learned from Mexican men, how saw the battle round at the Calaboso just before the engagement, that there were three hundred within the [ . . . ] upon this side of the river, and five hundred upon the opposite bank, commanded by General Garay himself; and there was probably as many more upon our flanks and rear the following days while in retreat. Their loss is estimated at two hundred, as well from statements of their own people as from what we saw.

         In closing this report, which I fear may already be too long, I must beg to remark, that for our return were are indebted entirely to the field piece taken out by Capt. Wyse’s company and so well managed by that excellent officer and his brave men. It is an arm as yet but insufficiently appreciated, but of which the vast importance and usefulness must be developed by experience. In nay expedition such as that from which I have just returned, I estimate one field piece, well supplied and well managed, is equivalent to one hundred muskets, and perhaps more, in defence.  I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant;

L.G. DE RUSSY
Col. La. Regiment volunteers.

To COL. WILLIAM GATES,
   Commanding  department Tampico.
[BRR]


NNR 72.398 August 21, 1847 Mexican committee of foreign relations on Nicholas Philip Trist’s propositions

MEXICAN CONGRESSIONAL PROCEEDINGS ON THE PROPOSED NEGOTIATION FOR PEACE.
Report of the committee on foreign relations.
Committee Room of the Sovereign Constituent Mexican Congress

         SIR:  The majority of the committee on foreign relations deem it not improper to present the report with the promptitude which the chamber has thought fit to allow, as well because the legal question involved appears to be perfectly clear, as because the same subject has for a long time been the object of their meditations, and also of the debates of the national representation.

         In the judgement of the committee our fundamental code is perfectly clear in this part of it. The 110th article of the constitution places among the powers of the executive authority of the Union that of directing diplomatic negotiations and concluding treaties of peace, friendship, alliance, truce, federation, armed neutrality commerce and every other kind whatsoever; but it says that to grant or reissue the ratification of any one of these the approbation of the general congress must first be obtained. The executive power is also exclusive, according to the 15th number of the same article, to receive ministers and other agents of foreign powers.

         These articles prove, in a manner incontrovertable, that by our constitutional laws, s among other civilized nations, the direction of foreign relations is entrusted exclusively to the executive; but without conferring on it the power to conclude anything definitively, or to bind the nation to anything without the consent of the legislative body.   The same federal constitution places among the powers of congress, that of “approving treaties of peace, of alliance, of friendship, of federation, of armed neutrality, and every other kind whatsoever which the president of the United (Mexican) States may conclude with foreign powers.”

         From all this we come to the conclusion that congress does not posses the power to entertain and cannot rightfully entertain the communication which the government of the United States has transmitted with a view to entering into negotiations for peace, and offering to name a minister for this purpose. And if this opinion appeared to us sound according to the federal constitution, when promulgated as a provisional code, and even since congress has acquired an augmentation of powers granted to it by the “Plan of he citadel” and the ”convocatoria;” now that the nation is definitely constituted; or possesses a definite constitution- [esta definitivamento constituida] now that one of the articles of the act of amendments declares expressly that “the powers of the Union are all derived from the constitution, and are limited to the simple exercise of the faculties expressly designate in it;” now that all public powers must be measured by it in the most rigorous manner, we can find no possible objection to our opinion, for any other pact to which we have sworn.

         Nevertheless we are not blind to the fact that instead of being a political theory, it has been a sentiment of the purest, noblest patriotism in its origin, which has interposed so many difficulties in order that upon a subject of so vast importance that course should be strictly  followed which the commands of constitution so distinctly mark out. Congress as the faithful representative of the wishes of he people, who have been outraged by the most unjust of all aggressions, and are determined not t consent that an ignominious treaty should secure to our neighbors the possession of the territory usurped by theme, and wit it the dominion of this continent- terminating at the same time our political existence in a manner which would not even entitle us to the compassion of other people-[congress] has uniformly opposed every thing which should seem to open the way for a peace, which would at this day be every way ignominious, and it has exercised the most jealous care and precaution to prevent even the remotest danger of such a disaster.

         The committee participates in these feelings, and would only observe that this constitution power conferred upon the executive cannot be sailed by us, nor does it afford occasion for well founded alarm, nor in fine is it possible that congress should itself discharge this duty. The management of diplomatic negotiations demands such reserve, so much discussion, an activity so well timed, a system of designs so well prosecuted, that it would be impossible to carry them on with certainty, if their management were entrusted to a numerous body. The policy of all nations confirms this truth, and there is no doubt that congress itself renounced the power of negotiation when in amending our original constitutional pact, it determined that there should be no alteration in the provisions we have cited, and left them to stand as they were.

         On the other hand, in perfect consistency with these provisions, the executive can conclude nothing definitively; it possesses no authority to consummate any arrangement which shall be binding upon the republic; and congress very well knows that the executive, even in the exercise of its constitutional exclusive faculties, under a representative system, finds itself constrained to pursue such a course as may be designated by public opinion and the legislative body. In the position, truly strong and respectable, which our constitution gives to congress, it, it possesses abundant peaceful and legal resources, without exceeding it’s duties, to insure the interests of the nation in whatever manner it may be compromised. For these reasons, therefore, the majority of he committee cannon propose any other course than to return to the other government the dispatch, and if this report appears subscribed by only two members of the committee, it should be borne in mind that our associate Sr. Ceballos, who worthily presides over the committee, but who from his well known illness is unable to co operate with us, has authorized us to express his agreement with us, and even offered to subscribe the report which we should prepare expressive of our views, which we conclude with the following proposition:

         With a copy of this report let the dispatch be returned to the government, because, in the present situation of the affair, it comes within its cognizance, with the restrictions which are established by the fundamental code of the republic.

OTERO.
LAFRAGUA.

         Mexico, 13th July, 1847

           The report being submitted to congress, underwent a discussion, and the vote being taken upon it, it was approved the same day. Ayes 52- nays 22.

         “We need hardly say, remarks the Picayune of the 12th instant, that this report appears to us an authoritative, declaration on the part of the most intelligent political party in Mexico, in favor of the continuance of the war. It is the declaration of the majority of the present congress, and of the party, called Moderados, which would prevail in Mexico but for the interposition of the military. The same line of argument which is maintained in the report the Republicano has strenuously pursued hitherto.

         We infer from this report, that the embarrassments which have purposely been thrown in the way of negotiations, are sanctioned by the intelligent liberal class in Mexico; that they were expressly designed to guard against the possible corruption of their leaders, who might be induced to entertain thoughts of peace.”  [BRR]


NNR 72.399 August 21, 1847 letter about Gen. Winfield Scott’s plan to advance on the capital as soon as Gen. Franklin Pierce arrives with reinforcements
NNR 72.399 consultation between Gen. Winfield Scott and Nicholas Phillip Trist

          The Washington Union says:- “ A letter has been received in Washington, from an officer of the army, as late as the 29th and 30th July. It states that General Scott would move upon the capital as soon as Gen. Pierce arrived with his reinforcements- about the 2d or 3d of August. Mr. Trist had been quite ill, but was then convalescent. We are happy to hear that Gen. Scott had waited upon him during his indisposition, to confer with him about the public concerns.”

         The Union also says:- “We can find nothing to confirm the statement which some of the letter writers from Washington are giving, as it appears in the Baltimore Sun of this morning, viz: that “a letter to which I referred in my last, has been received from Mr. Bankhead, by the British legation here in which he states, as I learn, the same thing and adds that the attempt, in which he assisted, to induce the Mexican government to listen to these proposals, utterly failed. [BRR]


NNR 72.399 August 21, 1847 Gen. John Ellis Wool ordered to advance on Encarnacion and San Luis
NNR 72.399 August 21, 1847 outrages committed by Mexicans on their countrywomen and countrymen

        From the Rio Grande the most important item is the following article from the Matamoros Flag of the 4th inst.

         ADVANCE UPON SAN LUIS- From Major Arthur, formerly quartermaster at Cerralvo, we learn that Gen. Wool ahs received orders to proceed with the advance of Gen. Taylos’s column, on the 20th inst., in the direction of Encarnation, some twenty leagues from Buena Vista, where he will establish a depot, into which three months rations will be thrown.

         The army will then advance upon San Louis and communication be opened with Tampico or Tuspan, from whence supplies will thereafter be received.-  All the mules and other means of transportation have been ordered above and activity prevails throughout the whole department.

         The Flag gives sad accounts of outrages perpetrated in the vicinity of Matamoros, by Mexicans upon their own countrywomen. The same paper mentions that the resident Mexicans near Parras lately applied to General Taylor to protect them from armed bands of their own countrymen, sent thither for the express purpose of ravaging the country and destroying the corps. [BRR]


NNR 72.399 August 21, 1847 Lt. Brown and party killed, Maj. Edmonson overtakes and chastises the murderers
NNR 72.399 August 21, 1847 another conspiracy discovered, Lt. Larkin and four privates killed

“ARMY OF THE NORTH”
Arrival from Santa Fe.

Lieut. Brown and his party killed- Major Edmondson overtakes and chastises the murderers- another conspiracy discovered part of the returning party masacreed. From the St. Louis Republican of August 12 and 13.

 Another party of volunteers has returned to Fort Leavenworth from Santa Fe. They arrived on the 6th inst., and left Santa Fe on the 6th of last month. From Mr. Isaac McCarty, of the firm of Bullard, Hook & Co., traders to Mexico and Chihuahua, the following interesting information is derived.

         When Mr. McCarty arrived at Bagos, 75 miles this side of Santa Fe, he learned that information had been roceived there on the 5th, that Lt. Brown, attached to Capt. Horine’s company of volunteers, with several of his men had been killed at a small place about 15 miles from Bagos. On receiving this intelligence, Maj. Edmondson, with a party of his men pursued the Mexicans, overtook them, fought with, and killed five or six of them and captured between 30 and 40, whom he threatened to hang.

         By this energetic conduct, Major E. induced a confession from some of them, that there was another conspiracy on foot to bring about a massacre and revolution at Taos and Bagos. A letter was found upon one of the prisoners, purporting, though not signed, to come from the ringleader of the former conspiracy, in which he desired to be informed of the precise time when Fischer’s company of artillery would leave Santa Fe, as that was necessary to the maturity of his plans. He declared, in this letter, his determination never to rest while there as an American alive in New Mexico. Of the disposition of the prisoners, we have no further information:

         Mr. McCarity met the first train of government wagons about one hundred miles from Santa Fe. Lieut. Love, who has charge of the government money amounting to more than $3,000,000 was met at the upper Seminone strings, and Col. Easton’s battalion of infantry on the Arkansas. A few days previous to his meeting Col. Easton’s command, while some of his men were employed in getting wood on the opposite side of he river, they were completely surprised by a party of the Camanche Indians, by whom eight of the number were killed and three wounded.

         One of the wounded was scalped alive, and was found in this situation by those who were sent to relieve them. He stated, that he was scalped by a white man, that he begged for his life, telling him that he had a family dependent upon him for support, but that the only reply received from his assailant was, that he did not care a d-n. We regret our not being able to state the names of the persons killed and wounded, or the company to which they belonged. It may be two or three days before we have the information

         Lieut. Simpson, of Maj. Clark’s artillery battalion was left at Cruncil Grove, on his way home.

         Since the above was written, we have learned that J. McClenahan and C. Quisenberry were among the number of persons killed at the time of the attack upon Lieut. Brown. One account states the whole number killed at fourteen

         John Avery,- Martin, and- Douglass, of Capt. Dent’s company, were landed from the Mamerlane, at St. Charles yesterday.

         An extract of the same paper of August 13, says, Mr. Coulter, arrived in the Berland, from the Missouri, furnished later and somewhat different details in regard to the death of Lieut. Brown and his men. That officer, with McClenahan and Quiesenberry, and a Mexican guide, left camp in pursuit of persons who had stolen horses from them. They did not return, and on the 5th of July information was received from  a Mexican woman, that they had been murdered, and their bodies burnt.

         Maj. Edmondson, on receiving this news, took measures to avenge their death. He marched with some sixty men, and a howitzer, against the town where the enormities were committed, and discovered that the inhabitants wre flying to the mountains. He commanded them to stop, but as they did not do so, he fired upon them, killing six, wounding several others, and taking forty or fifty prisoners, it was ascertained that the bodies of two Americans were burnt, but that the body of Lieut. Brown, who had the emblem of the cross on his neck, and was supposed, from the circumstance, to be a Catholic, was hid in the mountains, where it was afterwards found. All the houses of persons concerned in the murder were burned to the ground, by order of the Major. Some of the articles of property lost in the engagement, at the Red River Canon were found at this place, showing that some of the inhabitants at least, were participants in the affair.

         Lieut. Larkin and four privates surprised and killed!

           Killed-Lieut. Larkin, and privates Owens, Wright, Mason and Wilkinson, belonging to a grazing party of Lieut. Col. Willock’s battalion, were surprised about daylight on the morning of the 6th July, and killed. Lieut. Brown, was a son of Robert T. Brown, of Perry county in this state. Young McClenahan was from St. Genevieve; and young Quisenberrry was a volunteer from this county, the son of Mr. J. T. Quisenberry.

         The news will fail with a crushing weight upon his parents- for he was a young man of excellent qualities, and greatly beloved by those who knew him. His return had been looked for, for some time, and, trusting that he had escaped from all the dangers of the service in which he had been engaged, we learn that his mother, with all  a mothers care for her children, had prepared his room for him, even in the most minute particulars necessary for his comfort. [BRR]


NNR 72.400 August 21, 1847 Col. Henry R. Jackson’s vindication against a charge of having plundered the hacienda of Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

         The Georgia Regiment.- Col. Henry R. Jackson, commanding this regiment, has addressed a letter to the Savannah Republican, vindicating his command from the charge of having plundered the hacienda of Santa Anna. He says:-

         I was in command of the column to which the Georgia regiment was attached on its return march to Vera Cruz, and upon approaching Santa Anna’s hacienda, sent out (as was my custom) a special guard to protect it from molestation. This guard was indeed out before the regiments were dismissed. A highly reliable officer was in charge of it, who reported to me that the house had been completely stripped before our arrival, and that nothing valuable had been left unmolested. Similar depredations had been committed upon all the ‘ranchos’ on the road. I heard at the time by whom and for what cause, but learning from experience how false many of these reports are, I am not disposed to give currency to what might have been a slander.

         Upon my arrival at Vera Cruz, I made a report in person, of what I had seen, to Gen. Patterson, who informed me that he was already in possession of the facts, and likewise of some very valuable paintings taken from a portion of the soldiery preceding as, which had been violently torn from their frames in the hacienda of Santa Anna. The idea of General Scott’s having written the letter alluded to, is of course, supremely ridiculous. [BRR]


NNR 72.400 August 21, 1847 “National Intelligencer” on Gen. Winfield Scott’s probable course

         A leading editorial in this morning’s National Intelligencer commences thus:

         We are satisfied, upon a deliberate review of all the public and private accounts that have reached as from Puebla, that no news of a decisive character need be looked for from that quarter for several weeks; one reason for this impression being the want of likelihood that GENERAL SCOTT would undertake to march his force for an attack upon the city of Mexico, without urgent necessity, during the rainy season, which began on the 10th of June, and will not end before late in September. There are other reasons against the probability of an immediate movement by the main body of the army upon the city; but this one reason being sufficient, it was hardly necessary to state the others which have influenced upon our mind, especially as they reach us through private channels. [BRR]


NNR 72.401 August 28, 1847 shifting of specie from New York to New Orleans for war expenses

         U.S. FUNDS. There is a report very current about town, that very lately, $2,000,000 in specie was sent from a bank in New York to New Orleans for war purposes. Tat the operation might not produce alarm in the money market, the money was taken from the bank at midnight. Can the report be true? [Boston Atlas

         It is true that $2,000,000 in specie were taken [ . . . ]from this city and sent to New Orleans, via Philadelphia, Pittsburg and the Mississippi river. It was not, however, taken from a bank, but from the subtreasury. It was sent to New Orleans in charge of a clerk belonging to the treasury department, and was, as stated, taken from the treasury a little after midnight to the Philadelphia line. This transaction took lace within a day or two after the promulgation of the reprt that an arrangement had been made with the Rothschilds, by which it would [ . . . ]be necessary to move coin, and the day after, [ . . . ]who had been in the habit of transporting specie south for the department had been informed that [ . . . ]would be wanted. [N.Y. Trib.
[BRR]


NNR 72.401 August 28, 1847 invalids brought to Pensacola from Veracruz
NNR 72.401 fever aboard the Decatur

Naval Journal.

        The U.S. steam frigate Mississippi, Sidney Smith e, Lieut. Com'g, arrived at Pensacola, on the 14th ult. in five days from Vera Cruz.

        The Mississippi, brought over for the naval hospital 144 officers, seamen, nd marines, belonging to the home squadron. Of the number taken from the other vessels of the squadron, none had died on the passage, and none of the 144 were confined to their hammocks.

        Though invalids, they were able to be about, and the sickness could not be considered dangerous.-

        Among the sick are Surgeon Lewis Minor and Passed Assistant Surgeon John Thornley.

        All communication between the Mississippi and the shore had been interdicted, so that little news transpired. Com. Perry had transferred his flag to the sloop of war Germantown.

        The fever was prevailing to a considerable extent on board the sloop of war Decatur. Midshipman Carmichael had recently died of it.

        It was supposed at Pensacola that the Mississippi would shortly return to era Cruz as her crew is intolerable health. Her arrival had led to some delay in daspatching the schooner Flirt to Vera Cruz.

        Surgeons Geo. Terrill and W. A. W. Spotswood have been ordered to report to Com. Perry for duty in the home squadron. IT continues quite healthy in Pensacola.

[N. O. Picayune.   [ANP, BRR]


NNR 72.402 August 28, 1847 production of the Mexican mines, opportunities to supply the American Army in Mexico with specie

From the Commercial Advertiser.

           The Sub-Treasury.- It has been rumored, for a day or two, that arrangements were making for the  transportation of one or two millions of specie to New Orleans, via the magnetic telegraph, or in some other mysterious way, by which the specie should remain in Wall street, and at the same time the government should have it in New Orleans. We can now say that the arrangement was yesterday consummated- one million of specie being taken out of the sub-treasury and placed in the State Bank, as the first step of its progress southward.

        We cannot, of course, know what security is taken by the secretary of he treasury that the specie shall be delivered in New Orleans. It is probably an agreement of certain banks or individuals to pay the sum stipulated within a specified time, it being understood that they get it there in such manner as they may find convenient or profitable. When the government employs the express house to transport their funds, a bill of lading or reecipt is given for certain boxes containing so much specie; and the delivery by them of any other boxes, or any alteration of the contents, would be a breach of contract. In such cases we are bound to suppose the government allows no tampering with its money. But the arrangement completed yesterday is for a different character. It does not require the delivery of the identical specie, but merely and equivalent amount of specie, and hence adds to the responsibility assumed by the secretary of the treasury, that of the parties with whom the arrangement is made- not merely that, as honest men, thy will transport it safely, but that, as solvent men, they will be able to deliver it at the appointed time and place, because they are allowed the use of the money until the time specified for its repayment.

         The Advertiser proceeds to comment on this as a violation of the sub-treasury law and to speak of the transaction as a loaning of the government funds, and as such, a felony in Mr. Walker.

         On this the New York Courier remarks as follows: “There is, we believe, no doubt but the secretary of the treasury, in order to save to the government the expense of transporting the specie to New Orleans, and in order to guard against a further drain of two millions of specie from this city, has made an arrangement with a capitalist by which the wants of the treasury will be supplied, and, at the same time, the specie not be moved. Such, we learn, will be the effect of the arrangement; and right glad are we to learn it. But the secretary of the treasury, as we understand, simply turns over the specie here to Mr. A B, with orders to deliver the amount in New Orleans on a day named!  This is doubtless in compliance with  the letter of a bad law; and the single fact that it cannot be carried out in is spirit, demonstrates that it should be rejected. The procedure, however, is one which cannot be otherwise than favorable to commerce, and will, at the same time, save a large sum to the country. If it also proves the folly of the sub-treasury, so much the better. We certainly shall not complain of it on that account.”

         The Union gives the following explanation of the transaction:

         “Now the transfer made by the secretary is in exact conformity not only with the letter, but also with the spirit of the law. The power is not to transport specie from one depository to another, but to “transfer moneys.

         Now, the simple question is, whether the same identical dollars in gold and silver must be transported from the depository in N. York to the depository in New Orleans, or whether the same amount of specie  may not lawfully be transferred under the law. The secretary is to “transfer money’s” from one depository to another” at his discretion,” “as the safety of the public moneys and the convenience of the public service shall seem to him to require.”  The secretary is vested by law with full “discretion” to judge of the mode of transfer, and is to make the transfer in such mode or modes as he may deem most safe and convenient.

         Well, what is the present case?  The secretary of the treasury is called upon by the war department, a few weeks in advance, to place certain amounts in specie, at certain dates, at New Orleans, for the prosecution for the war. Based upon the requisitions, the secretary, under the law, contracts with a capitalist of undoubted solvency at New York, who receives the specie there, to deposite the amounts required in specie at New Orleans at the times designated by the secretary of war. To the secretary and the government it makes no difference whether same identical dollars be deposited  in New Orleans, provided the amount in specie is the same, and that the deposite received in specie  is made  in specie. Nor does the law make, either in its letter or spirit, any such absurd requisition as to deposite the identical dollars; nor has it ever been so construe, but always otherwise.

         In the present case, the transfer was made of two millions in specie, to be delivered in specie at New Orleans within an average period of thirty eight days from the actual receipt of the money in New York. Now, in the present stage of the water, it would take at least twenty days to transport the specie from New York To Now Orleans, even if it were all sent at once in the same conveyance; but as this might probably be unsafe or impracticable, we submit whether an average period of thirty eight days is too long to allow for the transfer of two millions in specie  from New York to New Orleans. The idea of a loan never entered into the head of the secretary, nor, considering the duty to be performed would such a thing be possible. The secretary, under the law, simply contracts for the delivery of so much specie in New Orleans; and, if the party making the contract already has the specie of his own in New Orleans, is it not much more safe and convenient for him to deposite that specie in New Orleans, which is already there, rather than incur the greater delay and hazard of sending from  New York to New Orleans the identical dollars  received at New York?  The truth is, such as idea never occurred to any friend of the constitutional treasury; and it is only its enemies who desire to destroy it by rendering it unsafe or impracticable, that can give the law such a construction.”  [BRR]


NNR 72.408- 409 August 28, 1847 tribute to the deceased officers of the first dragoons

A TRIBUTE TO THE MEMORY OF THOSE GALLANT OFFICERS OF THE 1ST DRAGOONS, WHO FELL IN DEFENCE OF THEIR COUNTRY IN THE PRESENT WAR

Death loves to strike
Where deepest he can wound:
And deepest loss his shafts inflict
Is not the numbers- but the men.

         If, as the poet says, “death loves a shining mar,” truly does the demon of war select for his victims the choicest spirits among the noble and the brave. How large and frequent have been his gleanings f this kind among the officers and men of our gallant, though little army, as if to neutralize the glory it has acquired in the present war, and as a tax upon the immortal fame of its unparalleled achievements!  He has demanded, time and again, the flower and chivalry of the noble spirits that compose her gallant regiments and on the 1st dragoons his exactions have been painfully exorbitant.

         This regiment had acquired under the command of Col. KEARNY, a high rank- a most enviable reputation for accomplished soldiership. The personel of this regiment,  moral, intellectual and physical, was of the very highest order, and furnished a living and mighty demonstration, resistless as the omnipotency of truth, that moral and intellectual qualities are the strength, glory and efficiency of the soldier. And when the war began- when the first notes of the clarion came upon the breeze of the south- how ardent the enthusiasm, how uncontrollable the desire in every breast to hasten to the field of strife, to join their brother soldiers there. But what a change has one short year wrought among and upon that gallant band, that left here so full of hope- so replete with devotion to their country- so ambitious of fame.-  Who can recall to remembrance without sad and mournful reflections, their gallant bearing- their proud and brilliant array, as they defiled from out the grove that shades the green parade of the fort, as the band poured forth the rich and soul-inspiring notes of our finest national airs!  The very horses appeared to partake of the martial enthusiasm for the their riders, and to be impatient for the battle they seemed to smell  afar off. But alas! how many of these stalwart arms are now paralyzed in death!  How many of those gallant hearts, whose every pulsation  was for  honor, truth  and chivalry, are cold and still as the dust of the valley that enshrouds their mouldering bodies!  How many of those gallant and manly forms that were borne away on their proud and prancing steeds, now sleep the sleep that knows no waking, and year after year the lone minds of heave shall wail their sad requiem over their slumbering dust, while spring, unconscious of sorrow, wo and care, will hang her garlands of peace around, and autumn will shower his faded glories- sad emblems of mortality upon the lonely graves of the good, the generous, and the brave.

         The first on the list of the gallant officers of the 1st dragoons, who fell in battle, is Capt. JOHN H.K. BURGWIN, than whom a better or braver man never yielded his life to the cause of his country. A brief notice of this wost estimable man and invaluable officer, is all we can present, for no communication, however extended and ably drawn, could do justice to his merits. He was a native of N. Carolina and descended from one of the first families in the state, where his father still resides to mourn his irreparable loss.

         At an early age Captain BURGWIN entered West Point acamedy- an institution that is equaled by none in the world, and which has imparted that high moral and chivalrid character to our army, which renders its officers so invincible in war, and so distinguished for the gentler virtues in peace. He graduated with distinguished honors, and then entered the army, serving some years in the infantry, from which he was transferred to the 1st dragoons at its formation, in which he served until his death, which occurred on the 7th of February last, from a wound received on the 4th of that month, at the battle of Puebla De Taos in N.M. He fell in the 37th year of his age, lamented by all, for none knew him, but to love and esteem him.

         The writer of this short biography, who was honored with his friendship and intimacy for several years, can say of him, that here is not a virtue which adorns and elevates human character, that Captain BURGWIN did not possess in its living and practical character, and the writer can as truly say, that if he possessed a single defect, he know it not. His mind was of the first order, and highly cultivated, not only in all that pertained to his profession, but also in  all that constituted the general science and literature of the times; and with the firmness and inflexibility of the soldier were combined the choicest refinement of manners, purity of sentiment, integrity of principle, and gentle ness of spirit. Nature seems in him to have furnished a living demonstration of an important truth, which many are slow in receiving- that every virtue which can beautify humanity, can enter into combination with the highest virtues and noblest excellencies of the soldier- and that the latter, are all the better, the brighter, and the nobler, when found in combination with the former.

         In the language of the master poet and delineator of human character, we would say of our lamented friend,

“His life was gentle, and the elements
So mixed in him, that nature might stand up
And say to all the world, This was a man.”

         The next is Capt. BENJAMIN D. MOORE, who fell at San Pasqual, in California, the 6th of December, gallantly fighting the battle of his country against overwhelming numbers. Captain MOORE was born in Davis, Bourbon county, Kentucky. At the age of sixteen he received a midshipman’s appointment to the United States navy, and was employed several years on many an active and remote cruize. In this service he acquired in a high degree the esteem and confidence of his superior officers and messmates, and passed his examination with great credit.

         After several years absence on hard service, he returned on a visit to his family, who had removed to Illinois. This was at the commencement of the Black Hawk war. Capt. Moore entered into Capt. Mathew Duncans’s company of mounted rangers and was elected first lieutenant of the company, and in that capacity served with great ability during the war; and when the rangers were consolidated into the 1st dragoon, his gallantry and good conduct gained him the appointment permitting him to [ . . . ] change his commission from the navy as a [ . . . ]and merited favor.

         From that time until his death, his character and conduct as an officer, gentleman, and soldier, were such as secured to him universal esteem. Time would fail to tell of his many and most estimable qualities- of his intrepid courage- his exalted sense of honor- his devotion to his profession, and to his country through his profession- his chivalry, his magnanimity, and his detestation of whatever was dishonorable and mean; and then his generosity and untiring hospitality, how many can testify to the qualities. His hear was alike full of true benevolence as patriotic devotion; and his hand was ever as ready to relieve the distress of others, as his arm was strong to strike for his country. And in all thoughts, feelings, calculations and actions, such never appeared to have a voice or a hearing. For others he alone seemed to exist, as for others he died. As a husband, none could be more affectionate, devoted and kind, and as a father, none could exceed him in pateranal tenderness and care. Two children mourn their sad bereavement and early orphanage, their mother having died a few years previous.

         In the action in which he lost his life, he was pierced with sixteen lance wounds; his sword was shivered to pieces, after he had cut down some of the Mexicans, and he fell dead, grasping the hilt in his hand.

         The next in this distinguished list of heroes, is Capt. ABRAHAM JOHNSTON, who also fell at the same time and place with Capt. Moore.

         Capt. JOHNSTON was a native of Ohio, and a graduate of West Point. He was an excellent officer, and a gentleman of most excellent character, and most moral and amiable in his conduct and manners. His mind was of the highest order, and was a most devoted worshipper in the temple of science; his scientific acquisitions were very great, and his love and pursuit of it were most ardent and unwearied. His scientific journal, which he was keeping in the expedition to California, would have been interesting and valuable had he lived to complete it.

         The last on this list, is Lieut. THOS C HAMMOND, who was also a graduate of West Point, and had been a little more than three years in the service. But he gave early promise of becoming a valuable officer. Generous, noble, honorable and highminded, he was proud of his profession, and panted for distinction on the battle field, but his fist battle was also his last. He fell beside Capt. Moore, who he endeavored to save. They were brothers in law- both having married daughters of Judge Hughes, a worthy citizen of Latte county, Mo. And thus those two gallant officers, most amiable in life, and united together by life’s holiest and dearest ties, “in death were not divided.”

         Lieutenant HAMMOND leaves a young and amiable wife, and one child, to weep their loss; and his mother, now also a widow, (for his father is dead, Gen’l. Hammond, late paymaster in the U.S. army) resides in Milton, Pennsylvania, to mourn over her double bereavement.

         Thus have fallen, in the flower of their days, some of the noblest of our country’s chivalry. But we indulge the hope- the more than hope-that they rest from their labors with Him, who is the “resurrection and the life.”

LEANDER KER,
Chaplain U.S. Army.

[BRR]


NNR 72.409 August 28, 1847, expectation that guerrillas can be driven from the sand hills near Vera Cruz and the road opened to Jalapa

Two hundred mules, ladened with sugar and other articles from Orizaba  and above, had just arrived at Vera Cruz, which is the first opening that a trade with the interior has experienced. The writer feels confident that, as they have a body of 200 cavalry in the town, they can act on the offensive and drive the guerrillas back from the sand hills; and that as soon as Col. Hughes should arrive with his corps of cavalry, &c, they would have no difficulty opening the road at least to Jalapa. The idea of such an event was calculated to inspire everybody, and especially the foreign merchants, with the hope that foreign importations will increase and specie come down to the city. It was said there was six millions in money and bullion waiting for the opening of the road. The writer confirms the intelligence of 1,100 troops leaving on the 6th inst. to join the main army under the command of Col. Wilson, (of North Carolina) who had arrived there a day or two previous; but he was unable to join them in consequence of an attack of the fever. [LTR]


NNR 72.409 August 28, 1847, “Union's” denial of the “National Intelligencer’s” statement on Gen. Winfield Scott’s actions

In a postscript in our last, we inserted part of a leading editorial from the National Intelligencer of that morning, relative to the movements of General Scott.

The Washington Union of Monday thus notices the article:

“Wen do not know to what its [the National Intelligencer’s] “private channels’ of information may be but we doubt in one respect the accuracy of the information of the National Intelligencer. We know perfectly well that General Scott has received no instruction from the department to suspend his operations in consequence of the weather, or of want of reinforcements or of any other cause whatever, except the ratification of a treaty. We know, further, that the department has received no such notice of his intentions as stated by the National Intelligencer, from General Scott himself, or any other officer of the army. We know further, that a letter has been received by one of the principal bureaus of Washington, from a most intelligent officer of General Scott’s army, and very much in his confidence, who states that the negotiation is said to have failed; and, therefore, as soon as General Pierce should join him with his detachment, the general would march on to occupy the capital. We are also almost sure that General Scott has every motive to strike at the capital, and that nothing but insurmountable difficulties or the most urgent necessity would induce him to risk his own military character and the glory of the service, and the chance of negotiation and of peace, by declining to take possession of the capital. For General Scott to postpone his advance until “late September,” for fear of the rain, would be to put everything at hazard.”

         The Union then goes on to argue that the “rains” are not usually such as should prevent the advance of Gen. Scott, and though it does not say that he will not advance, yet it leaves an impression that he may fail to do so, and thus bring down upon him the severest censure. [LTR]


NNR 72.409 August 28, 1847 failure of efforts to exchange Midshipman Robert Clay Rodgers

From The Army.- Letters have been received  in this city by the last arrivals from Vera Cruz.- Among them is an interesting letter, (which we have seen,) from Peubla, of the 28th of July. General Scott had sent on a flag of truce on the subject of prisoners. It went forward on the 13th, and with it Lieut. R. Semmes, of the navy, who had been sent on some time since to Gen. Scott’s camp, for the purpose of effecting on exchange for Midshipmen Rodgers, of the navy, and, if necessary, threatening retaliation in case the Mexicans should treat him as a spy

         This flag, however, was stopped by the Mexican authorities a couple of miles beyond the Rio Frio, and some thirty-five miles from the city of Mexico. They refused the flag any admission into the city, and the dispatches were necessarily sent on by the Mexicans themselves. A reply had been received from the Mexican government agreeing to exchange Mr. Rodgers, with the other prisoners; but the terms of exchange ha not yet been settled, but probably would be in a few weeks. In consequence of this reply. Lieutenant Semmes had deemed it most prudent to withhold Commodore Perry’s peremptory letter. [LTR]


NNR 72.409 August 28, 1847, Nicholas Phillip Trist despairs of negotiating at present

This letter from Puebla further states that Mr. Trist, who had been endeavoring for a month previously to open a negotiation with the Mexican government, had abandoned all hope of success-at least for the present. Mr. Buchanan’s letter had reached Santa Anna through the courteous offices of Mr. Bankhead, and, as we have seen it repeatedly stated in the papers, was referred by Santa Anna to the congress-a session of this body being called for that purpose. After many delays, and much apparent unwillingness to meet, the congress assembled with a quorum of 74 members on the 13th of  July. It immediately took the subject into consideration, and, as we have seen it stated, adopted a report and resolution to the following effect, viz: that it belonged to the executive, under their constitution, to receive all ministers and other public agents, and to make treaties of peace, alliances, &c.; that the functions of congress were limited to the approving or disapproving of these treaties when made; and that, consequently, until a treaty should be submitted to it in form, it could take no constitutional action on the subject. Accordingly the congress returned Mr. Buchanan’s letter to Santa Anna, and adjourned on the same day it had met. The letter states there had been no meeting since most of the members having run off. It goes on to the state that, upon the receipt of this report and these resolutions, Santa Anna issued a proclamation, stating that congress, on the 20th of April last, had passed a decree declaring that any Mexican in authority, who should proposition for peace from the enemy, should be deemed a traitor and treated accordingly; and that, until this decree was repealed, his hands were tied, and he could do nothing; adding, at the same time, that as Mr. Buchanan’s letter was courteous, it was due to the character of the Mexican nation to give it at least a polite reception and consideration. Thus, says the letter, the matter stands-neither Santa Anna nor the congress daring to take the responsibility of treating with us, and leaving us no alternative but to march to the capital, subdue and occupy it. “It is barely possible when Santa Anna shall be again beaten and his troops dispersed, that he may be overthrown by a revolution, and that the new party may make peace with us.”  The writer, however, thinks it quite likely, considering the dogged obstinacy of the race, that they will reject the olive branch for the present, and compel us to prosecute the war with a greater and a more sweeping vigor. [LTR]


NNR 72.409 August 28, 1847, refusal of the Mexican congress to consider overtures for peace

We have not yet sufficient data to calculate the chances of peace or war; but as Mexico is famous for her dilatory policy and her inconsistent counsels, and as from her character we should suppose that she may employ negotiation with the idle hope of gaining time, so we cannot doubt our military operations will not be seriously suspended until the ratification of a treaty of peace. We presume our propositions, if they should be submitted, are drawn so clearly and distinctly as not to admit of much evasion or delay. We date to venture another suggestion- that the administration is preparing for either fortune, and that additional preparations are making a vigorous prosecution of the war, if such necessity should be imposed upon us. [LTR]


NNR 72.409 August 28, 1847, Gen. Winfield Scott awaiting Gen. Franklin Pierce before advancing on to Mexico

The letter states that Gen. Scott was only awaiting the arrival of Gen. Pierce, who was expected in about ten days, to move forward. Many were expecting a greater battle on the plains of Mexico, as Santa Anna is said to have 25,000 troops, and has fortified the city and its approaches. [LTR]


NNR 72.409 August 28, 1847, various rumors about the Mexican peace party, gathering of Mexican troops at Mexico City

We have seen a later letter from Vera Cruz-viz: on the 7th of August. The writer then indulges more hope of peace-the dawning of which, as he states, the British minister speaks of in his letter to the British consul at Vera Cruz. And even some officers of distinction in Mexico had expressed to their Mexican friends in Vera Cruz the same opinion. This letter also states Col. Wilson had just received a letter from Gen. Soto, the Mexican governor of Orizaba, saying that he will exchange Lieutenant Whipple, recently taken by the guerrillas, for a lieutenant colonel, who is known in Vera Cruz, and will also give four other American prisoners into the bargain; but the colonel is rather scrupulous in undertaking the responsibility of the exchange. [LTR]


NNR 72.409-410 August 28, 1847, correspondence between Gen. Winfield Scott and Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna relative to peace intercepted by the Mexicans

The New Orleans La Patria, of the 15th, publishes letters from Tampico, from which we give some extracts below, stating that a private correspondence had been intercepted between Gen. Scott and Gen. Santa Anna, which had produced much excitement at the capital. It carries rather a treasonable appearance on the face of it, as regards to Santa Anna, but he explains it by saying he was endeavoring to lead Gen. Scott into a trap

We have no opportunity of knowing how far the correspondence of La Patria may be depended on, but the tenor of the last advices from Puebla and Mexico, are of a nature, we think, to render the present information very probable. N.O. Bulletin. Tampico, Aug. 6th, 1847. In a letter dated the 9th August, published in La Patria, the information respecting the “intercepted correspondence” is confirmed. [LTR]


NNR 72.410 August 28, 1847, troops under Gen. Gabriel Valencia arrive at Mexico City

The division under Gen. Valencia, from San Luis, it was expected, had joined Santa Anna at the capital, with which his forces would number about 30,000 men, who are in want of neither provisions or water. [LTR]


NNR 72.410 August 28, 1847, dispute between Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna and the Mexican Congress on entertaining peace overtures

Mexico- Santa Anna has made a new communication to congress, through the secretary of foreign affairs, in which he tells them, that if they area not willing to take the responsibility on the subject of Mr. Buchanan’s letter, neither is he. That he does not wish congress to take the initiative, further than to express its opinion, whether the proposals from the American government shall be listened to or not. If congress will express their opinion on this point, it will be followed by him. If it wishes him to listen to the proposals of the United States, he will do so, and he then knows what his duties are.

Congress has given no answer to this, as no quorum can be obtained. There is an existing law, declaring all those traitors, who propose a peace, and the executive would certainly come within the provisions of the law, if he opened negotiations for that object. As matters now stand, there appears but little prospect of nay thing being done, as in the position that Santa Anna has assumed, with congress, it is very evident that he cannot enter into any negotiations until congress has acted on the subject and expressed their assent to the measure.

The result, probably will be the immediate advance of Gen. Scott. The capture of the capital, and then possibly, perhaps, even probably, congress may express its willingness that negotiations should be opened. Even however, if this was done the views fo the two governments, are so opposite, as regards terms, particularly as to territory, that we see but little chance of their agreeing.

The Mexicans, however, seem confident of being able to defend their city successfully. If they can do so, all hopes or probability of peace would vanish entirely. A repulse of General Scott, situated as he is, we should regard as equal to an actual defeat, as the whole country would rise like a swarm of bees upon his meeting with any serious reverse.

So confident are the enemy in their strength, that it is stated, they intend to dispatch a considerable force from the capital towards Vera Cruz, in order the more effectualy to cut off all communications in the rear, and intercept supplies coming up. The force in and near the city, is estimated at 30,000 men. [LTR]


NNR 72.410 August 28, 1847, details of a letter from Tampico

Extract from a letter from Tampico, dated 7th of August:

“Our dates from the capital are to the 30th. Gen. Scott had moved. The letters are very barren of political news, as, since the expedition, writers are afraid to compromise themselves. Our regular mail from the city, is, for the present, destroyed, owing as much to the late expedition, as to the order of Col. Gates that all letters should first be shown to him previous to distribution. They, however, find their way in, by private hands; owing to these late orders, the contents are only spoken of confidentally.

“You will find herewith, an order from the colonel of the 7th, in which citizens are forbid furnishing any article, that might find its way to the public press, under penalty of expulsion. I learned the order will be strictly enforced, without regard to the amount of sacrifice that might be incurred by the parties.

“It will effectually prevent criticism, and allow the colonel to pen his reports to his own satisfaction. [LTR]


NNR 72.410 August 28, 1847, withdrawl  of troops under Gen. Jose Urrea from Tula

“The troops that were at Tula, under General Urrea, have been withdrawn to the interior leaving no enemy’s  force this side of the mountains, exceeding 300 men, and they are detached in small guerrilla bands.” [LTR]


NNR 72.410 August 28, 1847, American comments on the leadership of Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

Santa Anna-The Nashville “Union” coincides with the Richmond Enquirer, in considering it fortunate that Santa Anna was placed in command of the Mexican army. The paper says:

“We are not aware that any mischief has been done by Santa Anna to the advance of our arms-On the contrary, we think that if we can keep such cowards at the head of the Mexican army we shall have easy work of it, compared with what we should have if ParedEs, or Arista, or Vega were at the head of the Mexican forces; and we have also supposed that he would make a peace as soon as he could though he has now to appear to be warlike to do away with the charge of cowardice.” [LTR]


NNR 72.410 August 28, 1847,  Brownson’s “Quarterly Review” on the war

Mr. Brownson, the late editor of the Democratic Review, who now publishes the Quarterly Review, in his last number, in reference to the Mexican war, says-

“For ourselves, we have regarded the Mexican warfrom the first as uncalled for, impolitie, and unjust We have examined the documents published by order of the government; we have read the official defence of the war in the last annual message of the president to congress, and with every disposition to find our own government in the right; but we are bound to say, that our original impressions have been strengthened rather than weakened. The president undoubtedly, makes it clear that we had many just causes of complaint against Mexico, which at the time of their occurrence might have justified reprisals, perhaps even war, but he cannot plead these in justification of the present war, for they were not the ground on which we professed to engage in it. The official announcement of the president to congress was that the war already existed between the two republics, by the act of Mexico herself, and whatever use we may make of old grievances in adjusting the terms of peace, we can make no use of them in defending the war. We can plead in its defence only the fact on which we grounded it namely, war exists by the act of Mexico herself. But unhappily, at the time of the official announcement, war did not exist between the two republics at all, for neither republic had declared war against the other. There had been a collision of their forces, but this was not war, as the president would have conceded, had he known or recollected the distinction between war and hostilities. By placing the war on the ground that it existed by the act of Mexico, and that ground being false, he has left it wholly indefensible, whatever the old grievances we may have to allege against Mexico.

“The act of Mexico in crossing the Rio Grande, and engaging our troops on territory which she had possessed and still claimed as hers, but which we asserted had, by a recent act against which she had protested, become ours-the act which the president chose to inform congress and the world was war-may or may not have been a just cause for declaring war against her, but it assuredly was not war itself. We have no intention to justify Mexico. She may have been decidedly in the wrong; she may have had no valid title to the territory of which the president had just taken military occupation; that territory may have been rightfully ours, and it may even have been the duty of the president to occupy and defend it;-but it cannot be denied that she had once possessed it; that it was still apart of one of her states or provinces; that she still claimed it, and had continued to exercise jurisdiction over it, till driven from it by our army of occupation; that she invaded it with an armed force, if invasion it can be called, not as territory belonging to us, but as territory belonging to her; and that she attacked our troops, not for the reason that they were intruders, on her soil. The motive of her act was not war against the United States, but the expulsion of intruders from her own territory.

“No sophistry can make her act war,-certainly not without conceding that our act in taking military possession of that territory was also war; and if that was war, if it existed at all, it existed by our act and not by hers, for her act was consequent upon ours. The most that the president was at liberty to say, without condemning his own government, was that there had been a collision of the forces of the two republics on a territory claimed by each; but this collision he had no right to term war, for everybody knows that it takes something more than a collision of the respective forces on a disputed territory to constitute a war between two civilized nations. In no possible point of view was the announcement of the president that war existed between the two republics, and existed by the act of Mexico, correct. It did not exist at all; or if it did it existed not by act of Mexico, but by our act. In either case, the official announcement was false, and cannot be defended.

“The president may have been governed by patriotic motives; he may have felt that a prompt and energetic action was required; he may have believed that in great emergencies the chief magistrate of a powerful republic, having to deal with a weak and distracted state, should rise superior to mere technical forms, and the niceties of truth and honor; but it strikes us that he would have done better, proved himself more patriotic, and sufficiently prompt and energetic, if he had confined himself to the ordinary rules of morality, and the well defined principles of international law. By aspiring to rise above these and to appear original, he has placed his country in a false position, and debarred himself, whatever the just causes of war Mexico may have given us from pleading one of them in justification of the actual war. We must be permitted to regret that he did not reflect before-hand, that, if he placed the defence of the war on the ground that it already existed, and existed by the act of Mexico herself, and on that ground demanded of congress the means of prosecuting it, he would, in case that ground proved to be untenable, as he must have known it would, have nothing whatever to allege in its or his own justification. He should have been lawyer enough to have known that he could not plead anew, after having failed on his first issue. It is often hazardous in our pleadings to plead what is not true, and in doing so in the present case, the president has not only offended morality, which he may regard as a small matter, but has even committed a blunder.

“The course the president should have pursued is plain and obvious. On learning the state of things on the frontier, the critical condition of our army of occupation, he should have demanded of congress the reinforcements and supplies necessary to relieve it and secure the purpose for which it was avowedly sent to the Rio Grande; and, if he believed it proper or necessary, to have in addition laid before congress a full and truthful statement of our retaliations with Mexico including all the unadjusted complains past and present, we had against her, accompanied by the recommendation of a declaration of war. He would then have kept within the limits of his duty, proved himself a plain constitutional president, and left the responsibility of war or no war to congress the only war making power known to the laws.-Congress after mature deliberations, might or might not nave so or not the responsibility would have resulted with it, and no blame would have attached to the president

“Unhappily, this course did not occur to the president, or was too plain and simple to meet his probation. As if fearful, if congress deliberated, it might refuse to declare war, and as if determined to have war a any rate, he presented to congress, not the true issue, whether the war should or should not be declared-but the false issue, whether congress would grant hi the means of prosecuting a war waged against us by a foreign power. In the true issue, congress might have hesitated-in the one actually presented there was no room to hesitate if the official announcement of the president was to be credited, and hesitation would have been criminal.

“By declaring the war already existed, and by the act of Mexico herself, the president relieved congress of the responsibility of the war, by throwing it on Mexico. But since he cannot fasten it on Mexico,-for war did not already exist, or if so, by our act and not hers,-it necessarily recoils upon himself, and he must bear the responsibility of doing what the constitution forbids him to do,-of making war without the intervention of congress. In effect, therefore, he has trampled the constitution under his feet set a dangerous precedent, and by the official publication of a palpable falsehood, sullied the national honor.

“It is with no pleasure that we speak thus of the chief magistrate of the Union, for whose elevation to his high and responsible office we ourselves voted. But whatever may be our attachment to party, or the respect we hold to be due from all good citizens to the civil magistrate, we cannot see the constitution violated; and the national honor sacrificed, whether by friend or foe, from good motives or bad, without entering, feeble though it be, our stern and indigenous protest.” [LTR]


NNR 72.410-411 August 28,1847, Washington “Union” on the Whig Party’s policy toward the war with Mexico

The Washington Union charges the Whig party with inducing the Mexicans to continue the war. The following is from the paper:

“At this very moment Mexico holds out in the war exclusively on the arguments and pretenses which the opposition orators and presses among ourselves have framed for her, and instructed her to employ. She says we have “robbed” her of Texas. She has adopted both the idea and he phrase of it from the recognized organs of the creed of the opposition. She says we are fighting her to oppress and degrade her, and dismember her territory. She finds the very terms she uses, set down for her in the opposition speeches and journals, and beholds the opposition party of our country rallied upon them as a party motto. She proclaims that to her the question is a question of national existence: and for proof of her assertion, she points to such devices as the “lust of conquest” and the “destruction of a sister republic,” emblazenoned on every flag. She calls her people to resistance and endurance, and such predatory battle is they have yet the power to make, avowedly on the hope that the administration her must soon abandon the war; and, as a reason for such faith, she cites the abored diatribes in which the leading organs of the opposition have again and again labored to demonstrate that our war has yet “conquered” nothing but the “spirit of our own constitution” and that its unpopularity with the people must soon eject from power the councils in which it has been waged .-Her rulers tell her people that peace is dishonor; and find their warrant to say so in the federal invectives which denounce the war on our part as “ruthless rapine and murder,” and call upon the Mexicans to “welcome the invaders with bloody hands and a hospitable grave.”  Her government journals announce to their deluded readers the approaching advent of “a better spirit towards Mexico” in our government, and for proof, they cite the stereotyped federal motto of “no more Mexican territory.”

Mainly-nay, almost solely-upon such federal paid and comfort, the war of Mexico holds out.-She looks for help to her “allies” here. American action fights her battle for her, when she can no longer battle with hope of success in the field. Our war has been full of victories. Thanks to the ability with which it has been planned and organized, and the high-souled valor with which it has been fought our conflicts have been victories. The military prowess of our people and of our institutions has excited  the astonishment and won the admiration f the world. But the fury of faction has found, in the freedom of those same institutions, “room and verge” enough to rally a “peace party” with power to rob our victories, in large measure, of their moral effect upon our enemy, to inspire her new courage and so to protract her hostilities even when the sinews of her war are broken and withered. [LTR]


NNR 72.411 August 28, 1847, New Hampshire “Statesman” on the Whig party and the Mexican war

The New Hampshire Statesman, inserts the above under the caption of “WHO PROTRACTS THE WAR” and says:-“The federalists are continually denouncing the government for not bringing the war to a close, while they themselves are doing more than any body else to prevent what they pretended so ardently to desire. They in fact caused the war; for no one believes that the Mexicans would ever have committed the first act of hostility, if they had not been encouraged to do so by their allies in this country. It was the conduct of the Mexican sympathizers here that caused the war; and we have abundant evidence that it is their conduct-the encouragement, “aid and comfort” which they are daily affording the Mexicans-which is protracting the war.”

The Statesman concluded its editorial by saying:-“With these incontrovertible facts before them, the intelligent and patriotic people of this country will have no difficulty in determining where rests the responsibility of the continuance of war. They will see that but for federal “aid and comfort” the Mexicans would have accepted our offers of peace months ago; they will see that our country has been robbed of the fruits of her score of splendid victories, by “the base and selfish purpose of faction,” and seeing this, and these factionists still continue their base game, they will readily infer that before we can secure that peace which we desire and which we are fighting to obtain, we must conquer and disarm the foe from within our own borders.” [LTR]


NNR 72.411 August 28, 1847, letter from the Army of Occupation

Extract of a letter from the army, dated “Camp near Monterey, July 27, 1847.

“We are absolutely without news in this quarter and are anxiously looking towards Mexico, expecting to hear either of an armistice or the occupation of the capital by our troops. Should there be no peace, a forward movement will be made by this column, by 1st September. Gen. Taylor will probably be able to take with him about 6,000 men.

“The troops have been very unhealthy at Saltillo and Mier, where a large camp has been established; at the latter place they are improving; all is quiet in this part of Mexico” [LTR]


NNR 72.411 August 28, 1847, Mexican atrocities near Matamoros, barbarities near Parras

ATROCITIES-Robbery, rape, and hanging appear to be the order of the day among the rancheros in the neighborhood of Matamoros. A few days ago a party of robbers went to the house of a Mexican in the country, and while a few of them amused themselves by hanging the man, the rest perpetrated the two first named crimes. There are bands of lawless desperado Mexicans prowling about our vicinity , whom it would be well for our scouting parties to look out for. The hanged Mexican was not much hurt-the object of his tortures being more to divert his attention from what the others were doing, than any thing else. [LTR]


NNR 72.411 August 28, 1847, arrival of a portion of Col. Alexander William Doniphan’s command at Saint Louis

ARRIVAL FROM THE RIO GRANDE-The party who were detailed from Col. Doniphan’s regiment to start from Carmargo to St. Louis, by a land route, to take in charge the horses, mules, &c. belonging to the regiment arrived in this city on Wednesday evening last. They accomplished the trip of seventeen hundred miles in about six weeks. They arrived with about one hundred mules-being but about  one half of the stock they started with. The horses, almost all, failed to stand the journey, and died, or were left behind from exhaustion. [LTR]


NNR 72.411 August 28, 1847 "the starving Mexicans at the battle of Buena Vista"

        The starving Mexicans at the Battle of Buena Vista. After quoting paragraphs and letters that had been published here, stating that the Mexican army during the battle of Buena Vista were suffering from hunger and thirst, the Picket Guard says: "Unadulterated falsehood, every word of this. "Hunger and thirst!" Santa Anna's camp at Encantada stretched for two miles along the banks of a plenteous stream of as good water as there is in Mexico-water enough to supply a million of men. And along this stream lay the heads and bones of 50 to 100 becves that had been slaughtered during the short stay at Encantada. This looks wondrously like starvation. Besides our men all know, that there was scarcely a Mexican found on the field of battle that had not at least a day's provision in hi haversack. A likely story that men in starving condition would lug around with them provisions in their haversacks."  [ANP]


NNR 72.411 August 28, 1847, comments on the withdrawal of the second and third Indiana regiments from Mexico

THE HOOSIERS. The 2nd and 3rd Indiana regiments, the first under Col. Bowles, and the other under Col. Lane and his brave band, they will go home to meet the warm greetings and congratulations of their friends, for having nobly borne the hardships of the campaign and sustained the honor of their state and country by their brave and gallant conduct of the field. But while they are reaping this rich reward for their toils, let them not forget to do justice to their brethren of the 2nd. Does that once ardent friend, now by his cold greeting and inquisitive look seem to question their gallantry on the field?  It is unjust let no man refer to the 2nd Indiana regiment as an exception to the uniform brave conduct of the volunteers. It may be true that if they kept their position in the morning it would have made a difference in he result of the day; but it was not the men that faltered before the enemy. The ill conceived and shockingly managed retreat, with all its calamities must rest on others shoulders. They obeyed orders; and who, after such a retreat can blame them for not being prompt to rally?  To rally where?-Upon some other regiments indeed was their only alternative and most of them did so. Nay, if the men of the 2nd Indiana regiment are no cowards, then are all regiments such; for there cannot be collected a body of 500 men from any state in the Union who under like circumstances would not have been guilty of the same conduct. [LTR]


NNR 72.411 August 28, 1847, praise for Private Divers and Corporal Agnew

PRIVATE DIVERS I was pleased to see in your last number a communication awarding justice to a few privates that distinguished themselves in the battle of Buena Vista, and since it as so well met your own approbation. I will take the liberty to add a few more names to the list.

No man can deserve more praise for his general conduct during the battle at Buena Vista than private Divers, of company I 21 Illinois regiment-He was always in and in advance of the front rank, especially when on a charge and more than once during the day. I heard his officers calling him back. For his gallant bearing, he was complimented on the field in my hearing by the lamented Hardin. In the vast charge he captured the flag that had previously been captured and lost by Captain Raith, and, although it necessarily rendered him a conspicuous object he bore it in the retreat as far as the road having been twice attacked on the way. At the road he was attacked by four lancers turning to defend himself from whom he fell; and before he could recover himself, the flag and his gun having fallen some distance from him, his assailants recaptured the flag and were sending it to the rear. He shot the man that bore it and the imminent  risk of his life re took it and bore it in triumph.

CORPORAL AGNEW, Again, the conduct of young Agnew, a corporal in the same company, merits all praise. He carried the banner out on the morning of the 23rd, and in our first retreat went no further than to the brow of the ravine into which he was ordered, where he planted his colors and declared that they should be wafted in sight of the enemy as long as he had the honor to bear them. He stood nobly by them all day and though rent by the enemy’s balls, they were never lowered and were borne in safe at the close of the day. [LTR]


NNR 72.411 August 28, 1847 Incident Involving Maj. Joseph K.F. Mansfield at the Battle of Monterey

An incident at the Battle of Monterey.-- While Col. Davis, with his command, was hotly engaged with the enemy, exposed to their direct fire, a man in a long gray surtout suddenly rode up, and , dismounting, placed himself in the middle of the street. There, in face of the enemy, amidst the thickest of the fire, he coolly drew from a case, suspended about his person, a spy-glass, with which, having adjusted it to a proper focus, he proceeded to reconnoiter the Mexican battery. Having satisfied himself as to the information the sought, he shut up the glass, returned it to its case, and, approaching Col. Davis, said to him: "Sir, the enemy has but two pieces, and by making a detour to the right you can take them in flank?" "And who the devil are you?" "I, sir, am Major Mansfield, of the corps of engineers." " All right! come on boys!" responded the colonel. The battery was soon carried. [TNW]


NNR 72.411-412 August 28, 1847, comment of Sr. Pacheco’s circulars on conduct of war with the United States and establishment of peace

SIR: The nomination which his excellency the president has been pleased to make of the undersigned  to the portfolio of the first secretaryship-in which post he tenders to your excellency his services both to aid in promoting the happiness of the state and to yourself individually-is a confirmation in every respect of the programme which has been proclaimed by every act of the administration. Drawn from the bosom of congress where he has constantly advocated and voted for the maintenance of the war until glorious peace and should be obtained; an influential actor in the glorious movement in August, which had for its object to restore to the nation its institutions, and to wash out the stain inflicted upon it by a general who abandoned the cause of our nationality; an original supporter of the federative system and well known as the author of various writings published by him as a private citizen; ever the exponent of the ideas of liberty and order-the president has thought favorably of his capacity to express his orders based on these views.

One of the weapons which is always employed in wars of invasion-especially when waged as is this upon Mexico, without a noble aim or from a just motive-is to sow dissention among the people which is invaded; for there is no people, however weak it may be, that it is not strong and invincible when united. Unfortunately our people is not united, and in good earnest this infernal policy has here found opportunity to show its efficacy. It had almost succeeded and would have completely succeeded, had it not been resisted by a few-so far as to deliver over, bound hand and foot, the chief of the nation into the power of its enemies, accused with connivance with them, to be sacrificed by them for having waged war in the name and for the service of the nation. Is this country destined to present to the world these examples of conduct towards its chiefs?  Hurbide! Guerrero! Now Santa Anna! Must this nation shelter within its bosom men who are forever to bring upon it the imputation of artifice, perfidy, and ingratitude?

It cannot be that this nation should be more or less devoted to her own dignity than any other; and if an immense majority of her people are patriots , who would prefer death to the dishonor of the country of their birth, there not wanting, as in every other nation, individuals who either cowards or traitors, favor directly or indirectly the enemy.

With us, men of this stamp have not stopped half way. With a view to gain a shameful individual security, they have aimed to disarm Santa Anna by imputing to him designs the most improbable. The more absurd these pretenses the more popular are they. The antecedence of his whole life, the glory of his name indissolubly associated with the history of this war, and the position he has occupied in the battles he has fought in person-all these are here, with which a reasonable man should be satisfied. Then consider the guerrillas of the state of Vera Cruz; many of these were early organized by this same Gen. Santa Anna, were formed from the servants upon his haciendas, and paid for from his own purse, and one of these is the leader who molested the enemy.

But party rancor, fear, and egotism do not reason; they continue to impute to the president an understanding with the enemy, and plans and preparations for making peace; whilst the president, listening only to the dictates of his heart, and the wishes of the legislatures and governors of the states, will be the first to encounter the enemy at the head of those who will share the honor, as he has before encountered him at La Angostura and Cerro Gordo, and he will so encounter him everywhere. If this nation is destined to lose her independence by the dissensions of her sons, the destiny of General Santa Anna is also fixed. Like another Guatimozin he will be the last Mexican who may fight for his country, let not his evil star disarm the government in the presence of the enemy; and in making use of the powers with which the national representation; has invested it, the executive will continue itself strictly and religiously to the terms to which its powers were confined.

His excellency, the provisional president is also determined to sustain at all hazards the established system and the will of the nation, expecting that their excellencies, the governors of the states, by their zealous co-operation with him will prove in this crisis-the greatest which can ever befall a nation-that the Federal system is that best calculated for the great end proposed by all systems-that it may stand up with all the elements of its strength around it, and be united as one man, in the defence of its independence and dignity.

The secondary measures of the administration to consummate these purposes will be dictated by the law and in spirit eminently democratic. Individual guaranties will be respected so far as the forms of law shall prevail should he survive the combat, like that hero he will be able to exclaim; “kill me if you would enjoy in peace your conquest. A man like me can only be followed by Mexicans and when he raised to their view the standard of honor, it may not disturb your dreams.”

Such are the principles by which his excellency, the provisional president aims to justify the confidence in his country, and the hopes of those enlightened nations friendly to her; such are the principles he has expressed to the undersigned, in conferring on him the highest honor a Mexican can receive, by associating the undersigned with himself in this work in the hour of danger; and such, too, are the views with which the undersigned has entered the ministry relying henceforth upon the officers co-operation of your excellency and the state you so worthily govern: which co-operation he solicits in the name of the country  which has been outraged.

All which by the order of his excellency, I have the honor to communicate for myself the assurance of my distinguished consideration. [LTR]


NNR 72.412 August 28, 1847, plans to enforce a government on Mexico

EXCELLENT SIR: As you are aware the papers which arrived at Vera Cruz transmitted by the packets do no reach the capital. So far as, can be judged by the correspondence which has arrived this day, the opinion of civilized people is generally favorable to the side of Mexico in the war of defence against the United States. How could it be otherwise in so just a cause?  The opinion is equally general that the U. States cannot triumph, except by relying upon the internal dissensions of our republic. Governments and people express unanimous wishes to se us united and strong, in order that we may chastise that abuse of circumstances which an enemy takes who thinks all the advantages are on his side. The documents which are today published in he Diario Official are a proof that these opinions are entertained by foreign nations.

By one of them you will perceive that he government of her BritanniC majesty, loyal to its friendly relations with our republic, has engaged not to recognize any revolutionary government which may ostensibly be set up in the republic, but only that legitimately established, whatever its resistance may be should the chances of war compel the government to leave the capital.

In the other document you will perceive the hopes and plans of the enemy, and in another the multiplied solicitations to our agents in foreign countries to be allowed to come and take part in the war in favor of our just cause. The provisional president desires me to communicate all this to your excellency, that in like manner you may communicate it to the worthy people over whom you preside; and he desires to conjure the people through me in the name of the country for their future destinies and for their character among the civilized nations, that they redouble their efforts and contribute all the resources which the state can raise, and arouse the spirit of their independence and true federation among their patriotic inhabitants so as to confer credit on the system by which we are governed, even in the midst of a crisis such as will probably never again present  itself.

I have the honor to repeat the assurance of my consideration.
God and Liberty!
Pacheo.

[LTR]


NNR 72.416 August 28, 1847, Gen. Winfield Scott issues orders to his several divisions to advance on the city of Mexico
NNR 72.416 August 28, 1847 Maj. Jonathon Pollard Gaines and Midshipmen Robert Clay Rogers Escape from the Mexicans
NNR 72.416 August 28, 1847, Gen. Franklin Pierce joins Gen. Winfield Scott
NNR 72.416 August 28, 1847, Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna marches to meet the American Army

Latest. The steamer Galveston arrived at New Orleans on the evening of the 16th, bringing dates from Vera Cruz to the 12th, and Tampico to the 15th August, with advices from Gen. Scott's headquarters, Puebla, to the 6th inst.

Gen. Scott had issued positive orders to march upon the city of Mexico on the following day, the 7th inst.-- The several divisions were to march in order, leaving during the three following days, 7th, 8th, and 9th.

Gen. Pierce reached Puebla, with his army, on the 6th, and was to go in advance. He had encountered numerous skirmishes with the guerrillas on his march, but in every instance beat them off without losing a man.

Letters in the Picayune from Mr. Kendall, dated Puebla, 3rd and 6th inst., state that the orders of Gen. Scott to march upon the capital, at the time stated above, were positive, and that the army would certainly be moving on the 7th inst., for the Halls of the Montezumas.

These letters further state that Major Gaines and Midshipmen Rogers had escaped from imprisonment in Mexico, and arrived at Puebla on the 4th. They report Santa Anna's forces, in all, comprising his regular army, to number 15,000 men. A Mexican runner, at Puebla, confirms this statement, and says that Santa Anna, at last accounts, was moving to meet the American forces, determined to give battle. He had fifty cannon. [TNW, LTR]


NNR 72.416 August 28, 1847 Maj. Folliot Thornton Lally's Affair at the National Bridge (guerrillas)

Latest. The steamer Galveston arrived at New Orleans on the evening of the 16th, bringing dates from Vera Cruz to the 12th, and Tampico to the 15th August, with advices from Gen. Scott's headquarters, Puebla, to the 6th inst.

Gen. Scott had issued positive orders to march upon the city of Mexico on the following day, the 7th inst.-- The several divisions were to march in order, leaving during the three following days, 7th, 8th, and 9th.

Gen. Pierce reached Puebla, with his army, on the 6th, and was to go in advance. He had encountered numerous skirmishes with the guerrillas on his march, but in every instance beat them off without losing a man.

Letters in the Picayune from Mr. Kendall, dated Puebla, 3rd and 6th inst., state that the orders of Gen. Scott to march upon the capital, at the time stated above, were positive, and that the army would certainly be moving on the 7th inst., for the Halls of the Montezumas.

These letters further state that Major Gaines and Midshipmen Rogers had escaped from imprisonment in Mexico, and arrived at Puebla on the 4th. They report Santa Anna's forces, in all, comprising his regular army, to number 15,000 men. A Mexican runner, at Puebla, confirms this statement, and says that Santa Anna, at last accounts, was moving to meet the American forces, determined to give battle. He had fifty cannon.

It is further stated in Mr. Kendall's letters that Major Laly's division was attacked near the bridge, on the 10th inst. by the guerrillas. He had a severe skirmish, being attacked front and rear, and unfortunately suffered severely, losing many of his men in killed and wounded. Capt. Caldwell, of the voltiguers, and Capt. Cummings, of the infantry, were severely wounded. Finally, Major L. succeeded in routing the enemy, causing them to lose many lives. Strong reinforcements have been ordered to his assistance. [TNW]


NNR 72.416 August 28, 1847 Capt. Charles Frederick Ruff's Affair with Mexicans (guerrillas)
NNR 72.416 August 28, 1847, active preparations against night attack at Tampico

Latest. The steamer Galveston arrived at New Orleans on the evening of the 16th, bringing dates from Vera Cruz to the 12th, and Tampico to the 15th August, with advices from Gen. Scott's headquarters, Puebla, to the 6th inst.

Gen. Scott had issued positive orders to march upon the city of Mexico on the following day, the 7th inst.-- The several divisions were to march in order, leaving during the three following days, 7th, 8th, and 9th.

Gen. Pierce reached Puebla, with his army, on the 6th, and was to go in advance. He had encountered numerous skirmishes with the guerrillas on his march, but in every instance beat them off without losing a man.

Letters in the Picayune from Mr. Kendall, dated Puebla, 3rd and 6th inst., state that the orders of Gen. Scott to march upon the capital, at the time stated above, were positive, and that the army would certainly be moving on the 7th inst., for the Halls of the Montezumas.

These letters further state that Major Gaines and Midshipmen Rogers had escaped from imprisonment in Mexico, and arrived at Puebla on the 4th. They report Santa Anna's forces, in all, comprising his regular army, to number 15,000 men. A Mexican runner, at Puebla, confirms this statement, and says that Santa Anna, at last accounts, was moving to meet the American forces, determined to give battle. He had fifty cannon.

It is further stated in Mr. Kendall's letters that Major Laley's division was attacked near the bridge, on the 10th inst. by the guerrillas. He had a severe skirmish, being attacked front and rear, and unfortunately suffered severely, losing many of his men in killed and wounded. Capt. Caldwell, of the voltiguers, and Capt. Cummings, of the infantry, were severely wounded. Finally, Major L. succeeded in routing the enemy, causing them to lose many lives. Strong reinforcements have been ordered to his assistance.

An engagement had taken place between Captain Ruff's cavalry and the guerrillas, in which he was eminently victorious, not losing a man.

There was considerable apprehension of a night attack being made on Tampico. Active preparations were making to meet the emergency. [TNW]


NNR 72.416 August 28, 1847 Reports of Illness in the Squadron at Vera Cruz and Along the Coast

Latest. The steamer Galveston arrived at New Orleans on the evening of the 16th, bringing dates from Vera Cruz to the 12th, and Tampico to the 15th August, with advices from Gen. Scott's headquarters, Puebla, to the 6th inst.

Gen. Scott had issued positive orders to march upon the city of Mexico on the following day, the 7th inst.-- The several divisions were to march in order, leaving during the three following days, 7th, 8th, and 9th.

Gen. Pierce reached Puebla, with his army, on the 6th, and was to go in advance. He had encountered numerous skirmishes with the guerrillas on his march, but in every instance beat them off without losing a man.

Letters in the Picayune from Mr. Kendall, dated Puebla, 3rd and 6th inst., state that the orders of Gen. Scott to march upon the capital, at the time stated above, were positive, and that the army would certainly be moving on the 7th inst., for the Halls of the Montezumas.

These letters further state that Major Gaines and Midshipmen Rogers had escaped from imprisonment in Mexico, and arrived at Puebla on the 4th. They report Santa Anna's forces, in all, comprising his regular army, to number 15,000 men. A Mexican runner, at Puebla, confirms this statement, and says that Santa Anna, at last accounts, was moving to meet the American forces, determined to give battle. He had fifty cannon.

It is further stated in Mr. Kendall's letters that Major Laley's division was attacked near the bridge, on the 10th inst. by the guerrillas. He had a severe skirmish, being attacked front and rear, and unfortunately suffered severely, losing many of his men in killed and wounded. Capt. Caldwell, of the voltiguers, and Capt. Cummings, of the infantry, were severely wounded. Finally, Major L. succeeded in routing the enemy, causing them to lose many lives. Strong reinforcements have been ordered to his assistance.

An engagement had taken place between Captain Ruff's cavalry and the guerrillas, in which he was eminently victorious, not losing a man.

There was considerable apprehension of a night attack being made on Tampico. Active preparations were making to meet the emergency.

We further learn that much sickness is now prevailing in the squadron at Vera Cruz. The fever among the soldiery was decreasing, but at Tampico, and other places along the coast, we regret to learn, it was still on the increase. Many were dying, and suffering of the sick was painful to think of. [TNW]


NNR 72.416 August 28, 1847, troops at Puebla in want of funds, American and Mexican troop movements

Contrary to all expectations the raid which came up today did not bring any money, and hence the poor providers for the absolute wants of the army are worse off than ever. As high as fifteen per cent; has been paid today for money to defray the expenses of the short march from this to Mexico, and some of the holders here are even chaffering for eighteen!  Such are the strains to which our quartermaster and commissaries abandoned as they have been by the government at home are driven. Nor is clothing brought, nor are any of the necessaries for the well-being of the army, to say nothing of the comfort; and hence all has to be purchased at rates which amount to ruinous extortion. I give you facts which every man here knows-comments may suggest themselves.

I finish this letter in haste and late at night. Tomorrow morning Gen. Twiggs moves with his division, as I have already stated. Reports continue to come in that large bodies of the enemy are moving in the neighborhood and just now we hear that from 800 to 1,000 guerilleros, who have been dogging Gen. Pierce, were seen this afternoon at El Pinal. The coming fortnight will come to us burdened with news and whether it be of peace or war to the knife, I shall give you fine intelligence as early as possible. [LTR]


NNR 72.416 August 28, 1847, “Old Europe and Young America”

An article translated from a French paper for the New York Spirit of the Times, after dilating at some length upon the accounts which the monarchial journals continue to impose upon the credulity of their readers in regard to the war between the United States and Mexico, and a rather florid parade of the onward progress of our young republic with a just tribute to the achievement of our armies in the short space of one year,--concludes by thus characterizing the doings, during the same period of the great monarchies of Europe.

“During all this time, whilst a few thousand Americans in a few months conquer a country of greater extent than France, richer in mines than the whole continent of Europe—whilst a company of scientific engineers explore the vast deserts of Oregon in every direction, countries hitherto unknown-whilst they describe with the greater talent the course of their rivers, measure the altitude of their mountains, give descriptions of even the new plants they meet with, discover immense and fertile territories, which they prepare for the colonist which follows them—whilst they are doing all this, what is old Europe about?

The three grand Pharaohs of the north, having one hundred millions of subjects or slaves, fifteen hundred thousand regular soldiers, and fifteen hundred millions of revenue, conspire together mysteriously for 6 months, and accomplish the conquest of Croacow-a defenceless town, a country of heroes, the saviors in former times of their states, a sainted and sacred city, into which these sovereigns ought not to have entered save with feelings of awe and respect. The take from the Poles their laws, their language, their God, and cause them to submit to a shameful servitude. These princes absolutely phrenzied  by the absolute power in their hands act over again the reigns of Nebuchadnezzar, and Belshazzar, and forget the predictions of Daniel, for the fulfillment of which the oppressed daily put up the most fervent prayers.

Yong American on the contrary, hospitable and generous as she is, offers to the proscribed of all nations, land without taxes, and a free share in all the blessing and liberties which Providence has vouchsafed to the human race.

Young America will enter into a treaty of peace with Mexico, and will receive as indemnity California, New Mexico, and Tampico. * * **  The American shipping from the ports in California will monopolize the commerce with China, the East Indies, $c,.

America will generously allow Europe to partake of her conquest, emigration will progressively increase, and there will arise  in the interior of the Union flourishing countries, under the names of New France, New Poland, and New Ireland. In twenty years America will have doubled her population, commerce, riches, and her fleets will be much more numerous than those of England and the Old World.

During the same period the people of Old Europe, victims of a sickly civilization, ruined by monopolies and imposts exposed to famine, suffering under a hard servitude, will be without energy sufficient to resist the invasions of the Muscovite barbarians.

France only can save Europe from an interruption of the northern hordes and from the increasing and proud domination of her neighbors on the other side of the channel; but she must be freed from the exorbitant taxations, partial laws, ruinous monopolies, and an absolute and brutilying administration; she must have an inflexible will to regain the institutions of ’89 the re establishment of the national militia, the government of the country by the country itself, the liberty of teaching the press, &c. Had she even an international administration similar to that in existence at the commencement of the 16th century, as described by Machiavelli we might say in the words of that great writer, “France this country of heroes , has nothing to fear from Spain, England, or Germany, &c. She has only to fear the sacrilegious usurpation of her sacred liberties. [LTR]


NNR 72.416 August 28, 1847 new Illinois regiment collecting for New Orleans and Veracruz

Sixth Illinois Regiment. This regiment, which ranks as the second regiment of a requisition, and is now full, numbers 940 strong. Its rendezvous is Alto whence it will make its departure for New Orleans, and thence to Vera Cruz in about a week. [ANP]




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