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NILES' NATIONAL REGISTER
Vol. 72, May-June 1847


July 1844-April 1846 May-July 1846 August-October 1846 November-December 1846 January-February 1847 March-April 1847
May-June 1847 July-August 1847 September-October 1847 November-December 1847 January-March & July December 1848


Index

NNR 72.129 Alejandro Jose Atocha's comments on reports of his dealings with Mexico

NNR 72.131 Maj. Luther Giddings' official report of a battle near Cerralvo while he was accompanying a wagon train from Monterey to Camargo

NNR 72.131 Lt. Charles G. Hunter's official report on Alvarado

NNR 72.131 squadron that sailed to take Alvarado

NNR 72.132 Ohio volunteers fend off Mexican lancers at Agua Frio

NNR 72.132 account of the battle of Sacramento

NNR 72.132 Samuel Houston's comments on conducting the war

NNR 72.132 terms of capitulation of Alvarado

NNR 72.132 list of killed and wounded at Veracruz

NNR 72.133 operations in California
NNR 72.133-72.134 Com. Robert Field Stockton's report of suppression of rebellion in California

NNR 72.134 letter of Jose Maria Flores seeking arrangement of a truce in California

72.134-72.135 California items

NNR 72.136 account of the road from Veracruz to the city of Mexico, distances along the route

NNR 72.136 health statistics of Veracruz

NNR 72.136 the Mexican evacuation of Veracruz

NNR 72.136 description of Jalapa

NNR 72.136 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's address to the Army on quitting San Luis Potosi for the capital

NNR 72.136 President Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's address on the fall of Veracruz

NNR 72.136-72.137 Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's inaugural address as president of Mexico

NNR 72.137 Gen. David Emanuel Twiggs' division quits Veracruz for Jalapa, arrival of Col. Bankhead

NNR 72.141-72.143 general orders, dispositions for marching to the interior, &c.

NNR 72.144 reports of sickness among troops at Veracruz
72.144 the Army advances, ascertain that Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna is at Cerro Gordo

NNR 72.144 Gen. William Jenkins Worth appoints Lt. Col. Henry Wilson governor of Veracruz, Worth joins the Army

NNR 72.144 squadron sails to attack Tuxpan

NNR 72.144 Mexican account of the seizure of Chihuahua

NNR 72.145 additional troops to be sent from New York to California

NNR 72.146 list of the companies of the ten new regiments of regulars en route to Mexico

NNR 72.146 Com. David Conner's orders for landing at Veracruz

NNR 72.146 manner of taking possession of San Juan de Ulloa

NNR 72.146 assurances of the "Union" that sufficient forces will be in time for Gen. Winfield Scott and Gen. Zachary Taylor, requisition for 6,000 additional volunteers

NNR 72.146 Lt. Charles G. Hunter said to have been court-martialed for his attack on Alvarado

NNR 72.146 Saint Mary's sails for Veracruz

NNR 72.147 pronunciation of Mexican names

NNR 72.149-72.150 Mexican narrative of events at Veracruz

NNR 72.150 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's orders found on the Buena Vista battlefield

NNR 72.150 Gen. Winfield Scott's proclamation to the people of Mexico

NNR 72.151 picnic at Tampico

NNR 72.151 Gen. Zachary Taylor's official report on efforts to re-open communications with Camargo

NNR 72.151 rumor of Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna in force between Veracruz and Jalapa

NNR 72.151 plot discovered among Mexicans at Tampico

NNR 72.151 cleaning of San Juan de Ulloa

NNR 72.151-72.152 breaking up of general headquarters at Veracruz

NNR 72.152 Alvarado opened

NNR 72.152 Gen. Zachary Taylor's proclamation to the inhabitants of Tamaulipas, Nueva Leon, and Coahuila about losses by banditti

NNR 72.152 order exempting foreign goods to be re-shipped to Mexico from the American tariff

NNR 72.152-72.153 American plan to demand a right of way across Mexico from ocean to ocean

NNR 72.155-72.158 campaign of Gen. John Ellis Wool's command, actions at the Battle of Buena Vista

NNR 72.158 capture of Veracruz

NNR 72.159 order No. 94 relative to transportation, &c.

NNR 72.159 official list of killed and wounded at Veracruz

NNR 72.160 account of the victory of Cerro Gordo

NNR 72.160 position of Gen. Zachary Taylor's forces

NNR 72.160 official reports received from Col. Alexander William Doniphan

NNR 72.161 Scourge (formerly the Bangor) purchased, its voyage to Cuba

NNR 72.162 illuminations for victories

NNR 72.162 hospitals at Veracruz full, but few deaths, numerous discharges to permit a change of climate

NNR 72.162 Alejandro Jose Atocha's peace proposals to the Mexican government

NNR 72.162-72.163 British notions about the position of American forces at Veracruz

NNR 72.163-72.164 Jalapa taken

NNR 72.164 Perote taken

NNR 72.164 scenes witnessed on the route from Cerro Gordo

NNR 72.164 effects at the capital of the news of the defeat of Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

NNR 72.165 expectation that Gen. Winfield Scott will cut himself off from Veracruz to approach Mexico City

NNR 72.165 rumors in Mexico City about offer of British mediation with the United States

NNR 72.165 account of the troops stationed at Saltillo and Buena Vista

NNR 72.165 Gen. Zachary Taylor's preparations for advancing on San Luis Potosi, Indian rubber bags for water requested, term of volunteers expiring, &c.

NNR 72.165 Gen. Jose Mariano de Salas summons a council of war, defense by small parties expected

NNR 72.167 orders issued before the battle at Cerro Gordo, Gen. Winfield Scott's official report of the battle

NNR 72.168 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's address on quitting the capital to encounter Gen. Winfield Scott

NNR 72.168 feud between parties in Mexico suppressed after departure of Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna from the capital, vice-presidency suppressed, Don Pedro Maria Anaya elected substitute president

NNR 72.168 Mexican clergy bind themselves to contribute to the government

NNR 72.168 inaugural address of Pedro Maria Anaya as substitute president of Mexico

NNR 72.168-72.169 address of Senor Gamboa on defense of the Mexican capital

NNR 72.169 decrees and appeals addressed to the Mexican people about carrying on the war with the United States

NNR 72.169-72.170 Capt. George Wurtz Hughes' account of the Battle of Cerro Gordo

NNR 72.170 list of Mexican officers taken at Cerro Gordo

NNR 72.170-72.171 letters from Gen. Stephen Watts Kearny in California

NNR 72.171-72.172 letters of Col. Alexander William Doniphan on his operations, capture of Chihuahua

NNR 72.172-72.173 trials for treason in New Mexico

NNR 72.175 Maj. Meriwether Lewis Clark's official report on action at Sacramento

NNR 72.176 Mexican orders for fortifications around the capital

NNR 72.176 killed and wounded at Cerro Gordo

NNR 72.177 Mexican notice of the appointment of Alejandro Jose Atocha as emissary from the United States to Mexico

NNR 72.177 number of enlistments in the Army

NNR 72.177 assurances of the "Union" that Gen. Winfield Scott will be reinforced by end of May, equal to the number of volunteers that leave

NNR 72.177 letter on the war from Thomas Corwin

NNR 72.179 government declines tender of an additional brigade from Maryland

NNR 72.181 paymaster to leave Saint Louis with gold for the Army in New Mexico

NNR 72.182-72.183 George Wilkins Kendall's account of the Battle of Cerro Gordo

NNR 72.183 account of some of the prisoners taken at Cerro Gordo

NNR 72.183 the storming and capture of the strong works at Cerro Gordo

NNR 72.183 letter from Jalapa

NNR 72.183 Maj. William Turnbull's account of Cerro Gordo, other accounts of the battle

NNR 72.184 diminution of Gen. Zachary Taylor's forces, &c.

NNR 72.184 Gen. Jose Antonio Mejia's son captured at Cerro Gordo

NNR 72.184 Mexicans massacred, threat of retribution

NNR 72.184 conquest of Mexico urged by various journals

NNR 72.184-72.185 occupation of Mexico necessary, estimate of proceeds of the tariff on Mexico

NNR 72.185 report that a deputation from the capital had met Gen. Winfield Scott inviting him to advance and take possession
NNR 72.185 guerrilla warfare on the route from Jalapa to Veracruz
NNR 72.185 deputation from Puebla promising not to resist occupation
NNR 72.185 reductions in the force under Gen. Winfield Scott
NNR 72.185 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's whereabouts, rumors and incidents
NNR 72.185 proclamations for guerrilla regiments

NNR 72.185 Mexican prisoners at Veracruz

NNR 72.185 Gen. Jose Mariano de Salas' guerrilla proclamation

NNR 72.185 supplies provided by Mexicans at Jalapa, impossibility of maintaining contact with Veracruz

NNR 72.185 various rumors about fortifications at Mexico City

NNR 72.185 Yankeeizing of Veracruz

NNR 72.185 naval expedition to the south

NNR 72.185 mediation by the British government suggested by the Mexicans

NNR 72.185 items

NNR 72.185-72.186 position of the Catholic Church in Mexico with regard to the war

NNR 72.186 Gen. William Jenkins Worth gathering up grain

NNR 72.186 Gen. Winfield Scott's design to relinquish the line of communication

NNR 72.186 Mexican account of the Battle of Cerro Gordo

NNR 72.186-72.187 Gen. Winfield Scott's official report on the Battle of Cerro Gordo

NNR 72.187 communication of Gen. Ethan Allen Hitchcock on operations at Cerro Gordo

NNR 72.187 letter about the capture of Tuxpan

NNR 72.188 arrangements for pay to soldiers and volunteers in the west

NNR 72.189-72.190 trial and reprimand of Lt. Charles G. Hunter for his actions at Alvarado and Fla-ca-Talpam

NNR 72.192 list of volunteer corps whose time expires, promise of the "Union" that troops will be adequate

NNR 72.192 Col. Sterling Price at Santa Fe

NNR 72.192 Maj. Campbell's expedition from Chihuahua to New Orleans

NNR 72.192 Col. Alexander William Doniphan's uncertainty on how to proceed in the absence of instructions

NNR 72.192 Nicholas Philip Trist reaches New Orleans for Veracruz

NNR 72.193 Marines employed in land service

NNR 72.194 "conquering a peace"

NNR 72.194 Tuxpan captured

NNR 72.194 Portsmouth captures ports in lower California

NNR 72.194-72.195 Massachusetts resolutions on the Mexican war, the extension of slavery, and thanks to Gen. Zachary Taylor, proceedings thereon

NNR 72.197 excitement about the appearance of the vomito at Veracruz

NNR 72.197-72.198 declaration of martial law in Mexico City, address to the citizens of the Federal District

NNR 72.198 Mexicans evacuate Puebla

NNR 72.198 Gen. Winfield Scott's advance corps quits Jalapa for Puebla, a large train with supplies for which he had been waiting quits Veracruz same day

NNR 72.198 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna appointed commander of the Mexican Army, fear that he will attack the supply train

NNR 72.198 Capt. Samuel Hamilton Walker's dragoons arrive at Veracruz

NNR 72.198 Nicholas Philip Trist reaches Veracruz and proceeds to headquarters

NNR 72.198 barbarities committed on the road from Veracruz

NNR 72.198 departure of volunteer regiments from the Army in Mexico
NNR 72.198 Gen. Winfield Scott's forces reduced to 6,000 men

NNR 72.198 apprehensions subsiding over the vomito and a Mexican attack

NNR 72.198 foray upon Santa Fe (Mexico) by Mexican guerrillas

NNR 72.198 Gen. Winfield Scott's general order on advancing from Jalapa

NNR 72.198 terrible retribution visited by Texians upon Mexican banditti, vengeance for another murder

NNR 72.198-72.199 Thomas Simons murdered by Mexicans

NNR 72.199 Gen. Juan Morales' statement about the alleged warning before the bombardment of Veracruz

NNR 72.199 Gen. Antonio Canales' proclamation of no quarter

NNR 72.199 Comanche depredations

NNR 72.199 an account of the Battle of Cerro Gordo

NNR 72.199-72.200 Gen. David Emanuel Twiggs' official report on Cerro Gordo

NNR 72.200 reports of Gen. Robert Patterson on the actions of his volunteer division at Cerro Gordo

72.200-72.201 reports of Gen. Edward Dickinson Baker on the operations of the third brigade during the action at Cerro Gordo

NNR 72.201 Gen. William Jenkins Worth takes Perote

NNR 72.201 report of Capt. Francis Taylor on the actions of his battery at Cerro Gordo

NNR 72.201 Col. Ethan Allen Hitchcock's report on paroles of captured Mexicans, comment on operations at Cerro Gordo

NNR 72.201-72.202 list of killed and wounded at Cerro Gordo

NNR 72.202 Gen. Zachary Taylor's official report on Maj. Mike Chevallie's expedition

NNR 72.202 Gen. Zachary Taylor's letter transmitting minor reports from the Battle of Buena Vista

NNR 72.202-72.204 Gen. John Ellis Wool's official report on Buena Vista

NNR 72.204 extract from a letter of Gen. John Ellis Wool about Buena Vista

NNR 72.204 troops engaged, killed, and wounded at Buena Vista

NNR 72.204-72.205 Com. Robert Field Stockton's difference with Gen. Stephen Watts Kearny

NNR 72.205 high prices of provisions in California

NNR 72.205 news from Santa Fe by Lt. William Guy Peck, account of his journey
NNR 72.205 Capt. John Charles Fremont arrives at Angels, notice of the situation in California
NR 72.205 letter about the need for a military force in New Mexico

NNR 72.206 letter from Secretary of War William Learned Marcy to Missouri Gov. John C. Edwards about requisition for volunteers

NNR 72.208 Jalapa hospitals filled with sick

NNR 72.208 Mexican colors reach Washington

NNR 72.208 Maj. Solon Borland, Maj. John Pollard Gaines, Capt. Cassius Marcellus Clay, Midshipman Robert Clay Rogers, &c., prisoners set at liberty in Mexico
NNR 72.208 anarchy in the Mexican capital, states talk of separation

NNR 72.208 half of Gen. Zachary Taylor's dragoons ordered to Veracruz to reinforce Gen. Winfield Scott

NNR 72.209 Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's pass, New York  "Sun"

NNR 72.209 steamer New Orleans purchased

NNR 72.209 Lt. G.W. Harrison's gallant act in cutting out an enemy brig

NNR 72.209-72.210 comments on the Mexican tariff

NNR 72.210 Samuel Houston's explanation for declining commission as major-general with the Army invading Mexico

NNR 72.210 comments on Gen. Winfield Scott's proclamation

NNR 72.214 Gen. Winfield Scott's proclamation to the Mexican nation

NNR 72.215 letter from Maj. John Pollard Gaines in Mexico, his account of the civil war in Mexico City and its suppression by Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

NNR 72.214-72.215 statement of Col. James H. Lane on the actions of the Indiana volunteers at Buena Vista

NNR 72.215-72.216 Gen. Gideon Johnson Pillow's report on Cerro Gordo

NNR 72.216 Col. William Selby Harney's report on Cerro Gordo

NNR 72.216-72.217 Col. Thomas Childs' report on Cerro Gordo

NNR 72.217 Maj. H.H. Loring's report on Cerro Gordo

NNR 72.217 Capt. Thompson Morris' report on Cerro Gordo

NNR 72.217-72.218 Col. Bennet Riley's report on Cerro Gordo

NNR 72.218 Col. Joseph Plympton's report on Cerro Gordo

NNR 72.218 report on the actions of Maj. John L. Gardner's artillery regiment at Cerro Gordo

NNR 72.218-72.219 Maj. George Henry Talcott's report on Cerro Gordo

NNR 72.219 Capt. Edmund Brooke Alexander's report on Cerro Gordo

NNR 72.219 arrival of the storeship Lexington in California, disposition of forces there, erection of fortifications

NNR 72.219 report by Gen. Jose Maria Jarero on the Battle of Cerro Gordo

NNR 72.219 Com. William Branford Shubrick's order partially suspending the tariff on Mexican ports in California

NNR 72.219-72.220 affairs in California

NNR 72.220 Thomas Hart Benton's card about Gen. Stephen Watts Kearny and Col. John Charles Fremont

NNR 72.222-72.223 Thomas Hart Benton's remarks on the settlement of the northwest boundary dispute, the annexation of Texas, the war with Mexico, and anti-slavery propaganda

NNR 72.224 Mexican privateer Unico captures the Carmelita

NNR 72.224 Capt. Mayo captures Talascoya
72.224 Com. Matthew Calbraith Perry sails south
72.224 Nantla taken by the Germantown, re-taken by the Mexicans
72.224 Maj. Justin Dimick returns to Veracruz, posted at the National Bridge
72.224 retreat of a train of muleteers after capture of their train

NNR 72.224 Gen. William Jenkins Worth takes Puebla
NNR 72.224 Gen. David Emanuel Twiggs' division to start from Jalapa for Puebla, Col. Thomas Childs to command at Jalapa
NNR 72.224 rumor that Gen. Gabriel Valencia is between Puebla and Mexico City with 15,000 men
NNR 72.224 reports from Gen. William Jenkins Worth
NNR 72.224 rumor that Jose Joaquin Herrera had been chosen president, maneuvering of Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
NNR 72.224 Mexican preparations for defense, difficulty of Gen. Winfield Scott in advancing with only 6,000 men

NNR 72.224 orders for troops to join Gen. Zachary Taylor and Gen. Winfield Scott
NNR 72.224 cavalry ordered to Parras to meet Col. William Alexander Doniphan
NNR 72.224 inability of Gen. Zachary Taylor to advance, Mexicans gathering in his front

NNR 72.224 report that while advancing to join Gen. John Ellis Wool, Col. Alexander William Doniphan was attacked and retreated to Chihuahua

NNR 72.225"Union"'s authorized statement on conjectures about the "views and purposes" of the administration

NNR 72.226 account of the Pueblo Indians in the fight at Taos

NNR 72.230 complaints about the tariff imposed on Mexico, revenues received under it, order concerning foreign goods shipped from the United States

NNR 72.230 notice of operations in government funds, transfers of specie to New Orleans

NNR 72.230 general orders establishing military departments, assigning personnel, ordering Mexican officers on parole to report, and prohibiting gambling
NNR 72.230 Georgia, Alabama, and some Tennessee troops to return home

NNR 72.230-72.231 letter repelling complaints against the Palmetto Regiment
NNR 72.231 letter of an officer of the Palmetto Regiment

NNR 72.231-72.232 address of the second regiment of Tennessee volunteers about Cerro Gordo

NNR 72.232-72.234 official reports of officers of the light artillery on their actions at Buena Vista

NNR 72.234-72.235 report from Col. Charles Augustus May on actions of the dragoons at Buena Vista

NNR 72.235 official report of Gen. Joseph Lane on action at Buena Vista

NNR 72.235-72.236 accounts on the situation at Santa Fe, news of Col. Alexander William Doniphan's expedition

NNR 72.240 Jalapa stage attacked

NNR 72.240 Mexican proposal to release American prisoners at Tampico

NNR 72.240 Com. Matthew Calbraith Perry's cruise putting the tariff into effect

NNR 72.240 cases of yellow fever, vomito at Veracruz

NNR 72.240 recovery of Veracruz from the effects of the siege

NNR 72.240 denunciation of Gen. Winfield Scott's proclamation to the Mexican people

NNR 72.240 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna returns to Mexico City, is stoned
NNR 72.240 Mexican fortifications
NNR 72.240 Pacific squadron threatens Mazatlan and San Blas

NNR 72.240 expectation that Gen. Zachary Taylor will advance to San Luis Potosi
NNR 72.240 fatal duel between lieutenants in the Virginia volunteers
NNR 72.240 reduction in the force under Gen. Zachary Taylor through return of volunteers
NNR 72.240 Gen. Caleb Cushing ordered to join Gen. Zachary Taylor
NNR 72.240 indignation of Matamoros traders over the Mexican tariff

NNR 72.240 movement of the "American Star" from Jalapa to Puebla

NNR 72.240 Tennessee volunteers return to New Orleans

NNR 72.241 disruption of finance and trade at New Orleans because of the government's mode of handling disbursements for the war

NNR 72.241 production of bombshells at Saint Louis

NNR 72.242 modification of the tariff on Mexico

NNR 72.244 prompt response in Illinois to War Department requisition for additional troops

NNR 72.244 return of Mississippi volunteers from Mexico to New Orleans

NNR 72.244 notice of Army troop movements

NNR 72.244 return of Tennessee volunteers to Nashville

NNR 72.244 return of Louisville Legion from Mexico

NNR 72.245 Gov. Jared W. Williams of New Hampshire on the war

NNR 72.246 new regiment of Texas six months' men in service

NNR 72.248 shipment of over two million in specie to the south

NNR 72.249 rumors of Jose Joaquin Herrera's election premature, Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna still at Mexico and in the presidential chair

NNR 72.249 recruitment of reinforcements to replace the twelve months' volunteers in Mexico

NNR 72.249 vomito prevailing at Veracruz

NNR 72.249 Col. Sowers with dispatches for Gen. Winfield Scott massacred and the dispatches captured

NNR 72.249 several Mexican robbers taken and tried, robbery of Mexicans by their countrymen

NNR 72.249 Mexicans fortifying Rio Frio Pass

NNR 72.249 rumors of insurrection at Puebla

NNR 72.249 Gen. Winfield Scott advances; Gen. David Emanuel Twiggs enters Puebla

NNR 72.249 rumor of a Mexican advance on Puebla

NNR 72.250 Gen. Winfield Scott between Puebla and Perote

NNR 72.250 prisoners at liberty

NNR 72.250 Jose Joaquin de Herrera elected president of Mexico, clergy favor peace

NNR 72.250 sickness at Veracruz

NNR 72.250 rumors of a change in military command in Mexico, progress of the peace party

NNR 72.250 arrival of a train at Jalapa, Capt. Samuel Hamilton Walker's skirmishes with lancers

NNR 72.250 troops at Veracruz waiting to start for the interior

NNR 72.250 George Wilkins Kendall states Gen. Winfield Scott's aggregate available force at 9,000 men

NNR 72.250 election of Massachusetts officers, departure from Matamoros

NNR 72.250 Col. Jack Hays at Palo Alto with his Rangers

NNR 72.250 troops at Saltillo anticipating an advance to San Luis

NNR 72.250 third dragoons ordered to join Gen. Winfield Scott

NNR 72.250 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna resigns executive power (not accepted)

NNR 72.250 condition of the city and country

NNR 72.250 Gen. Caleb Cushing to be governor of New Leon

NNR 72.251 term of volunteers under Gen. Zachary Taylor expires

NNR 72.251 steamboats lost on the Rio Grande

NNR 72.251 further discussion of reinforcements for Gen. Zachary Taylor

NNR 72.251 address of the clergy of San Luis Potosi to the people of Mexico

NNR 72.251-72.252 Lt. William H. Shover's official report on the Battle of Buena Vista

NNR 72.252 dismal picture of affairs at Santa Fe

NNR 72.252 Col. Alexander William Doniphan's advance corps reaches Saltillo, affairs on the route

NNR 72.252 a march from Camargo to Monterey

NNR 72.252 Col. Philip Saint George Cooke with Mormon battalion reaches San Diego
NNR 72.252 Mormon detachment near San Diego

NNR 72.256 Nicholas Philip Trist said to be clothed with full power to conclude a treaty

NNR 72.257 discharge of the Baltimore Battalion at Tampico

NNR 72.258 Mexican privateers in the Mediterranean

NNR 72.258 remarks on case of Lt. Charles G. Hunter

NNR 72.264 intense heat at Veracruz, fever on the increase
NNR 72.264 train under Col. James Simmons McIntosh to leave Veracruz

NNR 72.264 discussion of the forces under Gens. Winfield Scott and Zachary Taylor, their proposed operations

NNR 72.264-72.265 remarks on amount of Gen. Zachary Taylor's forces, unpublished letter from Gen. Zachary Taylor, reinforcements

NNR 72.265 communications to Gen. Zachary Taylor from San Luis Potosi, expectation of an advance on San Luis and Mexico City

NNR 72.265 general orders of War Department commending conduct at Veracruz

NNR 72.265 communication of Secretary of War William Learned Marcy on the success at Buena Vista

NNR 72.265 Gen. Zachary Taylor's announcement of Gen. Winfield Scott's victory at Cerro Gordo

NNR 72.265 number of Mexican cannon captured so far in the war

NNR 72.265-72.266 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's official notice of Gen. Winfield Scott's proclamation

NNR 72.266 Gen. Zachary Taylor's farewell to the Mississippi regiment

NNR 72.266 Col. Alexander William Doniphan's command passes down the Rio Grande, reaches New Orleans

NNR 72.266 arrival of gentlemen from Santa Fe


NNR 72.129 May 1, 1847 ALEJANDRO JOSE ATOCHA'S COMMENTS ON REPORTS OF HIS DEALING WITH MEXICO

The Washington correspondent of the New York Journal of Commerce says: Senor Atocha remarks upon the sketch of his correspondence with Senor Rejon, the Mexican minister of foreign afairs, as copied or translated fromthe Diario del Gobierno, that is incorrect in some particulars. He denies having representing himself as authorized to negotiate for peace or the preliminaries necessary thereto. He also asserts that he could not have made the proposition stated respecting the [  . . . ] parallel of latitude as the boundary, as it would have been at variance with the wishes and contrary of the orders of his government. Senor Atocha further states that the whole of his correspondence with Senor Rejon, and others in authority, will hereafter be published. When the correspondence shall appear it will be communicated probably to the next congress. [MSM]


NNR 72.131, May 1, 1847 Maj. Luther Giddings' official report of a battle near Cerralvo while he was accompanying a wagon train from Monterey to Camargo

We are indebted to a friend of Major Giddings for a copy of his official report to Col. Mitchell, detailing the particulars of the fight with the Mexicans at Seralvo. Major G. with his brief experience in the field was more that a match in tactics, for "three Mexican generals," having a force six times greater than his own! These men behaved nobly through all the discouragements under watch they fought, and the fact that they were ultimately successful, proves the skill and presight of their commander, as well as their own [ ]. [MSM]

    Upon receipt of this note, Capt. Keneally had requested an interview with Colonel Langberg, and demanded of him one hour to consult me--which time, and permission to visit me, was politely granted by my rear.  Captain Keneally was furthermore kindly informed that the enemy's force amounted to 1,600 men and three generals.

    I immediately returned to General Romaro, a brief reply, and desired that the parley might be terminated.

    Soon after, I dispatched Capt. Bradley, with the force previously designated, to communicate with the rear, and assist in bringing up the wagons, which had thus far been successfully defended by Captain Keneally.  Capt. Bradley cut through the enemy's line in the most gallant manner,--his volleys were responded to by the artillery and musketry of the rear guard, and in a few minutes I had the satisfaction of seeing my little band again united around 100 of the wagons which he had succeeded in saving.--In the absence of Capt. Bradley on his duty--a parley was sounded by the enemy still in force between us and the town, and which portion of his troops Gen. Urrea commanded, in person.  They reiterated their demand for a surrender, and desired to know, why I had fired upon the general in chief whilst a truce existed.  To their first demand I sent the same reply that had been previously communicated to Gen. Romaro; and also that during the time my fire was continued in front, I was ignorant of the parley existing in the rear.

    Towards night the enemy drew off towards the town; in which direction I also continued my march, with little progress however, as the wagons closed in mass were much impeded by the thickets skirting the road.  It soon became quite dark and supposing that the enemy would oppose my entrance into the town, I deemed it best to await until daylight before making the attack.  As my men were suffering exceedingly for water, I found it necessary during the night drive off a party of lancers stationed near to the stream, distant from us about half a mile.  At dawn on the 8th inst. I took possession of Seralvo without opposition,--the enemy having evacuated it during the night.  Discovering that there were but ten or twelve rounds of ammunition remaining in the cartridge boxes, I was detained at Seralvo until the arrival of Col. Curtis' command on the 12th instant.  Obtaining from him the necessary supplies, I proceeded on my march and arrived at this post on the 15th instant.

    There were killed in the affair at Seralvo, on the 7th inst. Two privates of Capt Bradley's company F, 1st rig. Ohio volunteers, and 15 teamsters.  I was informed that the Mexican loss in the engagement, amounted to 45 killed and wounded--which number I believe to be nearly correct.

    I take great pleasure in stating that the officers and men of my command, met the overwhelming force by which they were surrounded, with the greatest coolness and gallantry.  Lieut. A. McCarter and Sergeant Wm. Howell, did good service with the artillery--firing with great rapidity and accuracy.--Lieuts. Jas. P Fytte and James Moore of my staff, performed the many duties with which they were entrusted, with promptness and gallantry.
                                L. GIDDINGS
                        Major 1st reg. O.V. com' de detachment
[WFF]


NNR 72.131 May 1, 1847  LT.CHARLES G. HUNTERS OFFICIAL REPORT ON ALVARADO

I wrote you from Havana, and gave you the reasons of our determination at this place. That detention deprived us from sharing in the glory at Vera Cruz, for on the very day of our arrival Vera Cruz was evacuated by the Mexicans, and possession was taken by Gen. Scott and Com. Perry. THe whole of the naval forces having been called to Vera Cruz to fight off this place blockading, the commodore ordered this vessel down for that purpose, not dreaming that she would venture to attack the great Alvarado, but we had lost too much at Vera Cruz , so our gallant commander, Charles G. Hunter, at all risks, determined to make an attempt. The city, after two attacks, surrendered to the Scourage. I wish I had time to give you all concerning the affair, but its impossible. The Scourage was sent to Alvarado to blockade, and Com. Perry had made all arrangements to attack Alvarado with a large force by sea, while Gen. Quitman was to enter by hand, but the squadron and the troops got here too late, the Scourage had done all. This force to make the attack. When it came off the port, the American colors was seen hoisted on the forts. This caused the greatest disappointment in the squadron. The commander immediately arrested out gallant commander for having attacked Alvarado without his orders, and commander Hunter is, therefore, to be tried by a court martial for taking this place. Our gallant commander also captured the city of Tlacotalpan, a city of about 7,000 inhabitants. [MSM]


NNR 72.131   May 1, 1847  THE CAPTURE OF ALVARADO.

United States steamer Scourge,
Alvarado, April 3, 1847.

I wrote you from Havana, and gave you the reasons of our detention at this place.That detention deprived us from sharing in the glory at Vera Cruz, for on the very day of our arrival Vera Cruz was evacuated by the Mexicans, and possession was taken by Gen. Scott and Com. Perry.

The whole of the naval forces having been called to Vera Cruz to fight the great battle, and finding that no vessel was off this place blockading, the commodore ordered this vessel down for that purpose, not dreaming that she would venture to attack the great Alvarado, but we had lost too much at Vera Cruz, so our gallant commander, Charles G. Hunter, at all risks, determined to make an attempt.

The city, after two attacks, surrendered to the Scourge.I wish I had time to give you all concerning the affair, but 'tis impossible.

The Scourge was sent to Alvarado to blockade, and Com. Perry had made all arrangements to attack Alvarado with a large force by sea, while Gen. Quitman was to enter by land, but the squadron and the troops got here too late, the Scourge had done all.

Com. Perry arrived off Alvarado with the following vessels:

Steamer Mississippi,
Frigate Potomac,
Steamer Vixen,
Do Spitfire,
Schooner Reefer,
DoTampico,
Do Bonita
Ship Germantown,
Do St. Mary's
Brig Porpoise,
Ship Albany,
Schooner Petrel,
Do Falcon.

This force to make the attack.  When it came off the port, the American colors was seen hoisted on the forts.This caused the greatest disappointment in the squadron.  The commodore immediately arrested our gallant commander for having attacked Alvarado without his orders, and commander Hunter is, therefore, to be tried by a court martial for taking this place.

Our gallant commander also captured the city of Tlacotalpan, a city of about 7,000 inhabitants.[ANP]


NNR 72.132 May 1, 1847 OHIO VOLUNTEERS FEND OFF MEXICAN LANCERS AT AGUA FRIO

We have not yet seen the particulars of the battle which has been frequently referred to as having taken place between Col. Morgan, of the 2d regiment of Ohio volunteers, and Gen. Urreah's lancers. The following extract from a letter from an esteemed correspondent of Saltillo, will in some degree supply this vacuum:

Part of the 2d Ohio, hastening to the relief of Gen. Taylor, from Cerralvo, in all 212, under Col. Morgan, fought with over a thousand lancers, until artillery came to their and from Monterey. Lieut. Stewart, of company C, of that regiment, merits the highest praise for his daring bravery in riding through the Mexican lines to ask reinforcements. The American force, drawn up in a hollow square repulsed charge after charge of the horse, sustaining a heavy fire from the chaparral. Capt. Latham with his riflemen, was about charging into the chaparral for a hand-to hand fight, but was recalled, as it appeared evidently the design of the enemy to both break the square and induce the men to charge into the sides of the road, where singly they would both be able to meet horsemen. There was every reason to believe that men were in ambuscade, ready to rake, at a single volley, and small body of men opposed to them. And so it afterwards appeared; for, on the first fire from the cannon into one of these suspected places, nearly thirty of the enemy were killed. After fifteen minutes' fight with the cannon, the lancers fled in every direction. Leaving more than a hundred on the field. We lost but four killed and a few wounded. The enemy kept up a heavy fire from escopetas, but generally overshot us. Capt Graham quartermaster at Cerralvo, was shot through the heart, in the beginning of the fight, and died instantly. Colonel Morgan was himself cool, brave, and determined, with the heart of youth, and head of age, as a young man but old Texan will always feel in battle.

The word now passes along the line-"San Luis in six weeks." As soon as the rainy reason commences, ho, for San Luis! And judging from what has happened-catching a prophetie gleam of the future by the reflection from the past-we can well concur in the rude but truth sentiment of a wounded volunteer-"Taylor will take it like a d--n!" [MSM]


NNR 72.132   May 1, 1847  Account of the battle of Sacramento

THE BATTLE OF SACRAMENTO.

We have no account as yet from the division under Col. DONIPHAN, (of the Missouri volunteers) nor of this affair, except what reaches us through Mexican papers.The furnish a despatch of the Mexican General Heredia, dated the 2d March, the material part of which is as follows:

At 12 o'clock on the 28th the enemy was seen by my advance guard, and at 2 o'clock P.M. he appeared in sight of my camp.I instantly drew up three columns of infantry under the orders of Gen. Garcia Conde, and posted my artillery in the most suitable manner; but as the enemy changed his route, and marched to the right in order to turn my position, I was obliged to change my whole plan, and ordered Gen. Garcia Conde with the cavalry to oppose the passage of the enemy, while I supported him with the remainder of my forces-The enemy halted when the cavalry came in front of him, and I, with the greatest despatch and all possible order, was arranging to form the infantry and artillery into battle on the right of the cavalry, and was already placing the pieces of artillery, when the enemy opened with his cannon on the cavalry, and at the third fire I had the mortification to see it completely dispersed.My artillery returned the enemy's fire, and kept firing with activity while I was trying to form the infantry, which had been thrown into confusion by the cavalry; and, owing to my great exertions and those of Capt. Don Angel Trius, Don Francisco Padillo, and Don Cayetano Justiniani, we succeeded in again forming the infantry, and collecting nearly all the cavalry which was stationed in my former encampment, it being necessary to establish a line with the new position, which was accomplished in the midst of the firing, all the infantry and artillery falling back without leaving in the other camp even a cannon that had been dismounted, and bringing away all the dead and wounded.

Being by this time established at Sacramento with all my forces, the enemy attacked us with a heavy fire of artillery, and a charge which his cavalry made on a redoubt was most chivalrously beaten off by fifty men of the 7th infantry and thirty men of the Durango squadron, under the command of the valiant captain cazadores, D. Rafael Gonzales, who fell victim to his bravery, he receivinga wound of which he died in a few moments.At the same time fell Lieut. D. Augustus Quintana, and several men of both companies.While they were thus defending the redoubt, the cavalry which I had sent to its assistance fled, and dispersed completely, carrying confusion into the ranks of the infantry.-In this critical situation I withdrew the artillery to an elevation in the vicinity, and succeeded in collecting 200 infantry, and there I maintained myself until, without having the power to prevent it, I was completely abandoned, except by Cols. D. Francisco Padilla and D. Cayetano Justininiani, Capt. Salvado Santa Maria, of the artillery of the National Guard, and the veteran Lieut. D. Manuel Fiores, and Lieut. Col. D. Matias Conde, the commander of he artillery, who with a new men of the artillery maintained the fire for nearly half an hour.Under these disastrous circumstances Col. D. Angel Trias, and the commander of a battalion. D. Vicente Sanchez, used the utmost efforts to reorganize the infantry, assisted by Cols. Padilla and Justiniani, whom I had sent for the same purpose; but it was in vain: they could not collect twenty men.The rest fled to the mountains terrified, following the example of the cavalry, of which only the first squadron of Durango made any resistance; their commander, Don Manuel Aponte, having ordered tem to dismount in order to extricate them from the confusion in which they were involved.Abandoned even by their (illegible), the officers of artillery already mentioned were forced to retire.Having lost all hope of regaining the day, I was obliged to retreat with bitter grief, as all in the camp remained in the possession of the enemy, nothing being saved except eight rounds of ammunition , which a servant of Col. Padilla hid in the mountains.In my retread I endeavored to collect some infantry to lead them to Chihuahua, but all my efforts were useless.

"On account of the complete dispersion it is impossible to give an exact detail of the number of killed and wounded; but I can assure your excellency that they cannot be less than eighty to a hundred." [ANP]


Vol. 72.132  May 1, 1847  GENERAL HOUSTON-THE MEXICAN WAR.

Gen. Houston was at San Augustine, Texas, on his way home from Washington, on the 19 ult.-During the few hours he harried, he delivered a short address to the people. Alluding to his speech, the San Augustine Shield observes:

He stated that the commission of major-general in the army invading Mexico was tendered to himself and his colleague, (Gen. Rusk) but both had declined its acceptance-his own reason for doing so was that he differed in opinion as to the proper plan of carrying on the war with the officers who would have been his seniors in rank, and he would not assist in carrying out measures directly antagonistic to his own judgment.His own experience in fighting Mexicans, which he believed to be greater than that of any of the generals who would have been above him did not approve the idea of marching to Mexico with such a cumbrous train of wagons, and such an immense quantity of hay as Gen Scott required-he did not wish to be encumbered with all the splendor and pomp with which that general was attended.He preferred invading Mexico with Texans, who required but one mule to a mess, and could lay all night with but one blanket around them, and with their rifles hugged close to their bosoms ready to fight at a moment's warning.Whenever his country called him and he was allowed an independent command of any, who, like Texans, were inured to toil, and could feed their horses on grass, and themselves on jerked beef, if necessary, he was then ready to take his life in one hand and his sword in the other, and go as far as his county's good required.n [ANP]


Vol. 72.132   May 1, 1847  THE TERMS OF CAPTITULATION.

Town of Tla Co-Talpan, 1st April 1847-2 o'clock P.M. Present, the constitutional alcalde and citizens, who compose this illustrious council on the one side, and on the other Capt. C G. Hunter, of the U.S. steamer Scourge accompanied by the second lieutenant of that vessel, M.C. Marin; the object being to enter into such negotiations as shall be suitable for the welfare of the inhabitants, and better understanding with that nation, the terms expressed I the following articles were agreed to by both parties:

1st. The town Tla-co-Talpam hereby declares its perfect neutrality towards the forces of the United States, and also its entire submission to them as long as existing circumstances continue.

2d. In consideration of this, the said captain, in the name of the government, whose commission he holds binds himself that the rights of individuals shall be respected as also their persons and private property, likewise the Catholic religion, and the free exercise of its forms of worship.

And for the fulfilment and faithful observance of this compact, both the contracting partis hereby bind themselves by all the forms usual ; and in tesimony of the same, they have hereby subscribed their names to two copies of this contract each of the same tenor and date.Done by the alcalde, presiding officer of this council, and the before-named second lieutenant, who assisted in arranging this negotiation, nd who is commissioned to sign for the before-mentioned Capt. Charles G. Hunter.
(signed) PEDRO ATALPICO.
M.C. MARIN, Lieut. U.S.N.

The town of Alvarado having been left defenceless, surrenders itself to the United States steamer Scourge, Capt. C.G. Hunter, on the following conditions;

1st.That the forces of the United States sill respect and protect the Roman Catholic religion.

2d.That they solemnly guarantee complete and entire protection to the inhabitants of this town, and all species of property, it being distinctly understood that no public edifice or private house shall be taken or used by the United States' forces, unless some previous arrangement shall have been made with the owners.
JOSE RUIZ PARRA,
President of the council.
M.C. MARIN,
Alvarado, 31st March, 1847. Lt. U.S. navy.
[ANP]


NNR 72.132 May 1, 1847 list of killed and wounded at Veracruz

Killed and wounded at Vera Cruz.

The "American Eagle," a new Americo-Mexican paper, started in Vera Cruz by Messrs. People, Barnard & Jewell, of the 6th says: "The following is the list of those who were killed and wounded in the attack upon this place, as reported officially to headquarters.  We have, in the kindest manner, been permitted to copy them, and whilst we deplore the loss of those who have fallen, we must congratulate the army upon the success that has attended them with so little loss.  Of the army it will be perceived that there were 10 killed and 47 wounded.

"Of the navy, we understand that one officer (Midshipman Shubrick) and 7 sailors and marines were killed and wounded, but were regret that it is not in our power to give them names."

Under Col. Harney.

Killed.-James M. Nicholson, corporal of company F, in action of Puente de Moreno, March, 24;-Hopkins, private, company H. 3d Artillery, same place and time.

Wounded-Lewis Neill, 2d lieut. Adjutant; Joseph Marhsall, private, company B,-James, do., 2 nd dragoons, severely; Hugh Gavin private, Capt. Cheatham's 1st Tennesseeans, slightly; M. Foy, W. Ailes privates, company A.D. Vann, co., company C.G. Woodley do., company H. 2d Tennesseeans, slightly Thos. Young, guide, slightly; W.T. Gillespie, company B, Lewis Geisle, company C, John Smith company, K, privates, 2d, dragoons, slightly.

All of the above, with the exception of Lieut. Neil who was wounded at or near the village of Medellum met with their mishaps at Puente de Moreno, March 25th.

Under Gen. Worth.

Killed-J.B. Vinton, captain 3d Artillery, on the 22d March; John Hetner, private, company B, 2d. do., 26th March; Nicholas Burns, private, company (undecipherable text)… Emile Voltarat. Privates, company B. 2d Artillery 24th March. Slightly; Adolphe Malhe, John Golding and Wm. Henderson, privates, company D. 2d Artillery, 22d March-the two last named slightly, the other left arm shot off; Ernest Krunse.  Owen Boate, Wm. Carthage, Joseph S. Hayden and Archibald , privates, company F. 2d Artillery-the first on the 20th and remainder on the 24th March slightly Martin Dignant, private company G. 2d Artillery, 22d March, slightly; S. D. Shuetzenback, private, company A, and Edw. Fleming, private, company I, 8th Infantry, 23d March, slightly.

Under Gen. Twiggs.

Killed-Wm. Alburtis, brevet captain, 2d Infantry. March 1th, by a cannon ball; W. R. Blake, sergeant, company F, 4th Artillery, March 15th;--Robert T. Cunningham, private, company A, mounted rifleman, march 11th.

Wounded.-W.B. Lane and Edward Harris, sergeants, company D. mounted rifleman, March 24th, severely; John Teluna, private, company E, mounted riflemen, March 24th, severely.  Frederick Warren, private, company C. mounted riflemen, March 24th, slightly, Henry Neill, slightly, and Thomas Weller, severely, privates, company B, mounted riflemen, March 11th, severely; James Stephen, private, company F. 4th Artillery, March 14th severely; Spencer, corporal, company D. 2d infantry, March 11th severely.

Under Gen. Patterson.

Killed-John Miller and Gothlet Reip, privates, company G, 1st regiment Pensylvania volunteers-the first on the 17th and the latter on the 24th March.

Wounded-Lieut. Col. J. P. Dickinson, South Carolina regiment, severely; Private Ballad, do. do., severely; Privates Coke, D. Phillips and Hickey, do., do., slightly Q. M. Serg, B. P. McDonald, Georgia regiment, severely; Serg. Jos. King, do. do., slightly; Private T.J. Scott, do. do., severely; Private Henry Lanebeck, do. do., slightly; Private John G. Enbank, do. do., severely-all on the 11th March: Serg. John Henson, company E, 1st Pennsylvania regiment, March 9, severely; Privates O. C. Burden, Wm. Vanderbark and Andrew Keamer, company I, do. do., March 11, slightly; Private Theo. Heisss, company F, do. do; Private Jas, Stevens, company J. do. do.; Private Fry, company D. 2d Pennsylvania regiment-all on the 11th March, slightly; Private Mark Fose, company A, 2d Tennessee regiment, 11th March, slightly; Private John Hubard, company A, 1st Tennessee regiment, during bombardment, slightly; Serg. R. Williamson, company C. 1st Pennsylvania regiment, 11th March, slightly; Private Daniel Harkins, company A. do. do., (on piquet) slightly.  [ANP]


NNR 72.133 May 1, 1847  OPERATIONS IN CALIFORNIA
NNR 72.133-134 May 1, 1847 COM. ROBERTS FIELD STOCKTON'S REPORT OF SUPPRESSION OF REBELLION IN CALIFORNIA

SIR: I have the honor to inform you that it has pleased God to crown our poor efforts, to put down the rebellion and to retrieve the credit of our arms, with the most complete success.  The insurgents determined, with them whole force, to meet us on our march from San Diego to this place, and to decide the fate of the territory by a general battle. 

Having made the best participation I could, in the face of a boasting and vigilant enemy, we left San Diego on the 29th day of December, (that portion of the insurgent army who had been watching and annoying us, having left to join in the main body,) with about six hundred fighting men, composed of detachments from the ships Congress, Svannah, Portsmouth, and Cyane, aided by General Kearny, with a detachment of sixty men on foot, from the regiment of United States Dragoons, and by Capt. Gillispie, with sixty mounted riflemen. 

We marched nearly one hundred and forty miles in ten days, and found the rebels on the 8th day of January in a strong position, on the high bank of the “Rio San Gabriel,” with six hundred mounted men and four pieces of artillery, prepared to dispute our passage across the river. 

We waded through the water dragging our guns after us against the galling fire of the enemy, without exchanging a shot until we reached the opposite shore; when the fight became general, and out troops having repelled a charge of the enemy, charged up the bank in a most gallant manner, and gained a complete victory over the insurgent army.

The next day, on our march across the plains of the “Mesa” to this place, the insurgents made another desperate effort to save the capital and their own necks; they were concealed with their artillery in a ravine until came within gun shot, when they opened a brisk fire from their field pieces on our right flank, and at the same time charged both on our front and rear.  We soon silenced their guns, and replied the charge, when they fled, and permitted us the next morning to march into town without any further opposition. 

We have rescued the country from the hands of the insurgents, but I fear that the absence of Col. Freemont’s battalion of mounted riflemen will enable most of the Mexican officers, who have broken their parole to escape to Senora. 

I am happy to say that our loss in killed and wounded does not exceed twenty, whilst we are informed that the enemy has lost between seventy and eighty. 

This dispatch must of immediately, and I will [ ] another opportunity to furnish you with the details of these two battles, and the gallant conduct of the officers and  men under my command, with their names. 

Faithfully your obedient servant. R.F. Stockton
[MSM]


NNR 72.134 May 1, 1847 LETTER OF JOSE MARIA FLORES SEEKING ARRANGEMENT OF A TRUCE IN CALIFORNIA

Enclosed I have the honor to send to you a translation of the letter handled to me by the commissioners mentioned in another part of this despatch, sent by Jose Ma. Flores, to negotiate a peace honorable to both nations. The verbal answer, stated in another page of this letter, was sent to this renowned general and commander in chief. He had violated his honor, and I would not treat with him nor write to him. [MSM]


NNR 72.136 May 1, 1847 account of the road from Veracruz to the city of Mexico, distances along the route

The Road From Vera Cruz to the city of Mexico, is one of the best Macadamized roads on this continent.  C.J. Folsom, of N. York, in a  book published in 1842 furnishes the following account of the route:

"The first part of the route, leading through the village of Santa Fe, is low and sandy, over which a calzada or paved causeway was thrown, forming a part of the great road to the capital; but his is now in a ruinous condition, owing, in a  great measure, to the want of repairs, which are rendered necessary by the destructive operation of the mountain torrents during the rainy season.  Two fine bridges remain on this part of the route, which communicated with the causeway; one of these, called puente del Rey, or King's bridge, crosses the river Antigua 15 leagues from Vera Cruz, and is admirably built with massive stone arches.  The other is thrown over a rapid stream at Plan del Rio, and consists of a single arch of very large dimensions.  Plan del Rio is a small village 21 leagues from Vera Cruz, where the ascent of the tables may be said to commence.  In the six leagues that intervene between that village and another called Encerro, the traveler attains the height of 3,043 feet above the level of the sea, which is sufficient to give an entirely new character to the climate and preductions.  A farther ascent of 1,292 feet, within a distance of about eight miles, over a rugged and dangerous road, brings him to Jalapa, or Xalapa, where he enters on a portion of the old paved road, leading through fields of maize and gardens filled with a profusion of flowers.  'Here,' says Hum---, the --- merchants of Vera Cruz have --- ---- in which they enjoy a cool and agreeable retreat, while the coast is almost uninhabitable from the mosquitoes, the great heat and the yellow fever."

"The distance from Tampico to --- is 312 miles.  The road leads over precipitous ----, and is unfit for carriages.  A traveller who passed over this route in 1822, describes the country as level for 48 miles from Tampico, with a rich beach soil, few trees, except palms, and thinly inhabited.  This was followed by a broken and hilly region for a distance of nearly 100 miles, possessing a deep soil, but destitute of water during the greater part of the year.-The traveller now encountered a steep and rugged mountain, belonging to the great chain of Sierra de Madre.  The ascent was difficult and fatiguing, and occasionally frightfully precipices showed themselves at the feet of his mule."  [ANP]


NNR 72.136 May 1, 1847  Health statistics of Vera Cruz

VERA CRUZ-HEALTH STATISTICS.-From Brantz Mayer's Mexico as it was and is we learn that-In the year 1841, the number of baptisms in the city was 454, whilst the deaths in the same time amounted to 1,017, say about one-sixth of the whole population!Of these by vomito 155, small pox 142, phthisis and diarrhea 212, fevers 142, dysentery 29.

Mr. Mayer says: "In 1842. I am told that near two thousand died of vomito at Vera Cruz.This however, was owing to the number of raw troops sent there from the interior, to be embarked for Yucatan." [ANP]


NNR 72.136 May 1, 1847 the Mexican evacuation of Veracruz

The evacuation of Vera Cruz.-A late letter of Me. Kendall to the Picayune says-

"I have said but little about the evacuation of this place by the Mexicans, on the 29th ultimo, because I have had little time.  It reminded me more of the Departure of the Israelites than ought else I can compare it to; the long procession of soldiers, national militia, and people of all classes and sexes, as they poured our of the walls of a city set off as this is with huge antique-looking domes and other architectural ornaments. As at Monterey, there was the same throng of camp women, carrying every conceivable implement of ornament and use, especially of the former, to say nothing of the innumerable parrots, poodle dogs, and other absurdities of a kindred nature.  It is a singular fact the poorer the people in every country the greater the number of dogs they must have about them; but in no nation does the half starved population affect the animal to the same extent as this.

"The weather continues hot -insupportable hot in the middle of the day; but all my inquiries would induce me to have that as yet there is little sickness among the troops.  The report that the dreaded vomito had broken out was certainly premature.-All think, however, hat the sickness must appear in the course of a week or two, but probably not until Gen. Scott has moved onward with the main portion of the army.  If all Santa Anna's cattle are brought in, or only a portion of his immense herds, it will accelerate movements greatly."  [ANP]


MAY 1, 1847,72.136 DESCRIPTION OF JALAPA

Jaylapa, or Zulapa, the capital of the state of Vera Cruz is a pleasant town situated 89 miles from the city of Vera Cruz, on a steep declivity of the table land, 4,340 feet above the level of the sea.  It contains eight churches, a good school for drawing, and 13,000 inhabitants.  The principal merchants of the city of Vera Cruz reside at Jalapa, and only visit the [  ] city occasionally.  An annual fair is held at Jalapa, and much frequented. 

The Havana Diario de la Marina, of the 9th April, publishes the following:  “on the 31st of March was published in Mexico the capitulation of Vera Cruz.  President Santa Anna issued an address to his countrymen in which, among other things, he says: 

“Mexicans, Vera Cruz is in the power of the enemy.  It has fallen, not before the valor of the Americans or the influence of their good fortune.  We ourselves, to our shame be it said, have brought this fatal distance upon our arms by our [illegible] I am resolved to go and meet the enemy *******].  Chance may decree that the proud American host shall talk the capital of the Aztec empire; I shall not behold that disaster, for I shall first lay down my life in the struggle. ******

Yet the nation shall not perish.  I swear that a sincere and unanimous effort.  A thousand times fortunate for us will prove the disaster of Vera Cruz, of the fall of that city shall awaken in the breasts of the Mexicans the enthusiasm, the dignity and generous ardor of a true patriotism.  It will undoubtedly prove the salvation of the country.” 

“On the 27th of March, were already assembled some troops at the National bridge under command of Gen. La Vega and of the govenor of the state, Don Juan de Soto.  Between the 27th and 30th two brigades of infantry and one of cavalry marched from the capital in the direction of the bridge, with their corresponding batteries, amounting in all to 2,000 men. 

“On the 1st of April, Gen. Santa Anna in person would set out from Mexico, with 2,000 more, to direct the military operations in the state of Vera Cruz, resolved, as he saved, to dispute the ground inch by inch, and die before he will consent to a peace-his own words, as we find them both in letters and in printed documents.  Enrelment of troops is going on at various points. “The army of the north has returned to San Luis Potosi, where it remained at the date of the latest advice.”  [MSM]


NNR 72.136, May 1, 1847 description of Jalapa

City of Jalapa - This city stand on a very elevated ground, yet for many miles the ascent is quite gradual.  From the city, Vera Cruz is visible, as is also the sea, 90 miles distant.  The city itself is upon a high hill - highest in the centre, so that the streets incline considerably; so much so that no wheeled vehicle can pass along any of them except the main street road, which has considerable rise and descent.  The city is surrounded by a wall and has a strongly built church near the western gate, which could be converted into a citadel.  The streets are paved.  The houses, as in other Mexican towns, are of stone, with flat roofs and iron barred windows. - Opposite the city, on the left of the road, is a hill from which the road might be annoyed, and shells thrown into the town.  For the distance of six or seven miles before reaching the town the road is a handsome and substantial  structure of chequered pavement, and must have been very costly. [WFF]


NNR 72.136  May 1, 1847  ADDRESS OF SANTA ANNA TO HIS ARMY, ON QUITTING SAN LUIS POTOSI FOR THE CAPITAL.

Companions in arms!-Devoted entirely to the service of the country, I marched to assume the reins of government, in doing which I make the most costly sacrifice, acting contrary to my cherished desires and fixed intentions.But this course will put an end to the civil war which is destroying our beautiful capital; it will give unity to our defences and impulse to the righteous struggle in which we are engaged with the perfidious invaders, and in which you have fought with such bravery and decision in the field of La Angostura.

My friends-I will never forget your glorious actions on that field of battle, your sufferings in the desert, to which you submitted with heroic patience, and, above all, that I had the honor of commanding you.The nation owes you a recompense, and you shall shortly receive it through my exertions, although this is not the consideration which stimulates you to bear yourselves as worth sons of Mexico.

Soldiers-You are the hope of your country, her best defenders.You duty then is to guard all parts; and on this account I have disposed that two brigades of infantry and one of cavalry, with their corresponding batteries, shall march to the defence of the state of Vera Cruz, the rest of the army defending this frontier.

Everywhere you will conduct yourselves as you have done hitherto, and you will ever deserve the illustrious name you have acquired.I am going to procure whatever is necessary to consummate the great work which is committed to you, and be assure that in the hour of danger you will again find in the midst of you your general. [ANP]


NNR 72.136  May 1, 1847  Santa Anna address on the fall of Vera Cruz

Jalapa, or Zalapa, the capital of the state of Vera Cruz, is a pleasant town situated 89 miles from the city of Vera Cruz, on a steep declivity of the table land, 4,340 feet above the level of the sea.  It contains eight churches, a good school for drawing, and 13,000 inhabitants.  The principal merchants of the city of Vera Cruz reside at Jalapa, and only visit the sickly city occasionally.  An annual fair is held at Jalapa, and much frequented.

The Havana Diario de la Marina, of the 9th April, publishes the following;

"On the 31st of March was published in Mexico the capitulation of Vera Cruz.President Santa Anna issued an address to his countrymen in which, among other things, he says:

"Mexicans, Vera Cruz is in the power of the enemy.It has fallen, not before the valor of the Americans or the influence of their good fortune.We ourselves, to our shame be it said, have brought this fatal disgrace upon our arms by our interminable discussions. * * * *  I am resolved to go and meet the enemy. * * * * Chance may decree that the proud American host shall take the capital of the Aztec empire; I shall not behold that disaster for I shall first lay down my life in the struggle.*** Yet the Nation shall not perish.I swear that Mexico shall triumph if my wishes are seconded by a sincere and unanimous effort.A thousand times fortunate for us will prove the disaster of Vera Cruz, if the fall of that city shall awaken in the breasts of the Mexicans the enthusiasm, the dignity and generous ardor of true patriotism.It will undoubtedly prove the salvation of the country.

"On the 27th of March, we're already assembled some troops at the National bridge, under command of Gen. La Vega and of the governor of the state, Don Juan de Soto.Between the 27th and 30th two brigades of infantry and one of cavalry marched from the capital in the direction of the bridge, with their corresponding batteries, amounting in all to 2,000 men.

"On the 1st of April, Gen. Santa Anna in person would set out from Mexico, with 2,000 more, to direct the military operations in the state of Vera Cruz, resolved, as he says, to dispute the ground inch by inch, and die before he will consent to a peace-his own words, as we find them both in letters and in printed documents.Enrolment of troops is going on a various points.

"The army of the north has returned to San Luis Potosi, where it remained at the date of the latest advices."[ANP]


NNR 72.136-137  May 1, 1847  Santa Anna's inaugural address

Santa Anna's Inaugural address.

Senores deputies: I have just taken the oath which the law prescribes, and in doing so ought to accompany it with a manifestation of my sentiments and the motives of my conduct to this respectable committee of the legislative body.

The events which have taken place in the capital are known, and are of such a character as to bind me to give them a speedy and pacific termination.-Surrounded by difficulties of all kinds, interested in what is the most important and essential to the whole nation, as is the sustaining of a strong and decisive struggle with a foreign power, in which nothing less is involved than the existence of the nation, it would be the last of evils to enter into a contest with those who ought to unite in repelling the eommon enemy.These discords ought to disappear at the imperious voice of patriotism which calls upon the sons of the country to have but one will and aim.The moments have been urgent-I have seen the forward steps of he enemy-I have rushed to the field to repel them, and even at the moment of doing so, I have been forced to leave a victorious army, and to come hither to assume a power which I have repeatedly said was repugnant to my feelings, and which I had determined never to undertake.

That which has been and ought to be an object of aspiration and desire, is for me an enormous sacrifice.But I am all for my country, and shall ever serve it, without thinking what it may cost me to do that which the nation desires I should do.I have entered upon the supreme magistracy because I have seen that it was the sole legal means of terminating the disturbances of this capital, because I believe I shall thus be able to facilitate the prosecution of the war, and to save the honor and independence of Mexico, which I wish to present unsullied and brilliant to the world which is beholding us.I have before me the committee of the sovereign congress, of that august body whose decisions I respected and shall constantly continue to respect.Its decisions will be my invariable guide, and I have firmly resolved to preserve a pure union with the legislative body, which union will give us a final victory and the re-establishment of internal and external peace on which the happiness of our country depends, and to which we all aspire.The nation has proclaimed the political principles which ought to be the basis of the administration which I wish to establish.

Thus I understand that its strength will be secured for defending itself, and its rights for which its sons have those guarantees which belong to all men, and which civilization claims, and which has been my aim since my return to the country.This will not be denied, and the nation shall still see me obedient to its wishes without my having any other rule of conduct than its decisions.As a Mexican and a soldier, I shall always take the same road as the nation, and I aspire to no other title than that of a good citizen, and in speaking of me that it should be said that I always loved my country-that I served it with zeal, and that I sacrificed myself for its good. [ANP]


NNR 72.137 May 1, 1847 Gen. David Emanuel Twiggs' division quits Veracruz for Jalapa, arrival of Col. Bankhead

Latest From Vera Cruz.-The New Orleans Picayune of the 21st says-Our advices by the 'Iona' are up to the 8th inst. Gen. Twiggs, with a division of the army, left Vera Cruz on the morning of that day for Jalapa.  There was the same doubt in the army as to whether there would be any more fighting as has always prevailed amongst our troops after a battle with the enemy.

The remaining divisions were to proceed rapidly in the direction of the city of Mexico.  Although the opinion was quite current at Vera Cruz that the Mexicans would not make a stand between that city and the capital, yet there were some who regarded future collision as certain.  Amongst these was Col. Kenney, who had recently been as far into the interior as Mango de Clava, Santa Anna's hacienda.

It was distinctly understood at Vera Cruz that the Puente Nacional had been abandoned.  This was the point at which the first resistance to the march of the American forces upon the city of Mexico would be made; but though the defence of this point was given up, it was by no means certain that the progress of our army into the interior would not be disputed at others.

Indeed it was asserted hat the forces destined to defend the National bridge (Puente Nacional) had fallen back a few leagues in the direction of Jalapa, to a stronger position, where preparations were being made for a stout defence.  An intelligent officer, just from Vera Cruz, thinks it quite probable that a battle may have occurred about the 14th inst.

Rumors from the city of Mexico represented Santa Anna as more intently bent upon war than ever.-The reports are not the best authority, in so far as the wishes of Santa Anna are concerned; but they indicate the temper of the public mind, which is as good an index of his purposes as any other.

The New Orleans Evening Mercury of the 21st instant says-Col. Bankhead, bearer of despatches from Gen. Scott, and having in charge the trophies of war taken at Vera Cruz, arrived this morning on the ship Elizabeth Dennison, on his way to Washington.  The E.D. left Vera Cruz on the same as the schooner Iona which arrived yesterday, and therefore brings no later news.  [ANP]


NNR 72.141-143 May 1, 1847 GENERAL ORDERS, DISPOSITIONS FOR MARCHING TO THE INTERIOR, &C.

1. The first infantry, and the two volunteer companies temporarily attached to the first division of regulars, will, upon the march of the army hence, remain to garrison this city and the army hence, Jaun de Ulloa, when Brevet Col. Wilson, assigned to duty according to his [ ], will become the governor and commanding officer of these places. In the mean time that officer, by arrangement with the present governor and commander, may wish his regiment, relieve so much of the actual garrisons as shall be found desirable. Accordingly, he will report in person to receive orders for his regiment.

2. With a view to a march into the interior, the baggage of all corps and officers will be in the next two days, reduced to the smallest compass and weight. Not more that three common tents principally for arms and the sick, can be allowed for the present, to the officers and men of any company; and general officers, general staff and field officers, will limit themselves in proportion. All surplus baggage, public and private, will, accordingly, be properly packed, marked, and turned over to the quartermaster's department for storage.

3. Requisitions for means of land transportation (wagons, pack , and draught animals) will be made upon the chief quartermaster, by division and by the chiefs of the other branches of the general staff, subject to the serverest revision; and notice is now given that any excess of baggage. Public or private, will be rejected and thrown aside by the quartermasters and their agents, at the time of loading up, or at any time on the march that such excess may be detected.

4.  It is absolutely necessary for an early march that all public means of transportation-wagons, carts, horses, and mules, with their harness, saddles, bridles, halters, and pack saddles-[ ] in the use of the corps, or in the hands of individual officers and men, should, without delay, be turned over to the quartermaster's department, which has instructions to re-loan three or four horses, in as many extreme cases, for a very short time longer. This order includes all such animals as may be held, under the pretence of capture, or purchase since the army landed near the city. Captured properly is always held for the benefit of the service generally, and no purchase can be respected unless witnessed and approved at the time by a general officer or commander of a brigade-masmuch as if the property be stolen by the seller, it will certainly be restored or paid for by the United States, on demand and proof on the part of the rightful owner.

5. If the foregoing directions be not complied with, fully, before tomorrow night, measures, will be taken, however reluctantly, to seize every object designated above, and throw the burden of providing a just private title, upon the possessor of the property. By command of Major General Scott. H. L. Scott, A. A. A. General
[MSM]


NNR 72.144  May 1, 1847  REPORTS OF SICKNESS AT VERACRUZ, SANTA ANNA AT CERRO GORDO

ARMY OF INVASION.

An arrival at New York from Havana, brought startling reports which reached there by the British steamer Vesuvius, of the fever having attacked our army at Vera Cruz.

The arrival of the United States steamer Mississippi at New Orleans on the 22d, relieves the anxiety which this report could not but awaken.The Mississippi left Vera Cruz five days later than the Vesuvius, and furnishes Vera Cruz dates to the 134th, Tampico to the 12th, and city of Mexico to the 3d of April.

The most of the letters and publications that mention the health of the army at all represent it to be good, in the general; The Vera Cruz Eagle,(a paper just issued by our printers,) of yhe 13th has the following.

The hospital. "Many of our gallant soldiers are now prostrated by disease and the hospitals are filled to overflowingwith them.The disease most prevalent is diarrhea, in many cases it has proven fatal."

It is manifest that Gen. Scott had been making every possible effort to expedite the movement of the army to a more healthy position.The whole army was en route for Jalapa-except perhaps about 2000 men including the garrison of the town, and Quitman's brigade, at the time the Mississippi left Vera Cruz.

The advance corps 2,500 to 2,700 choice men under Gen. Twiggs, marched on the 8th.

Shields' and Pillow's brigades followed.On the 9th Gen. Patter-on had so far recovered as to be able to leave Vera Cruz with the view of joining them and taking command.

General Worth's brigade took up the line of march on the morning of the 13th. The General himself was detained by a sudden indisposition from accompanying them.About one o'clock an express reached him, with the important information that the column under Gen. Twiggs had fallen in with a large fore of the enemy at Cerro Gordo, a strong position beyond Puente Nacional, and that a skirmish had taken place between Twiggs' advance guard and the enemy, in which Capt. Johnson, topographical engineer, was severely wounded, and several others. In a half an hour after the reception of this news General Worth had mounted his horse and was off.

On the 11th, General Scott addressed a proclamation to the Mexicans, from headquarters, announcing the advance of his army on the capital and of that of General Taylor upon San Luis Potosi,- "assures them that Americans are not their enemies, but their friends-and the friends of their holy religion, its hierarchy and its priesthood, -that for the church and the unoffending inhabitants, and their property "I have from the first, done everything to place them under safeguard of marital law against the few bad men in this army.My orders, to that effect, known to all, are precise and rigorous.Under them, several Americans have already been punished , by time, for the benefit of Mexicans, besides imprisonment, and one for a rape, has been hung by the neck."

With these assurances he invites the Mexicans to bring in horses, mules, cattle; beef, and other supplies-and threatens to punish them with rigor if they molest the trains of wagons or teams of mules, &c.-concluding with assurances of a speedy peace.Another general order of the same date regulating the supplies for and order of march of the residue of the forces was issued. [ANP]


NNR 72.144 May 1, 1847 Gen. William Jenkins Worth appoints Lt. Col. Henry Wilson governor of Veracruz, Worth joins the Army

General Worth's brigade took up the line of march on the morning of the 13th.  The General himself was detained by a sudden indisposition from accompanying them.  About one o'clock an express reached him, with the important information that the column under Gen. Twiggs had fallen in with a large force of the enemy at Cerro Gordo, a strong position beyond Puente Nacional, and that a skirmish had taken place between Twiggs' advance guard and the enemy, in which Capt. Johnson, topographical engineer, was severely wounded, and several others, In half an hour after the reception of this news General Worth had mounted his horse and was off.  [ANP]


NNR 72.144 May 1, 1847 SQUADRON SAILS TO ATTACK TUXPAN

THE SQUADRON, under Commodore Perry, left Vera Cruz anchorage on the 12th of the purpose of attacking Tuspan, at which place Gen. Cos was said to be posted with sixty pieces of cannon. [MSM]


NNR 72.144 May 1, 1847 Mexican accounts of the seizure of Chihuahua

FROM CHIHUAHUA.The Mexican accounts from Chihuahua were to the 5th March. The loss of the battle of the 28th February by the Mexicans, is attributed to the cowardice of the Mexican cavalry.-The forces of the Americans are stated to have been 1100, and 8 pieces of artillery; whilst those of the Mexicans were 2000 men, and 10 pieces of artillery.The Americans took possession of Chihuahua on the 2d March, and nearly all the Mexican families were abandoning the city.[ANP]


NNR 72.145 May 8, 1847 ADDITIONAL TROOPS TO BE SENT FROM NEW YORK TO CALIFORNIA

A New York letter in the Philadelphia Inquirer says, "Capt. Turner, of the California expedition, now is this city, whither he came some time since the despatched from Col. Stevenson and the American consul at Rio de Janeiro, had received orders from the war department to recruit a sufficient complement of men to make that regiment amount to one thousand. As soon as the recruits are raised he will proceed with them to California." [MSM]


NNR 72.146 May 8, 1847 LIST OF THE COMPANIES OF THE TEN NEW REGIMENTS OF REGULARS EN ROUTE TO MEXICO

The Union of the 26th publishes a statement furnished by the adjutant general, from which we learn that of the ten new regiments of the regular army, the following companies are now en route for the army in Mexico.
COMP'S

9th Inf-Col. T. B. Ramsen                                  1
10th Inf-Col. R. E. Temple                                 5
11th Inf-Col. A. C. Ramsey                               7
13th Inf-Col. R. M. Echols                               1
14th Inf-Col. Wm. Trousdale                             1
15th Inf-Col. G.W. Morgan, (now in Mexico),  
    Lieut. Col.. Joshua Howard, superintending. 4
16th Inf-Col. J. W. Tibbatts                             10
Voltigeurs-Col. T.P. Andrews                          6
3rd dragoons-Col. E. G. W. Butler                    6

                           Total. 41
[MSM]


NNR 72.146 May 8, 1847 Com. David Conner's orders for landing at Veracruz

"General Order" from Com. Conner.

"When the men of war and other vessels having troops on board get underway for the place of debarcation, each vessel will display one or other of the following signals to designate the line to which she belongs.

1.        Those men of war that belong to same line will arrange themselves around their superior officer; and the other troop-vessels, as the Massachusetts, Alabama, Virginia, Endora and Edith, and the vessels having on board Capt. Taylor's and Lieut. Talcott's field batteries, will range themselves around the men of war belonging to the same line with themselves.-In this order, the three squadrons will proceed to the place of debarcation; line No. 1 loading, and the others following in succession.

2.        In distributing the surf-boats to the several men of war, care will be taken to assign them boats marked for their respective lines."

[ANP]


NNR 72.146 May 8, 1847 MANNER OF TAKING POSSESSION OF SAN JUAN DE ULLOA

The boats of the Ohio, proceeded to Vera Cruz took thence Gen. Worth's division and landed at the castle.

Capt. Stringham carried the flag of his ship to him, and the stars and strips which once floated to the mizen of the line of the battle ship Ohio now waivering over the castle of San Juan de Ulloa. [MSM]


NNR 72.146 May 8, 1847  ASSURANCES OF THE "UNION" THAT SUFFICIENT FROCES BE IN TIME FOR GEN. WINFIELD SCOTT AND GEN. ZACHARY TAYLOR, REQUISITION FOR 6,000 ADDITIONAL VOLUNTEERS

The Washington Union of the 24th April announces the president had called upon the authorities of certain states for 6,000 additional volunteers, and adds-

"We understand that reinforcements are about to be thrown into both our armies (under Scott and Taylor) and if Mexico should continue besotted, blind to her true interests, infatuated by her ridiculous pride, we must put forth our powerful arms in more vigorous prosecution of the war.

Subsequently the Union Stated, that about 2,000 of these 6,000 volunteers were designed for Oregon and Santa Fe-which of course would leave 4,000 to be divided between Gen. Scott and Taylor.

We have met with no general official announcements yet, of how the requisition for these 8,000 volunteers has been apportioned amongst the states. From local papers we ascertain that Pennsylvania, Virginia and Maryland, are each required to furnish two companies, New Jersey 5 companies, Ohio and Indiana one regiment each.

The District of Columbia is called upon to furnish three companies, which, with the two companies from Maryland, are to compose a distant battalion, under command of Lieut. Col. CHARLES LEE JONES. [MSM]


NNR 72.146 May 8, 1847 LT. CHARLES G. HUNTER SAID TO HAVE BEEN COURT-MARTIALED FOR HIS ATTACK ON ALVARADO

The New York Journal of Commerce says: "We learn from the authentic source that the trial had been had, that Lieut. Hunter has been found guilty of disobedience of orders in attacking Alvarado we presume and sentenced to be reprimanded at the quarter-deck of every ship in the squadron." We doubt it. [MSM]


NNR 72.146 May 8, 1847 Saint Mary's sails for Veracruz

The sloop-of-war St. Mary's, Com. Saunders, this morning had her signal for a pilot, and is in full sail, with a fair wind, down the bay.  She has received an outfit her together with some new spars.  The fatigue and exertion of her officers and crew have been incessant-constantly at sea for over two years, without intermission.  Many of her officers and men, to us their own words, "are nearly worn out."  On her arrival here she sent eighty men tot he hospital, and yesterday there were some thirty sufficiently recruited in health to take their former places on board the ship.  The St. Mary's in bound for Vera Cruz, and carries the latest instructions from Washington to the navy and army on that station.  [ANP]


NNR 72.147 May 8, 1847 PRONUNCIATION OF MEXICAN NAMES


La Resaca de la Palma Lah Ray-sah-kah day lah Pal-mah Surf Palm
Palo Alto Pah-lo Ahl-to Tall tree
Santiago San-te ah-go St. James
Rio del Norte Ree-o del Nortay North river
Chaparral Chah-pahr-rahl Clump of bushes
Ranchero Rahn cahy-ro Rancher
Rancho Rahn-cho Small farm
Hacienda Hah-ce-en-dha Plantation
Pelon Pay-lone Greaser
Monterey mon-ta-ray The king of the mountain
Plaza Plah-sah Public square
Rinconado Rin-co-nah-dho Inside corner
Los muertos Lohs Mwer-dhos and of the dead
Saltillo Sawl-te-yo Side hill or fall of table land
Buena Vista Bwey-na Veestah Pleasant view
Las Incantadas Lahs In can-tah-dhas Enchanted ground
Estanque Es-than-ke Artificial pond of water
Agua ag-wah Water
Novia No-vee-ah Well, the water of which is
drawn out by machinery
Agua Nueva Ag-wah New-ay-vah New Water
San Luis Potosi San-Lew-is Pto-see
Lobos, (island) Lobus Wolf
Cerralvo Sa-rahl-vo
Sierra See-er-rah Mountain range
San Juan de Ulua San Whahn da Oo-loo-ah
Vera Cruz Vay-rah Crooz True Cross
Alvarado Al-vah-rah-dho
Anton Lizardo An-ton Lee-sar-dho Lizard Point
Jalapa hah-lah-pah Jalap
Mexico May-hee-co
Sacrificios Sac-ree-feeseohs Place of Sacrifice
Bonita Bo-nee-tah Pretty
La Vega Lah- vay-gah
Ampudia Am-poo-dhe-ah
Mejia may-hee-ah
Canales Cah-nah-les
Paredes Pah-ray-dhes
Gomez Farias Go-mez Fa-ree-ass

[MSM]

NNR 72.149 May 8, 1847 Mexican narrative of events at Veracruz

Mexican Narrative of Events at the Heroic City of Vera Cruz, While Besieged by the American Army.
-Published at Jalapa, 1847.

How horrible is the scene we are attempting briefly to describe!  What sympathizing heart can behold it without his eyes filling with the bitterest tears of grief?  We would rejoice to conceal from Mexico this event with the origin of our melancholy abandonment, and the causes of such serious and lamentable misfortunes to the country-but we are compelled to announce to the entire world, what was our true position, during those days of barbarous conflict, without any relief, which this city sustained, and her disastrous end.

This description shall explain the cause of this result: the true language the Bulletin ahs issued, which has been the true expression of the sublime sentiments, animating the hearts of the defenders of ill fated Vera Cruz.

Animated and decided, we awaited the enemies of our nationality, after the beautiful youths of Vera Cruz had devoted many months to the daily practice of fire arms, considering themselves capable of repelling the attack and announced assault, which this city was expected to receive, united with the arms of the valiant veterans we possessed, all studied the best plan of defending our walls, which surrounded our own national and constant hearts, sworn never to surrender them with life.  When the squadron of the enemy appeared, bearing the invading army, all our points of defence were at once covered with our veterans and the National Guard.  From this first moment, the service was constant, with the greatest vigilance-citizens excused by the law, ran to the common defence, and few were found without their gun, to assist; all worked and ate their ration in the line, momently expecting the assault, and, agreeably to their oath, resolved, at he cost of their lives, to defend their families and their country.

But days and dark nights passed, and the enemy did not approach our walls; remaining concealed behind his works, he was not anxious to measure arms with us-nor venture upon an uncertain deed of arms, selecting as was most agreeable to him, and most in accordance with his character, the barbarous manner of assassinating the unoffending and defenceless citizens, by a barbarous bombardment of the city in the most horrible manner, throwing into it 4100 bombs, and an innumerable number of balls of the largest size, during nights and days, directing his first shots to the powder magazine, to the quarter of hospitals of charity, to the hospitals for wounded, and to the points he set afire, where it was believed the public authorities would assemble with persons to put it out; to the bakers' houses designated by their chimnies, and during the night raining over the entire city bombs, whose height was perfectly graduated with the time of explosion, that they might unite in falling, and thus cause the maximum destruction-but such infamous proceedings indicated from the first day the cowardice of the enemy.  His first victims were women and children, followed by whole families perishing from the effects of the explosion, or under the ruins of their dwellings.  In short time the hospitals were crowded with the wounded, the dead being simultaneously buried-with the exception of those unknown, who could not be taken from under the ruins.  The bombs entered the walls of the church of Santo Domingo, killing the unfortunate wounded, frightening away the nurses and doctors; who after arriving with haste and risk at the church of San Francisco and the chapel of the third order, encountered the same dismal fate; as well as at the hospitals of Belen and or Loretto, where it is well ascertained one bomb assassinate nineteen innocent persons.  In all quarters perished unfortunate persons, seeking a shelter from this frightful desolation, while the wounded, retaining strength enough to raise themselves, were flying as cripple and sprinkling the streets with their blood.

At the second day of the bombardment, we were without bread or meat, reduced to a ration of beans eaten at midnight beneath a shower of fire, and the light issuing from the projectiles.  The citizens had progressively removed to the claleta side, where up to this time less destruction had happened, taking shelter in the streets and entries, in such numbers that there was only room to stand on their feet.-But the third day the enemy alternately scattered their shot, and now every spot was a place of danger.  This was the actual condition of the desolate families, suffering so much anguish, without advice, hope, sleep or food, solely engaged in preserving their lives, yet more aggravated by the reflection of the uncertain fate of their sons and brothers, remaining on the fortifications, who in return sympathized with this condition of ther parents, known to be subjected to the explosion of every bomb upon their own habitation.  Most of the families whose houses had been destroyed, had lost every thing, all the property remaining to them was the clothes on their backs, because what the flames did not consume, was buried under the ruins.  Hndreds of persons, as well as fathers of numerous families of children, heretofore relying upon certain incomes, to-day find themselves without a bed ot lie upon, without covering or clothing to shelter them, and without any victuals.

The principal bake houses no longer existed, no provisions could be had, and we were without any retail shops-the garrison and part of the population feeding upon rice and beans collected by the municipal authorities!!!  Let it be remembered that we had been blockaded one year, causing general poverty; that our rich and benevolent men, who could have consoled many and  relieved more, were absent, and our real situation can be best ascertained by all those knowing Vera Cruz to live on her commerce, which had been already dead so many months.  In the midst of such a multitude of horrors, desolation and sorrow, with the hospitals full of wounded without attendants; the dwellings filled with unburied dead corpses, no food, breaches in the walls, the damage of the strongest and best defended works, with an expiring stack of cannon cartridges, from the constant reply of them for the enemy, the commanding general surrounded with such appeals and misfortunes, felt his courage stimulated, and declared his resolution to defend the post, so long as there remained alive the men to the accomplishment of this object-the officers of the line and the municipal authorities assembled for consultation, and the majority judged it proper to save the lives of the innocent citizens assailed by the enemy, whose death did not improve their condition.

We are yet ignorant of the exact number of our killed and wounded; but by the best data we have obtained, estimate both at not less than one thousand persons.  The damage done to dwellings and edifices is five or six millions of dollars, which cannot be repaired for many years.

The French consuls and neutral persons, present against their consent  to witness such desolating scenes, eulogize the valor and actions of our defenders and the heroic conduct of this population, suffering so many calamities in a war, so furious, so savage, so atrocious, in which positions of our men confronted death, without fear, suffering without the power of defence or vengeance, witnessing at their sides the destruction of their sons, hearing the shrieks of our wounded and the noise of such destructive fires, without moving from their position.  These recollections fill the heart with bitterness, and the details, which we omit, will excite horror when published by better pens.  Having been a target during five entire days for six thousand or more projectiles, which separated when they exploded, forming, without counting the stones and rabbish, thrown up, other elements of destruction, to the amount of 2,500,000 shots.

After sustaining this attack, we remain reduced to the most frightful misery, without any one knowing how to-morrow to feed his family.

The good treatment of our illustrious municipality will always be engraved upon our grateful hearts, as well as the noble and generous conduct of the Spanish consul, who sheltered and fed in his house a multitude of suffering women and children, for whose fate and safety he and others have shown the most zealous interest.

On the 26th, the authorities of Vera Cruz hoped that she would merit a conclusion to this work filled with horror, to save from certain death so many sick, wounded and old persons of women and children whose sacrifice, as well as that of the lives of the garrison, was now useless, without increasing the defence, and without postponing the result equally painful, besides augmenting our troubles and our increasing destruction, with the 60 pieces more already prepared by the enemy. But the entire world will be shocked with contempt when they hear, that without our asking any that we had not a right to, and which honor could but concede, the enemy ignobly not only refused to grant what we merited, but desired to force upon us vile conditions, leaving us but a few hours to decide, between disgrace and death, declaring he would destroy that city, and that none of the inhabitants should escape (not event he neutrals) not event he sick and wounded: Incredible declaration on the part of those making it, who at he same time classed us as brave men.  What would have been the fate then of cowards?

Thus and thus only were they able to conquer us. Our selection could not be doubtful; death was a thousand times preferable to be encountered I passing before his lines, to join the garrison within Ulloa.  A furious norther which stopped all communication with the Castle, allowed the reflection although surmounting these difficulties, our families would remain as a target to these demons of the extermination of our race.

Existing and succeeding nations, after ascertaining the truth of our statements, will do us justice;-and hyena North Americans receive the chastisement and execration of all christians.  Such is the belief of my heart, at the time of writing these lines, at 3 o'clock at daylight, the 27th, in the body of the guards at the point we are defending; and within three hours of that death which they have threatened to begin at 6 o'clock in the morning, as a voluntary sacrifice of our lives in defence of our country and national decorum.

To morrow we may not exist to write; but from our graves will arise the spirit of resistance and independence, which is so imperative, and which it seems does not exist in Mexico.

Our blood shall cry for vengeance, on the infamous assassinations maliciously perpetrated on our people.  The month of March fixes the epoch of scorn, decay and dissolution of North America; this mixed and prostituted people neglecting the counsels and forgetting the virtues of the immortal George Washington, have sowed with their ambition the seed of their future ruin, by an action beneath the dignity of a civilized people.

We believe the representatives of European nations anticipated our decision: foreseeing the conduct of the enemy, they humanely and generously visited his camp, to demand the rights of humanity, seeing us all at our posts, resolved that the women, children, old people and neutrals should depart from the city before we would yield; leaving us a heap of dead bodies in lieu of Vera Cruz!  And- who will credit it?-Scott, in imitation of the wild savage, refused that they should save even the lives of the yet living and foreign neutrals.  In despite of the cry of reason, of virtue, of honor, he constructed new batteries.  Finally, these consuls undertook to communicate to the captains of the neutrals vessels of war, lying at Sacrificios; but their application under the federal flag was not listened to.  Commodore Perry giving orders to "fire on."

These men turned a deaf ear to everything; their conduct was cowardly and infamous; their navy affected to approach to fight to fortifications, flying from the fire of the castle and the battery of Santiago.  They did not fight; they only desired to destroy by advantage.

The 27th hardly arrived, when the entire population of women, with children in their arms, and some strangers, waited before the dwellings of the French and Spanish consuls, who by their flags, saved the lives of so many innocents.

In the streets were heard only the sights of grief and the moans of the most affliction: mixed with this multitude were most respectable ladies, asking with tears in their eyes, if it were near 6 o'clock, because the city clock had been destroyed by a bomb; all were anxious to know how soon the time would arrive to save them, all asking aid, to allow them to go out on foot to those ardent sands; in the meantime the ferocious Scott brutally smiled, ridiculing the magnanimity of said consuls, the only representatives of their nations, deprived of all communication with their ministers in Mexico.

The negotiations for an agreement to end these horrors in the meanwhile continued, the commissioners making a great sacrifice of "amour propre," so as to bring the business to such a point as it would be accepted by the garrison; but it was already nine in the morning  and nothing was known, and the people moved from the centre streets, loaded with bundles of clothes, feeble, and without nourishment, seeking a gate by which to go out. Some got on board of boats f proceed to neutral vessels of war, and were driven back by the enemy.  The civil authorities offered to put themselves at the head of this female squad, and present themselves, unarmed, for Scott to rife upon, or else too permit them to go to the mountains, since he denied honor to men, and life to women.

Now in this situation, everything fell into a chaos of confusion.  Mothers ran to the lines, and found their sons: Gen. Morales refusing to sign the capitulation, and not to bear arms, retired in a boat, with the Major of the National Guards, leaving the command to Gen. Landero.  The withdrawal of these chieftains increased the confusion, and the turn of this spectacle was to yield to the power of necessity, because it became known the National Guard would not give up their arms, and would yield life rather than do so, disbanding, as was partly the case the preceding night, so soon  as the capitulation was talked of.  On the morning of the 26th, everything was completed by the commissioners, and ratified by Landero and Scott.  The sun of this day was but the lamp of a sepulchre.  All we speak of and desire is, to get out of the hateful sight of the Yankees.

[Vera Cruz, 28th March, 1847, at 10 o'clock in the day, at the time of leaving the works where for 12 days we desired to end our lives for our beloved country.]  [ANP]


NNR 72.150 May 8, 1847 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's orders found on the Buena Vista battlefield

Order of Gen. Santa Anna.

The following is a translation of a Mexican order found on the battle field of Buena Vista.  It is interesting as conveying an accurate idea of Santa Anna's preliminary dispositions.

Several orders of the 20th to the 21st Feb. 1847.

Gen. officer of the day, Don Rafael Vasquez; aids, Col Jose M. Bermudes and lieut. Col. Don Florencio Aspeitia.  And for to-morrow, Don Francisco Mejia, general officer of the day; Col. Don Carlos Barito and Lieut. Col. Don Gregoria Elati, aids.

In the morning the army will continue its march, which will commence at 11 o'clock precisely, in the following order:

The 1st, 2d, 3d, and 4th battalions of the light infantry will take the lead, under the order of Gen. Ampudia, so that he may be able to avail himself of all the advantages that the circumstances may require. Immediately after the battalion of sappers, and in its rear, and at the head of the division of infantry of the van, under the orders of General Pacheco, will be placed the company of Sharp Shooters and three pieces of 16's, with their respective artillerists and reserve-as likewise the ammunition, composed of 100 round shot and 100 grape for each piece, and 80 boxes musket ammunition, each containing 9,600 cartridges.  Division of infantry of the centre, commanded by Gen. Manuel M. Lombardini, will follow; at the head of this column there will be five 12's, as above named and ammunitioned, and also 80 boxes of musket ammunition.  At the head of the division of the rear, commanded by Gen. Ortega, there will be five pieces of 8's, supplied with men and ammunition as above, and also its 80 boxes of musket ammunition, each containing 9,600 cartridges.

The division of cavalry of the rear will follow closely on the last of the infantry, having at their head the "Hussars" and in their rear the general ammunition train, escorted by the brigade of horse artillery. After the ammunition train all the camp followers of all classes, with the baggage of all kinds, laundresses, cooks, &c. it being distinctly understood that no woman will be allowed to mix with the column.  The chief in charge of the commissary department is Don Pedro Ravejel, who is also in charge of the baggage train.

His excellency, the general in chief, furthermore orders that he different corps shall to-day receive from the commissary three days' rations for the 21st, 22d and 23d, and that they require the necessary meat this afternoon for the first meal to-morrow morning, which the troops are directed to eat one hour before taking up the line of march; and the second will be taken in their haversacks, to be eaten in the night, wherever they may halt.  This last will consist of meat, two biscuits, and half a cake of brown sugar (piloncello), for each man; for on the night of the 21st there will be no fires permitted, neither will there be signal made by any military instruments of music-the movement at early day break on the morning of the 22d having to be made in the most profound silence.

The troops will drink all the water they can before marching, and will take with them, in their canteens or other vessels, all they possibly can carry; they will economize the water all they can, for we shall encamp at night without water, and shall not arrive at it until 12 o'clock on the following day.  The chiefs of corps will pay much-much-attention to this last instruction.

Each mule belonging to the ammunition train, and the horses of officers, will receive two rations of corn, which they will take with them, and these will be fed to them to-morrow night at dusk and on the following morning at daybreak.  The horses' girts will only be slackened, and the mules will not be unharnessed while they are eating.  The light brigade will likewise obey this order on the night of the 21st -only loosing their saddles a little.  The horse and mules will all be taken to water before commencing the march.

Each division will take with it its respective medical staff, hospital attendant, medicines, as regulated by the medical inspector general.

The chaplain I chief will provide each division with its chaplain.  He will also, as to morrow is a Feast Day, order mass to be said at 5 o'clock in front of the position occupied by the van guard; at 7 o'clock in front of the centre; at 8 o'clock in front of the rear guard; and at 9 o'clock in front of the division of cavalry.

Gen. Don Francisco Perez is ordered to be recognized as second in command to Gen. Lombardini, and Gen. Don Luis Guzman as second to General Ortega.

To facilitate the duties of the conductor  general of the baggage train, the cavalry of Celaza and all the presidial troops are hereby placed under his command.

His excellency the general in chief recommends to every officer punctual compliance with and obedience to each and every part of this his general order

By order of his excellency,

Manuel Micheltorena,

Chief of the general staff.

Translated literally from the order book of the 8th company of the permanent regular Cuirassiers, found on the battle ground of Buena Vista, February 23, 1847 by

Chas. W. Davis,Capt. And A. Q. M. U.S.A.

[We know not the poetizer that thus condenses the report of Santa Anna to the Mexican minister of war the battle of Buena Vista.]

Your excellency, we've won the day,
My "heroes" fought amid the fray,
And whipped the Yankees without pay,
And then - we ran away.]

[ANP]

NNR 72.150  May 8, 1847  Gen. Winfield Scott's proclamation to the people of Mexico

MAJOR GENERAL SCOTT'S PROCLAMATION.

Headquarters of the army, Vera Cruz, April 11, 1847.

Major Gen. Scott, general in chief of the armies of the United States of America, to the good people of Mexico:

Mexicans!--At the head of a powerful army, soon to be doubled-a part of which is advancing upon your capital-and with another army with Major Gen. Taylor, in march from Saltillo towards San Luis Potosi-I think myself called upon to address you.

Mexicans--Americans are not your enemies, but the enemies, for a time, of those men who, a year ago, misgoverned you, and brought about this unnatural war between two great republics.We are the friends of the peaceful inhabitants of the country we occupy, and the friends of your holy religion, its hierarchy and its priesthood.The same church is found in all parts of our own country, crowded with devout Catholics, and respected by our government, laws and people.

For the church of Mexico, the unoffending inhabitants of the country, and their property, I have from the first done everything in my power to place them under the safeguard of martial law against the few bad men in this army.

My orders, to that effect, known to all, are precise and rigorous.Under them, several Americans have already been punished, by fine, for the benefit of Mexicans, besides imprisonment, and one, for a rape has been hung by the neck.

Is this not a proof of good faith and energetic discipline?Other proofs shall be given as often as injuries to Mexicans may be detected.

On the other hand, injuries committed by individuals, or parties of Mexico, not belonging to the public forces, upon individuals, small parties, trains of wagons and teams, or of pack mules; or any other person or property belonging to this army, contrary to the laws of war-shall be punished with rigor; or if the particular offenders be not delivered up by Mexican authorities, the punishment shall fall upon entire cities, towns or neighborhoods.

Let, then, all good Mexicans remain at home, or at their peaceful occupation, but they are invited to bring in, for sale, horses, mules, beef, cattle, corn, barley, wheat, flour for bread, and vegetables.Cash will be paid for every thing this army may take and purchase, and protection will be given to all sellers.The Americans are strong enough to offer these insurances-which, should Mexicans wisely accept this war may soon be happily ended, to the honor and advantage of both belligerents.Then the Americans, having converted enemies into friends, will be happy to take leave of Mexico and return to their own country.

WINFIELD SCOTT.
[ANP]


NNR 72.151 May 8, 1847 A Picnic at Tampico

A correspondent of the Spirit of the Times says: "On the 4th ult. a party was given by some officers as a slight return for the pleasure they had experienced at the delightful party given them by the amiable lady of the German consul. It was deemed extremely doubtful whether the Mexican ladies could be prevailed to join us. A gentleman well acquainted with them, kindly took the matter in hand, and reported that he believed the affair perfectly practicable. It was decided that it should be a steamboat excursion up the Panuco. The United States steamer Mary Summers was kindly placed at their disposal, and every thing that could possibly be desired was placed on board of her by the energy and taste of the accomplished Captain M----, of the 1st artillery. Just consider the neat little steamboat lying at the wharf, steam up, and tastefully decorated with flags.

At 3 o'clock the ladies and their gentlemen friends commenced assembling. In a very short time we had twenty-five ladies ---with one exception they were either foreigners or Mexicans, and all ladies. The band of the 2d artillery accompanied us. Great anxiety was expressed about the arrival of General S. who was one of the principal persons in getting up the affair; it was his popularity combined with all of the principal families, which induced so many to honor us. The hour arrived- but no Gen. S. Some little anxiety was manifested by our fair friends - the boat was detained. At last much to our regret, apologies had to be made, and we took our departure.

The company had assembled on the hurricane deck-a crowd had collected on the wharf - and, as we shoved off, the band struck p a lively air. I then had time to look around me and take a peep at our fair and trusting visitors. Delicacy forbids that I should individualize, but there was one dark eyed Senora, with true Mexican complexion who attracted universal attention. Her soft drooping black eyes, fine contour of features, and stately form were the subject of admiration. Our interesting her was increased when we were told that she was destined to early widowhood. Her husband, poor fellow, was fast dying with consumption. But few of the ladies could talk English, and I was therefore afraid the affair would go out stiffly.

Before we had gone five miles, partners were called for a quadrille. The ice was broken; the magic of happiness which ever hangs o'er the movements of dance, immediately communicated itself to our fair guests. Eyes that were dull now sparkled- the [illegible] were assured- and all seemed to say, "we have come for amusement, and whether with enemies or friends, we are determined to have it." The graceful waltz took the place of the quadrille. I sat in the stern if the boat and contemplated the scene; it was one that could not but be viewed with the greatest interest. Here we were in the enemy's country- the fair Mexicans confiding in our honor, were unhesitatingly trusting themselves in the waltz with officers commanding troops opposed to their countrymen. A lady expressed herself to me, "that when it was proposed she had not the remotest idea that it would come[illegible]" This pleasant reunion cannot but have a happy effect socially and politically; it brings us together, and it is only by association that we can be known; they will see that we are not the "barbarian," as represented, but, like themselves are gay and light hearted, and even dance to the "merry castanet."

Stately and rapidly moved the steamer- the graceful and happy couples whirled away in the waltz-the music stole softly o'er the broad and placid rubber, and the deep green woods re-echoed sounds of happiness. I was lost in the quiet tranquil beauty of the scene- was reflecting how soon these graceful arms which now supported beauty, those manly forms might "bite the dust," when my dream was disturbed by the cry of the, "brick yard!" Sure enough there it was, in the elbow of the river. We had sailed 22 miles, scarcely being aware of it.

We soon reached there, and the boat was fastened at the landing, It had been arranged we should sail to the brick yard, and there complete the frolic by dancing at the house of the hospitable owner, who, by the way, was an American. Just as we were going on the shore, a canoe shoved out from the landing, and was paddled up the stream. Seated in it under a cover of raw hides, was a mother and two beautiful girls. They had left the city in the morning, and were on their way to some village of the Panuco.- All explained-"Stop them, and have them join in the festivities!" Every effort was made, but without success.

We all disembarked, and promenaded around the gentlemen's garden, and then betook ourselves to the house; it was quite capacious. With M's usual energy and management, a room was soon prepared for our dancing; our empty bottles served as candlesticks. Having had the precaution o bring a box of candles, the room was brilliantly illuminated. By this time we were on the nest kind of terms with all, and the dance commenced with renewed glee. Few quadrilles were dances- they are devoted to the waltz and the contre dance, which is a happy combination of the two; the figures of the latter dance are beautiful; even the polka was danced. For the first time in five years I waltzed the whole evening. There is no such thing as an appropriate or monopoly of the belle. During the waltz, if a gentleman wishes to waltz with any particular lady, he signifies his wish, and his partner immediately resigns her. You waltz with her two or three times round, and then return her to her partner. It is a delightful and sensible custom, and, id only introduced into the states, might be conductive to much more sociability and kindness of feeling and prune off a little selfishness of the monopoly of a belle by a few, to the exclusion of many, and probably more ardent admirers.

At eight o'clock a most excellent supper was set on board the boat, to which the ladies were ushered by a march. Sociability, happiness, and confidence reigned throughout, and amidst the exhilaration of champagne we returned to the dance. Whether bright eyes were really brighter, and fair forms fairer, I knew not; but yet they seemed so, as with renewed joy the dance commenced.

Amid a happy dance the steamboat bell tolled the hour of return; we embarked upon the placid river, and, to the sound of music, glided rapidly to the city. The moon, most unfortunately, had been obscured, but she deigned one smile upon us, as if in approbation of the scene. We landed at the wharf, with the band playing, at 12 o'clock; and our fair guests retired to their homes, apparently gratified with their trip. It is to be hoped no matter where the fortunes of war carry is, that the memory of the Brick Yard Pick Nic, given by the American officers to the ladies of Tampico, will ever be fresh. So much for picnics. [KAM]


NNR 72.151  May 8, 1847  Gen. Zachary Taylor's official report on efforts to re-open communications with Camargo

OFFICIAL. Letters have just been received at the war department from General Taylor.The last bears date on the 28th of March.A previous letter runs as follows; and it pays the proper tribute to the gallant conduct of Col. Morgan, of the Ohio volunteers;

Headquarters of the Army, Camp near Monterey, March 22, 1847.

SIR: I deem it my duty to report somewhat more I detail the occurrences attending the interruption of our line of communication with Camargo, and the service recently rendered by troops on that line.

Pursuant to previous orders, issued before the advance of the enemy upon Saltillo became known, the 2d Ohio regiment had occupied three points of the line--Col. Morgan, with--companies, taking post at Seralvo, Lieut. Colonel Irvin, with three at Marin, and Major Wall with--at Punta Aguada. On the 21st of February, Col. Morgan was ordered to concentrate his regiment, and move forward to Monterey.The enemy had already begun to infest the road, but Col. Morgan, who received the order on the night of the 23d, was able to bring up Major Wall's command and march the next morning.

On the road he was advised that a train on its way from Monterey had been attacked that day (24th) near Ramas, and the escort and drivers, with a few exceptions, killed or made prisoners.On the morning of the 25th, Colonel Morgan was joined by twenty-five drivers and wagon masters, who had fled into the hills and escaped the fate of their companions.--[On reaching the scene of the disasters, he found the drivers horribly mutilated, and several bodies thrown into the flames of the burning wagons.]  Finding no wounded, the march was continued to Marin, which was fond to be almost deserted.  The enemy's cavalry, underGen. Urrea, had been before Marin for two days, and several skirmishes had taken place between them and Lieut. Col. Irvin's command.  The arrival from Monterey of a reinforcement of infantry nd two field pieces under Maj. Shepard, (1st Kentucky regiment) had been surrounded and captured.

At 12 o'clock at night Col. Morgan resumed his march and met the enemy near Agua Fria.  Forming his command in square, and marching in that order he continued to San Francisco, hving on the road several encounters with the enemy, who attempted to break his formation. From San Francisco a messenger was dispatched to Lieut. Col. Irvin, then encamped at this place, who promptly took up the march, and, with two pieces of artillery, joined Col. Morgan at 11 o'clock, a.m.  The enemy, who had in the meantime continued his attacks, now made a final effort, but after a sharp action of a few minutes was driven back, and retreated from the field.

The loss of Col. Morgan'scommand in these affairs was three Americans and one friendly Mexican killed, one wagoner mortally, and one soldier slightly wounded.  The enemy is supposed to have sustained a considerable loss, but from the nature of the engagement, its amont could not be ascertained.We have to lament the fall of Captain B. F. Graham, assistant quartermaster in the volunteer service, who was killed in the action after behaving in the most gallant manner.

I would recommend to particular notice the gallant conduct and energy of Col. Morgan throughout these operations.  Lieut. Col. Irvin, Major Wall, and Adjutant Joline, 2d Ohio regiment, and Maj. Shepherd, are also entitled to notice for good conduct and valuable services.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Z. TAYLOR,
Major Gen. U.S. army commanding.
The adjt. Gen. of the army, Washington, D. C.
[ANP]


NNR 72.151 May 8, 1847 rumor of Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna in force between Veracruz and Jalapa

From the Vera Cruz Eagle of the 13 April.

Santa Anna-Again must we appear before our readers without having any positive information as to the doings and whereabouts of the enemy.  Rumor, in the meantime, is rife with news, and we must, perforce, set down to her account many things, which, however much we may believe them, we dare not give to the public as veritable.  One of the most important outgivings up to this time, is, that Santa Anna , seconded by La Vega, and a force of near 12,000 strong, has taken a position between this and Jalapa, which is said by those familiar with the country, to be very strong.

This report we find very generally believed by many officers of the army, and by the citizens of the place.  [ANP]


NNR 72.151 May 8, 1847 Plot discovered among Mexicans at Tampico

Some day last week a number of Mexicans were discovered in the act of inciting the citizens of Tampico to revolt and drive the Americans from the place. We are not advised of the particulars, but learn that Col. Gates banished them from the city, forbidding their return under penalty of death. [KAM]


NNR 72.151 May 8, 1847 Cleaning of San Juan de Ulloa

The castle of San Juan de Uloa has undergone a thorough cleansing throughout, making it approach much nearer a place in which an American soldier ought to reside. We are informed that a more filthy place could scarcely be imagined at the time our troops took possession. [KAM]


NNR 72.151-72.152 May 8 , 1847 breaking up of general headquarters at Veracruz

Breaking up of general headquarters.  Yesterday evening at five o'clock, Gen. Scott and his staff left their quarters in the Plaza, and started for Jalapas.  They were , and will probably be up with Gen. Twiggs, of the advance, in two or three days.  [ANP]


NNR 72.152 May 8, 1847 Alvarado Opened

The port of Alvarado, which has been closed for several months, is now open to our commerce, and to all the neutral vessels not having on board articles contraband of war.

-It appears that there was at Alvarado when the place surrendered to Lieut. Hunter, sixty pieces of heavy cannon; all serviceable and in fine order except three.   [KAM]


NNR 72.152   May 8, 1847  Gen. Zachary Taylor's proclamation to the inhabitants of Tamaulipas, Nueva Leon, and Coahuila about losses by banditti

GEN. TAYLOR-MEXICAN BANDITTI.

The general in chief of the American forces to the inhabitants of Tamualipas, Nueva Leon, and Coahuila

When the American troops first crossed the frontier and entered the above states, it was with the intention, and publicly declared to you, of making war, not upon the peaceful citizens of the soil, but upon the central government of the republic, with aview to obtain an early and honorable peace.

The undersigned was authorized by his government to levy contributions upon the people for the support of his army; but, unwilling to throw the heavy burden of war upon those who, with few exceptions, manifested a neutral disposition, he has continued first to pay punctually and liberally for all supplies drawn from the country for the support of his troops.

He has used every effort to cause the war to bear lightly upon the people of these states, and he had hoped by this means, to retain their confidence and to assure their neutrality in the strife between his government and their neutrality in the strife between his government and that of Mexico; but he regrets to say that his kindness has not been appreciated but has been met by acts of hostility and plunder.The citizens of the country, instead of pursuing their avocations quietly at home, have, in armed bands, waylaid roads and under the direction and with the support of government troops, have destroyed trains and murdered drivers under circumstances of atrocity which disgrace humanity.

The lives of those who were thus wantonly put to death cannot be restored; but the undersigned requires from the people of the country an identification for the loss sustained by the destruction of the - (Illegible); and the pillage of their contents.To that end an estimate will be made by the proper officers of the entire loss, and this loss must made good, either in money or in the products of the country by the community at large, of the states of Tamaulipas, New Leon, and Coahuila each district of juzgado paying its just proportion.

It is expected that the rich will bear their full share.-And the undersigned calls upon all good citizens to remain absolutiely neutral, and to give no countenance to the bands which infest the country for the purpose of murder and pillage.It is his anxious desire to continue the same policy as heretofore, and he trusts that he course of the citizens will enable him to do so.

Z. TAYLOR, Major Gen. U.S. Army.
Headquarters at Monterey, March 31, 1847.
[ANP]


NNR 72.152 May 8, 1847 Order exempting foreign goods to be re-shipped to Mexico from the American tariff

Denis Prieur, collector of customs at New Orleans, has received instructions from Washington to allow all merchandise liable to foreign duties to be shipped to the Mexican ports occupied to our troops without paying the foreign duties under our tariff. [KAM]


NNR 72.152-153 May 8, 1847 American Plan to demand a right of way across Mexico from ocean to ocean

The secretary of the treasury proposes that the United States should require Mexico the right to cross the Mexican Isthmus from the Gulf of the Pacific.- In this connection, it is said, that the steamer Polk has sailed from Norfolk for Huassacualo, in the bay of Campeachy . She takes out an armament for the purpose of taking occupation of that port. She is to make a complete survey of the coast in the neighborhood of the Isthmus, with a view to its occupation, preparatory to the opening if a ship canal across to Tehuantepee. [KAM]


NNR 72.155-72.158 May 8, 1847 campaign of Gen. John Ellis Wool's command, actions at the Battle of Buena Vista

The Campaign of Gen. Wool,
And the Battle of Buena Vista.

We remarked at the commencement of the war with Mexico, that the incidents of no war of the same extent since the world has been peopled, ever have been so accurately and so universally known as those of this war would be.  The reason is obvious;-nearly every soldier in the ranks of our army is capable of writing an account of what he sees, hears, or does-and we have spread over the Union, a newspaper for every platoon of which the army is composed to speed to the four winds of heaven whatever is written.

The following rapid and truly graphic description of the march of General Wool's division of the army, and his junction with General Taylor, and of the subsequent battle of Buena Vista, written by a person who belongs to the 2d Illinois regiment of volunteers, under General Wool-is as vivid and distinct a picture as was ever sketched by the pen of a historian.

The reference which the writer of the letter makes to his associate and fellow private in the ranks of the Illinois regiment, Alexander Konze, the accomplished young German whose character is sketched in such simple unaffected language, furnishes proof at once of the character of the individuals that contribute largely to compose an army from this republic.  The elite, the inspired of all lands, seek a home in ours.  Konze came from Wisconsin to join the Illinois regiment at Alton, says his friend, "that he might serve the country whose constitution he respected before all other systems of government, and to gratify his curiosity in a new mode of life, by seeing Mexico, and observing, as he did with a philosophic eye, the character of her people and institutions."  Such men amalgamated at once with the mass of kindred spirits here, bringing with them and diffusing their own acquirements and tastes in exchange for ours.  His fate is told.  Who can read it without deploring,-and the sigh deepens at the reflection, that many as brave, as timable a man, felt amongst the dead of that battle field, whose taste will never be told.  Whose moments History will neglect to rear.  "While awaiting upon the field," says the writer, "on the night of the twenty-third o February, the renewal of the attack by Santa Anna, the thought was most consolatory to several of his comrades, that death on the next day might make them companions of Miltiades, of Socrates, and of Konze."  "Such is the language, without the least appearance of affection, of a private soldier speaking of a group of soldiers around the camp fire a t the close of a terrific conflict which had lasted all day, and which the next days' dawn, it was expected, would renew.-These soldiers, with hearts saddened by the loss of a beloved comrade, yet glowing with a sublime patriotism which placed them in communion with the heroic spirits of antiquity, could speak of death, and await it, not only with composure, but with a serene satisfaction, because of the noble fellowship it proffered them in another world."

From the correspondent of the Boston Evening Post.
Camp at Buena Vista, Coahuila, Mexico,
March 22, 1847.

I seize the first opportunity afforded since the battle of Buena Vista, of writing you from the field, an account of the more recent operations of General Taylor's army, including that of General Wool heretofore known as the centre division.  The official details of the battle are, I suppose, already published in the states and made familiar to you; but you must be ignorant of many occurrences of great interest, precedent and subsequent to that memorable event.

General Wool landed from the gulf on the 2d of August last, at La Vaca, Texas, with the first and second regiments of Illinois foot, commanded Cols. John J. Hardin and Wm. H. Bissell, and soon after took up the march for San Antonio de Bexar, one hundred and fifty miles to the north.  Here he was joined by Col. Yell's mounted regiment from Arkansas, and by that of Col. Marshall, of Kentucky; by Capt. Washington's well drilled company of flying artillery, eight pieces, from Carlisle in Pennsylvania and by major Bounneville's battalion of regular infantry.  Col. Harney, with four companies of dragoons, was also attached to this division.  General Wool displayed great activity in organizing his army and putting the commissariat in the finest possible condition.  Sugar and coffee of the best quality have always been a part of his soldier's daily diet.  No army was ever better provided that this with all the munitions and appliances of war, if we except the quality of the powder which the government, by some most culpable agents furnished to us, the infantry, for the day of battle,-an article far inferior to that of English manufacture, used by the Mexican soldiers.  The tow months passed in this delightful region, were well spent in drilling for active service.  On the 26th of September, two days after the capitulation of Monterey, the advance under Colonel Harney marched for the Rio Grande followed soon after by General Wool, who left Colonel Churchill, the inspector, and Colonel Bissell to bring up the rear, as they began to do on the 14th of October.  The whole army, at this time, was two thousand six hundred strong.  We of the advance, marched to the Rio Grande, two hundred miles in twelve days, resting one, for General Wool to join us.

As I can only approximate to accuracy, I shall use round numbers in mentioning distances and the population of towns.  Crossing the present boundary between our country and Mexico, on the 12th day of October, we set foot on the soil of the enemy.-Thence we marched a distance of four hundred miles to the city of Parras, on the southwestern confines of this state and near to a lake of the same name, passing through and taking peaceable posession in our circuitous route of the cities of Presidio del Rio Grande, Nava, San Fernando, Santa Rosa, Monclova, the ancient capital of this state and Parras, which we reached on the 6th December ult.  These cities contain, each, a population of from five to fifteen thousand should, except Nava, which numbers about two thousand.  Monclova and Parras are quite wealthy and exhibit fine specimens of Spanish art and refinement.  We spent some time at nearly all of them, with pleasure and profit, viewing much of Mexican manners and customs and enjoying an apparently cordial intercourse with the citizens.  Our line of march carried us through a great variety of scenery, marked after three days progress in Mexico, by high and barren mountains to the south and west, covered with traces of rich ores; by sterile plains and table lands, scantily supplied, in the dry season, with water; and in the interior by beautiful fertile valleys embosoming the quiet Mexican cities, towns, and haciendas, and surrounded in the hazy distance by clout capt mountains, covered with cedar.  You are acquainted with Illinois, and can form some idea of Mexico, as I saw it for six hundred miles, by imagining the Prairie state elevated 50 thousand feet, and made somewhat more broken and undulating with craggy rocky mountains covering from one to two thousand feet above the plains, taking the place of the groves and intersecting the face of the country in all directions.  But it is only by actual vision that you can adequately estimate the grand though uninviting picture of lonely desolation; the inhospitable sterility that met the wearied eye of the soldier in his toilsome, thirsty marches, and often made him wish, in his vexation, that an earthquake had sunk the country which he was sent to conquer.

The country bordering the Rio Grande where we crossed it, and for a considerable distance into Mexico, west and south, is low, level, very fertile and well watered by streams or irrigating canals. It already supports a large population, and contains the cities of Presidio, Nava, and San Fernando; the last two, situated forty and fifty miles west of the river, struck me as quite flourishing.

The land between the Nueces and the Rio Grande, for nearly a hundred miles, except a few fertile prairies, is divided into sandy deserts and marshychaparrals, almost as difficult of access as the jungles of India.  It will be the haunt only of savages and wild beasts for many generations, if not forever.  Personal observation satisfied me that senator Benton was right when he pronounced the Nueces, the most profitable western boundary of Texas.  Of the country east of this river, of which I saw much, I must say, as of Texas generally, with her rolling prairies, and crystal streams, that here I beheld the future France of America-a land destined to bloom with "the olive and myrtle, the cedar and vine," and to flow even in our own time with mile and honey.

The effect of our long marching, of the strict discipline enforced by our general, and of the exercise taken in drill was most salutary upon the health of the army.  After a professional and sedentary life in the bilious atmosphere of the Mississippi, the campaigning had a most renovating effect.  The army lay encamped at Monclaova three weeks, during which period our rear came up, and Gen. Wool was ordered to co-operate with General Taylor at Monterey, instead of marching upon Chihuahua, which up to this time had been our destination.  Eleven days brought us to Parras, two hundred miles farther into the country, where supplies were abundant.-Here we lay in camp eleven days, in friendly intercourse with the people, of whom many are snot destitute of moral worth and intelligence.  The American sharpers among them, soi-distant gentlemen, engaged in trade and marrying fortunes, struck me with more disgust than the most degraded Mexicans.  Many of the better classes of natives commanded my highest esteem. One Don Manuel Yvarra, who was educated in the United States, found some old friends in the army, and treated us with a hospitality commensurate with his great wealth.  His position was fixed in neutrality, by his intelligence, his prudence, by respect for American character and institutions, sympathy with his countrymen, and by an unleigned aversion from his own rulers, the demagogues in the city of Mexico.  Santa Anna has assessed his contribution for the army at sixty dollars per week. His reply was, "come with your army and take it."  But these halycon days soon passed over our heads, and more stirring scenes were at hand.  General Worth, who lay at Saltillo, one hundred and twenty miles north of east from us, with a thousand regulars, on the 16th of December received intelligence which he credited, that Santa Anna was within three days' march of him with 30,000 men, and was advancing. He despatched expresses to Monterey and Parras for aid, promising to hold out one day against any force, and requesting us to reinforce him on the fourth day.  General Taylor had gone to Victoria, but General Lane hastened to Saltillo with two regiments.  General Wool received the news in the evening of the 17th, and in less than two hours the whole army was on the march.  On the 21st we reinforced Worth but no enemy was present.  For three nights i succession on this march, which we accomplished in three days and a half, the army was roused at one o'clock in the morning to resume the advance.  The cavalry and artillery called us the sleep-walkers, and complained that we were killing off their horses.  The spirit displayed by the men, their alacrity, cheerfulness, and patience, were most admirable.  Expecting, as they did, to meet the enemy every hour, their demeanor inspired the staff and all other officers with confidence in the result.  Volunteers as they were, and, as compared with regulars, but imperfectly disciplined, they suddenly assumed a bearing and readiness in obeying orders, nor altogether unworthy the old guard of Napoleon.  This march was a fitting prelude to the battle of Buena Vista.  On the 21st of December, we sat down at Agua Nueva, a small rancho or town, twenty-one miles south of Saltillo, and near the great pass in the mountain leading to San Luis Potosi, the seat of the Mexican power.  Here we pased Chritmas, watchign the appearance of the enemy in this pass and two smaller ones, a few miles distant on each side of us.-New year's day was spent at Encantada nine miles nearer to Saltillo; we still watching however, and enjoying the luxury of frequent false alarms.-We soon after took up our fighting position at the Rancho, or Ranch, of Buena Vista, five miles from the city, and prepared to defend the pass two miles in advance of our camp.  It is said that Colonel Hardin is entitled to the honor of having first suggested this strong position for a stand against the enemy.

In the meantime, General Taylor had hastened back to Monterey, and was concentrating all the forces at his command, either to receive the attack or to make it himself. General Scott, however, chose that he should receive it.  Early in January, General Worth was detached, with his division, from Taylor, and joined to Scott at Tampico.  Not content with taking this and General Patterson's command at Matamoros, Scott, broke into our division, the marching column, and drew off to himself Colonel Harney, with two companies of dragoons, and Major Bonneville's battalion of four companies, leaving Wool an army of volunteers, exclusively, if you except Captain Washington's battery, which last, even he had the modesty to request for his own use.

I should have stated before that General Shields, with a body guard, left us at Monclova, in great disgust with matters and things in the "sleeping division," saying we should see no enemy, and that the "old man would deep us gathering up provisions."  I am informed that he sent off his aid, G. T. M. Davis, to Monterey, and thence to Washington with despatches, which were mentioned in the papers as coming from General Wool, but of which General Wool denies all knowledge; also, that he was very desirous of supplanting the old man in this command; of all which I have not he least doubt.  Wool had alienated many good officers from him, by his 'curst' manner towards them, which was rougher with officers even than with privates.-Among these was Colonel Harney and Major Bonneville, who doubtless received with joy the order sending them to Scott.  General Shields thought he saw in these bickerings alone the road between the chief and his colleagues, a fine opportunity to become chief himself, and fanned the flame of mischief with Machiavellian art.  We saw him depart without regret, disgusted as most of us were at his fulsome electioneering with the rank and file, and his vain, self-seeking, unscrupulous ambition.

Of Wool, the best language that can be used is his own conduct at Queenston Heights and Buena Vista, and I shall let it speak for him; with the simple remark that his worst faults lean to the side of rigid discipline, and proceeding from the head, have no place in the heart, which is sound to the core.

Our general was encamped on the 5th ult., with Colonel Bissell and Captain Washington, on the heights above and to the south of Saltillo, the rest of the army being distributed through the valley, still watching the passes to San Luis, when he who is called by his devoted soldiers Old Rough and Ready, came up with Bragg's and Sherman's batteries and Colonel  Davis' Mississippi regiment.  He expressed great satisfaction and pleasure with our discipline and the manner in which General Wool had "brought us up."  By command of General Worth, Gen. Lane with his Indianians, and Lieut. Kingsbury, had built a very good fort on the heights of Saltillo, and in it Capt. Webster's two twenty-four pound howitzers, with smaller pieces, were place and commanded every building in the city below as well as the whole plain from mountain to mountain, east and west.

On the 8th of February, the whole army with General Taylor, except four companies of Illinois, left to guard the town, lay in camp at Agua Nueva, and here our generals patiently awaited the arrival of new levies, which they hoped would make their forces ten thousand strong, and forty days' provisions, to enable us to march for Santa Anna's stronghold, San Luis Potosi, three hundred miles south of Saltillo.  General Taylor expected to be ready for the march on the first of April.  But for a long time the signs had been thickening, that he Mexican dictator was aiming a blow at us, the Voluntarios, as composed of more conquerable stuff than the regulars under Scott.  On the 22d of January, Majors Borland and Gaines, Capt. C. M. Clay and Lieut. Davidson with eighty men, were at Incarnacion, sixty miles from Saltillo, on the San Luis road, scouting, when they were suddenly surrounded in the night by three thousand lancers under General Minion, taken prisoners in the morning, and marched off for the city of Mexico.  Soon after this, Capt. Eddy, of Kentucky with seventeen men on picket guard, was captured in the same manner-a manner little creditable to soldiers.

Our pickets wer several times driven in, and the enemy's cavalry frequently hovered around us on the south and east, to cut off small parties.  Many of the citizens suddenly became sullen over the Americanos, who had scattered money among them with so lavish a hand.  Three men wer mising out of the Arkansas regiment, one of whom was found on the 9th ult., near the camp, dead, with a  lasso around his neck, and presenting a horrid spectacle.  For this act of an unknown criminal, a few comrades of the deceased, on the next day, took a frantic and senseless revenge, by shooting down in cold blood about thirty unarmed Mexicans, who, with their families, had abandoned the Ranch, and were living in the mountains under cover of trees and bushes to cut wood as they said, for sale in our camp.  Some Illinois infantry saved the greater part of these poor people from massacre.  Generals Taylor and Wool were greatly enraged at the act, and branded it in general orders as a cruel and cowardly outrage.-Meanwhile a black cloud was gathering up from San Luis, soon to burst upon our heads in storm and thunder.  On the 20th ult. Colonel May, Captain Howard, and Lieutenant O'Brien, with a  scouting party at Idionda, twenty-five miles southeast, took a Mexican, who said that Santa Anna was advancing upon us from Incarnacion.  They came into camp early on the morning of the 21st, with this intelligence, which many things conspired to stamp with truth.  Having breakfasted, the army leisurely retreated to Buena Vista, fourteen miles, and there took position.  All the infantry except Colonel Hardin, who remained in the centre of our line at the pass of Buena Vista, encamped at the Ranch, whither our wagons, which had returned to Agua Nueva for the rest of our provisions in camp, came back in the night with hot haste.  Colonel Yell, by order of General Taylor, had remained there until near night, when he was attacked by the advanced guard of the enemy.  Destroying such provisions and wagons as he could not carry off, he retired to our position.  On the next day the birth day of Washington, in the morning, Colonels Bissell and McKee, with their respective regiments, and Gen. Lane with his brigade, marched out to meet ht enemy.  We left our tents standing, and our baggage and provisions, which were in the Ranch, unguarded, except by teamsters, and one man more, Major Roman, commissary.  Our force on the field varied little from four thousand, as all concur in stating.  The mountains on each side of our position stand two miles apart, and are high and difficult of ascent.  Our flanks rested upon them.  The centre occupied the road, with Washington's battery behind a slight breastwork of earth; above, a little on the left and in advance of which, Colonel Hardin was posted, on a high conical hill, behind a low breastwork of stone.  His office was to guard this battery on the road below.  On a level with this hill to the left was an elevated plain or table land, terminating at the road in high bluffs, and cut up in front and rear of our line, as well as on its right, by very deep, wide ravines, dry, with sloping sides, and running for the most part at right angles with the mountain, and parallel with our line of battle.  Here was our left wing.  Our right was posted on a low alluvion, cut up in nearly all directions by deep precipitous ravines, now dry, which in the rainy season receive and convey the mountain torrents.  This low ground was commanded as far as the mountain, and could be swept by our cannon on the rod.  Near to and out parallel with the mountain of the right, a creek with high and perpendicular banks ran to the north, between which and the mountain, the Kentuckians of Colonel McKee, with two of Bragg's cannon, were posted on the 22d, and remained there till the morning of the 23d, when, finding nothing to do on the right, they abandoned this position and rushed into the battle, then raging on our left.

It became evident on the 22d, that the high plain was to be the principal field of battle.  Most of that day was spent by Santa Anna in throwing a large force of infantry, under General Ampudia, to the mountain to our left, for the purpose of gaining our rear.  At four o'clock P.M. of the 22d the battle began, with a cannonade on our right and centre, followed soon after by a sharp engagement in the mountain to our left, between Kentucky riflemen from Col. Marshall's mounted regiment, and the flankers of Ampudia, at least three thousand strong.  The mountain sides to the top seemed alive with the enemy, whose bright English muskets glistened in the rays of the setting sun.

Night came and all was still, save the hum of voices from the two opposing armies bivouacked within musket shot of each other. Had our forces been a little larger, that night would have seen the destruction of Santa Anna's army.  But our only safety lay in an obstinate defence of our position.-Early in the morning of the 23d the ball opened.-The 2d of Illinois, Colonel Bissell, occupied the right of the plain, his right resting on the head of a ravine, and well guarded by Brigg's and Sherman's artillery.  On his left were O'Brian's  three pieces, detached from Washington's battery, and still further to our left, next to the mountain, stood the 2d of Indiana, Colonel Bowles, with General Lane and his staff. The 3d of Indiana, Colonel Lane and Colonel Davis' well tried Mississippians, were held in reserve.  Behind our line and sheltered by a ravine from the heavy artillery of the enemy, (much heavier than ours,) was our cavalry.  The battle today was opened by our riflemen in the mountains, who renewed the attack which they commenced the evening before.  To their assistance was soon sent the rifle battalion of the 2d Illinois, three companies under Maj. Trail.  Here the blows of our men were soon felt by the enemy who stood at bay, at a respectful distance from their rifles.

The main force of Santa Anna soon advanced against us on the plain, while their artillery played upon our ranks on the left.  The infantry came on in admirable order, crossing one deep ravine after another in our front, and deploying out of them into line, with a regularity that excited our admiration, and must have struck the fancy of our two regular generals.  Their eight columns of regiments, advancing in line, looked formidable indeed.  As the enemy rose our of the first ravine in our front, they opened their fire upon us of the 2d Illinois, which we received some time without returning, and advanced a short way in it; but which, when we did return it, quickly slackened.  The ranks immediately before us soon staggered under our fire, and were ripe for each charge of bayonets by us, when the 2d Indiana, on our left, was seen in base, inglorious flight.  General Lane and his aid, Mr. Robinson, strove in vain to rally them.  The general had, just before this disgraceful rout, replied to an officer who suggested a retreat,-"Retreat! No; I will charge them with the bayonet."  Many of this "flying infantry" ran to the Ranch, many to town, and some, the bearers of ill tidings, may have run, for ought I know, to the United States.  The enemy now charged O'Brian's guns, of which they took one, and our left being turned, were concentrating their fire upon our single regiment with destructive effect.  By command of Col. Churchill, Col. Bissell ordered his ranks to cease firing and retreat to the ravine in our rear, which order was several times repeated amidst the rattling volleys before it could be heard and obeyed.  Rallying out of the ravine to the right behind the artillery, which was now ploughing through the advancing columns of the enemy, we quickly joined the Kenuckians under Col. McKee, and with them drove back the enemy's left with slaughter into the ravines, where many of them were killed and wounded.  But on our left the enemy were citorious, and were fast pushing into our rear.  Their flankers in the mountain rushed forward to surround  our riflemen, and the swarms of lancers driving before them the Arkansas cavalry, whom Col. Yell in vain called upon that adjured to follow him to the charge.

Our brave skirmishers from the mountains were on the point of being exterminated, when Cols Yell and Marshall, with a few companies and the dragoons of Captain Stern's squadron, slightly checked the career of the lancers, and enabled the greater part of our riflemen to retreat to the Ranch.  About this time, Captain Stern was struck with a grape shot and compelled to retire.  The gallant and good old captain was greatly missed throughout the day.  Here, with many others, fell Lieut. Price of Illinois, seventy two years old.  Capt. Conner of the rifles, was attacked by three lancers, and saved himself by his skill with the sword.

The lancers still made head against our cavalry and drove them to Buena Vista, where they were finally repulsed, after charging and dispersing the Arkansas regiment, with the loss of its noble colonel.  May, with the dragoons, now came up, and with our riflemen and two pieces of artillery,  soon drove back the main body of the lancers.  But in the meantime, a large brigade of Mexican infantry had gained our rear, and a large force of lancers had gone by our left to attack Saltillo, in conjunction with General Minion on the north.  These last were quickly repelled by our cannon in the front and were chased considerable distance back, by infantry from the town with a small cannon.  The Mississippi infantry now marched to attack that of the enemy in our rear, drawn up along the base of the mountain, and gave them battle with a gallantry and steadiness worthy of veterans.  They were soon joined by the third of Indiana, and a large part of the tarnished 2d, who had rallied and returned to the conflict.  Gen. Lane was in command here, though wounded early in the morning.  The battle was bloody, obstinate, and long continued.  Two pieces of artillery, with our rallied riflemen under Major Wall, came up to the left, and attacked the right of the Mexican line with great effect.  With this squad, for a short time was Gen. Wool, cool and collected, directing the fire of the artillery and men, and placing them in the best positions.  The battle on the plain, meanwhile, was confined to artillery, of which the enemy had planted a battery on our left, and along side of which was the main body of the infantry.  On the flanks of our artillery, opposed to that of the enemy, were Cols. Hardin, Bissell, and McKee, ready to repel and expected charge of the Mexican infantry, and in full view of he splendid contest going on in our rear.-Col. Hardin on finding that all the attacks by lancers on Washington's battery were feints, and that the stream of battle flowed only on our side of the field, left his hill and came with a portion of his regiment to the plain.  With us was young Clay, whose firm set countenance and eye of fire, called up in memory his eloquent father in the height of an oratorical triumph.

At length, about three o'clock, p.m., we saw the Mexican force in our rear begin to falter and retrace their steps, under the well directed shot of our ranks of marksmen, and the artillery still pouring its iron death bolts into their right.  Their lancers, who had taken refuge behind their infantry, and there watched the progress of the fight, made one desperate charge to turn the fortune of the day by breaking the line of Indiana and Mississippi.  But the cool, steady volunteers sent them with carnage and confusion to Santa Anna on the plain above, with the report that our reserve was five thousand strong, and filled all the ravines in our rear.  The retreat of their infantry, which passed for a moment, was now hastened by the repulse of the lancer, but still under a galling fire.  They marched back in excellent order.  While making their toilsome and bloody way back, with their men falling at every step, Santa Anna practiced a ruse, to which any French or English officer would have scorned to resort.  He exhibited a flag of truce, and sent it across the plain to our right, here stood our generals.  The heralds first asked what troops we were, and one officer, a volunteer too, had the folly to say we were regulars, "troupos de tigne."  They then asked Gen'l Taylor what terms he had to propose, 'I demand that Gen. Santa Anna surrender himself and his whole army prisoners of war; I will release them on parole'-was his reply.  In the morning Santa Anna had summoned Taylor to surrender, representing  the folly of resistance with volunteers against his overwhelming force of regulars.  The old hero then replied, "we are here, come and get us."  The tables were now turning.  The bearers of the flag asked what time they could have to consider these terms-"An hour?"  "Not half that time."  Take 30 minutes, said our chief.  The flag returned to the Mexican army, accompanied by General Wool.  By this time the detachment in our rear, to save which the flag was exhibited, had nearly gained the plain, still, however, under the fire of Gen. Lane, who did not intermit for a moment his terrible blows upon the retreating enemy.  At length they joined the main army.  The cannonade had recommenced on the side of the enemy against us, with the return of the flag, and was quickly answered by our "mortal engines."  Soon afterwards their whole army commenced an orderly retreat along the base of the mountains.  Now came a disastrous movement.-Colonel Hardin called his men to a charge on the retiring enemy.  Colonels McKee and Bissell, under the influence of his example, and willing to share his fate, seconded the movement and marched with their men against ten times our numbers. Our batteries took a nearer position and continued their fire.  O'Brien with his two remaining guns on our left, accompanied us to the middle of the plain, where he opened on the enemy.  We continued to advance, when the Mexicans, wheeling into this, poured upon us, not yet formed into line, a fire such as no ranks ever withstood.  At the same time their lancers, in immense squadrons, attacked our right, while their whole line of infantry advanced upon us in rapid, regular march.  Their discipline is wonderfully perfect.  Had they been less eager to kill and plunder our wounded, and had their officers known the value of minutes, and how to improve them, the day had been lost to us in blood and horror; for they gave no quarter.  Lieut. Robbins surrendered and was stabbed dead, with his own sword.  The same fate befell Lieut. Leanhart in the morning, and many others during the day.-We retreated fighting to the head of a ravine far to the right of our batteries, and in advance of our line in the morning.  O'Brian's batteries and most of his gunners were gone.  We made a short stand at the head of this ravine where McKee, Hardin, and Clay fell, and then ran a gauntlet through it, of three quarters of a mile, in the midst of shot from other sides, to the road where Washington's battery stopped the pursuit and saved many.  I, with a few others, went down a shorter ravine, leading into the road nearer the battery, and climbing Hardin's hill, we were soon greeted with the appearance of Col. Bissell, safe and unhurt.  Meantime General Lane with Cols. Davis and Lane and the Monterey heroes of Mississippi, the gallant Indianians and the Illinois Pioneers under their Sergeant McFarland, rose upon the plain, from their victory in the rear, and in full view of our route, with their scathing volleys called off the vultures from the massacre and plunder of the fallen.  Following these up, with the American yell, so terrifying to Mexican hearts, they quickly put their discipline to a severe proof to save their own army from a total rout.  They formed, however, rapidly, and renewed the battle; when General Lane off to our left to protect our artillery, whose borders, above all other sounds, incessantly and without pause continued to drown the groans of the wounded, and to chant the requiem of the dead, carrying death upon their bolts through the solid ranks of Santa Anna.

As soon as I had found a breathing place, the shrill voice of Gen'l Wool was heard, calling in trumpet tones, "Illinois, Illinois, to the rescue; out my brave boys, out and defend our batteries."  So complete had been our rout, and the dispersion of the 2d of Illinois, which, with six companies, had in the morning, kept her iron tanks against the whole Mexican line, that now, only four men of the regiment were within hearing of this appeal, who answered it by rallying instantly, with a few Kentuckians and Illinoians of the first, to repel with General Lane, a threatened charge.  These four men were, private Herman Busch, Corporal Charles Gooding, a lieutenant, and Colonel Bissell.  I mention the last with greater pleasure, because he is a true man, a good officer, a native of your state and my colonel.  Our force augmented swiftly with the rallying fugitives; but Santa Anna judged it prudent not to make this charge, and thus to save a part of his army for other fields.  Had he made it, I cannot bring myself to doubt as to the result, when I consider the exasperated mind of every survivor among us, inflamed to the highest and bitterest resentment for the wanton murders of the wounded and vanquished, committed under our eyes throughout the day.  We had now determined to conquer or to die.

Santa Anna resumed his retreat.  Still under the fire of our artillery and in good order he recrossed the ravines, out of which he had marched upon us in the morning.  His bivouack was a little in advance of our position till about midnight, when he retired to Agua Neueva, and thence on the 26th ult., marched for San Luis Potosi.  He admitted his loss to have been four thousand killed, wounded and missing, of whom, certainly, not half were deserters.-We exchanged his prisoners for C.M. Clay and the others taken in January, whom he promised to send to Vera Cruz.  Our killed and wounded were seven hundred.  The dispatches  have already informed you who they are.  The letter is now so long that I must close with a brief notice of a few of the dead, reserving the most recent events for another epistle.

Captain Lincoln, so distinguished at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, was shot through he head early in the day, while rallying us, and fell from his horse, near me, into the arms of Captain Raith.  He was a gallant New Englander, and stood high in the esteem of all.  He was adjutant to Gen. Wool.

Colonel Hardin was slain by lancers, near where, and soon after McKee and Clay were shot.  He was an excellent officer, a good lawyer, and was a man of talent.  His character and late bear a strong similitude to that of Colonel Davies, who fell at Tippecanoe.

Colonel McKee, whom I did not know, is much regretted in the army, and his character spoken of, universally, in the most exalted terms.

It was never my fortune to know a more kind hearted, chivalric and accomplished gentleman than Col. as.  He fell with Capt. Porter, with lancers, but feebly knew with but to love him; none named him but to praise.

Lieutenant William Price, of our Illinois rifle battalion, was slain by lancers while retreating from the mountains, after our left was turned in the morning.  The frost of seventy two winters had silvered his hairs, and he had left a home of affluence and ease, with the expressed wish to die in the service of his country, and, if need be, on the field of battle.  "They cannot cheat me out of many years," said he.-When ordered with the battalion, like a forlorn hope, to the trying contest in the mountains, he exclaimed with a  look of joy, as he drew his sword: "Now boys, this looks like doing something."  The enemy triumphed over his fall, supposing hi to be General Wool, and some prisoners taken soon after said that General Taylor alone was left to save us.  They judged erroneously of us from themselves, and would have found us an army still, though deprived of our three generals.

Lieutenant Colonel Henry Clay, jr., was much lamented.  His manners, voice, and features reminded the observer strongly of his father. You saw the suavity, ease, and dignity of his carriage and deportment in them both.  The statesman of Kentucky will say with old Siward:

"My son has paid a soldier's debt,
In the unshrinking station where he fought.
Had I as many sons as I heirs,
I would not wish them a fairer death:
And so his knell is knolled.

In the same part of the field, and about the same time with Clay, McKee, and Hardin, another fell, pierced by a lance, whose name is worthy of a place in the rolls of fame-Private Alexander Konze, of company H, 2d regiment of Illinois.  The writer was honored with his friendship, and had an opportunity of knowing him well, being a member of the same company and his tent mate.  His conduct on the field was most soldierly, cool, calm, deliberate, and prompt in obeying orders. His courage was conspicuous, even in the moment of his death, when he refused to surrender.  Except a brother in South America, he left no relatives on this continent.  His widowed mother lives in Bueckenburg, in Hanover, near to his native city-Hamburg.  He received a splendid education at the universities of Jena and Goettingen.  He had been but a year in the United States when he joined our regiment in Alton, whither he had come to volunteer, from Wisconsin.  His motives in taking this step were, that he might serve the country, whose constitution he respected before all other systems of government, and gratify his curiosity in a new mode of life, by seeing Mexico, and observing as he did with a philosophic eye, the character of her people and institutions.  The writer promised much pleasure to himself in travelling with him through this country.  He was twenty seven years of age, and probably the most learned man in the army.  His knowledge of philology was accurate and profound.  Such was his familiarity with the Latin, that by one day's examination of a Spanish grammar he was able to read this cognate language with facility.  Many pleasant hours have we sent together in rambling over the plains and mountains of Mexico, while he filled his haversack with new plants to send to Germany, and which his knowledge of botany often enabled him to class in their several genera and species.

A better or a braver heart than his never beat its last on a field of battle.  While awaiting upon the field, on the night of the 23d of February, the renewal of the attack by Santa Anna, the thought was most consolatory to several of his comrades, that death on the next day, might make them companions of Militates, of Socrates, and of Kunze.  This man died for a country of which he was not a citizen; shall it be said that he, the republican son of Germany, was not a true American?  May his example animate the hearts of those whom alone he would acknowledge as countrymen-the good and the true of every clime and country.

Respectfully, Nath'l Niles.

[ANP]


NNR 72.158 May 8, 1847 Capture of Vera Cruz

SIR: I have the honor to inform you that, in obedience to the orders of Major General Scott, I proceeded yesterday with Captain Thorton's squadron of dragoons, under the immediate command of Maj. Sumner, and fifty dismounted men under Capt. Ker, towards the Madeline river, it being reported that a considerable mounted force was in that direction, and in our neighborhood. I moved without opposition until I came near the stone bridge of Morena, which is skirted by a dense chaparral, and which I determined to reconnoiter before advancing any farther, as I learned that it was fortified, and guarded by 2,000 men and two pieces of artillery, and small parties of lancers were seen near the thicket of my approach. The enemy was prepared, and when I came within sixty yards of the bridge, he opened a heavy fire on my dismounted, skirmishers, and notwithstanding the utmost precaution, one corporal was killed, and two men severely wounded. Seeing the bridge was fortified, and the enemy in force to dispute the passage, I fell back and sent a request for two pieces of cannon, with the aid of which I felt convinced I could drive him from the bridge, and put him to rout. In the meantime Capt. Hardee, who was engaged in disembarking his horses, hearing that I was engaged with the enemy, collected all the footmen he had on shore and all he could find in cam, numbering more than forty, and came to my assistance. I was also joined by a company of the 1st Tennessee regiment commanded by Captain Cheetham, and part of four companies of the 2nd Tennessee regiment, under the orders of Colonel Haskell. Soon after this Lieutenant Judd, 3rd artillery, arrived with two pieces of artillery, and I immediately made my dispositions for attack. Capt. Ker, with the dismounted dragoons, was placed on the left of the road leading to the bridge, the volunteers on the right, while Capt. Hardee, with Lieut. Hill, was directed to keep near the artillery to support it, if necessary, and to be in readiness to charge on the bridge. Major Sumner, with the mounted men, was held in reserve. Lieutenant Judd was directed to move down the road with caution, as it was circuitous, and the bridge not visible until within fifty yards of the fortification. He did so with great judgment; but he was no sooner seen than the whole fire of the Mexicans was concentrated on his party. Hoping to divert their fire, I ordered the volunteers to commence firing on the right, and Capt. Hardee to extend his men to the left and fire also; but Lieut. Judd, nothing daunted, opened upon the fortification, and after six or eight well-directed rounds, the heads of the enemy were no longer seen above the parapet. At this moment I ordered a charge upon the bridge; and the volunteers, headed by Colonel Haskell and Captain Cheatam, and the dragoons under Captain Hardee, rushed upon it with fearless intrepidity. The fortification opposed no obstacle. It was immediately leaped; but by this time the enemy had fallen back, and reformed beyond the bridge. I then ordered the bridge cleared, and sent for Major Sumner's command, which came up in gallant style, and charged upon the enemy. On his approach the footmen fled into the woods, but the lancers were met and completely routed. Lieutenant Lowry and Lieut. Oaks, with three men, pursued a party of about thirty lancers who turned off in a byroad, and all but five were wither sabred or dismounted. Major Sumner and Lieutenant Silby. At the head of first set of fours, had several personal encounters with the enemy, who were, in every instance, either killed or dismounted. The pursuit was continued to the village of Madeline, six miles from the bridge, from which another party of lancers were seen retreating and Lieutenant Neill, my adjutant, being in advance, pursued them with three men.

A party was sent to support him; but his horse being fleeter than the rest, he came first upon the enemy, and two of them closing upon him, he received two severe lance wounds in the breast and arm, in consequence he fell from his horse, but not until he displayed uncommon gallantry in his defence. Hearing this, and believing the enemy in force, I continued the pursuit two miles further; but night coming on, I was reluctantly compelled to desist. I had Lieutenant Neill brought to the village of Madeline, where I halted for three hours to refresh the men and horses, and then I returned to camp with my command, which I reached at 3 o'clock in the morning. After my disposition had been made for the attack, Major General Patterson came up with Colonel Campbell's regiment of 1st Tennessee volunteers. He did not assume command, but rendered important aid by his gallant bearing and demeanor. Colonel Campbell's regiment participated in the attack and assault; and my thanks are due to him. Also to Colonel Haskell and Captain Cheatham, who evinced great zeal and gallantry. Colonel Haskell was the first to leap the parapet. Lieut. Judd's position was perilous, and he exhibited rare judgment, coolness, and intrepidity; and the service of himself and his subaltern, Lieutenant H. Brown were of inestimable value. The steadiness and gallantry displayed in the presence of the enemy by officers and men, both of regulars and volunteer service, merit my highest approbation. As to my own regiment, it would be invidious to particularize where all behaved so nobly. Especial thanks to are due to my staff, Lieut. Lowery, Lieut. Neill, and Dr. Barnes who were active and zealous in the discharge of their respective duties. Neither can I omit to mention the effective service rendered by Brevet Major B.L. Beall and Captain W.J. Hardee, of my regiment. The former, though confined to his bed by sickness, joined my command on the first imitation of engagement. The latter mounted at the commencement of the pursuit, and joined me as one of my staff. In the day's action I lost two men killed and nine wounded, among them my guide Thomas Young, of Texas, who discharged his duty with fidelity and bravery. It is not ascertained precisely what number of the enemy was killed; but it is known that not less than fifty fell in the attack and subsequent pursuit.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
WM. S. HARNEY,Colonel 2d Dragoons, com'dg

Lieutenant H.L. Scott, A.A.A.G. Camp Washington, before Vera Cruz

[KAM]


NNR 72.159 May 8, 1847 Order No. 94 relative to transportation &c.

Limited means of transportation being in readiness, portions of the army will march as follows:

The second division of regulars on the 8th instant, the division of volunteers (two brigades only twenty-four hours later.

Major General Patterson will leave one of his three brigades in this immediate vicinity for further means of transportation, and also the Tennessee dismounted cavalry until the arrival of their horses. Both of these corps for the time, will be under the immediate orders of the same brigadier general, and the latter, when his division marches, will report to general headquarters for instructions.

The respective chiefs of the general staff will assign to the headquarters of each marching division an engineer, topographical engineer and ordinance officer, an assistant quartermaster, an assistant commissary, and a medical officer.

The chief quartermaster will assign to the second division forty-five wagons, and to the division of volunteers fifty-five, for the entire baggage of the officers of every grade, the regiments and companies.-The interior distribution of wagons will be made at the headquarters of each division.

Taylor's and Talcott's field batteries will march with the second division, and Steptoe's with the division of volunteers.

Col. Harney will detach a squadron of 24? Dragoons with each of these divisions.

A special requisition for transportation will be made for those field batteries and squadrons, and one wagon will be assigned to the medical director of the division for extra medicines and hospital stores.

Every man will take, for his musket or rifle, forty rounds of ammunition, and in his haversack, hard bread for four days and bacon or pork (cooked) for two days. Fresh beef, with rations of salt, will be issued on the march.

The utmost care will always be taken of ammunition and food for the troops.

The chief quartermaster will send in extra wagons, grain for the saddle, artillery, and cavalry horses of each division for four days, and each baggage wagon will take grain for the same number of days for its own team.

He will also turn over to the chief of ordinance ten wagons, and to the chief commissary one hundred wagons, to be loaded by them, respectively, with cartridges for small arms, and subsistence stores.

These extra wagons will be divided between the two divisions, march with and be escorted and guarded like other wagons attached to the division.

The quartermaster's and commissary departments will take prompt measures for the purchase and issue on the march of such forage and subsistence as it may be practicable to obtain, as also for trains and escorts that may be sent back to this depot.

Each general of division will receive a route of march and instruction from general headquarters.

By command of Major General Scott:
H.L. SCOTT, A.A.A. General.

[KAM]


NNR 72.159   May 8, 1847  OFFICIAL LIST OF KILLED AND WOUNDED AT VERACRUZ

Report of killed, wounded, and missing of the army, during the investment and siege of Vera Cruz commencing the 9th and ending the 28th of March, 1847.

KILLED.

First brigade of Regulars.-Capt. J.R. Vinton, 3d artillery; in the trenches, March 22, 1847.Privates John Hafner, company B; of wound received in the trenches, March 24, 1847. Nicholas Burns, company B, 2d artillery; by the explosion of a shell in the trenches, March 24, 1847.Marines-Private-, 2d artillery, March 21st, 1847; every effort made to obtain the name of the marine.

Second brigade of Regulars.-Capt. Wm. Alburtis, 2d infantry; in march while the troops were taking the line of investment, March 11, 1847.Private: Timothy Cunningham, mounted riflemen; by a cannonball, March, 11, 1847.Sergeant Wm. R. Blake, 4th artillery, company F; by a musket ball, March 15, 1847.

Col. Harney's Command-Corporal James H. Nicholson, 2d dragoons, company F; in action at Puente de Moreno, March 25, 1847.Private Henry Hopkins, 3d artillery, company H; in action, at Puente de Moreno, March 25, 1847.

Col. Harney's Command-Privates: John Miller, 1st Pennsylvania, company G; at the navy battery, March 25, 1847.

General Patterson's Volunteers-Privates: John Miller, 1st Pennsylvania, company G; in the affair on the Madellin road, by lancers, March 17, 1847 Gothjib Reip, 1st Pennsylvania, company G; at the navy battery, March 25, 1847.

WOUNDED.

Col. Harney's Command-Second Lieut. Lewis Neill, adjutant 2d dragoons; severely; beyond the village of Madellin, March 25, 1847.Privates; Joseph Marshall, 2d dragoons company B; severely; at Puente de Merino, March 25th, 1847.Edwin A Jones, 3d artillery, company H, severely; at Purnte di Morino, March 25th, 1847.W.T. Gillespie, 2d dragoons, company B, Lewis Geisel, 2d dragoons, company C, John Smith, 2d dragoons, company K; and Thomas young guide, a citizen of Texas, all slightly wounded at Puente de Moriao, March 25th, 1847.

First Brigade of Regulars-Privates: Wheeler B. Hunt, 2d artillery, company B, slightly; in the right shoulder in the trenches, March 24, 1847; Emile Voiturat, 2d artillery, company B, slightly; in the head, in the trenches, March 24th, 1847.Adolph Meihle, 2d artillery, company D; his left arm shot of while serving in the trenches, March 22, 1847.John Golden, 2d artillery, company D, slightly; in the left cheek, while serving in the trenches, March 22, 1847.Wm Henderson, 2d artillery, company D, slightly; in the hip while serving in the trenches, March 22, 1847.Ernest Krimpe, 2d artillery, company F; slightly; in th hip, while on an advanced piquet guard, March 20, 1847.Owen Boate, 2d rtillery, company F; slightly wounded in the face by the bursting of one of the enemy's shells, while serving the mortars in battery No. 3 March 24, 1847.Wm Carthage, 2d artillery, company F, slightly wounded in the face by the bursting of one of the enemy's shells while serving the mortars in battery No. 3, March 24, 1847.Joseph S. Hayden, 2d artillery, company F, slightly wounded it the face by the bursting of one of the enemy's shells, while serving the mortars in battery No. 3, March 24th, 1847.[ANP]


NNR 72.160   May 8, 1847  ACCOUNT OF THE VICTORY AT CERRO GORDO

POSTSCRIPT.

ARMY OF INVSION.

GREAT BATTLE AND VICTORY OF CERRO GORDO.

New Orleans papers of the 29th and 30th ult.   furnish us with brief accounts of a bloody battle fought at Cerro Gordo, on the 18th April, in which the American army under Gen. Scot was signally victorious, though not without severe loss on our side.

Gen. Shields was mortally wounded; Gen. Pillow slightly wounded.  Major Sumner was shot in the head by a musket ball, but will recover.  Capt. Mason of the rifles lost a leg.  Lieut. Ewell badly wounded.  Lieut. McLane wounded, but not severely-.-Pierson of the 4th, wounded, also Lieuts. Gibbs, Maury, Kervis; Lieut. Davis; Capt. Patton slightly.

The conflict commenced by the advance under Gen. Twiggs, and a severe but not decisive battle ensued.

Shields, with the Wabash and Illinois regiment, went to the aid of Twiggs--the victory was complete.

Cols. Baker, Childs, Harney, Riley, Foreman, Haskell, all behaved beyond all praise.

On the 17th the Mexicans took possession of a hill in front of all their works, from which to dislodge them Gen. Twiggs ordered the rifles under major Sumner, with some detachments of artillery and infantry, including Capt. Williams' company of Kentucky and Capt. Nailor's company of Pennsylvania volunteers, to the charge.  It was done in style, but the loss was severe.  The Mexican defence was obstinate.  The rifle regiment suffered terribly.  In Col Haskell's command, Lieut. F.B. Nelson, and Lieut. C.G. Gill, both from Memphis, were killed; Lieut. Col. Cummings, major Farquharson, Adj't Haile, Lieut. Yearwood, Forest, Murray, and Sutherland were wounded.  The regiment went into action with less than 400 men, and lost 79 killed and wounded.

This engagement had not been contemplated.  Every arrangement had been made by Gen. Scott to commence the attack on the morning of the 18th and orders issued accordingly.  The Mexicans were posted in a Gibraltar from which it was necessary to dislodge them.

The attack was made-the victory is complete.

La Vega on the 17th commanded the Cerro Gordo.  Ascertaining that night from a deserter, that the main attack was to be made on the right of their line, he changed places with Gen. Vasquez, in order to meet the assault, which was made there by Gen. Pillow.--La Vega defended the post until the Mexican lines were completely turned.

The Mexican loss upon the heights was awful!--the ground in places covered with the dead.  Amongst the bodies were found those of General Vasquez, and near him Col. Palacio, mortally wounded.  Their loss in the retreat was terribly severe.--Mr. Kendall, who writes the account, says he thinks five hundred will cover our entire loss.  Col. Baker who charged on the last fort taken, had forty five men killed or wounded out of but a portion of his regiment.  Lieut. Cowardin killed, Lieut. Murphy mortally wounded, Lieut. Johnson wounded three times, thigh amputated, Lieuts. Scott, Freman, and Maltby, wounded.

Santa Anna lost all his valuable personal effects including plate, money, and even his wooden leg.  He narrowly escaped by mounting a saddle mule and taking to the chaparral.  The dinner prepared for him was left in haste.  His coach is taken and appropriated to the use of major Sumner.

Gen. Vega behaved nobly, but is again taken prisoner.His brother, a colonel is mortally wounded.

There were Mexican general and colonels enough taken to command an abstract army.

Gen. La Vega and Jarero, with fourteen other Mexican officers who refused parole, reached Vera Cruz on the 21st undercharge of Capt. G.W. Hughes (Top. Engineers).  They will be sent to the U. States.  The most of the prisoners will be paroled.

A postscript gives a gleam of hope that General Shields may possible survive.  He was wounded leading his brigade to storm one of the enemy's furthest works.  Gen. Pillow and all of Col. Haskel's field officers but himself, were wounded in storming the fortification under La Vega.

The rifles, Haskel's Tennessee volunteers, the 1st artillery, the 7th infantry, and Capt Williams' Kentucky volunteers suffered most.

At one o'clock Gen. Twiggs' division, who had been in the hardest of the fight, was pursuing the flying enemy towards Jalapa.  Gen. Worth allowed Peirson, who commanded the forts near Plan del Rio, fifteen minutes to consider.  He surrendered unconditionally.  Gen. Worth's division took up the line of march for Mexico on the morning of the 19th,--Gen. Scott was to follow at noon. [ANP]


NNR 72.160 May 8, 1847 Position of Gen. Zachary Taylor's forces

Our latest dates from Matamoras are to the 18th, and Monterey to the 12th of April.

General Taylor was still encamped at the Walnut Springs, near Monterey. The returning volunteers, it is evident, leave him without an adequate force where with to advance upon Sans Luis, even if his munitions, supplies, and transportations were adequate for penetrating to such a distance, He is waiting for reinforcements.

The 2d regiment of Mississippi volunteers have reached Monterey, all armed as riflemen.

It was rumored at Matamoros that the Massachusetts regiment would be relieved by the 2nd Ohio, and proceed on to Monterey.

The New Orleans Delta, states that the following are the positions and movement of Gen. Taylor's column. According to the last advices:

Gen. Taylor is quartered at Walnut Springs, near Monterey. General Wool in command at Saltillo and Buena Vista. 1st Mississippi, 1st Ohio, 1st Indiana, Bragg's battery, and the squadron of dragoons, the latter now commanded by Col. Fanntleroy, at Monterey. 2nd and 3rd Ohio, 1st and 2nd Illinois, 2nd and 3rd Indiana, 2nd Kentucky, Arkansas cavalry, Washington's battery, Sherman's battery, at Buena Vista. Prentiss' battery, at Saltillo . Kentucky cavalry stationed on the line between Camagro and Monterey. 1st Kentucky, one half at [illegible] of Rio Grande, and the balance on their return march. Virginia and 2nd Mississippi on their march from Camargo to Monterey. North Carolina at Camargo.- Massachusetts at Matamoros.

Our wounded men are doing well. In one hospital, of which Dr. Herrick had charge, one of eighty wounded men of the Illinois regiment, not more than three or four dies-the remainder were fast convalescing. [KAM]


NNR 72.160  May 8, 1847  OFFICAL REPORTS RECEIVED from COL. ALEXANDER WILLIAM DONIPHAN

"ARMY OF THE NORTH."

Government has at last received Col. Doniphan's official report of his operations in New Mexico, including an account of the battle of Sacramento, and his subsequent occupation f Chihuahua.It was evidently a gallant and well conducted affair.

[Anxious to insert the colonel's account at large in this number we made the effort, but find we would lose the mail b the delay required. It is too good an article to attempt to abbreviate.Our officers write as well as fight.[ANP]


NNR 72.161 May 15, 1847 Scourge (formerly the Bangor) purchased, its voyage to Cuba

The Scourge, we ascertain, was the steamer Bangor, built some years since at Wilmington, Del. intended as a regular boat between Boston and Bangor, Maine. Some misfortune happened to her in her first or second trip-and we heard no more of the Bangor, until the Unites States being sadly in want of boats of her daft for the Mexican coast, the Bangor, amongst others was brought up at a round price, refitted at New York, and newly names the Scourge. An officer on board of her, gives the following account, in a letter dated Havana, March 18, 1847:

"I do not know whether you were aware of the prognostications made by many persons previous to our departure from New York; but sir, if you were, certainly, you as well as a large portion of our friends must be desirous to hear from us, for many were the doubtful looks and expressions ventured as to whether she would ever cross the gulf stream. Painful as those expressed doubts were to the friends of those that composed her crew, yet frequently they were repeated, and indeed, some were advised to leave her. But our country called for service, to defend her rights, and although from the ominous look of many an experienced eye in naval affairs, we were disposed to doubt the capacity of the steamer for weathering the storm, yet all were willing to brave the battle and the breeze. And accordingly we sailed from New York on the 4th inst. in company with the steamer Scorpion. The evening of our departure, we left astern our companion, as she could not keep up with us and on the third day we experienced quite severe weather. All on board anxiously watched the movements of the little steamer when the bad weather commenced, and we soon found that all was right, for she mounted the big seas like a duck; and during the greater part of our passage, notwithstanding that the weather was bad, and the sea running pretty high, yet was her quarter deck dry. Of course the wind being generally ahead, our passage has been longer than we had hoped for. We arrived yesterday, making it 13 days passage. The Scorpion is not yet in, but we look for her momentarily.

I had forgotten to say one thing, that is, notwithstanding the doubt, as to the capacity of this vessel for sea service, that nit even a spare sail was put on board for cases of emergency; this omission looks much as if it was thought she would never arrive in port again and therefore not necessary to go to farther expense in fitting her out. The sails are all old; scarcely is there a common croger upon the ocean, that has spare sails. With regard to other matters, they are very delicate-so excuse me.

We sail for Vera Cruz in three or four days-we would leave sooner, but deficiencies must be made up, for we are undergoing repairs in the boilers, we have found them, also in a bad condition, &c. &c.

Com. Perry passed this place some days ago, on his way to the squadron. We shall hope for a pleasant passage to Vera Cruz, and when there, if opportunity happens, I think that our gallant commander, Charles G. Hunter will give a good account in his log to the country.

March 20th.- We are still here, repairing a defect in the boilers, and very anxious to get off. The United States bomb brig Heela has just made her appearance off the harbor. One officer in a boat has come in and after communicating with our consul (General Campbell) will continue on to Vera Cruz.

The letter bag is yet on board, and I have opened this to give you an example of American character. This day four American citizens, mechanies, have volunteered to come on board to-morrow, (Sunday) and assist in putting our boilers in order; this arises from pure motives of patriotism, as they have said that any offer of pay for their services will be looked upon as an insult to them. This is too good to go unmentioned, and I hope that their names will be sent by our generous commander to the navy department." [KAM]


NNR 72.162 May 15, 1847 Illuminations for Victory

The celebration in honor of the victories in Mexico, took place at New York on Friday evening, the 7th inst. It must have been a splendid affair. The public places and many private dwellings were illuminated, transparencies innumerable, fire works, and flags displayed in all directions. The crowd of course was immense; it is estimated that 400,000 people witnessed the spectacle.

The celebration at Washington city took place on Saturday evening the 8th, the anniversary of the first victory- Palo Alto. It was for that community, equally as imposing as that of New York. The details fill over two columns of the National Intelligencer.-A bonfire composed of 100 tar and turpentine barrels and other combustibles, erected into a pillar forty feet high illuminated the space between the capitol and navy yard. [KAM]


NNR 72.162 May 15, 1847 hospitals at Veracruz full, but few deaths, numerous discharges to permit a change of climate

The Hospitals at Vera Cruz.-We were told last evening that there were between a thousand and twelve hundred sick soldiers in the hospital at that place, but that the deaths were comparatively few.-Many of these men are completely prostrated, worn down with disease, and the nature of the climate is such as to make a change absolutely necessary to bring them up again.  TO enable them effectually to recover, discharges are given in every case where the certificate of the physician to that effect is given.-Several hundreds have already been sent home, and we notice too that many of the volunteer officers are retiring from service because of ill health.-American Eagle of April 20th.  [ANP]


NNR 72.162 May 15, 1847 Alejandro Jose Atocha's peace proposal to the Mexican government

The New York "Courier des Etats Unis" of the 1st May, publishes a letter from Vera Cruz dated the 9th of April. The writer says that, to his own personal knowledge, M. Atocha just before his departure from Mexico, and at three o'clock in the morning, wrote a confidential letter to Rejon, in which he made the following proposition, (in his own name and not officially,) as the basis of a treaty, that, in his opinion and according to his instructions, would be acceptable to both countries:

The adoption as a boundary line between the two countries of the Rio Grande del Norte as far up as parallel of California, which intersects the Rio Gila between the 33d and 34th degrees of latitude. [This line would only include New Mexico, in addition to California; while the 26th parallel would have deprived Mexico of only one-third of her territory.] The United States were also able to pay for these acquisitions $15,000,000 or 20,000,000, and also become responsible for Mexican claims.

The expenses if the war, M. Atocha estimated at 60,000,000. There was also to be a treaty of commerce, and of alliance between the United States and Mexico, offensive and defensive; the former engaging to protect the latter, as well as to refuse to acknowledge the independence of revolting provinces, and also to defend the frontier against the Indians, keeping thereon a force of from five to ten thousand men.

This letter-writer also (continues the Courier) says that these liberal conditions were read, and M. Atocha was charged by the Mexican Cabinet with a reply to the effect that it would open negotiations the moment the American arms were withdrawn from the Mexican soil.

The Courier des Etats Unis, in its comments upon this letter, remarks that M. Atocha defrayed the expense of his own mission, and that he is going again to Vera Cruz in a few days; this time as a simple traveler. His presence there (adds the Courier) may prove beneficial to the cause of peace. [KAM]


NNR 72.162-72.163 May 15, 1847 British notions about the position of American forces at Veracruz

English notions as to the attack on Vera Cruz, and a march to Mexico.-The London Chronicle says-"The attack on Vera Cruz appears still to stand; that is to say if the yellow fever and the Mexicans permit the troops stationed in the north of the province to advance by land through the passes. Our correspondent has estimated the attacking force at seventeen thousand men.  We have not the slightest hesitation in saying, that if in any manner the United States can contrive to congregate that number of men in the neighborhood of Vera Cruz, the town must infallibly fall.  The American in sheer fighting will knock the Mexicans to pieces-so that there can be no doubt.  It would only be on martial prowess that the result could depend, for the United States by sea could keep their army well supplied and vicitualled.  The puzzle is, however, to see how much further forward the United States will be even when they have won Vera Cruz.  Their plan is, it is said, to advance upon Mexico itself, by Jalapa and Perote; but, unless we are much mistaken, this hope is about as visionary as that of Napoleon upon Moscow.  There is but one thing we know of that is more difficult for the United States army than to get to Mexico, and that would be to get back again to Vera Cruz.  The expectation of a successful advance is, however, out of the question.  Two gaunt spectres,-disease and famine,-stand in the passes between Vera Cruz and Mexico, and waive the invaders back." [ANP]


NNR 72.163-72.164 May 15, 1847 Jalapa Taken

War With Mexico. "Army of Invasion."
Jalapa and Perote Taken.
The U.S. transport ship United States, arrived at New Orleans on the 5th with Vera Cruz dates to the 29th April.
By this arrival the New Orleans Delta received the following letter from their correspondent, "Chaparral."
Jalapa, Mexico, April 21, 1847.

I arrived at this lovely place yesterday, and found that Gen. Twiggs had hoisted the American flag in the city the day before. He followed the retreating heroes of Cerro Gordo to within a few miles of Jalapa, when all traces of them, as a body, disappeared, and he encamped for the night within three miles of the town that evening, and entered and took possession of it early the next morning.

Santa Anna did not pass through Jalapa, but, in company with Ampudia and Torrejon, turned off to the left at his hacienda, and halted for the night at the "nine mile pass," which was being fortified, but which, on second consideration, it was deemed prudent to evacuate. This evacuation took place yesterday morning, and in the evening Col. Harney's dragoons took possession of the Pass. - Gen. Worth following in their footsteps. A number of small arms was taken at the Pass, but they are all of little or no value.

Gen. Worth, it is said, will move on to Perote, at which place many think he woll have a fight, as it is reported here that additional defences are being made.

All along the road between Perote and Puebla, the Mexicans here say we will be opposed, and contrary, to the general belief, it is said the commander-in-chief will shortly move in that direction.

The list of killed and wounded, on our side, is much larger than was at first reported - it is over 350. Colonel Childs is the military governor of Jalapa.

April 22d. - Gen. Worth approached last evening within four or five leagues of Perote, and entered the city today. We had accounts last night that it had been evacuated by the soldiery, who spiked all the guns before leaving.

I am extremely glad to have it in my power to state to you that Gen. Shields has improved much since my last, and Lieut. Hammond, who came from him this evening, thinks there is probability of his recovery.

Most of the wagons here will leave for Vera Cruz in the morning, and if it is the intention to remove early, it will retard it for ten or twelve days.

Jalapa, April 23, 10, A.M.

An express has just got in from Perote. General Worth reached that town yesterday, at 11 o'clock, A.M. He found it completely evacuated by the soldiers of the enemy, and a Col. Vasquez left behind to surrender it with decency. An immense number of small arms, the big guns of the castle and city, and ammunition were taken possession of. It was unfounded, the report that the guns had been spiked in the castle; they were found in excellent order. Gen. Ampudia, with about 3,000 cavalry, in a wretched condition, was near the town when our troops entered it, when he put off.

Santa Anna had not been in Perote since the fight at Sierra Gordo, and he is supposed to be somewhere in the mountains. [JLM]


NNR 72.164 May 15, 1847 Perote taken

An express has just got in from Perote. General Worth reached that town yesterday, at 11 o'clock, A.M. He found it completely evacuated by the soldiers of the enemy, and a Col. Vasquez left behind to surrender it with decency. An immense number of small arms, the big guns of the castle and city, and ammunition were taken possession of. It was unfounded, the report that the guns had been spiked in Ampudia, with about 3,000 cavalry, in a wretched condition, was near the town when our troops entered it, when he put off.

Santa Anna had not been in Perote since the fight at Cerro Gordo, and he is supposed to be somewhere in the mountains. [KAM]


NNR 72.164 May 15, 1847 scenes witnessed on the route from Cerro Gordo

From the correspondent of the Vera Cruz Eagle.

Jalapa, April 20, 1847.

Yesterday, at non, I left the encampment near Sierra Gordo simultaneously with the thousands of Mexican prisoners who had been released on parole, and who were winding their way to their different homes, or to some place from whence they may again be forced to take up arms against us.  I believe their line, extended as it was along the road, was full five miles in length.  The Guarda Nacionale was the only corps that maintained any order it their march-the residue trudging along as best they could, and in most admirable disorder.

We rode over the road on which they marched with great difficulty, turning our horses' heads twenty different ways in the space of half an hour, to avoid riding them down.  They were less sad than men under similar circumstances would generally be, and cracked many a joke at their own expense.  This was in the early part of the march.  But towards sunset, when they had measured 18 or 20 miles of their journey- most of them in their bare feet-they became quite silent and sad, and the effects of the fatigue of the day combined with previous privations, told sensibly upon them.  I felt much interested in the numerous camp women-those devoted creatures who follow them through good and evil-and it grieved me to see them, worn down with fatigue, moving at a snail's pace, their heavy burthens almost weighing them to the earth.

The woman of sixty or more years-the mother with her infant wrapped in her rebosa-the wife, far advanced in that state that "women wish to be who love their lords"-the youthful Senorita frisking along with her lover's sombrero on her head; even to the prattling girl who had followed padre and madre to the wars-could all be sent at one view moving along-and bearing the hardships of the tramp, unconscious of the existence of misery in this world.

These women, like the Indians, are the slaves of the men-a slavery they submit to under the all powerful influence of affection.  In addition to their bedding and wearing apparel, they pack upon their backs the food and the utensils to cook in it, and worn out as they are by the toils of the day, whilst their husband or lover sleeps, they prepare his repast.

I noticed one man-a general-who left General Scott's quarters about the time I did.  He was an elderly man, and I soon perceived from his hobbling that he had but one leg.  His progress on the march was an object of curiosity to me, and I was surprised to see him keep up so well with the more youthful and perfect limbed.  I halted for some time at the hacienda of Santa Anna, to rest my horse, and my eyes ran eagerly over the column of prisoners to see if he had kept up.  The fourth or fifth man to the writer was himself.  He had refused a dozen offers to ride, both from our men and his own.-About 11o'clock at night all of them passed my tent-save those who had sunk down from the effects of the march-which was about three ills from this place.  An hour afterwards a polite voice at the tent asked permission to light a segar from the fire.  I looked out, it was he.  He said he had not been able to keep up with the advance, but would reach Jalapa in one hour's time.  The segar lighted, he hobbled off again, and this morning I met him in the streets, apparently not at all affected with the jaunt.

When the Mexicans surrendered, it was about their dinner hour.  In one of their forts the camp kettles were taken from the fire, and the rations were being proportioned out, when the order for surrender came from the second in command-so they had to march out without their dinners.  That evening, although large quantities of food had been served out to them by our commissaries, they were picking up old bones, stale pieces of bread, and everything that could be eaten.  Yesterday, on the march, they would run up to a beef, killed the day before by our advance, and cut off every piece that could be obtained, as eagerly as though they were half famished.

From the foot of Sierra Gordo to Santa Anna's hacienda, the roadside was lined with dead Mexicans and horses.  At or near the rancho where General Twiggs overtook the retreating enemy, they lay thick around, and a more horrid scene it would be difficult to picture.  Mexicans lay dead in every direction; some resting up against trees, others with legs and arms extended, and occasionally a lancer lying with his arm upont he charger that received his death wound from the same volley that ended the career of his rider.  Some of the prisoners passing through would occasionally halt to view the features of the deceased, and then, mending their gait, regain their place by the side of those who were more fortunate in the fight.

At the place above cited was to be seen all the property, other than munitions of war, taken from the enemy. In one place, arranged in good order, were all the pack saddles-then the pen containing mules-the provisions next, comprising rice, beans, bread, pepper, pilonveos, garlic, &c. piles of shoes, knapsacks, and all the paraphernalias of a Mexican camp.  Captain Robert Allen, A.Q.M. stopped for a moment and gave orders as to he removal of these things.

The muskets taken from the enemy were broken on stones as I passed the spot where they were.-They were of no earthly use to us, and hence the summary mode of disposing them.  [ANP]


NNR 72.164 May 15, 1847 64 Effects at the capital of the news of the defeat of Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

The Mexicans here, one and all, denounce Santa Anna as a coward, a traitor, and everything else that is bad; and I verily believe that a majority of them would rejoice exceedingly had General Scott captured him the other day and hung him upon the first limb strong enough to bear his weight. That he is playing them false you cannot beat out of their heads- that he has sold the battles of Buena Vista and Sierra Gordo for a consideration they are equally confident, and in proof they are internally talking about the $300,000,000. They do not understand why it was that President Polk allowed him to pass freely into Vera Cruz from Havana, unless there was bribery and corruption. [KAM]


NNR 72.165 May 15,1847 expectation that Gen. Winfield Scott will cut himself off from Veracruz to approach Mexico City

Col. Martin Scott went on this morning with the 5th infantry, to join the division of Gen. Worth.- The general impression now is that Gen. Scott, unable to keep up his communications through the tierra caliente for want of horses and transportation, will cut himself loose from Vera Cruz, push on towards the city of Mexico, and to a certain extent depend upon the natural resources of the country.  [ANP, KAM]


NNR 72.165 May 15, 1847 Rumors in Mexico City about offer of British mediation with the United States

Among other rumors brought by passengers, is one to the effect that Mr. Bankhead, the British minister, has renewed his offers of mediation between Mexico and the United States, and that when the last diligencia left the city of Mexico the congress was acting upon his propositions, whatever they may have been. Notwithstanding the fixed and denunciatory tones of the public press, there is certainly something in this report of English intervention in the distracted affairs in Mexico. [KAM]


NNR 72.165 May 15, 1847 Troops Stationed at Saltillo

An officer of the army who left Saltillo on the 14th of April, states, says the N. Orleans Delta of the 6th, that the force stationed there and at Buena Vista, under the command of Gen. Wool, was composed of the 1st and 2d Illinois regiments, the 2d Kentucky regiment, the 2d and 3d Indianians, and the Arkansas cavalry. The 1stand 2d Illinois were about to leave; the term of enlistment of the whole of them will have expired between the 1st and 20th proximo.

The artillery force that was in the battle of Buena Vista, are still stationed there, as are also Col. May's dragoons. A squadron of the latter, numbering some 200 under Lieut. Rucker, made a scout in the adjoining country. They found Gen. Minon in the neighborhood of Encarnacion, at the head of a thousand or fifteen hundred lancers. They thought to draw a fight from Minon, but were unsuccessful. Three of the party, who separated themselves from the main body, got killed before they returned to camp, by some prowling Mexicans who hung about their lines.

The troops at Buena Vista and Saltillo were in excellent health; and the wounded, who were daily visited by gen. Wool, and who saw that all their wants were attended to, were rapidly improving. With the wounded Mexicans, who are in a separate hospital, it is different. The place is in a most filthy condition, attended by their own surgeons; the American governor of the town had to compel the alcalde to pay more attention to their wants and to the cleanliness of the place.

Gen. Taylor is still at the Walnut Springs. He has heard of his nomination for the presidency by several presses in the United States, but avoids referring to it or saying aught about it. He evidently appears chagrined, but at or about what he does not communicate to those about him. Our informant left his camp on the 18th ult.

The Kentucky rifles, who were then at the Walnut Springs, were to start for Camargo, on their way home, with the next down train.

The headquarters of Humphrey Marshall's Kentucky cavalry was Cerralvo. Tom Marshall's company was at Camargo. But few or none of the volunteers will reenlist. [JLM]


NNR 72.165 May 15, 1847 Gen. Zachary Taylor's preparations for advancing on San Luis Potosi, Indian rubber bags for water requested, terms of volunteers

There is no longer a doubt of Gen. Taylor's intention to advance upon St. Luis Potosi, so soon as he can obtain a sufficient number of men and means of transportation for the enterprise.

I have satisfied myself of this by the general's requisition upon the quartermaster's department for a large number of Indian rubber bags, calculated to carry water. Several thousand of these were yesterday sent up in a train. Each one is capable of holding from four to six gallons. This seems to me conclusive evidence of a contemplated march through the waterless county between Buena Vista and San Luis.

On the other hand, the disbandment of volunteers, whose term of service is shortly expiring, will leave General Taylor with but a very small force. Several regiments of Indiana, Ohio, Illinois, and Kentucky, and one from Mississippi and Arkansas, will before long return home. The Louisville legion is just now embarking at this place on their way home. You will perceive by this, that unless new forces are sent here, it is scarcely probable that any active operations will take place in this quarter.

Camargo is almost entirely deserted by the Mexicans, But few, and those in the government's employ, are remaining. [KAM]


NNR 72.165 May 15, 1847 Gen. Jose Mariano de Salas summons a council of war, defense by small parties expected

On the 20th of April, immediately after the receipt of Santa Anna's defeat, Gen. Mariano Salas called a meeting of officers to devise some measures by which to preserve the nation from utter obliteration. No one here thinks that the Mexicans can ever make another stand, and to give another battle, but the impression is prevalent that small parties will be organized to annoy the roads, cut off supplies, and kill all stragglers. How great, in this case, is the necessity for two or three, or even one regiment of Texans. [KAM]


NNR 72.167 May 15, 1847 BATTLE OF CERRO GORDO

Official.
Orders issued by General Scott the evening before the battle of the 18th:
Headquarters of the Army
Plan del Rio, April 17, 1847

The enemy's whole line of entrenchments and batteries will be attacked in front, and at the same time turned early in the day to-morrow - probably before 10 o'clock A.M.

The second (Twiggs') division of regulars is already advanced within easy turning distance towards the enemy's left. That division has instructions to move forward before daylight to-morrow, and take up position across the National Road in the enemy's rear so as to cut off a retreat towards Jalapa. It may be reinforced to-day, if unexpectedly attacked in force, by regiments - one or two - taken from Shields, who will march for that purpose at daylight to-morrow morning under Brigadier General Twiggs on getting up with him, or the general in chief, if he be in advance.

The remaining regiment of that volunteer brigade will receive instructions in the course of this day.

The first division of regulars (Worth's) will follow the movements against the enemy's left at sunrise to-morrow morning.

As already arranged, Brigadier General Pillow's brigade will march at 6 o'clock to-morrow morning along the route he has carefully reconnoitered, and stand ready as soon as he hears the report of arms on our right, or sooner if circumstances should favor him, to pierce the enemy's line of batteries at such point - the nearer the river the better - as he may select. Once in the rear of that line, he will turn to the right or left, or both, and attack the batteries in reverse, or, if abandoned, he will pursue the enemy with vigor until further orders.

Wall's field battery and the cavalry will be held in reserve on the National Road, a little out of view and range of the enemy's batteries. They will take up that position at 9 o'clock in the morning.

The enemy's batteries being carried or abandoned, all our divisions and corps will pursue with vigor.

This pursuit may be continued many miles until stopped by darkness or fortified oppositions towards Jalapa. Consequently, the body of the army will not return to this encampment; but be followed to-morrow afternoon or early the next morning, by the baggage trains of the several corps. For this purpose, the feebler officers and men of each corps will be left to guard its camp and its effects, and to load up latter in the wagons of the corps. A commander of the present encampment will be designated in the course of this day.

As soon as it shall be known that the enemy's works have been carried, or that the general pursuit has been commenced, one wagon for each regiment and one for the cavalry will follow the movement, to receive, under the directions of medical officers, the wounded and disabled, who will be brought back to this place for treatment in general hospital.

The surgeon general will organize this important service and designate that hospital, as well as the medical officers to be left at it.

Every man who marches out to attack or pursue the enemy will take the usual allowance of ammunition, and subsistence for at least two days.

By command of Maj. Gen. Scott.
H. L. SCOTT, A. A. A. Gen.
[JLM]


NNR 72.168 May 15, 1847 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's address on quitting the capital to encounter Gen. Winfield Scott

MEXICAN OPERATIONS

General Morales, who so long as he was allowed to command, gallantly defended Vera Cruz, as well as General Landero, who surrendered the city and the castle, were immediately put under arrest by Santa Anna, and ordered to Guanajuata.

The following address was issued by Santa Anna before quitting the capital.

Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, president ad intern of the Mexican Republic, to his compatriots.

MEXICANS! Vera Cruz is already in the power of the enemy. It has succumbed, not under the influence of American valor, nor can it even be said that it has fallen under the impulses of their good fortune. To our shame be it said, we ourselves have produced this deplorable misfortune by our own interminable discords.

The truth is due to your from the government; you are the arbiters of the fate of our country. If our country is to be defended, it will be you who will stop the triumphant march of the enemy who now occupies Vera Cruz. If the enemy advance one step more the national independence will be buried in the abyss of the past.

I am resolved to go out and encounter the enemy. What is life worth, ennobled by the national gratitude, if the country suffers under a censure the stain of which will rebound upon the forehead of every Mexican!

My duty is to sacrifice myself, and I well know how to fulfill it! Perhaps the American hosts may proudly tread the imperial capital of Azteca. I will never witness such an opprobrium, for I am decided first to die fighting!

The momentous crisis has at length arrived to the Mexican republic. It is as glorious to die fighting as it is infamous to declare ourselves conquered without a struggle, and by an enemy whose rapacity is as far removed from valor as from generosity.

Mexicans! You have a religion - protect it! You have honor - then free ourselves from infamy! You love your wives, your children - then liberate them from American brutality! But it must be by action, not by vain entreaty nor barren desires, with which the enemy must be opposed. The national cause is infinitely just, although God appears to have deserted us; but His ire will be appeased when we present, as an expiation of our errors, the sentiments of true patriotism and of a sincere union. Thus the Almighty will bless our efforts, and we will be invincible; for against the decision of eight millions of Mexicans of what avail are the efforts of eight or ten millions of Americans, when opposed by the fiat of divine justice?

Perhaps I speak to you for the last time! I pray you listen to me! Do not vacillate between death and slavery; and if the enemy conquer you, at least they will respect the heroism of your resistance. - It is now time that the common defence should alone occupy your thoughts! The hour of sacrifice has sounded its approach! Awaken! A tomb opens at your feet! Conquer a laurel to repose on it!

The nation has not yet lost its vitality. I swear to you I will answer for the triumph of Mexico if unanimous and sincere desires on your part second my desires. Happy will have been, a thousand times happy, the unfortunate event at Vera Cruz, if the destruction of that city may have served to infuse into the Mexican breast the dignity and the generous ardor of a true patriotism. Thus will the country succumb, she will bequeath her opprobrium and her censure to those egotists who were not ready to defend her; to those who traitorously pursued their private turmoils to trample upon the national banner.

Mexicans! Your fate is the fate of the nation! - Not the Americans, but you, will decide her destiny. Vera Cruz calls for vengeance! Follow me, and wash out the stain of her dishonor.

ANTONIO LOPEZ DE SANTA ANNA.
Mexico, March 31, 1847
[JLM]


NNR 72.168 May 15, 1847 Feud between the parties in Mexico suppressed after the departure of Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna from the capital, Don Pedro Maria Anaya elected substitute president

The feud between the party at the head of which has been the vice president, Gomez Farias, and the party of revolutionists, had been restrained so long as Santa Anna was president, but it becomes necessary for congress to decide who should succeed to authority during the absence of the president from the capital. Santa Anna was probably inclined in favor of Gomez. A majority of the congress were opposed to him, but the constitution was imperative. By its provisions the vice-president was entitled to the charge of government during the absence of the president. To obviate this difficulty, a bill was brought in declaring the vice presidency created by the act of the 21st of December, 1846, suppressed. A violent debate on the bill ensued.- The vote was taken on the 31st of March, and stood, for the proposition 38, against it 35.

Decree.- The next day April 1st a decree was passed, granting the provisional president of the republic permission to take command of the army in person, suppressing the vice presidency of the republic, and authorizing the congress to fill the place of the provisional president during his absence, and, finally, ordering that the legislature of the state on the 15th of May, shall proceed to elect a president of the republic, according to the form prescribed in the constitution of 1824, except that they shall vote for one individual only.

This decree was passed, and congress at once proceeded to the choice of a substitute for the president, Senor Don Pedro Anaya received 60 votes, and Almonte 11, when the members voted by person. The vote was 18-3 when voting by states. [KAM]


NNR 72.168 May 15, 1847 Mexican clergy men bind themselves to contribute to the government

The clergy of the archbishop of Mexico have bound themselves to the government for a million and a half of dollars, payable monthly. The clergy of the different bishoprics are to do the same. [KAM]


NNR 72.168 May 15, 1847 Inaugural address of Pedro Maria Anaya as substitute president of Mexico

MEXICANS: At the moment in which the loss of Ulua and of Vera Cruz, in which the danger of the capital itself obliges the worthy president of the republic to vacate the government and take command of the army, the vote of the representatives of the people has committed to me the executive power of the Union.

Ever devoid of ambition, and deeply penetrated with the terrible difficulty of existing circumstances, the imperious force of duty alone could impel me to accept the responsibility. But a citizen and a soldier, I owe to my country the sacrifice of repose of life, and even of my reputation. The voice of patriotism cries to me that it is necessary to save our country or to perish.

The war which devastates Mexico is for us the most sacred of causes. The world contemplates with disgust our neighbors of the north converted into conquerors, to gain possession of a territory which the faith of treaties, which rights the most worthy of respect assure to us. Never was there a defense more legitimate, never a war more necessary. In it every thing is at stake- our honor, as well as our national existence; the present and the future.

The territory we have lost, the cities which have bombarded, the blood which has so profusely flowed in this war, all constrain us to prosecute it undismayed by reverses. It is necessary to prove that our name ranks with justice among those of the free people of the universe. Let us accept the trial to which providence subjects us- that from great crises nations are regenerated.

This people cannot think of peace, because it involves its consent to the dismemberment of our country; it cannot think if the disgrace of our name, because the unworthy thought would proclaim that Mexico, incapable of showing her valor and enduring sacrifices, is at the disposal of every people who can bombard her cities and march an army upon her territory. After such disgrace our independence would be a derision, our nationality a transitory act. War, then is the cry of the people; war is the policy of the government.

To wage it successfully but one element is necessary union. Too long has our strength been wasted in senseless conflict; it is necessary to unite the whole against the foreigner. In the name of the country, I conjure all Mexicans that they rally around the sacred standard of independence and the republic; that they cease from these pernicious divisions which facilitate the projects of the invader, which excite smiles of criminal joy in those who count upon erecting a foreign throne upon the ruins of our conquered and humiliated country.

Mexicans: I have not accepted power for the triumph of any party. The government thinks only upon the common salvation. In its eyes all generous opinions are worthy of respect; all republicans are good sons f the country. Throughout my life, liberty, the republic, and federation have been my cause; this cause I am going to defend, not to forget; to this my power, my blood is to be devoted.

Upon the banners of the enemy is inscribed "To conquer or die;" and, in order that our country may be independent, that the cause of our race may triumph, it is necessary to oppose to this fatal inscription "Force and Liberty;" it is necessary that our arms should thrust forth the enemy from out territory, and that our institutions should restrain them upon the frontier. Destined to a permanent rivalry, it is necessary, in order to struggle with them, that we become great and strong by that power which rules the universe- the power of democracy and civilization.

In accepting power I have sworn to defend our independence and our institutions. The oath is sacred. The nation can confide in my loyalty and my honor. But these are not sufficient to save us; the situation is difficult, and I should not have consented to accept the government, had I not hoped to be able to unite all efforts against the common enemy. Independence demands the co-operation of all Mexicans, the sacrifice of all animosities, the exercise of every virtue, thee exertion of all our energies.

Let the nation rise up united; let it enter upon the struggle with the vigorous enthusiasm of the days of independence, and then Vandals who have threatened us shall repent their rash iniquity. Victory will crown our exertions, and we shall speedily have a nationality assured, a name worthy of respect, a permanent existence secured. If, in the hour of danger and of sacrifice, we imitate the lofty virtues and the indomitable valor of our fathers, Mexico will be saved.

Pedro Maria Anaya

[KAM]


NNR 72.168-169 May 15, 1847 Address of Senor Gamboa on defense of the Mexican capital

On the 5th of April Senor Gamboa addressed the Mexican congress to the following effect:

GENTLEMEN: Vera Cruz has succumbed, and it has been indicated that an army of 9,000 to 10,000 men is marching into the interior of this republic. This, as it has been seen by every one of us, has caused a general sensation, and it is feared that at the end of the present month or beginning of the next the Vandalic army of North America will reach the capital of our republic. In consequence of this it has been suggested to remove the sovereign congress to another place, and several measures have been proposed, but none of these have reference to fortifying or putting our city in a proper state of defense. It is feared, however, that a resistance may be useless; that all will give up to the impulse of the enemy; and, lastly that our beautiful and costly buildings will be destroyed and the city ruined. I do not know how any such thing could be expected; and, even if I should see the city of Mexico taken by that handful of adventurers, I would still doubt my eyes. I flatter myself that the army that General Santa Anna is now commanding will undoubtedly sustain the glory of the nation; and this I believe, not from what the love of our country makes me believe, but from the conviction of my mind, free from all partiality.

General Santa Anna takes with him an army composed of 5,000 men brought from San Luis, of 3.000 which we have seen taking the line of march a few days ago, and of 2,000 which will join him near Jalapa; in all more than 10,000 men. It is to be presumed, likewise, that a multitude of National Guards from the states of Mexico and Puebla, and the jarochada (rabble) from the department of Vera Cruz, will join him.

The enemy's army, according to information from every person who has seen it, has only about 5,000 regulars, and the remaining forces are composed of banditti, without the slightest knowledge of military tactics, without instruction of any description, without confidence, and generally easily terrified.

And it is possible to imagine that only by its powerful artillery the enemy will conquer and exterminate our troops? I hope that the God of justice cannot afford a visible protection to these banditti, the blind instruments of perversity, and of the most barbarous usurpation which could be found in modern and ancient history. But should it be decreed by providence that we must suffer this blow, and that we should once again taste of the cup of bitterness, will this be a motive why we should leave open and unprotected the gates of our capital, and allow the enemy to penetrate into the very heart of our republic, to carry on their customary depredations? I would, in no case, recommend such a course, and will urge the necessity of defending ourselves and of opposing them with all the strength and resources we have at hand, should such an unfortunate event take place.

Let us suppose for a moment that the American army, without losing a single man, should arrive even within sight of this city, would it be possible that 9,10,15, or even 20,000 men should cause a city of more than 250,000 inhabitants to surrender? If such a thing should happen- if we should consent to such a surrender without the strongest resistance- the whole world would forever refer to us as an example of the vilest, most cowardly, and contemptible place on earth, and we should not deserve from any nation the slightest regard or compassion. I will not propose what I would wish to see- that ism that the Mexicans should imitate the Numidians and Carthagenians, when attacked by the Romans in ancient times; or should follow the example of the memorable Saragossa, which, under the command of that great hero Palafox, was reduced to a pile of ruins, burying 100,000 combatants beneath them; but I do wish to see that we should do what has been done throughout the world on similar occasions- that is, we that shall resist the enemy to the last possible extreme.

Paris, in 1814, did not capitulate against the whole forces of Russia, Prussia, England, and Austria, until it had suffered considerable losses under generals Marmont and Mortier. That same city, Paris, after the battle of Waterloo, where the immortal Napoleon lost forever his glory, endeavored to defend herself against the immense torrent that threatened to destroy her, and, organizing an army with the divisions of General Davoust and Grouchy, they still fought hard battles at Serves and Izly.- Even Madrid, the capital of the nation to which we were once united, did, by herself, resist the powerful army that France sent against her; and, notwithstanding her oppression, a popular movement was formed against the French, and there Murat exercised his most bloody vengeance.

And can it be imagined that the Mexicans will be frightened and quail at the sight of a handful of adventurers? Such a conquest would surprise the world more than that which Cortez obtained over the Empire of Montezuma; for at the time it was necessary, in order to cause this city to surrender, that it should be besieged by more than 200,000 [illegible], united with the Spaniards, and that very resources of subsistence should have been exhausted. And at the time the natives had not the incomparable means of defence which we now possess- means which I will not mention here-as by so doing I suppose it would be an insult to persons of common sense.

In accordance with what I have here manifested, I am of opinion that the city should be immediately put in a state of defence, and this is the object of my first proposition.

I also beg that congress should not be removed, unless the extreme case should arrive of the occupation of the city by the enemy. My object is not a request of the representatives of Mexico to repeat before the world the pathetic scene of the Romans, when Brennus, general of the Gauls, attacked Rome when sitting in open ground in their council chairs, they awaited the enemy and challenged the death which they received. I repeat that this is not my desire, but I wish that we may not act on the opposite extreme - deserting this place with a shameful furry- that we may remain here until the moment when prudence and necessity should dictate that we must move elsewhere, as in similar cases has been done by the civilized assemblies.

When the Spaniards, had nearly lost all their peninsula, a regency was established at Cadiz, which provoked the Cortes of the kingdom, and immediately promulgated the political constitution of the Spanish monarchy. These events took place in the midst of the bombs and shells which the French army was throwing into the city, and then they were (unsuccessfully) besieged by Gen. Victor.

In France, when the allies conquered for the first time, the senate did not change its residence, and instead constituted a provisional government.- [illegible] like happened after the fall of Napoleon, and the chamber of representatives appointed a commissioner of government, of which Fouche was the president.

All foreign nations have their eyes fixed on our [illegible] And what judgment can we expect them [illegible] of our valor and our cause, if we are [illegible] into a sudden dismay and disquietude? It is fairly necessary, for this very reason, that we hold by our extraordinary efforts prove the justice our rights; and lastly, we must show that we come [illegible] the inconquerable Spanish race, and that we [illegible] in our veins the blood of Guatimozin, Hidalgo, Morelos, and thousands of others, who shed the last drop of it in honor and defence of their country, and who taught us by their examples the course we are to pursue. These considerations have caused me to make the following proposals to congress.

"1st. That our government will proceed immediately to the place the city in a manner fit to resist the invasion of the North Americans. 2nd. That every power which may be considered necessary for this object shall be granted to the executive. 3rd. That, should be the means of resistance be exhausted, and the capital be occupied by the Americans, congress will meet where the president should determine.- 4th. When the removal of congress shall be determined, any majority will be sufficient to constitute it."

GAMBOA

[KAM]


NNR 72.169 May 15, 1847 Decrees and appeals addressed to the Mexican people about carrying on the war with the United States

MEXICO- The editors of the Spanish paper La Patria, of New Orleans, have received city of Mexico papers to the 10th April.

The Mexican congress had passed a decree, which is published on the 10th to the following effect:

1st. In order to carry on the war, which our nation wages against the United States of the north, all the Mexicans capable if bearing arms are hereby summoned to enroll themselves immediately.

2nd. The government will publish the necessary rules and instructions, in order to make effective the organization of the National Guards, according to what is established in part XIX, article 50th of the constitution.

3rd. The executive may dictate measures which may be considered necessary in order to use all the arms and ammunition which may be in possession of private individuals, and which may not be employed by the police or National Guards: also for the use of wagons, baggage, ammunition, and provisions, and any other articles or utensils which may be necessary for the fulfillment of this object, providing always the means of indemnification, &c.

A meeting of the principal citizens took place on the 8th April, when they unanimously agrees to establish the "guerrilla" system for resisting the North Americans. These resolutions were made known to the government and to congress, the respectable bodies, in order to start immediately for the mountains, passes, and cliffs.

Among the persons singing the propositions we see the names of many prominent lawyers, military, and other public men. The papers have before announced this as the means of saving the nation, and sustaining Mexican independence.

All the papers are filled with appeals to the citizens, and one of them asks- "can it be possible, that among eight millions of Mexicans we cannot find a sufficient number of patriotic and determined men, who will resist the enemy that is invading our soil without the least regard to our rights?"

[KAM]


NNR 72.169-72.170 May 15, 1847 ARMY OF OCCUPATION.

In the New Orleans Delta of the 2d instant, we find the following general description of the battle, founded on information furnished by Capt. Hughes, of the Topographical corps:

On the arrival of the other division of the army at the encampment of General Twiggs, on the 16th of April, Gen. Scott, after taking a reconnaissance of the enemy's works, determined to storm them. The position occupied by the enemy was regarded by them as impregnable, and truly to any other than American soldiers it must have appeared an insurmountable and impracticable undertaking to carry it by storm or take it by strategy.

The road from Vera Cruz, as it passes the Plan del Rio, which is a wide rocky bed of a once large stream, is commanded by a series of high cliff's rising one above the other, and extending several miles, and all well fortified. The road then debouches to the right, and curving around the ridge, passes over a high cliff, which is completely enfiladed by forts and batteries. This ridge is the commencement of the Tierra Templada- the upper or mountainous country. The high and rocky ravine of the river protected the right flank of the position, and a series of most abrupt and apparently impassable mountains and ridges covered their left. Between these points, running a distance of two or three miles, a succession of strongly fortified forts bristled at every turn, and seemed to defy all bravery and skill. The Cerro Gordo commanded the road on a gentle declination, like a glacis, for nearly a mile. An approach in that direction was impossible. A front attack must have terminated in the almost entire annihilation of our army. But the enemy expected such an attack, confiding in the desperate valor of our men, and believing that it was impossible to turn their position to the right or left. Gen. Scott, however, with the eye of a skillful general perceived the trap set for him, and determined to avoid it. He therefore had a road cut to the right, so as to escape the front fire from the Cerro, and turn his position on the left flank. This movement was made know to the enemy by a deserter from our camp, and consequently a large increase of force under Gen. Vega was sent to the forts on their left. Gen. Scott, to cover his flank movements, on the 17th of April ordered forward Gen. Twiggs against the fort on the steep ascent, in front and a little to the left of the Cerro. Col. Harney commanded this expedition, and, at the head of the rifles and some detachments of infantry and artillery, carried this position under a heavy fire of grape and musketry. Having secured this position in front and near the enemy's strongest fortification and having, by incredible labor, elevated one of our large guns to the top of the fort, Gen. Scott prepared to follow up his advantages. A demonstration was made from this position against another strong fort in the rear, and near the Cerro, but the enemy were considered too strong, and the undertaking was abandoned. A like demonstration was made by the enemy.

On the next day, the 18th, General Twiggs was ordered forward from the position he had already captured against the fort which commanded the Cerro. Simultaneously an attack on the fortifications on the enemy's left was to be made by Generals Shields' and Worth's divisions, who moved in separate columns, whilst General Pillow advanced against the strong forts and difficult ascents on the right of the enemy's position. The enemy fully acquainted with Gen. Scott's intended movement, had thrown large bodies of men into the various positions to be attacked. The most serious enterprise was that of Twiggs, who advanced against the main for that commanded the Cerro. Nothing can be conceived more difficult than this undertaking. The steep and rough character of the ground, the constant fire of the enemy in front, and the cross fire of the forts and batteries which enfiladed our lines, made the duty assigned to Gen. Twiggs one of surprising difficulty. Nothing prevented our men from being utterly destroyed by the steepness of the ascent under which they could shelter. But they sought no shelter, and onward rushed against a hailstorm of balls and musket shot, led by the gallant Harney, whose noble bearing elicited the applause of the whole army. His conspicuous and stalwart frame at the head of his brigade, his long arm leading his men on to the charge, his sturdy voice ringing above the clash of arms and the [...] of conflict, attracted the attention and admiration alike of the enemy and our own army. On, on, he led the columns, whose front lines melted before the enemy's fire like snow flakes in a torrent, and staid not their course until, leaping over the rocky barriers and bayoneting their gunners, they drove the enemy pell mell from the fort, delivering a deadly fire into their ranks, from their own guns, as they hastily retired. This was truly a gallant deed, worthy the Cnevalier Bayard of our army, as the intrepid Harney is well syled. Gen. Scott, between whom and Col. Harney there had existed some coolness, rode up to the Col. After this achievement, and remarked to him, "Col. Harney, I cannot now adequately express my admiration of your gallant achievement, but at the proper time I shall take great pleasure in thanking you in proper terms." Harney with the modesty of true valor, claimed the praise as due to his officers and men. Thus did the division of the gallant veteran Twiggs carry the main position of the enemy and occupy the fort which commanded the road. It was here the enemy received their heaviest loss, and their Gen. Vasquez was killed.

A little after, Gen. Worth having, by great exertions, passed the steep and craggy heights on the enemy's left, summoned a strong fort in the rear of the Cerro to surrender. This fort was manned by a large force under Gen. Pinzon, a mulatto officer of considerable ability and courage, who, seeing the Cerro carried, thought prudent to surrender, when he did, with all his force. Gen. Shields was not so fortunate in the battery which he attacked, and which was commanded by Gen. La Vega. A heavy fire as opened on him, under which the fort was carried with some loss by the gallant Illinoisians; under Baker and Bennett, supported by the New Yorkers, under Burnett. Among those who fell under this fire was the gallant general, who received a grape shot through his lungs, by which he was completely paralyzed, and, at least accounts, was in a lingering state. On the enemy's right, Gen. Pillow commenced the attack against the strong forts near the river. The Tennesseans, under Haskell, led the column, and the other volunteer regiments followed. This column unexpectedly encountered a heavy fire from a masked battery, by which Haskell's regiment was nearly cut to pieces, and the other volunteer regiments were severely handled. Gen. Pillow withdrew his men, and was preparing for another attack when the operations at the other points having proved successful, the enemy concluded to surrender. Thus the victory was complete, and four generals and about 5,000 men were taken prisoners by our army. One of their principal generals, and a large number of other officers, killed.

The Mexican force on this occasion certainly exceeded our own. The Mexican officers admitted that Santa Anna had 8,000 men in the lines, and 6,000 including 2,000 lancers, outside of the intrenchments. Gen. Scott's force was about 8,000, Gen. Quitman's brigade not having arrived in time to take part in the engagement. Gen. Ampudia was second in command of the Mexicans, and superintended the operations of the enemy. When the Cerro was carried he was seen retreating on a fine white charger, his hat falling off as he galloped away. Many of the Mexicans escaped by a bye path which runs off from the main road between the Cerro and the fort carried by Gen. Worth. As to Santa Anna and Canalizo, they retreated in time to escape by the main road. Their conduct was regarded as most cowardly. Some of the Mexican officers who were take prisoners do not hesitate to attribute their defeat to the cowardice or corruption of Santa Anna. The force of the enemy was composed of their best soldiers. The infantry that fought so well at Buena Vista, all the regular artillerists of the republic, including several able naval officers, were present. Some of the officers whom Gen. Scott released at the capitulation of Vera Cruz, without extorting the parole on account of their gallantry, were found among the killed and wounded. A gallant young officer named Halzinger, a German by birth, who extorted the admiration of our army in the bombardment of Vera Cruz, by seizing a flag which was cut down by our balls and holding it up in his hand until a staff could be prepared, had been released by Gen. Scott without a parole. He was found among the desperately wounded at Cerro Gordo.

The enemy's loss, in killed and wounded, was about as large as our own; but, in addition to this, the loss of 6,000 prisoners and some of their best officers. Our army captured about thirty pieces of beautiful brass cannon, of large caliber, and mostly manufactured at the Royal Foundry of Seville. A large quantity of fixed ammunition, or very superior quality, was also taken. The private baggage and money chest of Santa Anna, containing $20,000, was also captured. The latter was delivered over to the pay master. The volunteers who were employed in carrying the specie into camp cracked a joke over the prospect of being soon paid off in Mexican coin and free of expense of Uncle Sam.

When our forces had carried the various positions of the enemy, and the road was cleared, General Twiggs started in hot pursuit of the fugitive Santa Anna, and pressed close upon his heels. A strong position, five miles west of Cerro Gordo, fortified and defended by a fine battery of long brass guns, was abandoned by the enemy and occupied by our troops. Gen. Twiggs bivouacked within three miles of the lovely town of Jalapa.

In concluding our imperfect sketch of this brilliant achievement, we cannot sufficiently express or admiration of the extraordinary deeds of or gallant army and able general. Scarcely a month has elapsed since our troops, under Scott, landed on the enemy's shores. In that time a strong walled city has been captured, together with an impregnable fortress; a pitched battle has been fought under the most formidable natural defences; twelve thousand prisoners have been taken, including some half a dozen general officers; five hundred splendid cannon, and an immense amount of munitions of war have been added to the national trophies. Truly, such results are glorious testimonials of the valor of our soldiers, and of the skill, gallantry, and perseverance of the accomplished general who led them. [JLM]


NNR 72.170 May 15, 1847 LIST OF MEXICAN OFFICERS CAPTURED.

PRISONERS. A list of Mexican officers captured at Cerro Gordo, on the 18th April, who have given their parole of honor to report themselves without delay to the commandant of the American forces at Vera Cruz as prisoners of war:

Jose M. Jarero, brigadier general.
Romulo de la Vega, brigadier general.
P. Ruiz y Baranda, captain of Mexican navy, commanding artillery.
Vicente Argüella, captain artillery.
Jose Ma. Mata, captain.
Jose Ma. Gallegos, commanding grenadiers.
Mariano Camacho, 1st lieut. artillery.
Barthome Amable, 2d lieut. artillery.
Jose R. Cobarubias, 2d lieut. artillery.
Jose de Lastor Bras y Soller, lieut. col. battalion de la libertad.
Jose Nuñez, capt. 6th regt. infantry.
Jose Ma. Moreno, capt. 6th regt. infantry.
Gregorio del Callejo, capt. 6th regt. infantry.
Rafael de Berrabidas, 2d lieut. 6th regt. infantry.
Salvero Velez, aid-de-camp to Gen. Vega
Francisco Fernandez, 1st lieut. Mexican navy.

The above prisoners, under the charge of Capt. Geo.W. Hughes, corps of topographical engineers, arrived at Vera Cruz on the 21st inst. Gen. Scott has left it to their election whether they should remain close prisoners in the castle of San Juan d'Ulua or proceed to New Orleans, where they should be allowed such personal liberty as their condition and conduct might seem to require of the commandant of that post. It is understood that all of the foregoing captured officers have expressed a desire to be transferred to the United States, and that Col Wilson, Governor of Vera Cruz, had acceded to their wishes, and had directed that a vessel should be held in readiness to sail, for their accommodation, about the 25th of April. [JLM]


NNR 72.170-171 May 15, 1847 Letters from General Stephen Watts Kearny in California

Headquarters, army of the west,
San Diego, Upper California, Dec. 12, 1846

SIR- As I have previously reported to you, I left Santa Fe, (New Mexico) for this country on the 25th September, with 300 of the 1st dragoons, under Maj. Sumner, We crossed the bank of the Del Norte at Albuquerque, (65 miles below Santa Fe), continued down on that bank till the 6th October when we met Mr. Kit Carson, with a party of 16 men in his way to Washington city, with a mail and papers: an express from Commodore Stockton and Lieut. Colonel Fremont, reporting that the Californias were already in possession of the Americans under their command; that the American flag was flying from every important position in the territory, and that the country was forever free from Mexican control; the war ended, and peace and harmony established among the people. In consequence of this information, I directed that 200 dragoons, under Major Sumner, should remain in New Mexico, and that the other 100, with two mounted howitzers, under Captain Moore, should accompany me as a guard to Upper California. With this guard, we continued our march to the south, on the right bank of the Del Notre, to the distance of 130 miles below Santa Fe, when, leaving the river on the 15th October, in about the 33rd degree of latitude, we marched westward for the copper mines, which we reached on the 18th, and on the 20th reached the river Gila, proceeded down the Gila, crossing and recrossing it as often as obstructions in our front rendered necessary, on the 11th November reached the Pimosnora. These Indians we found honest, and living comfortably, having made a good crop this year; and we remained with them two days, to rest our men, recruit our animals, and obtain provisions. On the 22nd November, reached the mouth of the Gila, in latitude about 32 degrees- our whole march on this river having been nearly 500 miles, and, with but very little exception, between the 32d and 33d parallels of latitude.

This river, (the Gila), more particularly the northern side, is bound nearly the whole distance by a range of lofty mountains; and if a tolerable wagon road to its mouth from the Del Norte is discovered, it must be on the south side. The country is destitute of timber, producing but few cotton wood and mesquite trees; and though the soil on the bottom lands is generally good, yet we found but very little grass or vegetation in consequence of the dryness of the climate and the little rain which falls here. The Pimes Indians, who make good crops of wheat, corn, vegetables &c. irrigate the land by water from the Gila, as did the Aztecs, (the former inhabitants of the country) the remains of whose sequias, or little canals, were seen by us, as the position of many of their dwellings, and a large quantity of broken pottery and earthenware used by them.

We crossed the Colorado about 10 miles below the mouth of the Gila, and, marching near it about 30 miles further, turned off and crossed the desert- a distance of about 60 miles-without water or grass.

On the 2nd December, reached Warner's rancho, (Agua Caliente), the frontier settlement in California, on the route leading to Sonora. On the 4th, marched to Mr. Stokes' rancho, (San Isabella) on the 5th were met by a small party of volunteers, under Capt. Gillispie, sent out from San Diego by Commodore Stockton, to give us what information they possessed of the enemy, 600 or 700 of whom are now to be in arms and in the field throughout the territory, determined upon opposing the Americans and resisting their authority in the country. Encamped that night near another rancho (San Maria) of Mr. Stokes' about 40 miles from San Diego.

The journals and the maps kept and prepared by Captain Johnson, ( my aid-de-camp) and those by Lieutenant Emory; topographical engineers, which will accompany or follow this report, will render anything further from me on this subject unnecessary. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J.W. Kearney, Brig. Gen. U.S.A.

Brig. Gen. R. Jones, Adj. Gen. U.S.A.

Headquarters, army of the west
San Diego, Upper California, Dec. 13, 1846.

SIR- In my communications to you of yesterday's date, I brought the reports of the movements of my guard up to the morning of the 5th instant, in camp near a rancho of Mr. Stokes, (Santa Maria) about 40 miles from San Diego.

Having learned from Capt. Gillispie, of the volunteers, that there was an armed party of Californians, with a number of extra horses at San Pasqual, three leagues distant, on a road leading to this place. I sent Lieut. Hammond, 1st dragoons, with a few men to make a reconnaissance of them. He returned at two in the morning of the 6th inst. reporting that he had found the party in the place mentioned, and that he had been seen, though not pursued by them. I then determined that I would march for and attach them by break of day. Arrangements were accordingly made for the purpose. My aid-de-camp, Capt. Johnson, dragoons, was assigned to the command of the advance guard of twelve dragoons, mounted on the best horsed we had; then followed about fifty dragoons under Captain Moore, with but a few exceptions, on the tired mules they had ridden from Santa Fe ( New Mexico, 1,050 miles); then about 20 volunteers of Capt. Gibson's company under his command, and that of Capt. Gillispie: then followed our two mountain howitzers, with dragoons to manage them, and under the charge of Lieut. Davidson, of the regiment. The remainder of the dragoons, volunteers, and citizens, employed by the officers of the staff, &c. were places under the command of Major Swords, (quartermaster), with the orders to follow on our trail with the baggage, and to see to its safety.

As the day, (December 6) dawned, we approached the enemy at San Pasqual, who was already in the saddle, when Captain Johnson made a furious charge upon them with his advanced guard, and was in a short time after supported by the dragoons; soon after which the enemy gave way, having kept up from beginning a continued fire upon us. Upon the retreats of the enemy, Capt. Moore led off rapidly in pursuit, accompanied by the dragoons, mounted horses, and was followed, though slowly, by the others on their tired mules, the enemy well mounted among the best horsemen in the world, after retreating about half a mile, and seeing an interval between Captain Moore with his advance, and the dragoons coming to his support rallied their whole force charged with their lances, and on account of their greatly superior numbers, but few of us in front remain untouched; for five minutes they held the ground from us, and then fled from the field, not to return to it, and which we occupies and encamped upon it.

Our howitzers were not brought into the action, but coming into the front at close of it, before they were turned, so as to admit of being fired upon the retreating enemy, the two mules before one of them got alarmed and freeing themselves of their drivers, ran off, and among the enemy, and was then lost to us.

The enemy proved to be a party of about 160 Californians under Andreas Pico, brother of the late governor; the number of their dead and wounded must have been considerable, though I have no means of ascertaining how many, as just previous to the final retreat, they carried off all excepting six.

The great number of our killed and wounded proves that our officers and men have finally sustained the high character and reputation of our troops; and the victory thus gained over more than double our force, may assist in forming the wreath of our national glory.

A most melancholy duty now remains for me is to report the death of my aid de-camp, Captain Johnson, who was shot dead at the commencement previous to the final retreat of the enemy, and Lieut. Hammond, also lanced, who survived but a few hours. We had also killed two sergeants, [illegible]corporals, and ten privates of the 1st dragoons; [illegible] private of the volunteers, and one man engaged in the topographical department. Among the wounded are myself, (in two places,) Lieut. Warner, [illegible] topographical engineers, (in three places), Captains Gillispie and Gibson of the volunteers, (the former three places), one sergeant, one bugleman, and three privates of the dragoons; many of them were unhorsed and incapable of resistance.

I have to return my thanks to many for their gallantry and good conduct on the field, and particularly to Capt. Turner, 1st dragoons, (assistant [illegible] general) and to Lieut. Emory, topographical engineers, who were active in the performance of their duties, and in conveying orders to me to the [illegible].

On the morning of the 7th, having made [illegible] for our wounded, and interred the dead proceeded on our march, when the enemy showed himself occupying the hills in our front, but which they left as we approached; till, reaching San Bernado, a party of them took possession of a hill near to it, and maintaining their position until attacked by our advance, who quickly drove them from it, killing and wounding five of their number, with no loss on our part.

On account of our wounded men, and upon the report of the surgeon that rest was necessary for them, we remained at this place till the morning of the 11th, when Lieut. Gray, in the navy, in command of a party of sailors and marines, sent out from San Diego by Commodore Stockton, joined us. We proceeded at 10, a.m. the enemy no longer showing himself; and on the 12th, (yesterday), we reached this place; and I have now to offer my thanks to Com. Stockton, and all of his gallant command, for the many kind attentions we have received and continue to receive from them.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
J.W. KEARNEY, Brig. Gen. U.S.A.

Brig. Gen. R. Jones, adjt. Gen. U.S.A.

Headquarters, army of the west
Ciudad de los Angelos, Upper California, Jan. 12, 1847

SIR- I have the honor to report that, at the request of Commodore R.F. Stockton, United States navy, (who in September last assumed the title of governor of California), I consented to take command of an expedition to this place, (the capital of the country) , and that, on the 29th December, I left San Diego with about 500 men, consisting of about sixty dismounted dragoons under Capt. Turner, 50 California volunteers, and the remainder marines and sailors, with a battery of artillery- Lieut. Emory, (topographical engineers) acting as assistant adjutant general. Com. Stockton accompanied us.

We proceeded on our route without seeing the enemy till on the 8th instant, when they showed themselves in full force of 600 mounted men, with four pieces of artillery under their governor, (Flores) occupying the heights in front of us, which commanded the crossing of the river SAN Gabriel, and they ready to oppose our further progress. The necessary disposition of our troops was immediately made, by covering our front with a strong party of skirmishers placing our wagons and baggage train in the rear of them, and protecting the flanks and rear with the remainder of the command. We then proceeded, forded by the river, carried the heights and drove the enemy from them, after an action of about an hour and a half, during which they made a charge upon our left flank, which was repulsed, soon after which they retreated and left us in possession of the field, on which we encamped that night.

The next day, (the 9th instant) we proceeded on our march at the usual hour, the enemy in our front and on our flanks; and when we reached the plains of the Mesa, their artillery again opened upon us, when their fire was returned by our guns as we advanced; and after hovering around and near us for about two hours, occasionally skirmishing with us during that time, they concentrated their force and made another charge on our left flank, which was quickly repulsed; shortly after which they retired, we continuing our march, and in the afternoon, encamped on the banks of the Mesa, three miles below this city, which we entered the following morning, (the 10th instant), without further molestation.

Our loss in the actions of the 8th and 9th was small, being but one private killed and two officers, Lieut. Rowan of the navy, and Capt. Gillispie, of the volunteers, and eleven privates wounded. The enemy, mounted on fine horses, and being the best riders in the world, carried off their killed and wounded, and we know not the number of them, though, it must have been considerable. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J.W. KEARNEY, Brig. Gen.

Brig. Gen. R. Jones, adj. Gen. U.S.A. Washington.

Headquarters, army of the west,
Ciudad de los Angelos, Upper California, Jan. 14. 1847.

SIR- This morning, Lieut. Col. Fremont, if the regiment of the mounted riflemen, reached [illegible] volunteers from the Sacramento; the enemy capitulated with him yesterday, near San Fernando, agreeing to lay down their arms, and we have now the prospect of having peace an quietness in this country, which I hope may not be interrupted again.

I have not yet received any information of the troops which were to come from New York, nor of those which were to follow me from New Mexico, but presume they will be here before long. On their arrival, I shall, agreeably to the instructions of the president of the United States, have the management of affairs in this country, and will endeavor to carry out his views in relation to it.

J.W. KEARNEY, Brig. GEN.

Brig. Gen., adj. Gen. U.S.A. Washington.

[KAM]


NNR 72.172-172 May 15, 1847 Letters of Col. Alexander William Doniphan on his operations, capture of Chihuahua

"ARMY OF THE NORTH."
BATTLE OF SACRAMENTO.

OFFICIAL REPORT OF COL. DONIPHAN
DEFEAT OF THE ENEMY- CAPTURE OF CHIHUAHUA.

Headquarters of the Army in Chihuahua, City of Chihuahua, March 4, 1847.

I have the honor to report to you the movements of the army under my command since my last official report.

On the evening of the 8th of February, 1847, we left the town of El Paso del Notre, escorting the merchant train or caravan of about 315 wagons for the city of Chihuahua. Our force consisted of 924 effective men, 117 officers and privates of the artillery, 93 of Lieut. Colonel Mitchell's escort, and the remainder the 1st regiment Missouri mounted volunteers. We progressed in the direction of this place until the 25th, when we were informed by our spied that the enemy, to the number of 1,500 men, were at Inseneas, the country seat of Gov. Trias, about 25 miles in advance.

When we arrived, on the evening of the 26th, near that point, we found that the forces had retreated in the direction of this city. On the evening if the 27th we arrived at Sans, and learned from our spies that the enemy, in great force, had fortified the pass of the Sacramento river, about fifteen miles in advance, and about the same distance from this city. We were also informed that there was no water between the point that we were at and that occupied by the enemy; we therefore determined to halt until morning. At sunrise on the 28th, the last day of February, we took up the line of march and formed the whole train, consisting of 315 heavy traders' wagons and our whole commissary and company wagons, into four columns, this shortening our line so as to make it more easily protected. We placed the artillery and all the command, except 200 cavalry proper, in the intervals between the columns of wagons. We this fully concealed our force and its position, by masking our force with the cavalry. When we arrived within three miles of the enemy, we made a reconnaissance of his position and the arrangement of his forces. This we could easily do- the road leading through an open prairie valley between the sterile mountains. The pass of the Sacramento is formed by a point of the mountains on our right, their left extending into the valley or plain, so as to narrow the valley to about one and a half miles. On our left was a deep, dry, sandy channel of a creek, and between these points the plain rises to sixty feet abruptly. This rise in the form of a crescent, the convex part being to the north of our forces. On the right, from the point of the mountains, a narrow part of the plain extends north one and a half miles further than on the left. The main road passes down the centre of the valley and across the crescent, near the left or dry branch, The Sacramento rises in the mountains on the right, and the road falls on to it about one mile below the battle field or entrenchment of the enemy. We ascertained that the enemy had one battery of four guns, two nine and 6 pounders, on the point of the mountain on our right, (their left,), at a good elevation to sweep the plain, and at the point where the mountains extended furthest into the plain. On our left (their right) they had another battery on an elevation commanding the road, and three entrenchments of two six pounders, and on the brow of the crescent, near the centre, another two 6 and two 4 and 6 culverins, or rampart pieces, mounted on carriages; and on the crest of the hill or ascent between the batteries and the right and left they had 27 redoubts dug and thrown up, extending at short intervals across the whole ground. In these their infantry were placed and were entirely protected. Their cavalry were drawn up in front in the intervals four deep, and in front of the redoubts two deep, so as to mask them as far as practicable. When we had arrived within one and a half miles of the entrenchments along the main road, we advanced the cavalry still further, and suddenly diverged with the columns to the right, so as to gain the narrow part of the ascent on our right, which the enemy discovering, endeavored to prevent, by moving forward with 1,000 cavalry and four pieces of cannon in their rear masked by them. Our movements were so rapid that we gained the elevation with our forces and the advance of our wagons in time to form before they arrived within reach of our guns. The enemy halted, and we advanced the head of our column within twelve hundred yards of them, so as to let our wagons attain the highlands and form as before.

We now commenced the action by a brisk fire from our battery, and the enemy unmasked and commenced also. Our fires proved effective at this distance, killing fifteen men, wounding and disabling one of the enemy's guns. We had two men slightly wounded, and several horses and mules killed. The enemy then slowly retreated behind their works in some confusion, and we resumed our march in our former order, still diverging more to the right to avoid their battery on our left, (their right) and their strongest redoubts, which were on the left near where the road passes. After marching as far as we safely could without coming within range of their heavy battery on our right, Capt. Weightman, of the artillery, was ordered to charge with two 12-pound howitzers, to be supported by the cavalry, under Captains Reid, Parsons, and Hudson. The howitzers charged at speed, and were gallantly sustained by Capt. Reid; but, by some misunderstanding, my order was not given to the other two companies.- Captain Hudson, anticipating my orders, charged in time to give ample support to the howitzers. Capt. Parsons at the same moment came to me and asked permission for his company to charge the redoubts immediately to the left of Capt. Weightman, which he did very gallantly. The remainder of the two battalions of the first regiment were dismounted during the cavalry charge, and, following rapidly on foot, and Major Clarke advancing as fast as practicable with the remainder of battery, we charged their redoubts from right to left with a brisk and deadly fire of riflemen, while Major Clarke opened a rapid and well-directed fire on a column of cavalry attempting to pass to our left so s to attack the wagons and our rear. The fire was so well directed as to force them to fall back; and our riflemen, with the cavalry and howitzers cleared after an obstinate resistance. Our forces advanced to the very brink of their redoubts and attacked them with their sabers. When the redoubts were cleared, and the batteries in the centre were silenced, the main battery on our right still continued to pour in a constant and heavy fire, as it had done during the heat of the engagement; but as it had done during the heat of the engagement; but as the whole fate of the battle depended upon carrying the redoubts and centre battery, this one on the right remained unattacked, and the enemy had rallied there five hundred strong.

Major Clark was directed to commence a heavy fire upon it, while Lieut. Cols. Mitchell and Jackson, commanding the 1st battalion, were ordered to remount and charge the battery on the left, while Major Gilpin was directed to pass the 2nd battalion on foot up the rough ascent of the mountain on the opposite side. The fire of our battery was so effective as to completely silence theirs, and the rapid advance of our column put them to flight over the mountains in great confusion.

Capt. Thompson, of the 1st dragoons, acted as my aid and advisor on the field during the whole engagement, and was on the field during the whole engagement, and was of the most essential service to me.- Also, Lieut. Wooster, of the United States army who acted very coolly and gallantly. Major Campbell, of Springfield, Missouri, also acted as a volunteer aid during part of the time, but left me and jointed Captain Reid in his gallant charge. Thus ended the battle of Sacramento.

The force of the enemy was 1,200 cavalry from Durango and Chihuahua, with the Vera Cruz dragoons, 1,200 infantry from Chihuahua, 300 artillerists, and 1,420 rancheros badly armed with lassos, lances, and macheteos or corn knives, ten pieces of artillery, two nine, two eight, four six and two four pounders, and six culverins or rampart pieces.- Their forces were commanded by Major General Heredia, General of Durango, Chihuahua, Senora, and New Mexico; Brigadier General Garcia Conde, formerly minister of defence; General Uguert, and Governor Trias, who acted as brigadier general on the field, and colonels and other officers without number.

Our force was nine hundred and twenty-four effective me, at least one hundred of whom were engaged in holding horses and driving teams.

The loss of the enemy was his entire artillery, ten wagons, masses of beans and pinola, and other Mexican provisions, about three hundred killed and about the same number wounded, many of whom have since dies, and forty prisoners.

The field was literally covered with the dead and wounded from our artillery and the unerring fire of our riflemen. Night put a stop to the carnage, the battle having commenced about three o'clock. Our loss was one killed, one mortally wounded, and seven so wounded as to recover without any loss of limbs. I cannot speak too highly of the coolness, gallantry, and bravery of the officers and men under my command.

I was ably sustained by the field officers, Lieut. Colonels Mitchell and Jackson, of the first battalion; and Maj. Gilpin of the second battalion; and Maj. Clarke and his artillery acted nobly, and did the most effective service in every part of the field. It is abundantly shown, in the charge made by captain Weightman with the section of howitzers, that they can be used in any charge of cavalry with great effect. Much has been said, and justly said, of the gallantry of our artillery, unlimbering within two hundred and fifty yards of the enemy at Palo Alto; but how much more daring was the charge of Capt. Weightman, when he unlimbered within fifty yards of the redoubts of the enemy!

On the 1st day of March we took formal possession of the capital of Chihuahua in the name of our government.

We were ordered by General Kearny to report to General Wool at this place. Since our arrival, we hear that he is at Saltillo, surrounded by the enemy. Our present purpose is either to force our way to him, or return by Bexar, as our team of service expires on the last day of May next.

I have the honor to be your obedient servant,
Colonel 1st regiment Missouri Volunteers.
Brig. Gen. R. Jones, Adj. Gen. U.S.A


Translation of Col. Doniphan's proclamation on taking possession of Chihuahua:

Proclamations of the Commander-in-chief of the North American forces in Chihuahua

The commander-in-chief of the North American forces in Chihuahua announces to all the citizens of that State that he has taken military possession of the capital, and has the pleasure of assuring them that in it complete tranquility exists.

He invites all the citizens to return to their homes, and continue in their ordinary occupation, promising to them security of person, property, and religion.

He declares also, in the name of his government, that, having taken possession of the capital since he conquered the forces of the state, he holds possession of the whole state.

He invites all the citizens, pueblos and rancheros, to continue their trade, coming to this capital to buy and sell just as they did before the recent occurrences, for no one will be molested or annoyed in any thing, as he before explained that the property each person will be respected, and that, in case the troops of his command need anything, the value of it will be paid at its just price with all punctuality.

He pledges himself in like manner that the American troops will promptly punish every excess committed, either by the savage Indians or any other individuals.

He assures again all good citizens that we war only against the army, and not against individual citizens who are unarmed.

For this we exact only, not that any Mexican should take up arms against his country, but that, incase if actual war, he shall remain neutral; for it must not, in the contrary, be expected that we shall respect the rights of those who take up arms against our view.

Alexander W. Doniphan
Commander-in-chief

Headquarters of the Army in Chihuahua,
City of Chihuahua, March 20, 1847

SIR:- The forces under my command are a portion of the Missouri volunteers, called into service for the purpose of invading New Mexico, under the command of Brigadier General (then Colonel) Kearney. After the conquest of New Mexico, and before General Kearney's departure for California, information was received that another regiment and an extra battalion of Missouri volunteers would follow us to Santa Fe. The service of so large a force being wholly unnecessary in that state, I prevailed on Gen. Kearney to order my regiment to report to you at this city. The order was given on the 23rd September, 1846; but after the general arrived at La Joya, in the southern part of the State, be issued an order requiring my regiment to make a campaign into the country inhabited the Navajo Indians, lying between the waters of the Rio del Notre and the Rio Colorado of the west. This campaign detained me until the 14th of December, before our return to Del Notre. We immediately commenced our march for El Paso del Notre with about 800 riflemen. All communication between Chihuahua and New Mexico was entirely prevented. On the 25th of December, 1846, my van guard was attacked at Brazito by the Mexican forces from this State; our force was about 450, and the force of the enemy 1100; the engagement lasted about forty minutes, when the enemy fled, leaving 63 killed and since dead, 150 wounded, and one howitzer, the only piece of artillery in the engagement on either side. On the 29th we entered El Paso without further opposition; from the prisoners and others I learned that you had not marched upon this State. I then determined to order a battery and 100 artillerists from New Mexico. They arrived in El Paso about the 5th February, when we took up the line of march for this place. A copy of my official report of the battle of Sacramento, enclosed to you, will show you all our subsequent movements, up to our taking possession of this capital. The day of my arrival I had determined to send an express to you forthwith; but the whole intermediate country was in the hands of the enemy, and we were cut off, and had been for many months, from all information respecting the American army. Mexican reports are never to be fully credited; yet, from all we could learn, we did not doubt that you would be forced by overwhelming numbers to abandon Saltillo, and of course we could send no express under such circumstances. On yesterday we received the first even tolerably reliable information that a battle had been fought near Saltillo between the American and Mexican forces, and that Santa Anna had probably fallen back on San Luis de Potosi.

My position here is exceedingly embarrassing. In the first place, most of the men under my command have been in service since the 1st of June, and have never received one cent of pay. Their marches have been hard, especially in the Navajo country, and no forage; so that they are literally without horses, clothes or money, nothing but arms and a disposition to use them. They are all volunteers, officers and men; and, although ready for any hardships or danger, are wholly unfit to garrison a town or city. "It is confusion worse confounded." Having performed a march of over 2,000 miles, and their terms of service rapidly expiring, they are restless to join the army under your command. Still, we cannot leave this point safely for some days- the American merchants here, oppose it violently, and have several thousand dollars at stake. They have sent me a memorial, and my determination has been made known to them. A copy of both they will send to you. Of one thing it is necessary to inform you: the merchants admit that their goods could not be sold here in five years; if they go south they will be as near to the markets of Durango and Zacatecas as they now are. I am anxious and willing to protect the merchants as far as practicable; but I protest against remaining here as a mere wagon guard; garrisoning a city with troops wholly unfit for it, and who will be wholly ruined by improper indulgencies. Having been originally ordered to this point, you know the wishes of the government in relation to it, and of course your orders will be promptly and cheerfully obeyed. I fear there is ample use for us with you, and we would greatly prefer joining you before our term of service expires.

All information relative to my previous operations, present condition, &c., will be given you by Mr. J. Collins, the bearer of these dispatches. He is a highly honorable gentleman, and was an amateur soldier at Sacramento.

The Mexicans report your late battle as having been entirely favorable to themselves; but taking it for granted they never report the truth, we have fired a salute for our victory in honor of yourself and General Taylor, presuming from report, you were both present.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
A.W.DONIPHAN,
Comd'g. 1st reg. Missouri mounted vols.

Should the horses or mules of those bearing this express fail, or prove unfit to return upon, I have to request that they may be supplied by the government with the proper means of returning,

A.W. DONIPHAN. Colonel 1st reg. Missouri volunteers Brig. Gen. Wool, U.S.A. [KAM]


NNR 72.172-173 May 15, 1847 Trials for treason in New Mexico

Organization of Government on New Mexico- Power of the Courts- Treason- Drumhead Court Martial- What does it all tend to?

Charge of Judge Houghton to the jury, in the case of Senior Trogillo- (Trohea)

In charging the jury before retiring, on the case of the Unites States vs. Trojillo, the judge ruled out all consideration, by the jury, of the arguments of the counsel for the defence, that the court had not, under the constitution, the right to adjudicate upon a case of treason, where the accused was a citizen of New Mexico, upon the ground that the court, as it was constituted, could not permit the question of its own existence to be the subject of decision by a jury; that it was bound by its oath to rely upon the authority which constituted, could not permit the question of its own existence to be the subject of decision by a jury; that it was bound by its oath to rely upon the authority which constituted it as sufficient, and under that oath, made before that authority, were solemnly bound to administer justice within the extent of its jurisdiction, and to submit all cases to juries, as judges of the evidence and facts, allowing the responsibility of the constitutional right of the court to sit on cases of high treason, as charged against New Mexicans, to fall back upon the authority who constituted it. The court, therefore, let the case go before the jury to be decided as to the guilt or innocence of the prisoner, by the facts and the evidence.

Don Antonio Maria Trogillo's order.

By order of the inspector of arms, Don Antonio Maria Trogillo, who has directed me to order you, the moment you receive this notice, to raise the whole of your company, and also all the people that are able o bear arms, to present themselves in San Juan de los Cabelleros, to-morrow, the 22nd inst., at the latest at 8 o'clock.

We have declared war against the government of the United States; and it is now to take up arms in defence of our abandoned country- to see if we can regain the liberty that we possessed in this unfortunate department. You will be held responsible of you fail to obey the order.

Juan Antonio Garcia

To Lieut. Don Pedro Vigil.

Gen. Taffola's order, No. 1.

The defenders of the country, with the view of shaking off the yoke that binds us to the government of the stranger, and as you are the inspector of arms, and commander of militia, lawfully appointed by your supreme government, which is the one we now claim; at the moment you receive this communication, you will proceed to unite all the companies under your command, and holding them in readiness for the 22nd inst., on which day these forces will be at that point. You will take all the necessary steps, and see if the enemy is advancing this way with any force; and if it should so prove, you will send a messenger quickly, so that I may redouble my march.

You are to understand that there is to be no resistance to this order. Answer this by the bearer.

Taos, January 20th, 1847.
Jesus Taffola

To Don Antonio Maria Trogillo.

Gen. Taffola's order, No. 2.

COMMANDING GENERAL OF THE REUNION: As soon as you receive this official, you will order your subalterns to gather the men under their orders, to hold themselves in readiness by the time I arrive with my forces, so as to advance all together to the camp of honor.

Jesus Tafolla
God and liberty!
Sent 23rd of January, 1847.

To the Inspector of Arms, Don Antonio Maria Trogillo.


PROCEEDINGS OF A DRUMHEAD COURT MARTIAL,

Convened at Fernando de Taos, New Mexico, on the 6th day of February, 1847, by the following order:

Headquarters, Army in New Mexico,
Don Fernando de Taos, Feb. 6, 1847.

Order No. 115

A drumhead court martial, to consist of five members will assemble at headquarters this morning, at 10 o'clock, a.m., for the trial of Pablo Montollya (Montoya,) and such other prisoners as may be brought before it. The court will consist of the following members:

Capt. Angney, infantry battalion; Capt. Barbe 2nd regiment Missouri volunteers; Capt. Slack, do. [illegible] Lieut. Ingalls, 1st dragoon; Lieut. White, 2nd regiment Missouri volunteers; Lieut. Easton, infantry battalion, judge advocate.

By order of Col. S. Price.

[signed] B.Walker, adj't.

The court met pursuant to the above order. Present, all the members.

The prisoner not objecting to any of the members, was arraigned on the following charge and specifications:

Charge- Rebellious conduct.

Specification 1st- In this: That the said Pablo Montoya did, on or about the 19th day of January, 1847, excite the Indians and Mexicans to rebellious conduct, assuming to be one of their principal leaders.

Specification 2d- That the said Montoya did, on or about the 25th of January last, issue a proclamation, exciting the people to rebellion.

Specification 3d- That the said Montoya was engaged in exciting the people to rob the United States wagons, loaded with public funds, then on their way from the United States to Santa Fe. All this in the territory of New Mexico.

[signed] R.WALKER, adjutant, 2nd reg't Mo. Mounted volunteers

To which charge and specifications the prisoner pleaded not guilty.

The court being duly sworn in the presence of the prisoner, Messrs. Lucian Thrustoa and Thomas Rowland were sworn as interpreters.

Jose Maria Sandaval, a witness for the prosecution being duly sworn, said: I was secretary for the prosecution being duly sworn, said: I was secretary for Pablo Montoya, the prisoner, and wrote the following letter, [marked A,] which I read to him, and he approved.

"From the superior authorities in command."

"No. A- The alcalde will, the moment he receives this, arrange it so that he will present all the people of the Pueblo before me, at sunrise, well equipped with arms and provisions, that they may leave for Santa Fe with dispatch. This moment, I have received intelligence of importance, requesting us to be in readiness before the forces of Santa Fe advance and overcome our forces at the different points, Rio Abajo, Canada, &c., &c. God and law.

[signed] Pablo Montallo
Senor Alcalde of the Pueblo."
San Fernando de Taos, Jan. 21, 1847."

Witness further states, that the letter marked B., was written by himself, at the instance of the prisoner, Pablo Montallo, which he read to him, and he approved; and also letter marked C, was written by witness, at the instance of the prisoner, which he read to him, and he approved it, and authorized him to sign his name to it,

No B- The citizen Pablo Montolia, being the highest person empowered to command and also to appoint officers who will faithfully discharge their duties according to the arrangement of the splendid plans found on the 21st day of the present month- I hereby give authority to the alcalde of the Pueblo de Taos, Don Francisco Navaujo, to write and the letters of this tribunal, and also to cause the people under his command to keep themselves well equipped with arms, with the understanding that they will be chastised who disobey the orders and commands of Senor Alcalde; published for good government.

Given in San Fernando de Taos, 22d Jan., 1847
[signed] Pablo Moulla.
Empowered general of the superior command

No. C- This day I received intelligence from the commander of the Mexican forces, that yesterday, at the setting sun, the war commenced at the Canada with the foreign army. He also states that they have already vanquished them; believing which, honored Mexicans we shall come out triumphant in all our undertaking. I will commend you to God, that he may give you the souls of valiant men, so that all the enemies you encounter, you may be able to conquer, keeping in mind the rules and regulations presented in the organized plan formed on the 21st day of the present month, the third observance of our adored laws. We are now fighting , and should we vanquish our enemy, we will again place our laws in the best security the nature of the case will admit of. Any prisoners that may be taken you will remit to this tribunal.

Mexican citizens!- Live in the hope that we will yet shout glory hallelujah in our province, and live in the confidence that the Divine Protector of the Indians will never permit his people to be vanquished.- Believing in His powerful assistance, no harm can befall us.

Companions in arms!- I request you to try and make yourselves possessors of the money and effects that they are now taking to Santa Fe in the wagons.- Accomplishing this, you will place it under the strictest orders according to our plan, until it is in my disposal, taking care not to let the people steal it, it being alone for the defence of our sacred country.

Do the favor to communicate all this as far as El Bao, that the people may rise and protect their frontier. You will give assistance with your people near Santa Fe, at the points where they may be most needed. It is extremely necessary that the orders should be vigilantly executed.

God and liberty.
San Fernando de Taos, Jan. 25, 1847.
[signed] Pablo Montolla.

Answer this as soon as it comes to hand.

Gentlemen authorities of the command.

Witness further states, that prisoner was looked upon wherever he went by the rebellious party, as the general commanding the forces.

Question by the prisoner- Did I direct the letters you wrote?

Answer- You did: word for word; most of them I read over to you a second time, upon the prisoner saying he did not distinctly understand what I had written. He then approved them, and authorized me to sign his name to the letters, which I did.

Antonio Jose Martinez, the priest, a witness for the prosecution, being duly sworn, says: On the morning of the 19th of January last, immediately after the murder of Gov. Bent, prisoner, with others, came into my room for the purpose of finding Elliot Lee, an American, whom they had supposed I had concealed. They were hunting William Lee. My room at that time, was filled with Indians and Mexicans. The murder of Governor Bent and others, was the commencement of the revolution. The prisoner being tendered the appointment of general, at first refused it, but afterwards accepted it. The appointment of prisoner as general, it was said, was to restore good order among the Mexicans.

Elliot Lee, a witness for the prosecution, being duly sworn, says that prisoner on the 20th of January last, told him that he was commander in chief of the Mexican forces, and that he was the Santa Anna of the north, and that he was going to retake this territory, which the Americans had taken from the Mexicans. Prisoner asked me whether there were wagons coming from the states to Santa Fe, with powder, and ball, and money? I told him I understood there were, and that there were some two hundred thousand dollars in money in them.- Prisoner told me to tell a straight take, and if I did, I should not be hurt. He said they were sending out men to take them: they did go out, and brought back some mules and horses. Prisoner started from home with troops to go against the Americans, and said there were no Americans in Santa Fe, for that all of them had been killed.

Jesus Maria Tafoya, a witness for the prosecution, being duly sworn, says: I was interpreter on the 20th January last for Mr. Lee. Prisoner told me to tell said Lee, if he did not answer the questions correctly, he had an instrument with which he could cut his throat. Prisoner told me to ask Lee about some wagons going to Santa Fe from the states, and whether there was powder and ball and plenty of money in the, Prisoner said something about sending out men to take those wagons, and that he would give out the proceeds among the people here. They did go out, but only brought back some horses and mules. Prisoner said that there were not more than two hundred troops in Santa Fe; boys, said he, don't mind that; we can kill them all off. Prisoner said he was the Santa Anna of the north: he said he was commander in chief of the forces against the Americans. Prisoner did not start for Santa Fe; the other generals went; he remained here to keep good order.- The "good order" was to keep the Mexicans here in arms and readiness to flight. This was the order to prisoner, which he had to execute as a part of his duty.

The evidence was here closed, and the court adjourned.

After mature deliberation on the testimony adduced, which was read over by the judge advocate, the court find the prisoner, Pablo Montoya, guilty of all specifications to the charge, and guilty of the charge, and sentenced him to be hung by the neck until he is DEAD- at such time and place as the colonel commanding may direct, after the approval of the proceedings,

The court adjourned sine die.

[signed] W.Z. ANGNEY,
President of the court, com'd infantry battalion.

L.J. Eastin, judge advocate.

The proceedings and sentence of the court in the above case are approved, and in conformity with the sentence, the said prisoner, Pablo Montoya, will be hung by the neck until he is dead, in the centre of the plaza, in this town between the hours of 11 o'clock a.m. and 2 o'clock p.m., tomorrow, the 7th inst,

[signed] Sterling Price
Col. commanding the army in New Mexico.

[KAM]


NNR 72.175 May 15, 1847 Maj. Meriwether Lewis Clark's official report

Headquarters, Bat. Mo. Light Artillery,
Camp near Chihuahua, Mexico, March 2, 1847

SIR- I have the honor to report that, agreeable to your instructions, I left camp, near Lauz, on the morning of the 28th ult. Accompanied by my adjutant, Lieut. L.D. Walker, and non-commissioned staff, and proceeded in advance to a position commanding a full view of the enemy's camp and entrenchments, situated about four miles distant. From this point, the enemy was discovered to be in force awaiting our approach, having occupied the ridge and neighboring heights about Sacramento. Upon examination it was discovered that his entrenchments and redoubts occupied the brow of an elevation extending across the ridge between Arroyo Seco and that of Sacramento, both of which at this point, cross the valley, from the elevated ridge of mountains in the rear of the village of Terreon, known by the name of Sierra de Victorias, and that of - on the east, and through which runs the Rio del Nombre de Dios. This valley is about four miles in width, and entrenched by the enemy entirely across, from mountain to mountain, the road to the city of Chihuahua running directly through its centre, and of necessity passing near to and crossing the Rio Sacramento at the rancho Sacramento, a strongly built and fortified beach, with adjoining corrals and other enclosures belonging to Angel Trias, the governor of Chihuahua. From observation it was ascertained that the enemy had occupied the site between these hills, and that the batteries upon them were supported by infantry, his cavalry being in advance positions, formed into three columns, between the Arroyo Seco and our advance. During these observations the enemy's advance guard discovered my party - approached rapidly, with the evident intention of intercepting it; but being met by that of our troops which I had sent forward, it as rapidly retreated; at this time, also, the three columns of the enemy's cavalry recrossed the Arroyo Seco, and retired behind their entrenchments. I then approached within six hundred yards of their most advanced redoubt, from which point the enemy's formation was plainly discernible. The entrenchments consisted of a line, with intervals composed of circular redoubts from three hundred to five hundred yards intervals, with entrenchments between each, covering batteries partly masked by cavalry. The redoubt nearest to my position contained two pieces of cannon, supported by several hundred infantry. The enemy's right and left were strongly positioned- the Cerro [illegible] on his right having high, precipitous sides, with a redoubt commanding the surrounding country and the pass leading towards Chihuahua through Arroyo Seco.

The Cerro Sacramento, on his left, consisting of a pile of immense volcanic rocks, was surmounted by a battery commanding the road to Chihuahua leading directly in front of the enemy's entrenchments, crossing the Rio Sacramento at the rancho, directly under its fire, and also commanding the road from Terreon, immediately in its rear. The crossing of the main road over Arroyo Seco, at the point from which my reconnaissance was made, laid directly under the fire of the batteries on the enemy's entrenchments. The passage was found to be practicable with some little labor, and the point selected as the best passage of the artillery and wagon and merchant trains.

The whole front of the enemy's line of entrenchments appeared to be about two miles, and his force 900 men; the artillery being masked, the number and caliber of his cannon could not be estimates.- Rather, I have the honor to report that the battalion of artillery under my command composed of 110 men and 7 officers, with a battery of six pieces of artillery, were, on the morning of the battle, directed from under the direction of Captain Weightman, between the two columns of merchant and provisio wagons, being this masked from the view of the enemy; in this column my troops continued to march to within about 1,500 yards if the enemy's most advanced position. Our direction was then changed to the right, and the column having crossed the Arroyo Seco within reach of the enemy's fire, rapidly advanced towards the table land between the Seco and Sacramento; at this time the enemy was perceived advancing from his entrenchments to prevent our seizing upon these heights, but by a rapid movement of the battery it was quickly drawn from its mask, and seizing upon a favorable position, protected at the rear by a marsh from the attack of a large body of the enemy's cavalry ascertained to be hanging on our rear, it was formed, and at once opened fire upon the enemy's cavalry rapidly advancing upon us. At this moment, his charging column was about 900 yards distant, and the effect of our strap shot and shells were such as to break his ranks and throw his cavalry into confusion. The enemy now rapidly deployed into line, bringing up his artillery from the entrenchments. During this time our line was preparing for a charge, my artillery advancing by hand and firing. The enemy now opened a heavy fire of cannon upon our line, mainly directed upon the battery, but with little effect.

Lieutenant Dorn had his horse shot from under him by a nine pound ball, at this stage of the action, and several mules and oxen in the merchant wagons in our rear were wounded and killed, which, however, was the only damage done. The fire of our cannon at this time had such good effect as to dismount one of the enemy pieces, and completely to disperse his cavalry, and drive him from his position forcing him to retire behind his entrenchments. For a short time the firing on either side now ceased, and the enemy appeared to be moving his cannon and wounded, whilst our line prepared to change our position more towards the right, for the purpose of occupying a more advantageous ground. One object being soon gained, the order to advance was given, and immediately after I was directed to send the section of howitzers to support a charge upon the enemy's left. I immediately ordered Captain R.H. Weightman to detach the section composed of two 12 pound mountain howitzers, mounted upon carriages, constructed especially for field prairie service, and drawn by two horses each- these were commanded by Lieutenants E.F. Chouteau and F.D. Evans, and manned by some twenty men, whose conduct in this action cannot be too much commended. Captain Weightman charges at full gallop upon the enemy's left, preceded by Captain Reed and his company of horses; and after crossing a ravine some 150 yards from the enemy, he unlimbered the guns within 50 yards of the entrenchments, and opened a destructive fire of canister into his ranks; which was warmly returned, but without effect. Capt. Weightman again advanced upon the entrenchment, passing through it in the face of the enemy, and within a few feet of the ditches; and in the midst of a cross fire from three directions again opened his fire to the right and left with such effect that, with the formidable charge of the cavalry and dismounted men of your own regiment, and Lieutenant Col. Mitchell's escort, the enemy were driven from the breastworks on our right in great confusion.

At this time, under a heavy cross fire from the battery upon Cerro Sacramento, I was advancing with our battery of four 6 pounders, under Lieuts. Dorn, Kribben, and Labeaume, upon the enemy's right, supported by Major Gilpin on the left, and the wagon train, escorted by two companies of infantry, under Captains E.J. Glasgow and Skilman, in the rear, when Major Gilpin charged upon the enemy's centre, and forced him from his entrenchments under a heavy fire of artillery and small arms; at the same time the fire of our battery was opened upon the enemy's extreme right, from which a continued fire had been kept up upon our line and the wagon train. Two of the enemy's guns, were now soon dismounted on their right; that battery silenced, and the enemy dislodged from the redoubt on Cerro Frijoles.- Percieving a body of lancers forming for the purposes of out-flanking our left, and attacking the merchants' wagons under Capt. Glasgow, I again opened upon them a very destructive fire of grape and spherical case shot, which soon cleared the left of our line; the enemy , vacating his entrenchments and deserting his guns, was hotly pursued towards the mountains beyond Cerro Frijoles, and down the Arroyo Seco to Sacramento, by moth wings in the army, under Lieutenant Colonel Mitchell, Lieutenant Colonel Jackson, and Major Gilpin, and by Captain Weightmen, with the sections of howitzers. During this pursuit my officers repeatedly opened their fires upon the retreating enemy with great effect. To cover this flight of the enemy's forces from the entrenched camp, the heaviest of his cannon had been taken from the entrenchments to the Cerro Sacramento, and a heavy fire opened upon our pursuing forces and the wagons following in the rear. To silence this battery, I had to anticipate your order to that effect by at once occupying the nearest of the enemy's entrenchments, 1,225 yards distant; and notwithstanding the elevated position of the Mexican battery, giving him a ploughing fire into my entrenchment, which was not defiladed, and the greater range of his long nine pounders, the first fire of our guns dismounted one of his largest pieces, and the fire was kept up with such briskness and precision of aim, that this battery was soon silenced and the enemy seen precipitately retreating. The fire was then continued upon the Rancho Sacramento, and the enemy's ammunition and baggage train retreating upon the road to Chihuahua. By this fire the house and several wagons were rendered untenable and useless. By this time Lieutenant Col. Mitchell had sealed the hill, followed by the section of howitzers under Capt. Weightman, and the last position of the Mexican forces taken possession of by our own troops, this leaving the American forces masters of the field. Having silenced the fire from Cerro Sacramento, our battery was removed into the plain at rancho, where we gained the road and were in pursuit of the enemy when I received your order to return and encamp within the enemy's entrenchments for the night. From the time of first opening my fire upon the Mexican cavalry, to the cessation of the firing upon the rancho and battery of Sacramento, was about three hours, and, during the whole time of the action, I take the utmost pleasure in stating that every officer and man of my command did his duty with cheerfulness, coolness, and precision, which is sufficiently shown by the admirable effect produced by their, the great accuracy of their aim, their expediency and ingenuity in supplying deficiencies in the field during the action, and the prompt management of the pieces, rendered still more remarkable from the fact that I had, during the fight, less than two thirds of the number of cannoneers generally required for the service of light artillery, and but four of the twelve artillery carriages belonging to my battery harnessed with horses, the remaining eight carriages being harnessed to mules of the country.

During the day my staff were of the greatest service, Adjutant L.D. Walker having been sent with the howitzers, and the non-commissioned officers remaining with me to assist in the service of the battery. In this action the troops under your command have captured from the enemy one 9 pounder, one 6 pounder, and seven 4 pounder guns, all mounted in new stock-trail carriages. Their pieces were all manufactured in Chihuahua, except the six pounder, which is an old Spanish piece. Three of the four pounders were made at the mint in Chihuahua; seven of the ten pieces were spiked, but have been unspiked since their capture; four of them were rendered unserviceable in the action; one entirely dismounted and seized by my adjutant whilst in the act of being dragged from the field by the retreating enemy.- There were also taken two pieces of artillery, mounting three wall pieces of 11/2 inch caliber each, and these are formidable weapons upon a charging force. With these twelve pieces of artillery was taken a due proportion of ammunition, implements, harness, mules, &c., and they may be rendered serviceable by being properly repaired and [illegible], for which purpose I would ask for future reinforcement of my command. It is with feelings of gratitude to the Ruler of all battles that I have now the honor to report that not one man of my command has been hurt, nor any animal. With the exception of one horse, killed under Lieutenant Dorn, chief of the first section of 6 pounder guns, and of one mule belonging to the United States, shot under one of the cannoneers; neither had a gun or carriage of my battery been touched except in one instance, where a nine pound ball stuck the tire of a wheel without producing injury. This is a fact worthy of notice, that so little damage was done to a command greatly exposed to the enemy's fire, and of itself made a point of attack by the enemy, if I may so judge by the showers of cannon and other shot constantly poured into us as long as the enemy continued to occupy his position. I might call your attention to the individual instances of personal courage and good conduct of the men of command, as well as of the intrepid bravery and cool determined courage of many of your own regiment and Lieutenant Col. Mitchell's escort, who charged with us upon the enemy's works, were it not impossible, in any reasonable space, to name so many equally of distinction, and did not presume that other field officers on that occasion would repost the proceedings of their own commands and the praiseworthy conduct of their own officers and men,

M.L. CLARK

To Col. A.W. Doniphan, commanding American forces in the state of Chihuahua.

[KAM]


 72.176 May 15, 1847 Mexican orders for fortifications around the capital

The Mexican government have directed every place in the vicinity of their capital to be fortified, and have directed Generals Almonte, Bravo, Rincon and Agea, to superintend their construction. Almonte on the 14th commenced his duties by reconnoitering the road from Venta de Cordova, to San Martin Tesmelucan. [KAM]


NNR 72.176 May 15, 1847 Killed and Wounded at Cerro Gordo

The number of the killed and wounded of our army at the battle of Sierra Gordo, is ascertained to be, says the N. OrleansPicayune: 1 volunteer officer killed: 14 regular officers, and 7 volunteer privates killed; 195 regular and 48 volunteer privates wounded. [JLM]


NNR 72.177 May 22, 1847 Mexican notice of appointment of Alejandro Jose Atocha as emissary from the United States to Mexico

Senor Atocha. The New Orleans Picayune of the 5th speaking of the intelligence brought by the steamer James L. Day, from Vera Cruz says:

The Mexican papers continue their declamatory strictures upon the mission of Atocha. It would appear that the sending of this miserable fellow on any important mission to Mexico has given greater umbrage than all else that has been done by the United States. They regard him in the light of an official pimp, a treasonable pander, a perfidious miscreant, and indeed the concentration of baseness. They think he was sent there by the American cabinet in mockery and scorn.

We have already copied the article of "El Republicano" upon Atocha. That paper- the very best in all Mexico- the highest tone and the sturdiest defender of the republican institutions when the monarchical part was in the ascendant- after noticing the arrival of Atocha on a mission from this country, and recounting his past history in Mexico, exclaims:

"O, God! This is the greatest sign that thou hast forgotten us. Send upon us bombs, rifles, grape shot and every class of projectile and misfortune; burn us, reduce us to ashes, destroy us, annihilate, but do not dishonor us. Send the entire north to subjugate and rule over us, but do not let Atocha be the broker of a contract of piece, because that, devolving upon us the greatest scorn and the greatest humiliation, would be [O God] thy greatest punishment."

This, we are assured, is a true reflex of the feelings of the better order of Mexicans in regard to the unfortunate appointment. [KAM]


NNR 72.177 May 22, 1847 Number of Enlistments in the Army

The Recruiting Service.- Reinforcements ordered to the seat of war.

We learn from the war office that the ranks of the new regiments are rapidly filling up, and that the following companies of the same are now concentrated at Point Isabel, or en route for Vera Cruz and that point. The results here exhibited are highly gratifying, and show the great energy and promptitude with which this new force has been raised and sent forward:

9th Inf'y- Col. Ransom, (aggregate) 258
12th Inf'y- Col. Temple 794
11th Inf'y- Col. Ramsey (companies and detachment of a company) 633
12th Inf'y- Col. Wilson, (now in Mexico) Lieut. Col. Bonham, superintending 110
13th Inf'y- Col. Echols 280
14th Inf'y- Col, Trousdale 180
15th Inf'y- Col. Morgan (now in Mexico) Lieut. Col. Howard, superintending 810
16th Inf'y- Col. Tribbatts 827
Voltiqueurs- Col. Andrews 712
3rd Dragoons- Col. Butler 711
-----
Total- Ten regiments   5,315

This number (5,315) is probably considerably below the actual strength now in Mexico, or even en route for the seat of war. [KAM]


NNR 72.177 May 22, 1847 Assurances of the "Union" that Gen. Winfield Scott will be reinforced by the end of May, equal to the number of volunteers that leave

The "Union" from which the above is extracted, concludes that Gen. Scott's army will be strengthened by the above and other recruits that will reach him by the end of may, fully equal to the volunteers that he will have to part with.

No mention is made as to reinforcing General Taylor. [KAM]


NNR 72.177 May 22, 1847 Letter from Thomas Corwin

Senator Corwin and the Mexican War.
Lebanon, (Ohio) April 4, 1847.

DEAR SIR- I had the pleasure of receiving your letter on the 28th of March yesterday: and I cannot deny myself the gratification of expressing to you the satisfaction with which I receive that among many other such evidences of approval of my course on the Mexican war. I felt strongly as any one could the responsibility I assumed. I differed from all the leading whigs if the senate, and saw plainly that they all were, to some extent, bound to turn, is they could, the current of public opinion against me. They all agrees with me that the war was unjust in our part; that, if properly begun, (which none of them admitted,) we had already sufficiently chastised Mexico, and that the further prosecution of it was wanton waste of both blood and treasure; yet they would not undertake to stop it. They said the president alone was responsible. I thought we who aided him, or furnished him the means, must be in the judgment of reason and conscience equally responsible, equally guilty, with him. I see the "democratic" presses prate about refusing to feed and clothe the brave men now in the field. Do not these praters know that it was not for that purpose that we were asked for supplies?- Did the president want twenty-eight millions of money and ten regiments more of men to bring Gen. Taylor back to Camargo? No, he told us he wanted them for the purpose of further prosecuting the war. He wanted to storm the halls of the Montezumas! And for what? That question he will not answer. It is for conquest alone. The great model republic of the world makes war upon one modeled after her, to take away her territory and utterly destroy her, till her leading men are driven to bed the aid of Kings to prevent us, the great republic, from robbing and murdering those who, as well as they know how to do it, are trying to establish free governments after our example. I am amazed that a people calling itself democratic- hating kings and loving free government - should act thus. What does it portend? Ii confess it fills me with melancholy forebodings. I can honor the brave soldier who does his duty in battle; but I despise the mistaken, wicked policy that sends him to fight in such a war. Had the president asked for money to bring home our army after the taking of Monterey, and to send a commission of one or more of the first men in America to treat for peace, I would have given my vote with more hearty goodwill for such a bill then I ever gave any in my whole public life. I often urged this course in private interviews with leading men of both parties. But all in vain. Further battle- more blood- more laurels; these were the insane and barbarous aspirations of men who now hold the power of a nation boasting itself the exemplar of Christendom; vaunting that it "asks for nothing, which is not right, and will submit to nothing which is wrong."

I send you only a few copied of my speech on the subject. I only regret that it is not more worthy of the cause it proposes to uphold. I shall be satisfied if it shall induce a few to ponder the subject of which it treats.

Very truly, your friend,
Thomas Corwin.

Lafayette (Ind.) Journal [KAM]


NNR 72.179 May 22, 1847 Government declines tender of additional brigade from Maryland

Gen. John Spear Smith, of Baltimore, has tendered to the president of the United States, a brigade of volunteers to serve in the Mexican war, from the state of Maryland. The Washington "Union" compliments the patriotism of the corps volunteered on this occasion, and exhibits it as an instance of the public spirit of the people of Maryland, but adds that the president has been constrained, in justice to the like claims which are pressed from other states, to decline accepting the services thus proffered, and adds: "We understand that Gen. Scott will, in all probability, have under his command, in the month of June, at least twenty thousand men, or more, consisting too of regulars, or during the war men." [KAM]


NNR 72.181 May 22, 1847 Paymaster to leave St. Louis with gold for the Army in Mexico

Major Bodine, paymaster of the army, was to leave St. Louis last week for Santa Fe, with $300,000 in gold for the army in New Mexico. [KAM]


NNR 72.182-72.183 May 22, 1847 George Wilkins Kendall's account of the battle of Cerro Gordo

The Battle Of Cerro Gordo.

Mr. Kendall, of the New Orleans Picayune, furnished that paper with regular details from which we extract the following:

Plan del Rio, Mexico, April 16, 1847.

General Twigg's division of the army reached this place on Sunday last 11th, and Gen. Patterson's on Monday evening.  Both are now encamped her in a delightful valley, on the banks of the Plan del Rio, or river of the plain, awaiting the arrival of Gen. Worth's division and Gen. Quitman's brigade of the Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina volunteers.  General Scott arrived last evening, and we anticipate in a few days a hard battle.  The Mexicans, to the number of from 12,000 to 15,000 men, with General Vega, if not Santa Anna himself, at their head, are strongly fortified about three miles in our advance, and appear to be constantly engaged in making their position, if possible still stronger.  They have several batteries planted, and if they do no make a desperate stand when attacked, they must be a greater set of cowards than I have yet supposed them.  Our present force here is not over 6,000 men, including Steptoe's, Wall's, and the howitzer batteries.  The sappers and miners are busily engaged in cutting roads, and when our batteries are erected we shall give them "particular fits," to use a vulgar phrase.

We are fifty-seven miles from Vera Cruz and thirty-three from Jalapa.  Several volunteers have been wounded or killed in our march from Vera Cruz, having lagged too far behind the main body.  It was, I assure you, hard work to the men while marching, and many more a poor fellow dropped upon the road from complete exhaustion.

April 16-evening.-The Mexicans, under Santa Anna, are occupying a chain of works along the road, the nearest of which about a mile and a quarter from Gen. Scott's headquarters in a direct line.  The read this side is cut up and barricaded, and every possible means of defence and annoyance has been resorted to.  Beyond the first work there are three or four others, completely commanding the gorge through which the road to Jalapa runs-these fortifications on hills and rising so as to defend one another.  It is thought that Santa Anna has 20,000 men with him-the lowest gives him 15,000-and with these he has twenty four pieces of field artillery, besides some fourteen heavy cannon in position.  Some of the prisoners and deserters from the enemy's camp even place higher estimates, both as to the number of men and guns.

To turn these different works a road has been partially cut through he rough ground and chaparral to the right; and, although the reconnaissance is as yet imperfect, it is still thought that a point near the enemy's farthest work can be reached.  General Twiggs, with his division, is to march at 8 o'clock to-morrow morning by the new road, and on the following morning it is thought the attack will commence on the works on this side.  If Gen. Twiggs succeeds in reaching the rear of Santa Anna-and he will use every exertion-I do not see what is to save him.  He is generally fox enough to have plenty of holes out of which to escape, however, and, from the great difficulty of reconnoitering his position fully, he may have some means of escape here.  The general impression now in camp is , that this is to be the great battle of the war; and the immense natural strength of Santa Anna's works would justify the belief.

The Mexicans are ore on the alert than they have ever been before, and more bold in throwing out their pickets.  Not a party can go near their works without being fired upon, and yesterday a soldier of the 7th infantry fell with no less than seven bullets in his body.  It is said that Almonte is with Santa Anna, as also all the principal generals of the country.

Gen. Worth left Puente Nacional this afternoon with his division, and will be up during to-night.-He started a little after 1 o'clock this morning, with near 2,000 picked men, determined to make a forced march through; but learning on the road that the attack upon the Mexican works as not to commence as soon as anticipated, he returned to Puenta Nacional, after marching a mile and a half.  Capt. Pemberton, one of his aids, rode over here last evening after dark, and returned with the information that the attack had been postponed.

The wounds of Capt. Johnston are doing well.  I regret to state that Gen. P. F. Smith is confined to his bed-utterly unable either to ride or walk. He has a violent inflammation of the right ankle and knee, resembling crysipelas, which, from neglecting several days when he should have remained in his cot, has finally compelled him to lay up.  I will write again to-morrow.

April 17, 8 o'clock, A.M.-General Worth's division came up during last night and this morning, ready for any thing that turns up.  A section of the siege train, comprising two twenty four pounders and an eight inch howitzer will be along this forenoon.  A subsistence train is also close by, and is very much needed, as the army is nearly out of provisions.

Gen. Twigg's division will march by 9 o'clock.-The 1st brigade, composed of the 1st artillery, 2nd dragoons and Captain Kearney's company of the 1st and 7thinfantry, is under command of Col. Harney during the illness of Gen. Smith; the 2d brigade consists of the 4th artillery and 2d and 3d infantry, under Col. Riley; and to these must be added Taylor's battery and Talcott's mountain howitzer and rocket men, acting under the immediate orders of General Twiggs.  The latter company will probably have plenty of work on their hands, as this is just the country for their operations.

April 17, 11 A.M.-The division of General Twiggs started two hours since, and a heavy cannonade has already commenced upon his line from the farthest of the Mexican works.  At intervals, too, the rattling of small arms can be heard distinctly from the dragon camp where I am writing this.  I am going out, with Cols. Duncan and Bohlan and Capt. Pemberton, to the seat of action, and will return here at night to report the progress of the fight.-it was not intended, I believe, that General Twiggs should opened the fight to-day, at least to bring on a general action, and it is therefore presumable the Mexicans have commenced upon him.  I write in great haste.

5 P.M.-I have just returned from the scene of conflict, and a bloody one it has been considering the number engaged.  A hill this side of the farthest Mexican work; and on which there was no one seen last evening, was found occupied by the enemy's light troops this morning, and to force it was at once deemed indispensable.  For this purpose the rifles under Maj. Sumner, besides detachments of artillery and infantry, were ordered to charge up the rugged ascent.  This they did in gallant style, driving the Mexicans, after a resistance which may be put down as most obstinate.  Great numbers of the enemy were killed, while on our side the loss was also severe.  Major Sumner was shot in the head by a musket ball-severely but not mortally: Lieutenants Maury and Gibbs, of the rifles, were also wounded, but not severely, as was also Lieutenant Jarvis of the 2 nd infantry.  I could not learn that any of our officers were killed.  The entire loss on our side, in killed nd wounded, is estimated at about one hundred; but from the nature of the ground-broken, covered with brush and thick chaparral, and extremely uneven-it is impossible to tell with accuracy.

About 3 o'clock the enemy made a demonstration from the fort on the neighboring height to the one our men captured, as if with the intention of retaking it; but it all ended in marching down the hill blowing a most terrific charge on their trumpets, firing a few shots and then retiring.  Their appearance as they came down the slope was certainly most imposing.  The cannon on the height meanwhile kept up a continuous fire on General Twigg's lines, yet doing little execution other than cutting down trees and brush.  As we returned to camp the fire still continued-the enemy had evidently ascertained the position of the road which had just been cut, with accuracy, but their balls principally went over.

General Shields, at 3 o'clock, was ordered out to support General Twiggs, with three regiments of volunteers-two from Illinois under Colonels Baker and Barnett.  They will have warm work to-morrow if the Mexicans stand up as they did to-day.

There has been not a little skirmishing to-day between the forage and beef parties, sent out in the rear, and the rancheros.  One Illinois man was killed and one of the same regiment and a Tennesseean wounded.  I could not learn their names.

To-morrow the grand attack, both upon the front and rear of the enemy is to be made.  General Worth is to move at sunrise, and a little peace will the Mexicans have for one twenty-four hours at least.

The loss on both sides has been heavy-how could it have been otherwise?  The rough and rocky road, cut through rugged defiles and dense chaparral by our troops, is now lined with our wounded.  The rifles, Col. Haskell's Tennessee volunteers, the 1st artillery, the 7th infantry, and Captain William's company of Kentucky volunteers, have perhaps suffered most.  Gen. Shields was severely, and I am fearful, mortally wounded, while gallantly leading his brigade to storm one of the enemy's farthest works.  General Pillow was also sounded, although slightly, while storming a fortification on this side, commanded by La Vega.  All the field officers of Col. Haskell's regiment were wounded at the same time, save himself.  Of the rifles, Capt. Mason has lost a leg, Lieut. Ewell has been badly wounded, Lieut. McLane slightly.  I have already mentioned the gallant Maj. Sumner and other officers wounded yesterday.

I have specified some regiments above which signalized themselves: it happened to be their fortune, in the disposition of the battle, to fall upon what all good soldiers may term pleasant places-the most difficult works to storm-and bravely and without faltering did they execute the perilous duties assigned them.  At 1 o'clock this afternoon General Twiggs, whose division has been in the hardest of it, was pursuing the flying enemy towards Jalapa.  Pinson, who commanded the forts nearest Plan del Rio, asked of Gen. Worth time to consider before the capitulated.  Desirous to come to terms, Gen. Worth gave him fifteen minutes, and he surrendered unconditionally.  Had he not done so, the slaughter would have been terrible.

April 18-4 o'clock, P.M.-The American arms have achieved another glorious and most brilliant victory.  Out numbering General Scott's force materially, and occupying positions which looked impregnable as Gibraltar, one after another of their works have been taken to-day, five generals, colonels enough to command ten such armies as ours, and other officers innumerable, have been taken prisoners, together with 6000 men, and the rest of their army driven and routed with the loss of every thing, ammunition, cannon, baggage train, all.  Nothing but the impossibility, of finding a road of the dragoons to the rear of the enemy's works saved any part of Santa Anna's grand army, including his own illustrious person.

It is now impossible to name officers who have distinguished themselves.  I cannot, however, omit to mention Colonels Harney, Riley and Childs, of the regulars; Colonels Baker, Forman and Haskell, of the volunteers, as every one is talking of them.

April 19.-The rout of the Mexicans last evening was complete.  They were pursued within 4 miles of Jalapa by Gen. Twiggs, at which point there were none to follow.  Santa Anna himself, instead of entombing himself as he threatened, escaped by cutting the saddle mule of his team from the harness of his magnificent evach, mounting him, and then taking to the chaparral.  His service of massive silver, nearly all his papers, his money-every thing in his carriage, even his dinner, was captured.  I have a capital story to tell about this dinner when I have a moment to spare.  The Mexican loss upon the heights was awful-the ground in places in covered with the dead!  Among the bodies found was that of General Vasquez, and near him was Colonel Palacio, mortally wounded.  Their loss in the retreat was terribly severe-every by-path was strewn with the dead.  Had our dragoons been enabled to reach them in season, all would have been killed or captured-Santa Anna among them.  Canalizo, with his noted lancers, had the prudence to "vamos" early.  [ANP]


NNR 72.183 May 22, 1847 Prisoners taken at Cerro Gordo

The Mexican Prisoners. - There were at least 6,000 Mexicans taken prisoners at Cerro Gordo. But few who were within the entrenchments escaped. Santa Anna kept a large corps of reserve outside the batteries, all of whom escaped. The want of cavalry was severely felt in the pursuit of the fugitives. - If Twiggs had had a cavalry force of one thousand he would have taken Santa Anna and his whole army. The officers who were taken prisoners were the bravest and best in the Mexican army. General Jarrero is an old and experienced officer, who has long commanded the castle of Perote. When the Texan prisoners were confined in that gloomy fortress, Gen. J. treated them with great kindness and generosity. We trust that on this account, as well as from a regard to his position, he will be kindly and hospitably treated by our citizens when he visits New Orleans.

Of General La Vega we need only say, that he is well known throughout Mexico and the United States, for his gallantry at Resaca de la Palma, and for his dignified and gentlemanly bearing during his sojourn in this country as a prisoner of war. There are among the prisoners several naval officers, who were very efficient in managing the artillery batteries. They are intelligent gentlemen, and speak the English language. The younger officers were very much exerted against Santa Anna. They declared, that if he had not kept out of the entrenchments and showed a determination to fly, they would have been able to maintain their positions. They openly charged him with being either bribed or frightened - a traitor or a coward.

Seventeen Mexican officers were brought to Vera Cruz under a strong escort. The Mexicans on the road had not heard of the battle or of its results, and when they saw the escort approaching, they ran out of their houses to see what it meant. As soon as the well known faces of their own officers, under an American guard, came within view, they seemed to be struck dumb with astonishment and alarm. Gradually these feelings gave way to sorrow, and their lamentations over the misfortunes and disgrace of their country were loud and affecting. [JLM]


NNR 72.183 May 22, 1847 the storming and capture of the strong works at Cerro Gordo

The Storming and Capture of the Strong Works on Sierra Gordo, by the brigade under Colonel Harney, may be looked upon as one of the most brilliant achievements of the Mexican war-the fate of the battle turned upon it, and here the enemy had placed an overwhelming force of his best troops.-The hill was steep and naturally difficult of ascent; but independent of this the ground was covered with loose, craggy rocks, an undergrowth of tangled chaparral, besides many small trees, the tops of which were cut off some four of five feet from the ground, and turned down the hill to impede the progress of the stormers.  TH climb the height at all, even without arms of any kind, would be an undertaking that few would care about essaying;  what then must it have been to men encumbered with muskets and cartridge boxes, and obliged to dispute every step of the precipitous and rugged ascent?  Murderous showers of grape and canister greeted our men at the onset, and as they toiled unfaltering through a tempest of iron hail a heavy fire of musketry opened upon them.  Not a man quailed-with loud shouts they still pressed upward and onward.  At every step our ranks were thinned; but forward went the survivors.

When within good musket range, but not until then, was the fire of the enemy returned, and then commenced the dreadful carnage of the strife.  The Mexicans held to their guns with more than their usual bravery, but nothing could resist the fierce onset of the stormers.  Over the breastworks with which the Mexicans had surrounded the crest of the hill they charged, and shouting attacked the enemy in his very stronghold.  The latter now fled panic stricken, but still they were pursued; and it was not until the affrighted fugitives had reached a point without the extreme range of their own cannon, which had been turned upon them at the onset, that they ceased in their flight.  The national colors of our country now supplanted the banner of the enemy, the different regimental flags were also planted on the crest, and shouts louder than ever from the victors rose upon the air, struck terror into the very hearts of the enemy in the works still untaken, for they knew that their strong position had been turned and that they were at the mercy of the men they had scoffed at in the mooring.  Never was victory more complete, although purchased with the blood some of our best men.  Lieut. Ewell, of the rifles, was among the first within the enemy's breastworks, and it was her that he received his death wound.-The interior of the work was covered with the dead of the enemy, among them Gen. Vasquez, Col. Palacio, and many of their officers, while the hill side down which they fled was strewn as well.  Near 200 men were left dead, while the wounded would swell the number to at least 500-some even put it down as high as 700.

The regiments composing Col. Harney's command, and which successfully stormed the noted Cerro Gordo, were the 1st artillery under Col. Childs, the 3 rd infantry under Captain E. B. Alexander, the 7th infantry under Captain E. B. Alexander, the 7th infantry under Colonel Plympton, and a portion of the rifles under Maj. Loring.  Many cases of individual bravery, performed by subaltern officers, have been mentioned; but as I cannot particularly notice such as I have heard of without perhaps doing injustice to others equally meritorious, I shall forbear writing until I have more full information.  I had almost forgotten to state that four companies of the 2 nd infantry under Colonel Riley, took an active part in the assault.  [ANP]


NNR 72.183 May 22, 1847 Letter from Jalapa

A private letter published in the Union, from Major Wm. Turnbull, of the corps of topographical engineers. Giving some particulars:

Headquarters of the Army,
Plan del Rio, April 18th, 1847.

"I have but a moment to tell you that we have had a glorious day. The enemy were in great force, some twelve thousand men, and fortified in a very strong pass in the mountains, called Cerro Gordo, with over thirty pieces of artillery; but by careful reconnaissance we discovered a route, and made a road through the ravines, so that we got in rear of most of their guns and the principal force; but when we came out expecting to reach the Jalapa road, we came upon a very high conical mountain, on which there was a square tower of masonry and a breastwork, with five or six pieces of artillery. It was essential that this place should be assaulted, and it was ordered and done in a style never before exceeded. I wish I could give you a description of it, or had the time to attempt it. The hill was between five and six hundred feet high, covered with large rocks and loose stones, and brush and chaparral, and so steep that we of the staff who were mounted, of course, could not ride up, but had to lead our horses. The heat was excessive. As we went up we passes by men exhausted and dropping out of the column, but enough succeeded in getting up to drive the enemy; and I do not think that the greater gallantry was ever displayed. The men advanced steadily up the hill, and under a galling fire from both artillery and musketry, without firing a shot, until they reached the brow of the hill, when they opened, and in a few minutes the American flag, and that of the 7th infantry, took the place of the Mexican, which was received with a shout from all around the hill. I will not attempt to describe the scenes I witnessed; passing the wounded, the dead, and dying of our own people affected me exceedingly.

"We remained but a few minute on the hill, and passed down to the road where a large portion had already reached; the portion of the enemy opposed and near to us took the road to Jalapa; the rest, whose rear we had reached, we bagged between our portion of the army posted to attack in front.

"Some six thousand men surrendered unconditionally, and as many escaped; but this is rough guessing, as I rode through them after they had laid down their arms and were marching back to camp.-Our loss is comparatively small, considering the circumstances; but I think three hundred will cover the whole loss, killed and wounded, in the skirmishing of yesterday, and fighting of to-day. Among the number of wounded is one of my party, Lieut. Derby; he was with the storming party, was wounded in the left thigh, but is doing well. I had him brought back to camp. I omitted to mention that Gen. Twiggs's division was sent forward to take position, but were discovered, and some severe skirmishing took place, in which the rifles took the lead, behaved well, and suffered much. Capt. Johnston, who was sent forward with this division, whilst reconnoitering the position of the enemy, was severely but not dangerously wounded- one ball through the right thigh below the hip, and another entered his right arm as he was holding his glass to his eye, between the elbow and the shoulder, and was taken out near the back bone. No bones were broken, and he is doing extremely well, and is in good spirits. Santa Anna, Ampudia, Almonte, and others escaped us, but we got Santa Anna's carriage, his leg, and they say some thirty or forty thousand dollars. Among the prisoners are five generals, and God knows how many colonels, &c.- La Vega one of the,. The general-in-chief seems to be a negro; he is very black.- We march in the morning for Jalapa; in fact, the greater part of the army have gone in pursuit, in that direction, already." [KAM]


NNR 72.183 May 22, 1847 Maj. William Turnbull's account of Cerro Gordo, other accounts of the battle

A private letter published in the Union, from Major Wm. Turnbull, of the corps of topographical engineers, giving some particulars:

Headquarters of the Army,

 Plan del Rio, April 18th, 1847.

"I have but a moment to tell you that we have had a glorious day.  The enemy were in great force, some twelve thousand men, and fortified in a very strong pass in the mountains, called Cerro Gordo, with over thirty pieces of artillery; but by careful reconnaissance we discovered a route, and made a road through ravines, so that we got in rear of most of their guns and the principal force; but when we came out, expecting to reach the Jalapa road, we came upon a very high conical mountain, on which there was a square tower of masonry and a breastwork, with five or six pieces of artillery.  IT was essential that this place should be assaulted, and it was ordered and done in a style never before exceeded.  I wish I could give you a description of it, or had the time to attempt it.  The hill was between five and six hundred feet high, covered with large rocks and loose stones, and brush or chaparral, and so steep that we of the staff who were mounted, of course, could not ride up, but had to lead our horses.  The heat was excessive.  As we went up we passed by men exhausted and dropping out of the column, but enough succeeded in getting up to drive the enemy; and I do not think that greater gallantry was ever displayed.  The men advancing steadily up the hill, and under a galling fire from both artillery and musketry, without firing a shot, until they reached the brow of the hill, when they opened, and in a few minutes the American flag, and that of the 7th infantry, took the place of the Mexican, which was received with a  shout from all around the hill.  I will not attempt to describe the scenes I witnessed; passing the wounded, the dead, and dying of our own people affected me exceedingly.

"We remained but a few minutes on the hill, and passed down to the road where a large portion had already reached; the portion of the enemy opposed and near to us took the road to Jalapa; the rest, whose rear we had reached, we bagged between our portion of the army posted to attack in front.

"Some six thousand men surrendered unconditionally, and as many escaped; but this is rough guessing, as I rode through them after they had laid down their arms and were marching back to this camp.-Our loss is comparatively small, considering the circumstances; but I think three hundred will cover the whole loss, killed and wounded, in the skirmishing of yesterday, and fighting of to-day.  Among the number wondered is one of my party, Lieut. Derby; he was with the storming party, was wounded in the left thigh, but is doing well.  I had him brought back to the camp.  I omitted to mention that Gen. Twigg's division was sent forward to take position, but were discovered, and some severe skirmishing took place, in which the rifles took the lead, behaved well, and suffered much.  Capt. Johnston, who was sent forward with this division, whilst reconnoitering the position of the enemy, was severely but not dangerously wounded-one ball through the right thigh below the hip, and another entered his right arm as he was holding his glass to his eye, between the elbow and shoulder, and was taken out near the back bone.  No bones were broken, and he is doing extremely well, and is in good spirits.  Santa Anna, Ampudia, Almonte, and others escaped us but got to Santa Anna's carriage, his leg, and they say some thirty or forty thousand dollars.  Among the prisoners are five generals, and God knows how many colonels, &c.-La Vega one of them.  The general-in-chief seems to be a negro; he is very black.-We march in the morning for Jalapa; in fact, the greater part of the army have gone in pursuit, in that direction, already."

Major Sumner, who led the rifles in the attack of the 17th on the enemy's advanced position, made a very narrow escape.  In the charge, he was struck on the head by a musket bullet.  The bullet was flattened to the thinness of a dime, and retained on its surface the print of the Major's hair, and yet, strange to say, except the severance of an artery, he sustained no serious injury.  The artery was taken up, and at the last accounts, the Major was doing well.  This excellent officer-accounted one of the best tacticians and disciplinarians in the army-may certainly felicitate himself on the strength of his craniological defences.  He will never find any difficulty in getting a liberal policy in any of our life insurance offices.

Captain Johnson.-This valuable officer, lately appointed lieut. Colonel of the new ten regimen's was badly wounded in a reconnaissance made by order of General Twiggs, two or three days before ht battle, and before the enemy's position was known.  He received two musket balls, one through the thigh, cutting the femoral artery, and another through the shoulder. His robust constitution and great endurance will, it is believed, triumph over his severe wounds, and he is now renounced by his surgeons to be out of danger.

Gen. Patterson was on the field and under fire, though seriously indispose and greatly weakened by sickness.  He was unable to take command of his division, both on account of his physical debility and the separation of the two brigades under his command, which were operating at different and distant points.

Gen. Smith was severely ill, confined to his cot, and thus lost the occasion which his brave heart so warmly panted par, or leading his gallant rifles in their brilliant charge against the Cerro.

Gen. Quitman did not arrive on the field until the day after the battle.  Our gallant Southern regiments again lost the opportunity of showing their mettle.  The Alabamians and Georgians had the misfortune to be omitted in the programme of the storming of Monterey, and the sorely complained on account of it.  A like misfortune at Cerro Gordo, coming so close upon the time of their disbandment, has no doubt given these gallant regiments great mortification and chagrin.  [ANP]


NNR 72.184 May 22, 1847 Diminution of Gen. Zachary Taylor's forces, &c.

"The number of regiments whose year will expire in May or June, now in General Taylor's, column, is thirteen. How their places are to be filled I cannot devise; perhaps you can inform us." [KAM]


NNR 72.184 May 22, 1847 Gen. Jose Antonio Mejia's Son Captured

GEN. Mejia's son is among the Mexican prisoners now in New Orleans. He is a first lieutenant and aid de camp of Gen. De la Vega. He is quite a young man, and behaved very gallantly at the battle of Sierra Gordo, having his horse shot from under him and being wounded. Like la Vega he was found at his post. General Brooks received his parole of honor, and is now residing with his mother, a resident of New Orleans, until further orders. [JLM]


NNR 72.184 May 22, 1847 Mexicans Massacred

The Delta contains a letter dated Monterey, April 4, from which we make the following extracts:

"Three days ago the Alcalde and Priest of a small town some twenty miles distant, on the road to China, came in and reported to Gen. Taylor the murder of twenty four Mexicans, at Guadalopa, a small rancho, about six miles from Ramus. The murder was committed, they say, by a party of Americans numbering about twenty, and was done in the night. The murdered men were first made prisoners tied, and afterwards all shot through their heads. The murder is said to have been committed on the 28th [ultimo]. On that night a train of loaded wagons, escorted by two hundred infantry and about the same number of horse, under the command of Col. Mitchell, of the first Ohio regiment, encamped at Marin, which is about five miles from the scene of the murder. The mounted men were composed of United States dragoons and Texas Rangers, under the command of Capt. Graham, of the 2d dragoons. Suspicion rests upon some part of this corps, though no clue has as yet been found to discover the guilty. The officers in command-gentle men, and rigid disciplinarians- are using every means in their power to investigate the matter.

Gen. Taylor has got his steam up on the subject, and is determined to have hung every one who, it can be proved, has taken part in the murder. The town where these men were killed is but a few miles from the place where the large train was captured and so many wagoners massacred on the 22d of February. Some fifteen or twenty of the wagoners who escaped from that massacre came up in the last train, yet there is no evidence that they were engaged in the Guadalopa murder.

I passed over the place of the massacre of the 22d February a few days ago, and the scene is truly the most horrid and revolting that I have ever witnessed. The remains of the murdered men, yet unburied, stripped of every particle of clothing, lay upon the plains, their flesh devoured by Mexican wolves and buzzards, and their bones bleached in the sun.

"The train was a very large and valuable one, and stretched out from three to four miles in length. The attack was made upon the escort, who were in the advance, by a large body of lancers. The escort forty men, under Lieut. Barbour, of the Kentucky legion. Were all taken prisoners, and are now in the possession of Urrea. The lancers charged down the train, and lanced without mercy the wagoners as they ran for their lives to the chaparral. More than three fourths of them, it is thought, were killed, and their bodies shockingly mutilated and disfigured.

"Urrea, by last accounts, was at Linares, expecting reinforcements. It is rumored that he has 4 pieces of artillery with him. Marin, Ceralvo, Mier, and China will be garrisoned by our troops, which will render our communication with Camargo entirely safe. The troops here are in excellent health and condition.

"The number of regiments whose year will expire in May or June, now in General Taylor's column, is [. . .];. How their places are to be filled I cannot devise perhaps you can inform us." [JLM]


NNR 72.184 May 22, 1847 Conquest of Mexico urged by various journals

The last "Democratic Review," has a leading article in which the writer assumes that there can be no end of the war, short of the annihilation of Mexico as a nation." "The Mexican race," says the writer, "now see in the fate of the aborigines of the north, their own inevitable destiny."

The New York "Globe" of Tuesday last has a long article in favor of the conquest of all Mexico. We extract the following paragraph.

"We cannot control the current of events; we gave been compelled to fight; we gad a succession of victories, and always offered peace, and while we were confident that the victories of Vera Cruz and Cerro Gordo would be followed by pacific overtures, we are told by the Mexican congress that no peace can be made with us on any terms. What follows as the inevitable consequence? The conquest of all Mexico; bringing all Mexico into the Union; and event not desired, not sought for by us, but by the Mexicans themselves! Tired of revolution, tired of military despotism, bent down by oppression, impoverished and almost ruined, the civil power of Mexico wishes to change its rulers; wish to come under the protection of the laws and government of the U. States, and state after state in Mexico will declare in favor of the measure, until the Anglo-Saxon race is extended even beyond the Isthmus of Panama. Mexico desires to annex herself to us, with all the declarations of national integrity, and national glory, the common bond of national safety and sympathy urges the Mexicans to this change. Whenever our army occupied a city, the Mexicans felt themselves safe- in person, in property, and in religious rights; and whenever they surrendered a place even after resistance, they considered the change a happy one, and not a calamity; it is an homage to our laws and national character. What are we to do? The whigs, relying upon an increased strength in the next congress, intend to demand of the administration its policy, towards Mexico, as contingent on voting further supplies to carry on the war. They will be answered, we want peace- we have offered peace on honorable terms; we want indemnity for the past and security for the future, and the whigs will not dare assume the responsibility of withdrawing our array, and submit to any terms which Mexico and its military chieftains will dictate." [KAM]


NNR 72.184-185 May 22, 1847 Occupation of Mexico necessary, estimate of proceeds of the tariff on Mexico

The New Orleans Delta, of the 4th inst. concludes its details of the victory of Sierra Gordo, with the following paragraph.

No Prospect of peace. There is no reason, however, to believe that the victory of Sierra Gordo will bring us any nearer to a peace than we were before. The war is not unpopular with the mass of the Mexicans. They have suffered none of the horrors. Besides the controlling spirits of the country, keep up the war spirit, knowing that if the country is occupied by the United States, they will loose their offices and their influence. It is believed by Gen. Scott, and the officers with him, that it will be necessary to occupy the whole country. This, he thinks can be easily done. With 20,000 men he will march to the capital, take possession of the government, disarm the people, establish a provisional government under the authority of the United States, and defray its expenses from the customs and mines, the chief source of revenue in Mexico. Without this force, Gen. Scott will not be able to move with safety to his communications beyond Jalapa. He will have to occupy the Orizaba road, to prevent the enemy operating against the rear from that position. Having arrived in the Tierra Templada, and encamped in a perfectly healthy position, he will no doubt wait for reinforcements before he pushes further at least than Perote, then the next point of attack.

Instead of peace, a military occupation of Mexico, appears now to be in contemplation.

The Vera Cruz "Eagle" looks to the probably necessity of the military occupation of Mexico, in case he should stubbornly refuse to enter into a negotiation for peace, and thinks that the following force will be requires:

Tampico        1 Regiment         Guanajuato   3 Regi.
Vera Cruz      1 do                       Zacatecas     4 do
Jalapa            2 do                      San Luis        3 do
Puebla           6 do                      Durango         2 do
Mexico          10 do                     Chihuahua     2 do
Queretaro     3 do                       Saltillo             1 do
Matamoros   1 do                      Guadalajara    5 do
Oajaca           3 do

Making in all 47 regiments, amounting, according to the present regulations of the United States to 40,000 men, which, to a certainty, would be enough to carry out the military occupation of the country. The expenses of these 40,000 troops will amount to $15,000,000 per annum, which we shall have to pay.

The expense of maintaining this army the editor sets down at $15,000,000 per annum. He estimates a revenue from the new tariff of $13,000,000, and recommends the imposition of a direct tax on the towns in our possession of $7,000,000; thus leaving a surplus in the treasury instead of drawing from it.

He further estimates, if permanent possession should be kept of the country, that the sale of the public lands, by encouraging emigration from the United States and Europe, would annually amount to more than one fourth of the above sum.

The Eagle expresses the opinion that our government can raise twenty millions of revenue by customs and direct taxes, besides the sale of the public lands in Mexico.

It will be recollected, that the revenue to be derived from this source, whatever the amount may be, is to be at the entire control of the president of the United States, in his capacity as commander in chief of the army and navy, as well as the enactment of all the laws by virtue of which it was levied and the appointment of officers required for collecting and disposing of it.

The Richmond Enquirer quoting the above extract from the Eagle, adds- We shall not venture a suggestion as to the probably course of events in Mexico. The future is veiled in mystery and no one can reasonably speculate upon the erratic conduct of so obstinate and weak minded a people as the Mexican nation. It is true that the members of her congress breathe nothing but "war and vengeance," and that they have recommended a system of guerrilla warfare- but we gave already learned how little faith to attach to such swelling pronunciamentos. Without undertaking to speculate upon what our government may do, in case a negotiation of peace does not follow the capture of the Mexican capital, we are sure that we are not far wrong, when we avow the opinion that our armies will not be withdrawn, until we have secured sufficient territory to indemnify the expenses uncured by us in a just war, and the heavy wrongs and injuries inflicted upon our nation and citizens by Mexico. As to the revenue to be raised from the duties in the Mexican ports, which we have established, in perfect accordance with the laws of nations, we are assured by merchants who have resided in Mexico, that they will realize ten millions of dollars.

The Washington Union speaks of Gen. Scott's advance without delay towards the city of Mexico. It says- "Some of the southern papers are still harping upon the twelve months' men. It is true that the time of a few more than three thousand volunteers will expire in June and July; but we have ascertained from the adjutant general's office that reinforcements have already arrived, or are en route, of men to serve during the war, who will more than supply the vacancy. General Scott will have a strong and most efficient army, to meet and overcome any force which the enemy may send against him. And we learn that fresh detachments of a force now in the service of the government, will probably be sent forward to participate in the war with Mexico." [KAM]


NNR 72.185, May 22, 1847 ARMY OF INVASION
72.185 May 22, 1847 Guerrilla Warfare

The New Orleans Delta of the 11th says--"Immediately before the James-L. Day started from Vera Cruz, Major Leonard, who is stationed there, sent an officer on board to inform Gen. Pillow that an express had just arrived from Gen. Scott, with a dispatch, in which it was stated that a deputation of Mexican citizens from the capital had arrived at the general's headquarters, inviting him to advance, assuring him that it would be surrendered to him without opposition, and asking protection for their persons and property.  To such favorable terms Gen. Scott assented.  He is, therefore on his way to, if not already in the "halls of the Montezuma."

The Delta gives the following statement on the authority of a gentleman direct from Vera Cruz.-Whatever be the fears of the Mexicans, their feelings are anything but amiable towards the Americans.-The road along Jalap a to Vera Cruz is dotted with the mangled and murdered bodies of our countrymen, who were caught straggling away from the parties with which they happened to be marching.-One person counted no less than twenty one victims of Mexican revenge on the line of road.  The bandits which prowl about there, recently attacked a party of infantry, on their way to join the main body of the army.  They fell back on the last wagon tram, which was close in the rear.  The escort charged on the ranchers, who, on the first fire, fled.  One American was killed; it was not known how many Mexicans.  This occurred eight miles this side of the National Bridge.

    Gen. La Vega and his associate prisoners are now in Vera Cruz.  They are at large in the city, on their parole.  When Gen. Pillow arrived at Vera Cruz, he found them confined in the castle, and believing this to be done from a misrepresentation or a misunderstanding of the orders of Gen. Scott, he had them liberated.

    They would willingly come to this city, if ordered, but as it has been left optional with them wither to remain in Vera Cruz or come here, they think that were they to so the latter it might be constructed into a desertion of their country, in her day of difficulty and danger.  A keen sense of honor dictates the feeing.

The National Intelligencer of the 11th, on the authority of a New Orlanans correspondent, says-the city of Puebla had sent a deputation to Gen. Scott, and will make no resistance to his occupation of that place.

Arrangements had been made to defend the capital, but after Gen. Pillow was on board at Vera Cruz he received a message from shore stating that an express had arrived with intelligence that the Mexican government had abandoned the capital, taking with it the archives, and that the citizens had sent a deputation to Gen. Scott to advance and afford them protection.

Proclamations were being circulated by the Mexicans calling for the organization of guerrilla regiments, which plan of warfare was to be adopted on an extensive scale.

In consequence of sickness, death, and loss in battle, it is said that Gen. Scott will not have left in his army more than about 5,000 effective men, after the return of the volunteers whose time shortly expires, and who General Pillow states will return almost to a man. Of the seven regiments, he says not a company will remain.

Santa Anna's army was entirely dispersed, and he, wholly without power and influence, was seeking to leave his country.

"The American Star," is the title of an American paper already issued at Jalapa. It states that mid shipman Rogers, of Delaware, was removed from Perota to Puebla on the day of the fight at Sierra Gordo.

We find the following proclamation in the Jalapa Star. That paper says, with some feeling, that if this mode of warfare is adopted, it will be the most sorrowful time Mexico has ever known. War without pity will be met with war without pity! [JLM, WWF]


NNR 72.185 May 22, 1847 Mexican prisoners at Veracruz

The Mexican Prisoners.-There were at least 6,000 Mexicans taken prisoners at Cerro Gordo.  But few who were within the entrenchments escaped.  Santa Anna kept a large corps of reserve outside the batteries, all of whom escaped.  The want of cavalry was severely felt in the pursuit of the fugitives.-If Twigs had had a cavalry force of one thousand he would have taken Santa Ana and his whole army.  The officers who were taken prisoners were the bravest and best in the Mexican army.  General Jarrero is an old and experienced officer, who has long commanded the castle of Perote.  When the Texan prisoners were confined in that gloomy fortress, Gen. J. treated them with great kindness and generosity.  We trust that on this account, as well as from a regard to his position, he will be kindly and hospitable treated by our citizens when he visits New Olreans.

Of General la Vega we need only say, that he is well known throughout Mexico and the United States, for his gallantry at Resaca de la Palma, and for his dignified and gentlemanly bearing during his sojourn in this country as a prisoner of war.  There are among the prisoners several naval officers, who were very efficient in managing the artillery batteries.  They are intelligent gentlemen, and speak the English language.  The younger officers were very much excited against Santa Anna.  They declared, that if he had not kept out of the entrenchments and showed a determination to fly, they would have been able to maintain their positions.  They openly charged him with being either bribed or frightened-a traitor or a coward.

Seventeen Mexican officers were brought to Vera Cruz under a strong escort.  The Mexicans on the road had not heard of the battle or of its results, and when they saw the escort approaching, they ran out of their houses to see what it meant.  As soon as the well known faces of their own officers, under an American guard, came within view, the seemed to be struck dumb with astonishment and alarm.  Gradually these feelings gave way to sorrow, and their lamentations over the misfortunes and disgrace of their country were loud and affecting.  [ANP]


NNR 72.185 May 22, 1847 Gen. Jose Mariano de Salas' guerrilla proclamation

My friends- The present moment is the most proper to excite the public spirit and form a nation of men truly free. When an enemy triumphs by his union to rob us of our dearest interests, there us nothing more sure and more certain than to vanquish him by valor and constancy.

For this end I have obtained permission to raise a guerrilla corps, with which to attack and destroy the invaders in ever manner imaginable. The conduct of the enemy, contrary both to humanity and natural rights, authorizes us to pursue him without pity, [misericordia] "War without pity and death!" will be the motto of the guerrilla warfare of vengeance; therefore I invite all my fellow citizens, especially my brave subordinates, to unite at general headquarters, to enroll themselves, from 9 until 3 in the afternoon, so that it may be organized in the present week.

Jose Mariano Salas

[KAM]


NNR 72.185 May 22, 1847 supplies provided by Mexicans at Jalapa, impossibility of maintaining contact with Veracruz

Jalapa April 30th.  The Mexicans are bringing in their corn pretty freely.  I believe, from what I can hear about headquarters, that when we march from this place, there will be little or no communication with Vera Cruz.  Our means of transportation will not enable us to look for supplies from home, and the enemy will be looked to furnish us to a great extent.  Out trains are already beginning to be annoyed in the short space between this and Vera Cruz, and to keep the road open all the way to Mexico will require more men than would be necessary to take that city.  [ANP]


72.185 May 22, 1847 Various rumors about the fortifications at Mexico City

In the "Eagle" of the 1st, which I send you, you will learn that Don Pedro Anaya has been declared dictator. The Swedish consul, who arrived yesterday from Mexico, tells me that it is true that Anaya has been elected dictator; Canalizo spoken of as commander-in-chief of the army, and that preparations are being made for the removal of the government to Calaya, incase our army marches into the city.

The Swedish consul tells me that he visited Santa Anna at Orizaba, and obtained from him a passport to come down. He had but a thousand men with him. Badly equipped, and he looking haggard and very much dejected. His day was passed. Both soldiers and officers have lost all confidence in him- and I have no doubt, that were he to come to Vera Cruz during the present state of feeling of the Mexican population, he would be murdered.

When the Swedish consul left, they were busily employed in fortifying Mexico. No stand will be made at Puebla, unless we delay marching on it for some time- Gen. WORTH IS STILL AT Perote- Scott at Jalapa. [KAM]


NNR 72.185 May 22, 1847 Yankeeizing of Vera Cruz

In Vera Cruz every thing is going on smoothly.-The business of the city is increasing in a wonderful degree.  The waters are covered with merchant vessels.  Yankee hotels, Yankee auction houses, Yankee circus companies, and Yankee ice houses, are starting up at every corner.

I learn from an officer of the Potomac, that the navy are getting up an expedition to the south, embracing Campeachy, Tabasco, and Huasacualco.

Gen. Shields has been pronounced out of danger.

I have just learned that my company will be ordered up to join our regiment at Jalapa.  If so, I shall have a better opportunity of keeping you advised of the movements of the army.  [ANP]


NNR 72.185 May 22, 1847 Naval expedition to the south

I learn from an officer of the Potomac, that the navy are getting up an expedition an expedition to the south, embracing Campeachy, Tabasco, and Huasacualco. [KAM]


NNR 72.185 May 22, 1847 Mediation by the British government suggested by the Mexicans

Vera Cruz, May 5th. As the steamer has been detained until to-day by bad weather. I give you the latest news that has reached us since I closed my letter of the 3rd; there is not much of it, but what there us, is of some interest and importance. The British consul at this place has just received a communication from the British minister Mr. Blackhead, saying that the Mexican government has solicited the friendly mediation of his government to settle the difficulties between Mexico and the U. States.- I learned this morning that such a letter had been received from Mr. Blackhead , and at once called on the English consul, who tells me that such is a fact. You may therefore rely on the accuracy of this statement. [KAM]


NNR 72.185 May 22, 1847 Items

The Mexicans are bringing in their corn pretty freely. I believe, from what I can hear about headquarters, that when we march from this place, there will be little or no communication with Vera Cruz. Our means of transportation will not enable us to look for supplied from home, and the enemy will be looked to furnish us to a great extent. Our trains are already beginning to be annoyed in the short space between this and Vera Cruz, and to keep the road open all the way to Mexico will require more men than would be necessary to take to that city. [KAM]


NNR72.185-186 May 22, 1847 Position of the Catholic Church in Mexico with regard to the war

The Washington Union had the following as a leading editorial:

It seems that the church in Mexico has volunteered to supply funds for the prosecution of the war. It is well known that in Mexico the property of the church is not subject to taxation, and therefore, whatever is contributed from this quarter, is done gratuitously. This is part of the system, which has been indicated, in other modes, of giving to the war a religious character. It is denounced as a war of infidels and heretics against the holy church, and against Christianity. Those who are familiar with our history and institutions, know full well that there is nothing either hostile to the Roman Church.- A high dignitary of that establishment, drawing a contrast between the U. States and other Christian communities, including his own, he pronounced his decisive opinion that that branch of the Christian church occupied more advantageous ground in this country, and is advancing with more prosperity and solid strength among us, than in any other nation.- The position and high public estimation which many of our Catholic brethren occupy, the intelligence, patriotism, and social virtues which they exhibit, corroborate this statement.

It is not as a religious body, but as an engine of state, that the Catholics of Mexico look upon us with a hostile eye. It is for their own special political purposes- to retain their vast possessions, which impoverish the nation- to sustain their own hierarchy, which lords it over the people- to preserve their power, which weighs down the rest of the community into the slough of ignorance and slavery- that they are thus solicitous and active. It is a zeal for the mammon of unrighteousness- not for the welfare of souls- which inspires and animates the Catholics of Mexico.

In this aspect of the case, it may become a matter of grave consideration, if the church continues to oppose a peace and furnish the fuel of war, whether the immense revenues of the church in Mexico, shall be left untouched ñ whether they shall be suffered to remain at the disposal if the enemy and be applied to sustain the war against us- whether justice and policy do not equally dictate that they should at least be sequestered during the continuance of the war as a legitimate means of cutting off the enemy's supplies.

The experience we have already had on this point leads to another suggestion. Cannot Mexico be prevailed upon to adopt a more tolerant system? Could not the two nations agree that reciprocal stipulations should be made for the free and unrestricted enjoyment of religious liberty within the territories of both nations? Independently of the great good which would thereby result to the whole Christian commonwealth, and to ourselves as constituting a portion of it, it may with perfect truth be said that no greater blessing- no higher or more substantial benefit could be bestowed upon Mexico herself. It may well be doubted whether such an arrangement would not be productive of advantage to both countries, which would more than compensate for all the expenses and losses of the war; and our invasion of Mexico be the parent of her general civilization, diffused intelligence, wide spread happiness, and solid prosperity. At the same time it should be distinctly understood that we have no right to dictate this condition to the Mexican government- none to insist upon it as a stipulation of any treaty- none to make it the slightest impediment to the establishment of peace. Mexico may, probably, resist any such suggestion. We should be bound, therefore, to leave the whole question as it is, trusting alone to the progress of the age to effect an object which may be desirable to the whole Christian world.  [KAM]


NNR 72.186 May 22, 1847 Gen. William Jenkins gathering up grain

Gen. Worth was gathering all the grain he could, and has all the bakeries at work, as if in anticipation of breaking all the communications with Vera Cruz. [KAM]


NNR 72.186 May 22, 1847 Gen. Winfield Scott's design to relinquish the line of communication

It was the intention of Gen. Scott, upon the arrival of the wagon train that was to start from Vera Cruz, about the 6th instant, to cut off all connection with the sea coast, rely upon the country for sustenance and push forward for the city. This general order dated at Jalapa, 30th April, intimates as much. But Mr. Kendall's letter of the 4th - the very latest news- throws some doubt upon the speedy adoption of this plan, in consequence of the determination of the 12 months' volunteer, in a body not to re-enlist. This may retard the advance if the army, unless indeed the reported readiness of the city to surrender be confirmed. [KAM]


NNR 72.186 May 22, 1847 Mexican account of the Battle of Cerro Gordo

Mexican Account of the Battle of Sierra Gordo.

The following is the despatch of Gen. Canalizo, the second in command at the battle of Sierra Gordo, to the Mexican secretary of war.

"Headquarters, Branderilla, April 18, 1847.

"Sir-One of those unfortunate reverses which will occur in the course of he war, has been productive of most disastrous consequences to this army, and under circumstances that seemed to indicate that fortune was on the point of favoring us, as the enemy were repulsed entirely on the previous day in their charge on the Cerro Telegrato, situated on the right of our works; but this morning at 7 o'clock, availing themselves doubtless with their better acquaintance with the country, they charge with their entire force in such a manner as to dislodge the troops that guarded the newly finished fortifications, after a most vigorous resistance.  After this they succeeded in taking the headquarters and other points of our encampment, giving rise to confusion and disorder on our side, which even the commander in chief, aided by his generals, found it impossible to prevent, occasioning thereby the complete dispersal and rout of the infantry troops, and involving the loss of almost of all our pieces of artillery. The cavalry forces only were not included in this disorder; but, being hemmed in by a column of the enemy's troops that were in the vicinity of a wood on the left, it became necessary for them vigorously to open a passage, in order to avoid being taken prisoners.  This it was that prevented us joining the commander in chief and the other generals who were engaged in defending the battery situated in front of the headquarters.-During this time I was laboring under the most serious apprehension as to the fate of the commander in chief, whether he was killed or taken prisoner; but, as I passed Jalapa, I happily heard of his safety, and hope soon to be reunited with him.  In brief, I will say to your excellency, that, with the few remaining troops, infantry and cavalry, that I have reunited, and of which I shall hereafter give a more detailed account, I pursued my march, passed this night at la Hoya, and I shall proceed until I receive further orders from the government, as I am unable to defend any point on the route, in consequence of the total loss of the artillery and ammunition, as I have no sufficient powder left for one round.  I would also mention that I have at present no means for supporting the troops that follow me; and as for the cavalry, in consequence of the lengthy march they underwent from San Luis to this point, they are I a most deplorable state as regards service.

"I feel much at having to communicate, through you, to the acting president, such unfortunate new; but, nevertheless, I present you my respects and consideration.  Go I and liberty!

Valentine Canalizo.

"To his excellency the minister of war."  [ANP]


NNR 72.186 May 22, 1847 Gen. Winfield Scott's official report on the Battle of Cerro Gordo

Major Gen. Scott's Official Report-Battle of Cerro Gordo.

Headquarters of the army, Jalapa, April 23, 1847.

Sir-In forwarding the reports of commanders which detail the operations of their several corps against the Mexican lines at Cerro Gordo, I shall present in continuation of my former report, but an outline of the affair; and while adopting heartily their commendation of the ardor and efficiency of individuals, I shall mention by name only those who figure prominently, or, from position, could bet be included in those sub-reports.

The field sketch herewith, indicates the positions of the two armies.  The tierra caliente, of low level, terminates at Plan del Rio, the site of the American camp, from which the road ascends immediately in a long circuit among lofty hills, whose commanding points had all been fortified and garrisoned by the enemy.  His right, entrenched, rested on a precipice overhanging an impassable ravine that forms the bed of the stream; and his entrenchments extended continuously to the road, on which was placed a formidable battery.  On the other side, the lofty and difficult height of Cerro Gordo commanded the approaches in all directions.  The main body of the Mexican army was encamped on level ground, with a battery of five pieces, halt a mile in height toward Jalapa.

Resolving, if possible, to turn the enemy's left, and attack in rear, while menacing or engaging his front, I caused daily reconnoissances to be pushed, with the view of finding a route for a force to debouch on the Jalapa road and cut off retreat.

The reconnoisance, begun by Lieut. Beauregard, was continued by Captain Lee, engineers, and a road made along difficult slopes and over chasms-out of the enemy's view, though reached by his fire when discovered-until, arriving at the Mexican lines, further reconnoisance became impossible without an action.  The desired point of debouchure, the Jalapa road was not, therefore, reached, though believed to be within easy distance; and to gain that point it now became necessary to carry the height of Cerro Gordo.  The dispositions in my plan of battle-general orders No. 111 heretofore enclosed-were accordingly made.

Twiggs' division, reinforced by Shield' brigade of volunteers, was thrown into position on the 17th, and was, of necessity drawn into action in taking up the ground for its bivouac and the opposing height for our heavy battery.  IT will be seen that many of our officers and men were killed or wounded in this sharp combat-handsomely commenced by a company of the 7th infantry under Bvt. First Lieut. Gardner, who is highly praised by all his commanders for signal services.  Col. Harney coming up with the rifle regiment and first artillery, (also parts of his brigade), brush away the enemy and occupied the height-on which, in the night was placed a battery of one 24-pouner and two 24-pound howitzers, under the superintendence of Capt. Lee, engineers, and Lieut. Hagner, ordnance.  These guns opened next morning, and were served with effect by Capt. Steptoe and Lieut. Brown, 3d artillery, Lieut. Hagner, (ordnance), and Lieut. Seymour, 1st artillery.

The same night, with extreme toil and difficulty, under the superintendence of Lieut. Tower, engineers, and Lieut. Laidley, ordnance, an 8-inch howitzer was put in position across the river and opposite to the enemy's right battery.  A detachment of four companies under Major Burham, N. York volunteers, performed this creditable service, which enabled Lieut. Ripley, 2d artillery, in charge of the piece, to open a timely fire on that quarter.

Early on the 18th the columns moved to the general attack, and our success was speedy and decisive.  Pillow's brigade assaulting the right of the entrenchments, although compelled to retire, had the effect I have heretofore stated.  Twigg's division, storming the strong and vital point of Cerro Gordo, pierced the centre, gained command of all the entrenchments, and cut them off from support.  As our infantry, (colonel Riley's brigade) pushed on against the main body of the enemy, the guns of their own fort were rapidly turned to play on that force,(under the immediate command of Gen. Santa Anna), who fled in confusion.  Shields' brigade bravely assaulting the left, carried the rear battery, (five guns) on the Jalapa road, and aided materially in completing the rout of the enemy.

The part taken by the remainder of the forces, held in reserve to support and pursue, has already been noticed.

The moment the fate of the day was decided, the cavalry, and Taylor's and Wall's field batteries were pushed on towards Jalapa in advance of the pursuing columns of infantry-Twiggs' division and the brigade of Shields, (now under Col. Baker)-and Maj. Gen. Patterson was sent to take command of them.  In the hot pursuit many Mexicans were exhausted by the heat and distance.

The rout proves to have been complete-the retreating army, except at small body of cavalry, being dispersed and utterly disorganized.  The immediate consequences have been our possession of this important city, the abandonment of the works and artillery at La Hoya, the next formidable pass between Vera Cruz and the capital, and the prompt occupation by Worth's division of he fortress of Perote, (second only to San Juan de Ulloa), with its extensive armament of sixty six guns and mortars, and its large supplies of materiel.  To General Worth's report, annexed, I refer for details.

I have heretofore endeavored to do justice to the skill and courage with which the attack on the height of Sierra Gordo was directed and executed, naming the regiments most distinguished, and their commanders, under the lead of Colonel Harney.  Lieutenant G. W. Smith led the engineer company as part of he storming force, and is noticed with distinction.

The reports of this assault make favorable mention of many in which I can well concur, having witnessed the daring advance and perfect steadiness of he whole.  Besides those already named, Lieutenant Brooks, 3d infantry, Lieutenant Macdonald, 2d dragoons, Lieut. Vandorn, 7th infantry-all acting staff officers-Captain Magruder, 1st artillery, and Lieutenant Gardner, 7th infantry, seem to have won especial praise.

Colonel Riley's brigade and Talcott's rocket and howitzer battery, were engaged on and about the heights, and bore an active part.

The brigade and Talcott's rocket and howitzer battery, were engaged on an about the heights, and bore an active part.

The brigade so gallantly led b General Shields, and, after his fall, by Colonel Baker, deserves high commendation for its fine behavior and success.  Colonels Foreman and Burnett, and Major Harris, commanded the regiments; Lieutenant Hammond, 3d artillery, and Lieutenant Davis, Illinois volunteers, constituted the brigade staff.  These operations, hid from my view by intervening hills, were not fully known when my first report was hastily written.

Brigadier General Twiggs, who was in the immediate command of all the advanced forces, has earned high credit by his judgment, spirit, and energy.

The conduct of Colonels Campbell, Haskell, and Wynkoop, commanding the regiments of Pillow's brigade, is reported in terms of strong approbation by Major General Patterson.  I recommend for a commission, Quartermaster Sergeant Henry, of the 7th infantry, (already known to the army for intrepidity of former occasions,) who hauled down the national standard of the Mexican fort.

In expressing my indebtedness for able assistance to Lieut. Col. Hitchcock, acting inspector general to Majors Smith and Turnbull, the respective chiefs of engineers and topographical engineers, and Lieuts. Derby and Hardcastsle, topographical engineers-to Captain Allen, chief quarter master, and Lieut. Blair, chief commissary-and to Lieutenants Hagner and Laidley, ordnance, all actively employed-I am impelled to make special mention of the services of Captain R. E. Lee, engineers.  This officer, greatly distinguished at the siege of Vera Cruz, was again indefatigable, during these operations, in reconnoissances as daring as laborious, and of the utmost value. Nor was he less conspicuous in planting batteries, and in conducting columns to their stations under ht heavy fire of the enemy.

My personal staff, Lieutenants Scott, Williams and Law, and Major Van Buren, who volunteered for the occasion, gave me zealous and efficient assistance.

Our whole force present, in action found reserve, was 8,500; the enemy is estimated at 12,000 or more.  About 3,000 prisoners, 4 or 5,000 stands of arms, and 43 pieces of artillery were taken.  By the accompanying return, I regret to find our loss more severe than at first supposed, amounting in the two days to 33 officers and 398 men-in all 431, of whom 63 were killed.  The enemy's loss is computed to be from 1,000 to 1,200.

I am happy n communicating strong hopes for the recovery of the gallant General Shields, who is so much improved as to have been brought to this place.

Appended to this report are the following papers:

A.-General return by name of killed and wounded.

B.-Copies of report of Lieut. Col. Hitchcock, acting inspector general (of prisoners taken) and accompanying papers.

C.-Report of Brig. General Twiggs, and sub-reports.

D.-Report of Major Gen. Patterson, and reports of brigade commanders.

D.-Copy of report by Brig. General Worth, announcing the occupation by his division f the castle and town of Perote, with an inventory of ordnance there fount.

I have the honor to remain, sir, with high respect, you most obedient servant,

Winfield Scott.  [ANP]


NNR 72.187 May 22, 1847 communication of Gen. Ethan Allen Hitchcock on operations at Cerro Gordo

A communication from Lt. Col. E. A. Hitchcock, Inspector General, to Major Gen. Scott, dated Jalapa, April 24, makes a return of the paroles of the Mexican prisoners captured at Sierra Gordo.  It compromises the paroles of three general officers and 185 officers of lower grades; and also the paroles of 2,837 of the rank and file of the Mexican army.  A separate return comprises the names of 288 officers, besides those, sixteen in number, sent to Vera Cruz.

Col H. goes on to say-

I think proper to remark, with regard to the operations at Sierra Gordo, that by turning the left flank of the enemy, and storming the principal hill occupied by him, which was executed under your personal observation on the morning of he 18th instant, his force was divided-all of the batteries east of he hill begin separated from the main body of the army encamped on the Jalapa road west of the hill.

All of the positions of the enemy were commended by the hill itself, which was believed by the Mexicans to be inaccessible to our troops.  The hill being stormed and taken the main body of the enemy fled in the utmost confusion, and but a very few were taken prisoners.  Many of the troops in the batteries, at the same time made their escape in the hills, throwing away their arms.

A Mexican officer assured me that no less than 1,500 thus escaped from one single battery.  Of those in the batteries who laid down their arms, more than a thousand contrived to escape on their march from the field of battle of Plan del Rio, some five miles or more, along a circuitous road bounded by woods and ravines-and hence the number of prisoners on parole is diminished to about 3,000 men, exclusive of officers.  And although this may not be the place for the expression of an opinion, I feel warranted in saying that the defeat was as complete as it was unexpected by the enemy-that he was utterly destroyed, captured, or routed, spreading terror and consternation throughout the country.  [ANP]


NNR 72.186-187 May 22, 1847 Letter About the Capture of Tuxpan

Correspondence of the New Orleans Delta
Tuspan, Mexico, 21st April, 1847

Eds. Delta- Very little time we have for scribbling now a days I assure you, but as the press is stopped, just as present, I will drop you a few lined to keep you acquainted with the last operations of the squadron, On Saturday, 17th inst., the following vessels anchored three miles distant from the bar at the entrance of the Tuspan river- the steam frigate Mississippi, Commodore Perry's flag ship; the frigate Raritan; the corvettes Germantown, Albany, John Adams, and Decatur; the steamers Spitfire, Vixen, and Scourge; the gunboats Reefer, Bonita, and Petrel- and every preparation was made for commencing and finishing a successful attack upon the forts and city on the following morning. The small steamers were lighted, so as to enable then to cross the bar, by removing a part of their coal, masts, spars, rigging; etc., and on the 18th inst., at daybreak, we ran in towards the mouth of the river, with the steam frigate and all the light draught vessels of the squadron. The Mississippi anchored in five fathoms of water, within a mile of the breakers and, as all things were in readiness, boat load after boat load debarked from the vessels, stood in for the shore, dashed through the breakers, into the smooth water of the river, and then landed their men in safety on the sandbeach. The small steamers, with the gunboats in tow, likewise ploughed their way through the foaming surge, safely crossed the bar, and anchored where there was scarcely a ripple on the surface of the water. Com. Perry came on board the steamer Spitfire, Commander Tattnall, and hoisted his broad pendant. Just about that time Mexican troops were discovered some distance above, on the bank of the river, apparently engaged in throwing up a breastwork; and instantly the order was given, "all hands up anchor"- and in the shortest possible time the almighty steam was driving us a head on the enemy, but as we neared them we were convinced that they were only a reconnoitering party and they fled with the utmost precipitation. The steamer was then put about , and again took up her position preparatory to forming line, in order, to ascend the river to the city, some five miles distant. The Spitfire, flag ship, led the way; then followed the Vixen, Comar'r Sands; The Scourge, Lieut. Comm'g Lockwood, the gunboats Bonita, Lieut. Comm'g Benham, Petrel, Lieu. Comm'g Turner; and all the cutters of the squadron, under the commands of Captains Breese and Forest, and Comm'r. Buchanan- and it was one of the most beautiful processions that I have ever witnesses, and so well planned that the expedition could not have failed. The smooth surface of the water, for over a hundred yards, was dotted with boats, with steaming pendants and their brightest ensigns. The river, too, winding along through a verdant country, is picturesque and beautiful in the extreme: and this we ran along, under easy stream and sail, until we arrived within sight of the first fort, situated in a bend in the river, about a mile from the city. Here from the fort a curling smoke and a booming sound passed the intimation round that we should not take the place without a struggle; but their shot fell short, and the Commodore, apparently regretting the circumstance, sung out "go ahead fast," and the good old steamer commenced paddling her wheels [illegible] double quick time. And then the enemy opened upon us in earnest: shot after shot flew over the vessel, and struck the water some distance astern.

The tort was located high above us, on a steep bank of the river, and therefore they could only bring a plunging fire to bear upon our approaching squadron. This proved of great advantage to us, for as we ran rapidly towards them they must alter the train of their guns every time they delivered their fire. And now the scene became admirably exciting. The whole of our small squadron had closed up so that we formed a perfect phalanx of steamers, gun boats, and cutters. The marines of the Mississippi were drawn up on the wheel-house, and away from any position of the starboard wheel house, and I had a fair view of the boat tout ensemble. From the flash of their guns I could judge that the shot were not going to strike us, and then I watched them in their course until thy plunged into the water astern; many fell right amid a group of cutters, and what astonished and delighted me most, was o see that not a single boat was injured in any wise. And now we were running up to within a hundred yards of the fort, and the enemy commenced firing with musketry and escopetas. The marines returned the fire with musketry, when Lieut. Parker, from the hurricane deck, called out "don't fire yet," but the marine officer answered "we are within musket range," and scarcely were the words spoken when Lieut. P. and three other officers were simultaneously wounded by the enemy's fire, which feelingly demonstrated the fact, that some were inclined to doubt. Comm'r Tattnall, Lieutenants Parker and Hartstein, and Passed Midshipman Lowery, and several of the crew were wounded, but no so as to endanger their lives, very fortunately, and therefore their friends at home have no cause for disquieting themselves thereupon. A few discharges from the pivot guns of the Spitfire, Vixen, and other vessels, served to silence the batteries of this fort, for the peculiar tune hummed by our Paixhan shells had such a startling effect upon the elongated nerves and sinews of our enemies that, beyond a doubt, they are running yet. On passing by the fort we observed that a party of seamen and marines, commanded by Capt. Breese, and led by Lieuts. May, DeCamp, and others, had taken possession of the fort, and hoisted the soul inspiring stripes and stars, which brought forth peals of loud buzzes, which far o'er the hills and valleys ring, and check the vulture on the wing, who, poised in the air hung hovering, to watch the strife below. The river, at this pass, was so narrow that we could have jerked a stone on shore at either side, and the second fort, half a mile above, had already opened a raking fire upon us- but the shot either fell short or flew over our ship, and only one struck the Vixen, and that was full in her bow, but fortunately just below her water line; consequently it did not pass through her, but penetrates the plank and lodged in the timbers, doing but little damage. On the starboard hand, all along, the enemy, his in the chaparral, kept up a steady fire of musketry upon us, but an occasional volley from the marines drove them from their concealment. As related of the first batter, the second and third forts were silenced in detail by our Paixhan guns; - and in regular order, under a full head of steam, we rushed up to the anchorage opposite the city of Tuxipan. All three forts, in quick succession, were taken possession of by the seamen and marines, under their immediate commanding officers, who had landed in their boats among the shores of the river. Directly after coming to anchor, the Commodore's barge was called away, and he, with his staff, proceeded to the shore and took possession of the city, without the least shadow of opposition on the part of the enemy. Subsequently we learned that Senor Gen. Don Martin P. de Cos, Commandate of the place, had struck out for country quarters some time before the fight was done. As soon as the scattered boats could be collected together, the debarkation of the marines was effected, and a battalion of stalwart sea-soldiers, paraded in the Plaza, thoroughly convincing the few remaining citizens of Tuxpan that it were better to receive us as friends than enemies.

Two brass field pieces, drawn and worked by seamen, and commanded by Lieutenants Blunt and Henry Rodgers, of the Mississippi, were stationed in the Plaza; and with due ceremony fired a national salute in honor of the victory. Com. Perry established his headquarters in the custom house, one of the best constructed buildings in the city. The marine officer, with the guard of the steam frigate was quartered on the ground floor of the same building; and Capt. Edson, commanding marines of the home squadron, occupied the deserted Barracks and an old church in the Plaza. Capt. Breese has been appointed governor of the place, by the commodore, and here we have been for three days, with everything most judiciously arranged, and are as comfortable as circumstances will admit of. From one of the public stores we have taken sails, rigging, etc., that belonged to the wrecked brig Truxton; and an expedition has just returned from up the river, with her boats; besides schooners, launches, and boats captured from the enemy. Gen. Cos' house is handsomely fitted up with costly furniture, and he must have fled in great alarm, for on going to his quarters we found his bed just as he had turned out of it, with shirts, drawers, etc., strewn about in most admirable disorder. On his table were the remains of a jollification: bottles half full of Champagne, sherry and Madeira, with the best of Cubanos distributed about in all directions. Last night it was rumored that Gen. Cos would bear down upon us, and give us "goss," with a thousand lancers; and to prevent the catastrophe, we kept our "harness on our backs" until daylight appeared. The number of killed, wounded, and missing is not yet correctly ascertained, and it will be difficult for us to so with any degree of certainty until we return to our respective vessels. Some of the Truxton's guns were taken from the forts and conveyed to the shipping, and all others rendered useless by the usual process of dismounting, spiking, breaking off the trunnions, etc.- The citizens are returning to their homes, and seem very willing to accommodate us in any way they can; but they are an unfortunate race of beings, take them by and large, and we do not accept of anything without making full and satisfactory remuneration to the owners. [KAM]


NNR 72.188 May 22, 1847 Arrangements for pay to soldiers and volunteers in the west

We learn that the United States government has given orders for the immediate transmission from the east to Major Steuart, United States paymaster of this department, of about five hundred thousand dollars, a very large proportion of it to be in gold, chiefly doubloons. This, in addition to the sum now on [illegible] with the subtreasurer in St. Louis, about six hundred thousand dollars, is to be applied to the payment of troops now in New Mexico, the troops for that quarter, &c., &c. Several paymasters, will be added to this department, and a large sum of money, say two hundred thousand dollars, will at an early day, be sent directly to Santa Fe, in charge of one of the paymasters, assigned to his command.- The payment of those already in the service, and those now preparing to go there, must throw a large amount of money into circulation in this quarter. [KAM]


NNR 72.189-72.190 May 22, 1847 LIEUT. CHARLES G HUNTER, THE CAPTURE OF FLA-CO-TALPAM AND ALVARADO

The trial, defence, and reprimand of Lieutenant Charles G. Hunter, before a naval court martial.

CHARGES AND SPECIFICATIONS.

Charges and specifications preferred by Commodore M. C. Perry, commander-in-chief of the United States naval forces in the Gulf of Mexico, against Lieutenant Charles G. Hunter, United States navy, late commanding the United States steamer Scourge.

Charge first- Treating with contempt his superior, being in the execution of his office.

Specification first-In that he, the said Lieutenant Charles G. Hunter, United States navy, did, on the 21st day of March, 1847, being then in command of the United States steamer Scourge, enter the port of Alvarado, and did there arrogate to himself, (the said Lieut. Charles G. Hunter,) the authority and power, that are vested only in the commander-in chief, by entering into stipulation for and receiving the surrender of Alvarado and its dependencies.

Specification second- In that the said Lieutenant Charles G. Hunter, U. S. navy, did on the 31st day of March, 1847, with the U. S. steamer Scourge under his command, proceed from Alvarado to the town of Fla-ca-talpam, without any orders or authority, and there demand the surrender of the said town of Fla-ca-talpam, and enter into and sign articles of capitulation, although aware of the immediate approach of the commander-in-chief, to whom alone such powers are confided-thus treating with contempt the authority of his superior, being in the execution of his duty.

Specification third- In that the said Lieutenant Charles G. Hunter, United States navy, did on the 31st day of March, 1847, in proceeding from Alvarado to Fla-ca-talpam, capture four schooners, one of which he set on fire and burnt, and another he abandoned, thus substituting his own will for the discretion of the commander-in-chief, who was within a few hours reach of communication, and treating with contempt the authority of his superior; all of which is in violation of the laws of the United States, as contained in "an act for the better government of the navy of the United States, approved, April 23d, 1800."

Charge second--Disobedience of orders.

Specification first- In that he, the said Lieutenant Charles G. Hunter, United States navy, having been ordered to report to Captain Sam L. Breese, and assist in blockading the port of Alvarado, did, in disobedience or disregard of said orders, enter the harbor and take possession of the town of Alvarado.

Specification second- In that he, the said Lieutenant Charles G. Hunter, United States navy, having been ordered on the evening of the 1st April, 1847, to report himself in person to the commander-in-chief at his quarters in the town of Alvarado, at 10 o'clock A. M. of the following morning, did disobey said order; all of which is in violation of the laws of the United States, as contained in "an act for the better government of the navy of the United States, approved, April 23d, 1800."

(Signed) M. C. PERRY,
Commanding Home Squadron.

DEFENCE OF LIEUTENANT HUNTER

Mr. President and gentlemen of the court- I will not trouble you with unnecessary verbiage, but proceed at once to the point. My orders were, (as stated in the 1st spec. 2d charge) to report to Captain Breese, and to assist in blockading Alvarado. I did not consider them (can they be fairly considered?) as forbidding me to annoy the enemy in every way in my power, as modifying in the slightest degree the general duty of every officer having a military command in time of war to molest and cripple the enemy in every possible way. On the evening of the 30th March, being sufficiently near, I opened upon the fort at Alvarado with shot and shells. Apprehensive of a norther, I stood off and on during the night, with a strong breeze and rough sea. Towards morning, it having moderated, I stood close in to the bar, again opened upon the forts. Shortly afterwards I discovered two horsemen upon the beach holding a white flag, and a boat crossing the bar at the same time. This boat brought me an offer on the part of the authorities to surrender the city,- Permit me here to observe Mr. President, that as there are two sides to every question, so there may be two results to every affair of this kind. Alvarado is now in our possession; but let us suppose that was not to be; that we had been foiled a third time in our efforts to take it. What would have been my position, I say, if I, having refused the offer of the town when the authorities were ready to yield it- the American forces had been a third time baffled in their efforts to capture it? Mr. President, the worst that can now befall me, is a trifle to the infamy and disgrace which would have remained attached to my name, perhaps, long after I was in the grave.

If you, Mr. President, (or any member of this honorable court,) will fancy yourselves in my place when the offer of capitulation reached me, I think that you must perceive that it placed me in a difficult, a most embarrassing position-one that might have got a much more experienced officer than myself into trouble. I had to decide upon the disobeying of my orders on the one hand, and the possible consequences which my refusal to take such a responsibility might lead to on the other. I had to decide between two courses- the one leading to present personal safety, and the possibility of future infamy; the other to some personal risk, perhaps, but by which the honor of the navy and my honor, at least, were safe. I have stated thus the view which I took of my position, and the motives on which my actions were founded. I will not say, Mr. President, that under similar circumstances you would have taken a similar view of your position; but I think I may say, without the danger of dissent here or elsewhere, that taking the same view I did, that you, or any other member of this honorable court, would have done just what I did.

My summons for the surrender of the city of "Alvarado," was not made until the authorities hesitating to sign the articles of capitulation, - I thought myself entrapped; when it became necessary to use strong measures and strong language. Upon the reception of that summons, they signed the articles, and in the name of the United States of America, I took possession of "Alvarado" and its dependencies. Shortly afterwards, I learned that after our attack the evening previous, the garrison had fired the public vessels, spiked and buried their guns, placed a large quantity of government property, chiefly munitions of war, on board of several small vessels, and were proceeding up the river in the direction of the city of "Fla-ca-Talpam." I followed, as I conceived it to be my duty, and captured one of them loaded with arms, &c. that got ashore, and bur5ned her to prevent her falling into the hands of the enemy. Another, worthless to ourselves or the enemy, and abandoned, and two others, I brought to "Alvarado." The pursuit of these vessels brought me to the city of "Fla-ca-Talpam," where I arrived about 2 o'clock in the morning; trusting to the suddenness of the attack, I ordered the junta to assemble, and demanded within thirty minutes an entire and unconditional surrender, and my demands were complied with. I contend Mr. President, and gentlemen of the court, that all that happened after the capitulation of Alvarado, followed as a natural and necessary consequence (not, however, foreseen by me) when I first accepted of their offer to surrender. I contend that my error consisted in the original disobedience of my orders (which, from what I have since learned, I regret,) and that what I did afterwards, I was in a great measure obliged to do. Knowing that several small vessels of the enemy, laden with military stores were within my reach, could I doubt that it was my duty to destroy or capture them? Seeing, from the conduct of the enemy at Alvarado, that a panic prevailed among them, and that there was a prospect of success, I demanded the immediate and unconditional surrender of Fla-ca-Talpam. I contend that the two acts followed as a necessary consequence to my first disobedience of orders. Of the motives that led to that step, I have made an honest exposition to the court, and I hope that you will consider them, together with the difficulties of my position, and my want of experience in such matters, as some … of my fault.

I regret my error apart from the trouble it has brought upon me. I regret it, because it has given offence to the commander-in-chief. (I speak from rumor only- I have no certain knowledge of the fact,) as I have heard there was an understanding between the commander-in-chief and commanding general ashore that there was to be a combined attack made by the squadron and army, on these places; it might thus seem that I had sought to rob of its just participation in this affair that arm of the service which in the progress of this war, has acquired for itself and for our country, so much honor and glory. Nothing could be farther from my intentions- I knew nothing of any such understanding. One or two matters remain to be touched upon. I am charged in the two 1st spec. of the 1st charge, with arrogating to myself the powers of commander-in-chief, in signing articles of capitulation, &c. although aware of the immediate approach of the commander-in-chief. In regard to the first, my error was one of simple ignorance. I knew that I had obtained possession of these places, and meant of course to hand them over to the first senior officer that might approach; but I had not the remotest intention of exercising any of the powers of commander-in-chief. I knew, or perhaps I should rather say, had reason to believe, that the commander in chief would arrive in a short time; but I did not know precisely when, still less did I know that he was nearer than Vera Cruz.

In the second specification of the second charge, I am charged with having disobeyed an order to call at a specific time at the commander in chief's quarters.

Gentlemen, I was so absorbed at the difficulties that surrounded me, that his order to me to report myself, entirely escaped my recollection,- this may seem a lame excuse, but it has at least the merit of truth. But, Mr. President, none of us are entirely free from occasional acts of forgetfulness; the honorable member yesterday who gave in his testimony, made a mistake, and I must say that the confidence with which I leave my case in his hands has been increased by the handsome manner in which he corrected his error when reminded of it.

Mr. President and gentlemen of the court, I have been much mortified and excited, by the many and numerous difficulties that surround me. I have aimed at nothing but the glory of my country- the honor and dignity of the service to which I belong. I leave my case with perfect confidence in your hands.
G. G. HUNTER, Lieut. Comdg.

FINDING AND SENTENCE OF THE COURT.

The first specification of the first charge proved. The second specification of the first charge proved. The third specification of the first charge proved.

And the accused guilty of the first charge.

The first specification of the second charge not proved, of the accused not having reported himself in person to Capt. Samuel L. Breese, according to his orders; but proved that the accused entered the harbor of Alvarado, instead of assisting in blockading that part.

The second specification of the second charge proved, and the accused guilty of the second charge. The court then, upon due deliberation upon the above finding, pronounced the following sentence:

That the accused, Lieutenant Charles G. Hunter, United States navy, be dismissed from the United States home squadron, and reprimanded by the commander in chief, which reprimand is to be read on the quarter deck of every vessel of the squadron, in the presence of the officers and crew.

The above is a true copy from the records of the court.
(Signed,)
J. BRYAN, Judge Advocate.

THE REPRIMAND OF COMMODORE REPLY.

United States flag ship Mississippi,
Anton Lizardo, April 9, 1847.

SIR: I enclose herewith the findings and sentence of the court martial, convened on the 7th instant, for your trial, which imposes upon me the task of expressing, in the form of reprimand, my opinion of your conduct as proved before the court martial.

However lenient the sentence in your case may seem to be, I have approved it, as I can conceive of no punishment more severe than a dismissal in time of war from a squadron actively engaged before the enemy. The sentence while it condemns in a most signal manner, your conduct cuts you off from further association in this squadron, with men whose patient endurance of the most trying duties, and whose character for courage, obedience, and subordination, have won my highest approbation.

How different has been your course? Scarcely a day on the station, and you disobey orders, arrogate to yourself the duties belonging to a commander in chief, talk of opening upon the town, and of ordering the troops to advance when you had but one gun, and not a solitary soldier, and "all for the purpose" (as you say,) "of securing an unmolested entrance of the squadron into the river."

It would be difficult, if not impossible, to pint to another instance of similar folly; and the most charitable construction that can be given to it, is-that in the elation of a first command, you had truly imagined yourself actually in command, of the naval and military detachments then approaching and within a short distance of the scene of your exploits.

With due respect,
(Signed) M. C. PERRY,
Commander in chief of home squadron.
To Lieutenant Charles G. Hunter, United States navy
[JLM]


NNR 72.192 May 22, 1847 List of volunteers whose time expires, promise of the "Union" that troops will be adequate

The terms of service of the several, volunteer regiments mustered for the period of twelve months will expire at the following dates:

Twelve months volunteers under Major Gen. Scott

Captain Blanchard's company Louisiana volunteers, July 30, 1847.
Col. Coffee's Alabama regiment, between the 8th and 29th June, 1847.
Col. Jackson's Georgia regiment, between the 10th and 19th June, 1847.
Col. Forman's 3rd Illinois regiment, between the 9th June and 2nd July, 1847.
Col. Baker's 4th Illinois regiment, between the 9th June and 2nd July, 1847.
Baltimore and District of Columbia battalion, between the 30th May and the 8th June, 1847.
Col. Thomas's Tennessee mounted regiment, between the 28th May and 2nd June, 1847.
Col. Campbell's 1st Tennessee foot, between the 4th and 18th June, 1847,

Volunteers under Major General Taylor

Three regiments of Ohio, between the 23rd and 29th June, 1847.
Three regiments of Indiana, between the 18th and 26th June, 1847.
Three regiments of Illinois, between the 17th and 30th June, 1847.
Three regiments of Kentucky, between the 17th May and 15th June, 1847.
Mississippi regiment, between the 3rd and 15th June 1847.
Arkansas regiment, between the 30th June and 3d July, 1847.

From this statement we are happy to say that the reinforcements for Gen. Scott's army, which for several weeks have been en route, including those that must reach Vera Cruz, by the end of May, will be fully equal to the number of twelve months' men who are to be discharged in June and July, as they will, of course, remain in the field for service up to the end of the twelve months, for which they are engaged. [KAM]


NNR 72.192 May 22, 1847 Col. Sterling Price at Santa Fe

Army of the North. Santa Fe dated to the 3d April. Left Col. Price with about 450 troops at that place, enjoying rather better health, though but few of them had escaped sickness. The remainder of his command were stationed through the country guarding stock or garrisoning posts. [KAM]


NNR 72. 192 May 22, 1847 92 Major Campbell's expedition from Chihuahua to New Orleans

Major Campbell took possession of a number of places not before being captured, on his route in; had several skirmishes with Comanche Indians; at one time was surrounded by 500 of them, and had to cut his way through. They captured his pack mules and provisions, and cut off his hunting parties, obliging his party to subsist upon mule meat as lean as Pharaoh's kine, relieved occasionally by a prairie dog, wolf, skunk, and other such, to the number of twenty two varieties. In this condition, almost naked, the gallant little party reached General Tarrants, on Chambers creek, Navoo county, Texas, and from thence by the Red River to New Orleans, where they arrived on the 10th instant, hale and hearty. [KAM]


NNR 72.192 May 22, 1847 Col. Alexander William Doniphan's uncertainty on how to proceed in the absence of instructions

Maj. Campbell, of Springfield, Illinois, left Chihuahua on the 15th of March, with a detachment of 32 men and dispatches for the government. Col. Doniphan in the absence of instructions from government, was at a loss to know what course to pursue. His troops were in good health, but their term of service would expire in June and July. [KAM]


NNR 72.192 May 22, 1847 Nicholas Philip Trist reaches New Orleans for Veracruz

Mr. Trist, second officer in the department of state, and formerly United States consul at Havanna, reached New Orleans from Washington, left there on the 26th, and sailed from the mouth of the Mississippi on the 28th of April, for Vera Cruz.  [ANP]


NNR 72.193 May 29, 1847 Marines employed in land service

THE MARINE CORPS

The marines attached to the squadron before Vera Cruz, forming three companies under the command of Captain Edson, were placed by Com. Conner at the disposition of Gen. Scott . They were attached to the 3d artillery under Col. Benton, and were actively employed during the investment. The first man killed in the trenches was a marine. They were detached by Gen. Scott when the city surrendered, and received the thanks both of the general-in-chief and general Worth in general orders for the effective services they rendered.

The Philadelphia American says - We had a report from the Mouth yesterday, that some movement was contemplated in Mexico, in which the services of the marine corps were to be exclusively employed. - There has been no clue as to the nature of the service, but we have no doubt tat something is in preparation which will give this valuable but much neglected arm of the service, full and honorable employment.

Orders have been received, as we learned yesterday, for six companies of the United States marines, numbering about 600 men, under command of Major L. Twiggs, for several years past the commander of the Barracks at this station, to repair immediately to join the army in Mexico. Eight additional companies, under command of Lieut. Col. Watson, have received preparatory orders, and will shortly follow the first battalion.

Upon their arrival at Vera Cruz they will be joined by all the disposable force of the marine corps now attached to the gulf squadron, and the whole amounting to about 1,700 men, will be formed into two regiments, the first under command of Lieut. Col. Watson, and the second of Major Twiggs, the whole comprising the brigade of the veteran Brigadier General Henderson of the marine corps. The object of this movement we have yet to learn. - Phil American [JLM]


NNR 72.194 May 29, 1847 "Conquering a Peace"

PACIFIC SQUADRON. On the 1st of April the U.S sloop-of-war Portsmouth, arrived off the port of San Jose, and after demanding the surrender of the town landed 150 "Yankees," who planted there American flag. The Portsmouth then sailed to take the like possession of the ports of San Lucan, La Paz and Loreto. These are all small ports in the peninsula of Lower California, two in the extreme south of it, and two on the western side of the Gulf of California. [KAM]


NNR 72.194 May 29, 1847 Portsmouth captures ports in Lower California

NAVY JOURNAL

PACIFIC SQUADRON. On the 1st of April the U.S. sloop-of-war Portsmouth, arrived off the port of San Jose, and after demanding the surrender of the town landed 150 "Yankees," who planted there the American flag, The Portsmouth then sailed to take like possession of the ports of San Lucas, La Paz and Loreto. These are all small ports in the peninsula of Lower California, two in the extreme south of it, and two on the western side of the Gulf of California. [JLM]


NNR 72.194 May 29, 1847 The Capture of Tuspan

From the Vera Cruz Flag of the 28th April.

The expedition consisted of the steamer Mississippi, (flag-ship) frigate Raritan, sloop of war Albany, ship John Adams, Germantown, Decatur, Spitfire, Vixen, Scourge, Vesuvins, Heela, Bonita, Petrel and Reefer. Among the vessels were distributed 150 men belonging to the Potomac, and 340 belonging to the Ohio, both of which remained at this place. After some delay at the Island of Lobos, awaiting the arrival of the sailing vessels, and subsequently at sea owing to a dispersion of the vessels by a norther, everything was ready for landing on the morning of the 18th instant, at which time the Mississippi was anchored off the bar of Tuspan river, while the other steamers, having had their masts taken out, and otherwise lightened in every possible way, took in tow the gun boats and barges of the expedition, carrying, in all, about 1200 men, and two pieces of field artillery. The other vessels of the squadron remained at anchor under Tuspan shoals, which lies six or eight miles to the eastward of the bar.

In crossing the bar the Spitfire led the way, and was followed by the Vixen and the Scourge, each having a gun boat in tow. Two of the steamers struck on the bar, but were not suffered to be stopped for a moment. They literally ploughed their way over it. By 12 o'clock, the whole expedition succeeded in gaining an entrance of the river, notwithstanding the serious difficulties presented by the breakers of the bar. Shortly afterwards, everything being in readiness for an attack, Commodore Perry hoisted his broad pendant on board the Spitfire, and at once led the rest of the vessels up the river.

After ascending it about five miles, two forts were discovered on the right bank, both of which opened upon the squadron. Immediately all the boats were manned with storming parties, and while the steamers and gun boats were gallantly returning the fire of the forts they (the boats) dashed on and quickly took possession of the forts, the Mexicans retreating down one side of the hill as the sailors ascended the other.

The whole expedition now moved on steadily towards the town of Tuspan, but a little while another fort, situated on high hill, commanding the whole city, opened upon the vessels and barges.

At the same time volleys of musketry were fired by the enemy from the chaparral; this latter fort was also promptly attacked, and like the other two was carried without the enemy waiting to cross bayonets, our noble tars proving themselves first rate fellows for this species of boarding work. - Simultaneously with the occupation of this fort, a division of the expedition landed in the town, and at once took possession of it. The greater part of the inhabitants had fired and left but a few scattering soldiers within reach of our balls.

In the course of the contest seventeen men and officers were killed and wounded. Capt. Tatnall received a ball in the right elbow joint Lieut. Jas. L. Parker aid to the commodore, severe wound in the upper part of the left breast, Lieut. Whittle, a flesh wound in the right leg, and Lieut. Hartstein, a flesh wound in the right wrist and thigh. All the wounded, however, are now doing well.

Several guns of the Truxton, were found mounted upon the forts, all of which were found mounted upon the forts, all of which were recovered and brought on board the squadron. Other articles belonging to the Truxton were likewise recovered. - After retaining possession of the town from the 18th to the 22d inst:, force was withdrawn and embarked, leaving, however, the Albany and gunboat Reefer, under Capt. Breeze, to guard and command the place.

It may be proper to state, that all the forts of the place were destroyed by our forces. There being no further work on the coast, for the squadron, Com. Perry contemplated, we learn, a movement towards the interior, with a fine body of 2500 tars, thoroughly organized, should such a step be deemed advisable. [JLM]


NNR 72.194-195 May 29, 1847 Massachusetts resolution on the Mexican War, the extension of slavery, and thanks to Gen. Zachary Taylor, proceedings thereon

Resolution relative to the war with Mexico- The legislature closed its session on Monday the 26th of April. On the Saturday preceding, the following resolutions were proposed in the house of representatives, and ultimately adoption by a party vote, the whigs in the affirmative, and their opponents in the negative.

Resolved, That in the present war with Mexico has its primary origins in the unconstitutional annexation to the United States of the foreign state of Texas, while the same was still at war with Mexico; that it was unconstitutionally commenced by the order of the president, to General Taylor, to take the military possession of territory in dispute between the United States and Mexico, and in the occupation of Mexico; and that it is now waged ingloriously-by a powerful nation against a weak neighbor-unnecessarily and without just cause, at immense cost of treasure and life, for the dismemberment of Mexico, and for the conquest of a portion of her territory, from which slavery has already been excluded, with the triple object of extending slavery, of strengthening the "slave power," and of obtaining the control of the free states, under the constitution of the United States.

Resolved, That such a war of conquest, so hateful in its objects, so wanton, unjust and unconstitutional in its origin and character, must be regarded as a war against freedom, against humanity, against justice, against the free states; and that a regard for the true interest and the highest honor of the country, not less than the impulses of Christian duty, should arouse all good citizens to join in efforts to arrest this gigantic crime, by withholding supplies, or other voluntary contributions, for its further prosecution, by calling for the withdrawal of our army and, in every just way, aiding the country to retreat from the disgraceful position of aggression which it now occupies towards a weak, distracted neighbor and sister republic.

Resolved, That our attention is directed anew to the wrong and "enormity" of slavery, and to the tyranny and usurpation of the "slave power" as displayed in the history of our country, particularly in the annexation of Texas, and the present war with Mexico; and that we are impressed with the unalterable conviction, that a regard for the fair fame of our country, for the principled of morals, and for that righteousness which exalteth a nation, sanctions and requires all constitutional efforts for the abolition of slavery within the limits of the United States, while loyalty to the constitution, and a just self defense, make it specially incumbent on the people of the free states to co-operate in strenuous exertions to restrain and overthrow the "SLAVE POWER."

Thanks to General Taylor -after the passage of the above-

Mr. Hayden, of Boston, asked to obtain leave to introduce the following resolutions:

Resolved tendering the thanks of the legislature of Massachusetts to General Taylor, his officers, and men.

Resolved, That the people of Massachusetts have beheld with patriotic pride the bravery, the skill, and sagacity of the commander of the American forces in Mexico, General Zachary Taylor, and the gallantry and good discipline displayed by the officers and men associated with him in the campaign, in which admirable conduct of the one, and cordial co-operation of the other, the flag of the Union has been nobly upborne, and our name in arms gloriously maintained.

Resolved, That while the people and the legislature of Massachusetts feel proud of the brilliant achievements of the army employed in the war against Mexico \, they mourn the loss of the officers and men who have gallantly fallen upon the battle field, and sincerely sympathize with their relatives and friends.

Resolved. That his excellency the governor be requested to cause these resolved to be communicated to Maj. General Zachary Taylor, and, through him, to the officers and men under his command.

The resolution having been read, and a motion made to go into committee to consider them; which met opposition from Mr. Boutwell, a locofoco member, on the ground of their introduction from the committee of which Mr. Hayden was chairmen at so late a day in the session.-

Mr. Hayden explained that, so far as the committee was concerned, he was but one of eleven members, and he was willing to assume all responsibility which could justly attach to him. But he was somewhat astonished that the gentleman from Groton, who had so often, so earnestly, and so recently sought the passage of similar resolutions, should now oppose the consideration of these. He [Mr. H.] had before declared that he would not consent to any vote of thanks to Gen'l Taylor while no opinion had been expressed upon the war. Now we had a solemnly declared opinion of the legislature upon that subject, by the yeas and nays of the house, and he was ready to testify his admiration of the conduct of our general and troops, whatever he might think if the justice and honor of the contest. - He would not now have proposed these resolves, nor advocated any like them, had there not been a clear reprobation, on the part of the house, of all favor to the war with Mexico. And, so far as his own political reputation was concerned, though he might cheerfully submit to the decision of the house, he should neither ask the assistance of the gentleman from Groton in his support, nor much fear his assaults as an enemy.

The resolutions were passed to a third reading by yeas 121, nays 71, and afterwards ordered to be engrossed and read a third time without a count.

The senate negatived those resolutions, by a vote of 4 to 14, without debate, in the last hour of the session.

[KAM]


NNR 72.197 May 29, 1847 excitement about the appearance of the vomito at Veracruz

On the 11th he writes that General Patterson had directed the Fashion to be reserved for himself "and the wounded officers, of which I did no know there were any in town, except Colonel Haskell." "The Endora is to be filled at once and despatched, and two or three sailing vessels will take the remainder of the officers and troops."

He adds-same date: "Quits an excitement is produced amongst the unacclimated this morning, by reports of the appearance of the vomito.  Two deaths have occurred during the night, and both are attributed to that disease. One victim was a French lady, and the other Mr. Smith, the sutler of the Pennsylvania regiment.  Both were in full health two days ago."  [ANP]


NNR 72.198, May 29, 1847 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna appointed commander of the Mexican Army, fear that he will attack the supply train

    SANTA ANNA has again been appointed commander of the army by the Mexican government.  At the last accounts from him, he was at Orizaba, rallying what troops he could.  His force was variously estimated from 600 to 6,000 men.  What his designs were, was all conjecture.  There was certainly some little apprehension that he might make a dash down upon Vera Cruz, provided General Scott adventured to the capital.  More immediate apprehensions however were entertained of his attempting to make a dash at the wagon train which he knew was about to leave Vera Cruz for General Scott's army, and a formidable escort therefore had to be provided to accompany the train, which commenced leaving Vera Cruz on the evening of the 8th, and would take up its regular line from Santa Fe, eight miles on the Jalapa road, on the 9th inst.  It was the most formidable train that ever entered that country, being no less than six miles in length having over four hundred wagons and took, it is said, a million dollars in gold, besides munitions, stores, &c.  It was accompanied by about a thousand pack mules.  The escort consisted of 1,000 men, 500 of whom were dragoons sent down by General Scott for the purpose.
    It was, no doubt, the want of the stores which this train starts with from Vera Cruz on the 8th and 9th of May, that prevented General Scott from following up the decisive victory which he achieved on the 23d of February at Sierra Gordo;--the same hard fate that Gen. Taylor was compelled to submit to after his victory at Matamoros.
    On the same day that this train left Vera Cruz, the first division of General Scott's army left Jalapa for Puebla.
[WFF]


NNR 72.198 May 29, 1847 Capt. Samuel Hamilton Walker's dragoons arrive at Vera Cruz

CAPT. WALKER, with his troop of over 100 dragoons reached Vera Cruz from New Orleans in good order and ready to mount, and were very acceptable to the Americans at the moment. [JLM]


NNR 72.198 May 29, 1847, departure of volunteer regiment from the Army in Mexico
72.198 May 29, 1847, apprehensions subsiding over the vomito and a Mexican attack
72.198 May 29, 1847, Gen. Winfield Scott’s forces reduced to 6,000 men

“Mexicans! We are all one, and Mexicans only.  Let us be unanimous; let there be but one cry, and let the cry be war.” 

The Jalapa ‘Star’ assigns as a reasons for the volunteers leaving at the time they did, the fact that Vera Cruz was now comparatively healthy.  At the period their time would expire, the vomito would almost certainly be prevailing, and home they determined to come then, if not now. 

The proceedings at Washington, it is said, had created a general disaffection in the army.  General Shields is recovering.

The Mexicans have evacuated Puebla, and at least partially if not entirely discontinued their labor upon the fortifications of the city of Mexico.

On the 7th of May, the first division of General Scott’s army under General Quitmen, marched from Jalapa to take possession of the city of Puebla.  Three other divisions were to follow, each on a successive day.  They exported to occupy Puebla on the 17th inst.

Gen. Scott and General Twigg’s brigade were to follow in a few days.

Santa Anna has again been appointed commander of the army by the Mexican government.  At the last account from him, he was at Orizaba, rallying what troops he could.  His force was variously estimated from 600 to 6,000 men.  What his designs were, was all conjecture.  There was certainly some little apprehension that he might just make a dash down upon Vera Cruz, provided General Scott adventured to the capital.  More immediate apprehensions however were entertained of his attempting to make a dash at the wagon train which he knew was about to leave Vera Cruz for General Scott’s army, and a formidable escort therefore had to be provided to accompany the train, which was commenced leaving Vera Cruz on the evening of the 8th, and would take up its regular line from Sante Fe, eight miles on the Jalapa road, on the 9th inst.  It was the most formidable train that ever entered that country, being no less than six miles in length, having over four hundred wagons and took, it is said, a million of dollars in gold, besides munitions, stores, etc.  It was accompanied by about a thousand pack mules.  The escort consisted of 1,000 men, 500 of whom were dragoons sent down by General Scott for the purpose.

It was, no doubt the want of the stores which this train starts from Vera Cruz on the 8th and 9th of May, that prevented General Scott from following up the decisive victory which he achieved on the 23rd of February at Sierra Gordo; the same hard fate that Gen. Taylor was compelled to submit to after his victory at Matamoros.

On the same day that this train left Vera Cruz, the first divisions of General Scott’s army left Jalapa for Puebla.

Later the steamer Mary Kingsland reached New Orleans on the 18th with Vera Cruz dates to the 13th Mayor Count de Bongars, aid to General Shields, and several companies of the Illinois volunteers became passengers.

The two Tennessee, the 3rd and 4th Illinois, the Georgia, and the Alabama regiments, have all left the army, and returned home.

Occasionally a case of vomito occurred but apprehensions from the cause as well as of an attack from Santa Anna were subsiding, though speculations as to Santa Anna’s whereabouts and designs are the principal themes of all the letters by this arrival.

The return of so formidable a portion of General Scott’s army, and the want of other troops to replace them, has paralyzed the movements towards Mexico.  General Patterson, who had started to take command of the advance, is now in the city of New Orleans.  General Scott’s disposable force is said not to exceed 6,000 men.  He will advance as far as Puebla, and there await events.

Families were rapidly leaving the city of Mexico.  At Toluca rents went up to such a price in consequence, that the authorities interfered.

A Tampico letter of the 12th, in the New Orleans Times, says: “WE have dates from the city of Mexico to the 5th instant.  Peace appears to be further off than ever.  I think the war is just commencing.  We had an alarm yesterday, that Urrea was within 30 miles of they city with a large body of cavalry.” [CPO]


NNR 72.198 May 29, 1847 Foray Upon Santa Fe.

FORAY UPON SANTA FE. - The great wagon train started from this village eight miles from Vera Cruz, on the 9th of May. On the night of the 12th a detachment of eleven dragoons were there, and whilst all were asleep except the sentinel, a band of Mexican guerrillas rushed upon them. The sentinel's gun missed fire and he was killed defending himself. Six of the other dragoons were killed and three wounded. One only escaped. On learning the event at Vera Cruz, Captain Walker's dragoons were despatched in search of the banditti. [JLM]


NNR 72.199 May 29, 1847, Gen. Winfield Scott’s general order on advancing from Jalapa

General Orders no. 128.

Headquarters of the Army

Jalapa, April 30, 1847.

1.      The division of the army in the neighborhood will be held in readiness to advance soon after the arrival of trains now coming up from Vera Cruz.

2.      The route and the time of commencing the march will be given at general headquarters.

3.      Mayor Gen. Patterson, after designating a regiment of volunteers as part of the garrison to hold this place, will put his brigades in successively in march, with an interval of twenty-four hours between them.

4.      brig.  Gen. Twiggs’ division will follow the movement, also by brigades.

5.      Each brigade, whether of regulars or volunteers will be charged with escorting such part of the general supply train of the army as the chiefs of the general staff may have ready to send forward.

6.      Every man of the division will take two days’ subsistence in his haversack.  This will be the general rule for all marches when a greater number of rations are not specially mentioned.

7.      As the season is near when the army may no longer except to derive supplies from Vera Cruz, it must begin to look exclusively to the resources of the country.

8.     Those resources, far from being over abundant near the line of operations, would soon fail to support both the army and the population, unless they are gathered in without waste, and regularly issued by quartermakers and commissaries.

9.     Hence they must be paid for or the people will withhold, conceal or destroy them.  The people, moreover, must be conciliated, soothed or well treated by every officer and man of this army, and by all its followers.

10.     Accordingly, whosoever maltreats unoffending Mexicans, takes without pay, or wantonly destroys their property, of any kind whatsoever, will prolong the war, waste the means; present and future, of subsisting our own men and animals as they successively advance into the interior or return to our water depot, and no army can possibly drag after it to any considerable distance, no matter what the season of the year, the heavy articles of breadstuffs, meat, and forage.

11.     Those therefore, who rob, plunder, or destroy the houses, fences, cattle, poultry, grain, fields, gardens, or property of any kind along the line of our operations are plainly the enemies of this army.  The general in chief would infinitely prefer that the few who commit such outrages should desert at once and fight against us; then it would be easy to shoot them down or to capture and hang them.

12.     Will the great body of intelligent, gallant and honorable men who compose this army tolerant the few miscreants who perpetrate such crimes?  Again, the general in chief confidently hopes not.  Let, then the guilty be promptly seized and brought to condign punishment, or the good must suffer the consequences, in supplies and loss of character, of crimes not their own.

13.     To prevent straggling and marauding, the roll of every company of the army will be called at every halt by or under the eye of an officer.  In campus and in quarters there must be at least three such roll calls daily; besides, stragglers on marches will certainly be murdered or captured by rancheros.

14.     The waste of ammunition by neglect and idle or criminal firing is the most serious evil in this army.  All officers are specially charged to see that not a cartridge be lost from the want of care, nor fired except by order, otherwise, fifty wagon of ammunition would not suffice for the campaign, and it is difficult to find ten.  Let every man remember that it is un-safe to meet the enemy without he has forty round in his cartridge box.

15.     Every regiment that leaves wounded or sick men in hospital will take care to leave a number of attendants, according to the requisition of the principal surgeon of the hospital.  Those least able to march will be selected as attendants.  This rule is general.

By command of Major Gen. Scott

[CPO]


NNR 72.198, May 29, 1847 THE GUERRILLA WAR

"The Guerrilla War"

     From the N.O Commercial Times.---Furnishes the following items, brought by steamer James L. Day, from Brazos.
    Terrible Retribution.--A heavy retribution has been visited upon a rancho near Ceralvo, by some persons, unknown as yet, for the inhuman massacres of teamsters and travelers on the Monterey road.  This rancho, which has a considerable population, was known to be the rendezvous of a number of the Mexicans who have at different times strewn the road between Camargo and Monterey with the bodies of butchered Americans; and a recourse has been had to a means of bringing to punishment, its guilty population, which all must condemn, and which can result in nothing but evil if preserved in as a principle.  We acknowledge that it is the only way in which the offenders can be punished; but in thus punishing, the enhancers are many that the innocent are made to suffer with the guilty.  We do not know that such has been that case in the present instance, but it is gratifying to hear that Gen. Taylor is making strenuous; exertions to ascertain what Americans have dared to act in so unauthorized a manner.  The full particulars of the affair we have not heard all we know is that some fifteen or twenty Americans made a descent upon the rancho and hung upwards of forty Mexicans.  Considerable property and some valuable papers belonging to Americans who had been murdered on the road, were found on the persons and in the habitations of the Mexicans who had been killed.  The commission of this deed was laid at the door of Capt. Gray's company, (Corpus Christi Rangers) but we are pleased to hear that an investigation instituted by Gen. Taylor has proved the charge groundless.  Capt. Gray has had his headquarters at Ceralvo, and his command is actively employed in keeping the road free from robbers and murders.  The name of Mustang Grey possesses many terrors for Mexicans to allow of the commission of many evil deeds by them on his scouting ground. [WFF]


NNR 72.198, May 29, 1847 THOMAS SIMONS

Thomas Simons-The Mexicans have ceased their murders on the road, but have dared to attack a rear party coming down with the last train from Monterey, and in the attack mortally wounded one of Capt. Grey's men=a Mr. Thomas Simons of Texas--a young man very respectably connected, a great promise, and deservedly by all who knew him, we speak of him from a perfect knowledge of his many good qualities.  Mr. Simons was some distance in the rear of the train, in company with three others; all unarmed but himself; when they were on upon from the chaparral and seven Mexicans charged upon them.  The tight had to be maintained a lot by young Simons, his companions deserting him and the friag commenced.  An escort ball broke his thigh and he fell from his horse.  The Mexicans closed round and fired him whilst on the ground but with a revolving pistol he killed one, disabled a second, and kept the rest at bay until his companions charged in advance, came to the rescue, drawn hither by the firing.  He was taken to Calvaro-his leg was nearly shot off, and it is supposed impossible that he can recover.  It needs no prophet to foretell how dire will be the vengeance visited upon the Mexicans for this murder.  The life of young Simons was worth a thousand of them. [WFF]


NNR 72.197-198 May 29, 1847 Declaration of martial law in Mexico City, address to the citizens of the federal district

On the 1st of May President Anaya declared the city of Mexico in a stage of siege-equivalent to declaring of martial law.

The governor of Mexico, in an address to the citizens says: "War, and war only; war to the death; war as it was waged by the Morelos; the Galeanas, the Matamoros. Let us die rather than negotiate. He is a traitor who seeks to divide us. He is a traitor who speaks of peace, who dared to propose the slightest truce." And again: "Mexicans! We are all one, and Mexicans only. - Let us be unanimous; let there be but one cry, and let that cry be war." [KAM]


NNR 72.198 May 29, 1847 Mexicans evacuate Puebla

The Mexicans have evacuated Puebla, and at least partially if not entirely discontinued their labour upon the fortifications of the city of Mexico. [KAM]


NNR 72.198 May 29, 1847 Gen. Winfield Scott's advance corps quits Jalapa for Puebla a large train with supplies for which he had been waiting quits Veracruz the same day

On the 7th of May, the first division of General Scott's army under General Quitman, marched from Jalapa to take possession of the city of Puebla.-Three other divisions were to follow, each on a  successive day.  They expected to occupy Puebla on the 17th inst.

Gen. Scott and General Twigg's brigade were to follow in a follow in a few days.  [ANP]


NNR 72.198 May 29, 1847 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna appointed commander of the Mexican Army, fear that he will attack the supply train

Santa Anna has again been appointed commander of the army by the Mexican government. At the last accounts of him, he was at Orizaba, rallying what troops he could. His force was variously estimated from 600 to 6,000 men. What his designs were, was all conjecture. There was certainly some little apprehension that he might make a dash down upon Vera Cruz, provided General Scott adventured to the capital. More immediate apprehensions however were entertained of his attempting to make a dash at the wagon train which he knew was about to leave Vera Cruz on the evening of the 8th, and would take up its regular line from Santa Fe, eight miles on the Jalapa road, on the 9th inst. It was the most formidable train that ever entered the country, being no less than six miles in length, having over four hundred wagons and took, it is said, a million of dollars in gold, besides munitions, stores, &c. It was accompanied by about a thousand pack mules. The escort consisted of 1,000 men, 500 of whom were dragoons sent down by General Scott for the purpose. [KAM]


NNR 72.198 May 29, 1847 Nicholas Philip Trist reaches Veracruz and proceeds to headquarters

N.P. Trist, Esq. Second officer of our state department, reached Vera Cruz on the 6th of May.-He may possibly have in charge some commission as to the disposition of the three millions which the President had authority from congress to employ in negotiating a peace with Mexico.

The correspondent of the N. O. Times, writes on the 7th: "Mr. N. P. Trist arrived yesterday with despatches for General Scott and Commodore Perry.  The commodore came up to-day and held long conversations with Mr. Trist, evidently very confidential, and often in a tone of voice and in a manner which indicated communications and sentiments of no ordinary importance.  Mr. Trist is the government, in Mexico.  He goes with the train to-morrow to meet General Scott, and will doubtless give him ample instructions for the effectual prosecution of the war!"

The Vera Cruz Eagle contains a list of fifty five soldiers that have died there within the last three weeks.  [ANP]


NNR 72.198 May 29, 1847 barbarities committed on the road from Veracruz

Many barbarities are committed on the road by small parties, which speak like Indians among the brushwood, and watch for stragglers from the trains.  A lieutenant, Kingsbury, of the volunteers, (not the intelligent and intrepid member of General Taylor's staff,) was, the other day, mangled in a dreadful manner-barely escaping to Jalapa with his life.  Many others who have observed too little caution have fared much worse-some being found dead in a few minutes after they had stepped out of the train, or line of escort, and no trace of their murders remaining distinguishable.  [ANP]


NNR 72.198, May 29, 1847 apprehensions subsiding over the vomito and a Mexican attack

    Occasionally a case of vomito occurred but apprehensions from that cause as well as of an attack from Santa Anna were subsiding, though speculations as to Santa Anna's whereabouts and designs are the principal themes of all the letters by this arrival.
[WFF]


NNR 72.198  May 29, 1847 Gen. Juan Morales' statement about the alleged warning before the bombardment of Veracruz an account of the Battle of Cerro Gordo

Juan Morales, general of brigade of the Mexican republic-To the nation and her allies-It having arrived to my knowledge that some chiefs and officers of the invading army of the United States, which has operated against Vera Cruz, say that Gen. Scott had previously advised me that the families could leave to avoid he evils attendant on a bombardment, and consequently those which have happened are chargeable upon me.

In order that neither now, nor at any future time, any accusations of injustice may stigmatize the defence of Vera Cruz, I declare that it is false that any such advice was given!-that the only communication I have received from Gen. Scott, tended to summon me, in general terms, to surrender; that even the neutrals were prevented from leaving the place; and that if the Mexican families could have left the enemy would not have occupied the place without first burying its defenders in the ruins.

Jalapa, April 4, 1847.
Juan Morales

[ANP]


NNR 72.199, May 29, 1847 Gen. Antonio Canales' proclamation of no quarter

From the Picayune
PROCLAMATION OF NO QUARTER.

    Frontier Brigade of Cavalry.
    Camp. In San Augustin, April 4, 1847.
    I this day send to the Adjutant Inspector of the National Guards the following instructions:

I learn, with the greatest indignation, that the Americans have committed a most horrible massacre at the rancho of the Guadalupe.  They made prisoners, in their own houses and by the side of their families, twenty five peaceable men and immediately shot them.  To repel this class of warfare, which is not war but atrocity in all its fury, there is no other course left us than retaliation; and in order to pursue this method, rendered imperative by the fatal circumstances above mentioned, you will immediately declare marital law, with the understanding that eight days after the publication of the same every individual who has not taken up arms (being capable of doing so) shall be considered a traitor and instantly shot.

Martial law being in force, you are bound to give no quarters to any American you may meet or who may present himself to you, even though he be without arms.  You are also directed to publish this to all the towns in this state, forcibly impressing them with the severe punishment that shall be inflicted for the least omission of this order.  We have arrived at that state in which our country requires the greatest sacrifices; her sons should glory in nothing but to become soldiers, and as brave Mexicans to meet the crisis.  Therefore, if the army of invasion continues, and our people remain in the towns which they have molested, they deserve not one ray of sympathy; nor should any one ever cease to make war upon them.  You will send a copy of this to each of you subordinates, and they are authorized to proceed against chiefs of their squadrons or against their colonels or any other, even against me, for any infraction of this order--the only mode of salvation left.  The enemy wages war against us and even against those peaceable citizens who, actuated by improper impulses, desire to remain quiet in their houses.  Even these they kill, without quarter; and this is the greatest favor they expect from them.--The only alternative left us, under these circumstances, is retaliation, which is the strong right of the offended against the offending.  To carry this into effect attach yourselves to the authorities.  Your unwilling to do this will be considered a crime of the greatest magnitude.  All the officers of the troops are directed to assist you in carrying out this order, and it is distinctly understood there shall be no exceptions.  Neither the clergy, military citizens nor other persons shall enjoy the privilege of remaining peaceably at their homes.  The whole of the corporation shall turn out with the citizens, leaving solely the authority of the town one of the members who is over the age of sixty years; at the same time, if all the of the members are capable of bearing arms, then one shall be expected; leaving to act, some one who is incapable of military service.  You yourself must be an example to others, by conforming to this inquisition.  And I send you for publication, and charge you to see it executed in every particular, and communicate it also to the commanders of the squadrons in your city, who will aid you in carrying into effect these instructions; and in fact you are directed to do all and everything which your patriotism may prompt.  God and Liberty!

ANTONIO CANALES

[WFF, CPO]


NNR 72. 199 May 29, 1847, Comanche depredations

CAMANCHE INDIAN DEPREDATIONS

Amongst the news reported verbally by a gentleman recently from Monterey and Camargo, we have an account of a recent visit in that neighborhood of a party of Camanche Indians, who have extended their depredations for a considerable distance from there up and down the river, stealing horses and murdering and carrying off Mexican women and children.  From their conduct at several instances where they made their appearance, it is supposed that they did not design to molest Americans but tried rather to avoid interfering with them.  In ending their visit for the especial visit of the Mexicans.  But is so happened that they were not aware of the Americans had turned rancheros, and located themselves upon the banks of the Rio Grande, and in the instance at at least, it is presumed they perpetrated an injury upon Americans, unwittingly, of which, right punishment was visited upon them, and greatest is in store. [CPO]


NNR 72.199 May 29, 1847, an account of the Battle of Cerro Gordo

Of the battle of Sierra Gordo, so far as the 7th infantry were concerned, and indeed so far as the finally effective movement which insured the victory is described, we have met with nothing furnishing so distinct an idea, as the brief account written by an officer of the 7th, to his relatives in this city, to whom we are indebted for the privilege of inserting it.

Jalapa, Mexico, April 20, 1817.

Before this reaches you, it is probable that you will hear that we have had another battle and are again victorious:  We left Vera Cruz for this place on the 8th, and saw nothing of the enemy until we approached a pass called Sierra Gordo, (mountain gorge,) where our advance was fired upon; and upon examination it was found to be strongly fortified and defended by a large army, commanded by Santa Anna in person.  On General Scott’s arrival two or three days after, preparations were made to turn the enemy’s flank, and take rear fort, situated on a high hill, and commanding the pass, or road.  In advance of this work, they had several more all commanding the road, which was barricaded, and several large pieces of cannon planted which would rake the road for several hundred yards.  On the morning of the 17th, our division commanded by General Twiggs, marched out of camp, and after going about 2 miles, left the main road and made a circuit through the woods, it being necessary to cut a road as we advanced.  When we reached nearly opposite the last fort the enemy perceived us, and immediately attacked one company of the 7th stationed on a high hill on our left.  This company repulsed them and was soon reinforced.  The enemy also sent reinforcements on their side, and the engagement became quite warm; the result was that they were driven back to their woods.  They still kept up a firing with artillery during the afternoon.  During the night we were able to get up the hill some pretty large pieces, and opened our fire on their work next morning, The men were told to hold themselves in readiness for storming; soon as the bugle sounded the charge, and with a cheer away we went over the crest of the hill, down its steep sides, through the valley, and up the heights on which their fort was situated.  They had erected a small breastwork round the top of the hill up to which our regiment charged, and commenced a deadly fire on them.  Soon we charged over this and were in the fort; many of the Mexicans still fought and were shot dead beside their guns.  Others retreated still fighting; the ground was strewed with the dead and wounded, and many of our gallant fellows fell.  Soon our regimental colors were flying in the place of the Mexican flag and the fight was won.  Their own cannon were turned upon them and they were flying in all directions.  Santa Anna escaped, leaving behind his carriage, money, and cork leg, (this is a fact,) with probably four or five thousand of his troops.  About 4000 men and 5 generals surrendered, together with 40 pieces of cannon.  I have not time to go into details, but for the time the fight lasted, it was the hardest fighting I have yet seen.  Our regiment lost about 60 or 65 in killed and wounded, and looks quite small.  There is some talk of our being left to garrison this place.  It is one of the most beautiful places in Mexico, the garden spot.  I will write you again the first opportunity.

Yours, &c.

[CPO]


NNR 72.201 May 29, 1847, Gen. William Jenkins Worth takes Perote

OCCUPATION OF PEROTE.
Headquarters 1st Division
Perote, April 22, 1847,

Sir: I have the honor to report, for information of the general in chief, that my division occupied the castle and town of Perote at 12 m. today, without resistance, the enemy having withdrawn the night before last, and yesterday evening leaving Col. Valsquez , as commissioner on behalf of the Mexican government to turn over the armament of the castle, consisting of fifty four guns and mortars, iron and bronze, of various calibers, in good service condition, eleven thousand and sixty five cannon balls fourteen thousand three hundred bombs and hand grenades, and five hundred muskets.

In the retreat hence, the enemy carried away no material of war.  No force has passed, embodied except some 3,000 cavalry in deplorable plight, headed by the recreant Ampudia.  The infantry some 2,000 passed in small bodies, generally without arms.  The few having any, sold them, whenever a purchaser could be found, for two or three reals.  The rout and panic is complete, and the way opened.  A stand may be made at Puebla, but doubted.  These are the fruits of the victory at Sierra Gorda.

The fortress affords quarters for 2,000 troops and their officers, with ample storehouses, hospitals, and a supply of good water within the walls.

The Generals Landero and Morales confined in Perote for the affair at Vera Cruz, as also some American prisoners, were allowed to go at large on the retirement of the garrison.  I have several of the latter belonging to the South Carolina regiment captured near Verz Cruz.  Lieut. Rogers, of the navy had been previously sent to the capital.

I have the honor,
W.J. WORTH
Maj. General Commanding
[CPO]


NNR 72.199-72.200 May 29 1847 Gen. David Emanuel Twiggs' official report of Cerro Gordo

The Battle of Cerro Gordo

Of the battle of Sierra Gordo, so far as the 7th infantry were concerned, and indeed so far as the finally effective movement which insured the victory is described, we have met with nothing furnishing so distinct an idea, as the brief account written by an officer of the 7th, to his relatives in this city, to whom we are indebted for the privilege of inserting it-

Jalapa, Mexico, April 20, 1847.

Before this reaches you, it is probable that you will hear that we have another battle and are again victorious:  We left Vera Cruz for this place on the 8th, and saw nothing of the enemy until we approached a pass called Sierra Gordo, (mountain gorge,) where our advance was fired upon; and upon examination it was found to be strongly fortified and defended by a large army, commanded by Santa Anna in person.  On General Scott's arrival two or three days after, preparations were made to turn the enemy's flank, and take their rear fort, situated on a high hill, and commanding the pass, or road.  In advance of this work, they had several more all commanding the road, which was barricaded, and several large pieces of cannon planted which would rake the road for several hundred yards.  On the morning of the 17th, our rear division commanded by Gen. Twiggs, marched out of camp, and after going about 2 miles, left he main road, and made a circuit through the woods, it being necessary to cut a road as we advanced.  When we reached nearly opposite the last fort the enemy perceived us, and immediately attacked one company of the 7th stationed on a high hill on our left.  This company repulse them and was soon reinforced.  The enemy also sent reinforcements on their side, and the engagement became quite warm; the result was that they were driven back to their works.  They still kept up a firing with artillery during the afternoon.  During the night we were able to get up the hill some pretty large pieces, and opened our fire on their work next morning.  The men were told to hold themselves in readiness for storming; soon the bugle sounded the charge, and with a cheer away we went over the crest of the hill, down its steep sides, through the valley, and up the heights on which their fort was situated.  They had erected a small breast work round the top of the hill up to which our regiment charged, and commenced a deadly fire on them.  Soon we charged over  this and were in the fort: many of the Mexicans still fought and were shot dead beside their guns.  Others retreated still fighting; the ground was strewed with the dead and wounded, and many of our gallant fellows fell.  Soon our regimental colors were flying in the place of the Mexican flag and the fight was won.  Their own cannon were turned upon them and they were flying in all directions.-Santa Anna escaped, leaving behind his carriage, money, and cork leg, (this is a fact,) with probably four or five thousand of his troops.  About 4,000 men and 5 generals surrendered, together with 40 pieces of cannon.  I have not time to go into details, but for the time the fight lasted, it was the hardest fighting I have yet seen.  Our regiment lost about 60 or 65  in killed and wounded, and looks quite small.-There is some talk of our being left to garrison this place.  It is one of the most beautiful in Mexico, the garden spot.  I will write to you again the first opportunity.

Yours, &c.
Report of Brigadier General Twiggs.

Headquarters 2d Division Regulars,

April 19, 1847.

Sir: I have the honor to report, for ht information of the general-in-chief, the operations of my division of regulars against the enemy on the 17th instant.

Prefacing this report, I will state that I arrived at Plan del Rio on the 11th instant.  The advanced guard of dragoons, under Col. Harney, having driven from the place a body of the enemy's lancers, I then encamped my division for ht night, intending the following day (12th) to cover a through reconnaissance of his position, and, if practicable, to make an effective attack on all his works.  Deeming it impracticable to advance with advantage beyond the position which I had gained during the reconnaissance on the 12th, (being some three and a half mile from water,) I withdrew my main force to my old camp, keeping up a strong picket to retain the ground I had passed over, intending on the following morning,(the 13th,) at 4 o'clock, to make the attack with effect.

Two brigades of volunteers, under the command of Brigadier Generals Pillow and Shields, respectively, arrived at my camp on the 12th instant.  Major General Patterson, United States volunteers, having reported sick, I assumed command of the whole.-The volunteers wishing to participate in the fight, and being so much broken down from the recent march from Vera Cruz, I though proper, at the suggestion of Generals Pillow an Shields, to defer the attack one day.  Having done so, and having matured my plan of attack, and assigned to each division its duty, I was overtaken by an order of Major Gen. Patterson, after night on the 13th, to suspend all further offensive operations until the arrival of the general-in-chief, or until ordered by himself,(General Patterson.)  Agreeably to this arrangement I received, one the evening of the 16th, verbal orders from the general in chief to proceed on my line of operations on the right of the national road.  At 11 o'clock A.M. I got in my position, the right of my column being about 700 yards from the enemy's main work.  Lieut. Gardner's company, 7th infantry, was then detached to observe the enemy from the first commanding height on my left. In a short time a strong reconnoitering or skirmishing party was observed approaching towards him, having in reserve a large force, in all numbering about two thousand.-Lieut. Gardner held his position, under a heavy fire, until relieved by Col. Harney with the rifle regiment and 1st artillery.  With this force Colonel Harney cleared the two hills in front of the enemy's main work, and held secure the position intended for our heavy battery, which was established during the night under the direction of Capt. Lee, of the engineer corps.  During this evening Brig. Gen. Shields joined me with his brigade of volunteers, composed of two Illinois regiments, under Colonels Baker and Foreman, and one New York regiment, commanded by Col. Burnett.

On the morning of the 18th, when our heavy guns opened, Colonel Harney, having been reinforced by the 3d and 7th infantry, pushed forward his skirmishing parities.  Overcoming all obstacles presented by the nature of the ground, and under a most galling and destructive fire, this commanded advanced with steadiness and regularity, and finally succeeded I driving from the strong position of the enemy all his forces, and in putting them n complete rout.

In speaking of the individual efforts of the officers in command of regiments and companies, I am unable to do ample justice.  Each and every one seemed to be endeavoring to excel in all that is required of gallant officers.  Hey all responded to the encouraging voice of their gallant leader, and conducted their men to victory and glory.

The 2d brigade, under Colonel Riley, advanced under a heavy fire to gain a position on the Jalapa road in rear of the enemy, with a view of cutting off his retreat.  After crossing the valley at the foot of the Cerro Gordo, the fire of the enemy became so annoying that two companies of the 2d infantry were ordered out as skirmishers to occupy them.-The remainder of the 2d, conducted by Captain Lee engineers, proceeded on this course.  Perceiving that the enemy were extending to their left, I ordered General Shields to cross the ravine on our right and keep us the left bank on the part previously reconnoitered by Captain Lee.  In the further progress of this portion of Colonel Riley's brigade, he was obliged to turn his whole column to the left to oppose the enemy's direct movement down the spur.-Captain Lee continued his course, supported by Lieutenant Benjamin's company, 4th artillery. On coming out in the plain west of the Cerro Gordo, and in full view of the Jalapa road, a battery of five guns, supported by a body of lancers, was discovered by this portion of the enemy.  The battery opened with grape on him and on Lieutenant Benjamin's company.  The gallant general, with a shout from his men, pushed boldly for the road on the enemy's left, who, seeing their position completely turned as well as driven from the hill, abandoned themselves to flight.  General Shields was here severely wounded, the command of the brigade devolving upon Colonel Baker, who conducted it with ability.  The pursuit was continued as far as Encerro, when I was overtaken by Major Gen. Patterson, United States volunteers, who then assumed command of the advance and ordered a halt.

I cannot speak in too high terms of the conduct of Colonel Harney, who, united with his indomitable courage, possessed the cool judgment which enabled him to know just how far to advance to obtain the desired object.  That sterling soldier and accomplished officer, Major Sumner, 2d dragoons, who was in command of the regiment of mounted riflemen, exhibited all the skill and ability required of a permanent commander of a regiment.  He was severely wounded in the head by an escopette ball, and obliged to leave the field, the command of the regiment devolving upon Major Loring.

Captain Magruder, 1st artillery, by his wary and good management in the face of the enemy's works, driving before him the parties immediately in the front.  His gallant conduct deserves especial notice.  Brevet First Lieutenant Gardner, 7th infantry, whose company was the first sent on the hill, by sustaining himself against a vastly superior force, displayed that ability as commander of a company which, on a former occasion, acquired for him the distinction he now has as brevet first lieutenant.

I am sorry that the advantages gained over the enemy the first day were attended with some loss on our side. Besides Major Sumner, 2d dragoons, and Lieutenant Maury, rifle regiment, who were severely wounded, and Lieutenant George H. Gordon, rifle regiment, serving in Major Talcott's battery of mountain howitzers, and Lieutenant Gibbs, mounted riflemen, slightly, some fifty casualties occurred, principally in the first artillery and rifle regiments.

Of the conduct of the volunteer force under the brave General Shields, I cannot speak in too high terms.  After he was wounded, portions of the three regiments were with me when I arrived first at the Jalapa road, and drove before them the enemy's cannoniers from their loaded guns.  Their conduct and names shall be the subject of a special report, as also that of the several officers of the regular army who are distinguished on the occasion.

Accompanied with this, I transmit the several reports from brigade and regimental headquarters.  In all the recommendations for praise and promotion I entirely concur.

Although whatever I may say may add little to the good reputation of Captain Lee, of the engineer corps, yet I must indulge in the pleasure of speaking of the invaluable services which he rendered me from the time I left the main road, until he conducted Colonel Riley's brigade to its position in rear of the enemy's strong work on the Jalapa road.  I consulted him with confidence, and adopted his suggestions with entire assurance.  His gallantry and good conduct on both days deserve the highest praise.  I again present to the favorable consideration of the commander in chief, and the president, the names of my personal staff, First Lieutenant W.T.H. Brooks, third infantry, A.A.A. G., and First Lieutenant P.W. McDonald, second dragoons, A.D.C. Captain R. A. Allen, A.Q.M., rendered me invaluable services, not only in communicating orders when he was in the field, but in keeping at hand, under all disadvantages, the necessary supplies for my division.  For his services on this and on former occasions, I most earnestly recommend him for promotion.  To Lieutenants Mason, Beauregard, and Tower, of the engineers, and Lieutenant Sikes, third infantry, A.C>S. to the division, I am indebted for valuable services.  Whilst on reconnoitering duty on the 12th, I lost the valuable services of Lieut. Col. Johnston, who was on duty with me as chief topographical engineer, and was very severely wounded under the enemy's works on the left of the road.

In conclusion, I have the pleasure of tendering my thanks to the commanders of regiments  and batteries, whose conduct tended so much to the attainment of our glorious victory.  The 1st brigade, under Col. Harney, was composed of the 1st artillery, commanded by Col. Childs, the rifle regiment, (after Major Sumner was wounded,) commanded by Maj. Loring, and the 7th infantry, commanded by Colonel Plympton.

The 2d brigade, under Colonel Riley, was composed of the 4th artillery, commanded by Major Gardner, the 2d infantry, commanded by Captain Morris, and the 3d infantry, commanded by Captain Alexander.

The volunteer force under my orders was composed of the 3d Illinois regiment, commanded by Colonel Baker, the 4th Illinois regiment, commanded by Colonel Foreman, and the New York regiment, commanded by Col. Burnett.  The field battery was commanded by Capt. Taylor, and the howitzer battery by Major Talcott.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,   D.D. TWIGGS,

Brigadier General U.S. Army.

Capt. H.L. Scott, acting ass't. Adj. Gen.
[ANP]


NNR 72.200 May 29, 1847 reports of Gen. Robert Patterson on the actions of his volunteer division at Cerro Gordo

72.200-201 May 29, 1847, reports of Gen. Edward Dickinson Baker on the operations of the third brigade during the action at Cerro Gordo

Report of Major General Patterson.

Headquarters volunteer division,

Jalapa, April 23, 1847.

Sir: I have the honor to report, for the information of the general in chief, the operations of the volunteer division of the United States army under my command, at the pass of the "Cerro Gordo," on the 17th and 18th of April.

On the afternoon of the 17th, a rapid and continuous fire of artillery and infantry announcing that the second artillery and infantry announcing that the second division of regulars was closely engaged with the left of the enemy's lines, I was instructed, and immediately directed the 3d volunteer brigade, under Brigadier General Shields, to proceed at once to its support.

Before the brigade reached the position of what division the action had ceased for the day; the night was, however, occupied in establishing several pieces of artillery upon a height adjacent ot the "Cerro Gordo."

Early on the morning of the 18th, the brigade moved to turn the extreme left of the enemy's line resting upon the Jalapa road. This was done, over rugged ascents and through dense chaparral, under a severe and continuous flank fire from the enemy.

Brigadier General Shields, whilst gallantly leading his command, and forming it for the attack of the enemy posted in force in his front, fell severely wounded, and was carried from the field.

Colonel Baker, 4th Illinois regiment, having assumed the command, the enemy's lines were charged with spirit and success by the 3d and 4th Illinois and the New York regiments of volunteers under their respective commanders-Colonel Foreman and Brunett, and Major Harris.  The rout now becoming general, the brigade pressed forward in rapid pursuit, leaving a sufficient force to secure the artillery, specie, baggage, provisions, and camp equipage, left in our hands.

Whilst our troops were engaged with the enemy's left, the 1st volunteer brigade, under Brigadier General Pillow, proceeded o operate upon that portion of the Mexican army which was posted upon the heights on the right of the pass, and either to storm their works, or, if impracticable, to divert attention from the main attack to be made on their left and rear.

A storming force, composed of the 2d Tennessee volunteers, Captain Naylor's company of Pennsylvania volunteers, under Colonel Haskell, was directed upon one of the enemy's batteries, (No.2.) which it approached with great enthusiasm and firmness, until, after sustaining a heavy loss of both officers and men, it was obliged to retire.

Dispositions for attackign another point, (battery No. 1,) by a column undr Col. Wynkoop. Were rendered unnecessary in consequence of the carrying of he works on the heights of Cerro Gordo.

The attention of the general in chief is particularly called to the gallantry of Brigadier Generals Pillow and Shields, who were both wounded at the head of their respective brigades; to Colonel Capmbell, 1st Tennessee regiments, temporarily in command of Pillow's brigade; and to Colonel Baker, who led Shield's brigade during a severe part of the action and during the pursuit.  The chiefs of brigade speak in the highest terms of the courage and conduct of the regiments under their command, and of their personal staffs, viz:

Captain O. A. Winship, ass. Adj. General, Lieutenant Rains, 4th artillery, aid-de-camp; and Lieutenant Anderson, 2d Tennessee regiment, acting aid-de-camp to Pillow's brigade; and 1st Lieutenant R. P. Hammond, 3d artillery, acting ass. Adj. General; and Lieut. G.T.M. Davis, Illinois volunteers, aid-de-camp to Shield's brigade.

I desire to recommend to the favorable notice of the general in chief Dr. Wright, surgeon, United States army, medical director; and 1st Lieutenant Beauregard, of the engineers, on duty with my division,; and the officers of my personal staff, Brevet Lieutenant Abercrombie, 1st infantry, aid-de-camp; 1st Lieutenant Wm. H. French, 1st artillery, acting ass. Adj. General; and 1st Lieutenant Seth Williams, 1st artillery, aid-de-camp; to each of whom I am under many obligations for valuable services.

I am, very respectfully, your ob't serv't,

R. Patterson,
Major General United States army,
Comd'g Volunteer division.

Capt. H. L. Scott, U.S.A. acting ass adj. Gen.

Headquarters Volunteer division,
Jalapa, April 26, 1847.

Sir. I have the honor to state, as a supplement to the report made by me to the general in chief on the 23d instant, that after the action of the 18th of April, as soon as the dragoons effected a junction with the main body of the army upon the Jalapa road, in obedience to instructions received on the field from Major General Scott, I moved with them as rapidly as possible in pursuit of the enemy.

At Corral Falso, overtaking Brigadier General Twiggs, I directed him to follow on with his division, part of which was returning.  Late in the afternoon I arrived at El Encerro, where the exhausted state of the cavalry horses compelled me to remain for the night.

Captain Blake, with a squadron of dragoons, continued the pursuit for some miles, and returned with several prisoners.

The 2d dragoons, under Maj. Beall, and company of the 1st dragoons, under Capt. Kearny, exhibited great activity and zeal in the pursuit, which was very severe on both horses and men.

Colonel Baker had advanced near Encerro, with a small portion of Shields' brigade, some time previous to my arrival, but had retired when the battery of the 2d division of regulars was recalled.

On the morning of the 19th, leaving Brig. General Twiggs in command of the infantry and artillery, I moved on with the dragoons, and entered Jalapa with a  deputation from its authorities, who had come out to implore protection for the inhabitants of the cit.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. Patterson, Maj. Gen. U.S.A.

Capt. H. L. Scott, A.A.A. Headquarters of army.  [ANP]


NNR 72.201 May 29, 1847 report of Capt. Francis Taylor on the actions of his battery at Cerro Gordo

Jalapa, Mexico, April 20, 1847.

Sir: I have the honor to report that my battery served with the division under the command of Brig. General Twiggs in the recent conflicts on the 17th and 18th instants, but had no opportunity, (although exposed occasionally to the fire of the enemy,) from the nature of the ground, of engaging with him actively.

I succeeded, however, in getting two pieces, under the command of Lieut. J. G. Martin, on the main road in rear of the enemy's position, in time to follow up his retreat, and was enabled from time to time to fire upon his rear.  The pursuit was continued for about twelve miles, when I was ordered to go no further, being then considerably in advance of the whole army, with but a small force of infantry to support me.

The second section of my battery, under Lieut. Irons, joined me in the advance as soon as it was possible for him to do so; and, through the great exertions of Lieut. Jack on, the caissons were brought up early in the night.

It may be proper for me to add, that the difficulties of getting artillery over the hills of the Cerro Gordo were great.  Taking out the horses, the pieces were drawn up by men by means of picket ropes attached tot he carriages.

On the 18th instant, the laborious work of getting the pieces over the last hill was performed by the companies of volunteers under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Willie, who had been detached to support my battery.  My thanks are due to him, his officers and men, for this important service.

On the 17th instant I had one corporal and one private wounded.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Francis Taylor,
Capt. Comd'g light battery 2d division.

Lieut. W.T.H. Brooks, Act. Ass't Adj. Gen., 2d division
  [ANP]


NNR 72.201 May 29, 1847 Col. Ethan Allen Hitchcock's report on paroles of captured Mexicans, comment on operations at Cerro Gordo

Report of the Acting Inspector General.

Inspector General's Department.

Jalapa, April 24th, 1847.

General: On the 5th instant I had the honor to lay before you the paroles of honor by which the Mexican troops, captured by the army under you immediate command at Vera Crus and the Castle San Juan d'ulua, were enlarged, I have now the satisfaction of enclosing the paroles of those captured at the pass of Sierra Gorda on the 18th inst., to wit:

1.        The original paroles of honor of three general officers two others being accounted for below, together with similar paroles from hundred and 185 officers of all grades.

2.        Original paroles of honor given by officers of the Mexican army on behalf of the troops of the several corps, prisoners of war, respectively, under their command, binding them not to serve during the war unless duly exchanged.  These rolls embrace two thousand eight hundred and thirty seven (2,837) names-the rank and file of the army.

3.        A copy of the parole of Gen. Pinson-a translation of the same; and a list of all others on a  parole, numbering, in all, two hundred and eight officers.

4.        Copies of the several papers referred to above in No. 2, to wit: the paroles for the rank and file.

Besides the above, I enclose an original paper, signed by two general officers, (including Gen La Vega,) and by fourteen other officers of various grades, who declined giving their paroles not to serve during the war unless exchanged, but pledged themselves, as the paper shows, to report as prisoners of war to the commander at Vera Cruz, who was instructed under your orders to secure them in the Castle San Juan d'Ulloa, or send them, if hey preferred it, to the United States.

A separate list of these sixteen officers is also furnished.

I think proper to remark, with regard to the operations at Sierra Gordo, that, by turning the left flank of the enemy, an storming the principal hill occupied by him, which was executed under your personal observation on the morning  of he 18th instant, his force was divided-all of the batteries east of the hill being separated from the main body of the army encamped on the Jalapa road west of the hill.

All of the positions of the enemy were commanded by the hill itself, which was believed by the Mexicans to be inaccessible to our troops.  The hill being stormed and taken, the main body of the enemy fled in the utmost confusion, and but a very few were taken prisoners.  Many of h troops in the batteries at the same time made their escape in the hills, throwing away their arms.

A Mexican officer assured me that no less than 1,500 thus escaped from one single battery. Of those in the batteries who laid down their arms, more than a thousand contrived to escape on their march from the field of battle to Plan del Rio, some five miles or more, along a circuitous road bound by woods and ravines; and hence the number of prisoners on parole is diminished to about 3,000 men, exclusive  of officers.  And, althoug this may not be the place for the expression of an opinion, I feel warranted in saying that the defeat was  as complete as it was inexpected by the enemy; that he was utterly destroyed, captured, or routed, spreading terror and consternation throughout the country.

I have the honor toe be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, E.A. Hitchcock,

Lieut. Col.. A. Inspector General.

Major General Winfield Scott,
General In Chief, Jalapa Mexico.

[ANP]


NNR 72.201-72.202 May 29, 1847 LIST OF KILLED AND WOUNDED AT SIERRA GORDA

The following list of names of the killed, wounded and missing of the second division of regulars, commanded by Gen. David E. Twiggs, at the battle of Sierra Gorda, has been forwarded to the Picayune by Mr. Kendall.

FIRST BRIGADE, consisting of the 1st artillery, the rifles, and the 7th infantry, all under Colonel HARNEY:

Officers wounded.- Major E. V. Summer, Capt. Stevens T. Mason, Lieuts. Thomas Ewel, Thomas Davis, George McLane, Dabney H. Maury, Alfred Gibbs, N. J. T. Dana.

Rank and file killed.- Jas. Harbison, Th. J. Pointer, Benj. McGee, Conrad Kuntz, Dabney Ware, Charles Willis, Wm. Cooper, George Collins, Wm. McDonald, C. Armstrong, Samuel M. Roberts, Michael Dailey, Robert Wright, Edm. Foley, Wm. Myers, Lewis Boho, James McDerby, John M. Seaton, John Lynch, Francis O'Neill, Isaac Dolan, Griffin Budd, Patrick Casey, Daniel Dolay, A. Hartzman, Charles Skinner, Joseph Wood, Francis Perrod.

Rank and file wounded- Jeremiah Beck, Lewis P. Arnold, John McCormick, Wm. W. Miller, John McCauly, Thomas G. Hester, David Kesling, Ranson Ross, Samuel N. Bitner, Wm. F. Ford, Ebenr. N. Brown, John Samson, W. W. Breeden, Edward Allen, Alexander Evans, Wm. Butterfield, Jacob Myers, Darw. Carpenter, Thomas Sloan, George W. Gillespie, John Rancy, Joseph Windle, H. Zimmerman, Thomas Goslin, James McGowan, Wm. A. Miller, Charles Jones, Wm. J. Scrivener, Carter. L Vizers, James A. Adams, Geo. Sampson, David Bear, Wm. Hammerly, W. R. Leechman, Samuel Gilman, John M. Robinson, H. Louis Brown, Justus Freeman, Adam Ryan, John Hooker, Lindsey Hooker, John Walker, Hezekiah Hill, Wm. Higgins, Wm. Forbes, Ira White, George Tucker, Chas. H. W. Boln, Charles A. Alburn, Hiram Bell, Wm H. Preston, Wm. Scheeder, John Lipp. Joseph Vogle, John Spencer, Thomas Conway, Adams L. Ogg, Calvin Bruner, Thos. Workman. Ferd. Littlebrand, Hiram Melvin, Marinua Lang, David Ferguson, Chas. Foster, Gottl'b, Bacumlo, George Bryding, Stephen Renninson, Julius Schramm, Frederick Moll, Nat. J. Campbell, Thomas Williams, Pat. Anthony, Anthony Bracklin, Saml Downey, Mathew Eugan, George Hamlin, Michael Harley-Jas. Keegan, Orin Lawton, John Rooney, John a Sloan, Wm. H. Webber, John Woolley, James Burnett, Thomas Lynes, Andrew Wright, John Heynes, John Teahan, John Bandorf, Adam Kock, Patrick Kane, A. R. Huntington, Nicholas Griffin, James West, James M. Holden, Thomas Sullivan, H. J. Manson, Samuel Cline, R. S. Cross, Jonathan Marsh, James Eccles, John Crangle, John Brayman, Nicholas Bradley, John Carter, Patrick Dunninghan, James Garard, John Jones, Jacob Halpin, Dennis McCrystal, Eneas Lyons, Edward Peters, Christopher Elliott, James Godfrey, C. S. Hopner, William Langwell, John Gillighin, Charles Johnson, James Joice, John Lee, John McMahan, Thomas O'Callaghan, Wm. Robinson, John Smith, George Wakeford, Charles Bierwith, John Sheehan, John Barnes, Neill Donelly, Patrick Healy, Daniel Downs, John Frunks, Samuel Ratcliffe, Peter Maloney, John Davidson, Michael Dwyer, James Flynn, Micheal Ryan, Walter Root, David Radd, Peter McCabe, ----- Thompson, Aaron Hansfork, James Hanner, Wm. Sprague, David Whipple, Paul McCrae, Joseph Bruner, Conrad Fischer.

Missing. Lewis Monroe.

SECOND BRIGADE, consisting of the 4th artillery and 2d and 3d infantry, &c., under Col. RILEY:
Officers wounded- Capt. Geo. W. Patten, Lieutenants Charles E. Jarvis, J. N. Ward, B. E. Bee.

Rank and file killed- James Olsed, John Schenecke, Michael Christal, Andrew Divin, Wm. Turner, James Mellish, Wm. Scott, Jas. Wilson, Jas. Conway, Giles Ischam.

Rank and file wounded- Francis A. Dona, Wm. Pollock, Daniel Hozan, Patrick Sheridan, Jacob Carr, Geo. M. Deny, Jas Harper, Henry Quill, Richard Crangle, Morris Welsh, Lyman Hodgden, Timothy Burn, James McCullough, Alpheus Russell, Henry Carleton, George Dunn, Robert Foulder, Richard Vickers, Gustavus Miller, John Wallace, Geo. W. Stacey, Daniel Tenatt, Michael Madigan, Wm. Van Tassel, David Kerr, Nicholas Tyant, John D. Son, J. B. Richardson, Wm. Kenney, Charles Smith, Laurence Matten, Silas Chappel, Andrew Numsch, Joseph Gallin, George Reed, Levi S. Cory, Almon E. Marsh, John McCenville, Stephen Garber.

Light company 1st artillery- Wounded, Charles Kallmyer and George Campbell.
Rockey and howitzer battery- wounded, Lieut. Geo. H. Gordon; private Moses L. Keinney.
Detachment- Wounded, Lieutenant colonel Joseph E. Johnston, severely; killed, --- Croley; wounded, ----Graff.

THIRD BRIGADE. Consisting of the New York volunteers, and 3d and 4th Illinois volunteers, under General SHIELDS.

Officer killed- Lieut. G. M. Cowarden.
Officers wounded- General James Shields, Capt. ---- Pearson, Lieutenants Richard Murphy, Robert C. Scott, S. J. Johnson, Andrew Froman, Chas. Malthy.
Rank and file killed- N. H. Melton, Joseph Neuman, Benjamin Merritt.

Rank and file wounded- Wm. Allen, J.F. Thomasson, Andrew Browning, George W. Haley, John Root, Levi Card, Henry Dimond, Stephen White, Alexander McCollum, A. C. B. Ellis, George Hammond, Thomas Harlan, Samuel Bullock, John Millburn, John Maulding, J. M. Handshy, J. D. Lander, Uriah Davenport, J. B. Anderson, Thomas Hessey, George W. Nelson, J. A. Bauch, James Deheid, John Walker, Wm. B. Lee, James Malsen, John Arahood, Laban Chamer, George Carvell, Ethridge Rice, Jas. Shepherd, David Haffman, Robert Jackson, Leroy Thunley, Thomas Tenney, John Price, Joseph Sharp, Irwin Becker, J. J. D. Todd, Charles Fanning, Frederick Branched, S. Brown, William Morris, Ebenezer Cook, Richard Hendrick, John Suver, Henry Heveran, Christopher Newman.

Recapitulation:

Officers Rank and File

Regiments, &c. Killed Wounded Killed Wounded

Reg. Md rifles -- 7 9 59
1st artillery -- -- 10 28
7th infantry -- 1 9 52
4th artillery -- -- -- 3
2d infantry -- 2 5 14
3d infantry -- 2 5 35
Light co. K 1st artillery -- -- 2
Rocket and howitzer co. 1 -- 1
Detachment -- 1 1 1
General staff -- 1* -- --
3d Illinois -- 1 15
4th Illinois 1 5 2 28
New York regiment -- 1 -- 5
Total, 1 21 42 213

*Since dead. Missing from regulars, 1.
One private missing, not included in the total.

The killed and wounded of Capt. Magruder's company 1st artillery is not included in this return, the company being detached since the action. Twelve non-commissioned officers and privates of company F (Illinois) are known to have been either killed or wounded; but, as the company has been detached since the action, details cannot be furnished at this date.

To the above we add, from the same paper, a list of the killed and wounded in the brigade under General Pillow:

Officers killed- Lieuts. F. B. Allen and C. G. Gill.

Officers wounded- General J. G. Pillow, Lieut. Colonel D. W. Cumming, Major R. Farquharson, Capts. Murry and Maulding, Lieuts. Heman, Wm. Yeawon, James Forrest, J. T. Sutherland.

Rank and file killed- S. Lauderdale, H. L. Bruin, F. Willis, W. F. Brown, W. O. Shebling, Franklin Elkin, Daml. Floyd, W. England, G. W. Keeny, C. A. Sampson, R. L. Rohanon, J. N. Gunter, T. Griffin, R. Kierman, E. Price, m. M. Durham, A. Hatton.

Rank and file wounded- ----- Johnson, S. G. Steamers, M. Burns, W. F. McCrory, S. W. Garnet, ---- Carson, T. R. Bradley, E. H. McAdde, G. A. Smith, John Conart, E. T. Mockabee, H. Mowry, A. Dockery, P. Wheeler, A. Copps, S. G. Williams, J. Kent, M. Brweer, B. F. Bibb, W. Bennett, S. Davis, J. N. Greeham, L. L. Jones, E. A. Ross, B. O'Harra, J. Prescott, E. G. Roverson, R. Plunket, J. N. Isler, A. Gregory, John Gregory, L. W. Russell, John Burns, E. Johnson, J. Whittington, Alonzo White, J. Cloud, J. M. Allison, J. Wood, J. L. Dearmar, H. Brusoer, N. W. Keith, J. J. Langston, M. S. Smith, J. F. Storm, H. Williams, J. Muir, Wm. Cheeson, W. F. Martin, T. Hana, F. H. Boyd, N. Morse, J. Lyndhurst, D. Lindsay, Albert Cudney, J. R. Davis, C. F. Keyser, John Sheleen, G. Sutton, A. Lovier, D. B. Kitchen, D. R. Norison, John Smith, A. Roland, J. Shultz, John Chambers, Jacob Simons, Ed. Cruse, Jacob Miller, D. M. Dandron, William Wilhelm, F. Somers, James Shaw, Thomas Hunt, Josiah Horn.

Making a total of killed and wounded in this brigade 103; which, added to 308, the list published above, gives 411. These are all the killed and wounded whose names have been ascertained. The others, say fourteen men, belonged to Captain Magruder's company of first artillery and company F, Illinois, from which no returns were made, as they were detached immediately after the action. [JLM]


NNR 72.202 May 29, 1847, Gen. Zachary Taylor’s official report on Maj. Mike Chevallie’s expedition

Dispatches from General Taylor’s army received on the 21st from the camp at Monterey.

Headquarters Army of Occupation
Camp near Monterey, April 21st, 1847

Sir: Since my dispatch of April 11th, Major Chevallie has reached this place with a part of his command, the remainder being detached with a train now on its way up, VIN China.  Agreeably to my order, Major Chevallie has explored the country between China and Montemorelos, and has ascertained satisfactorily that Gen. Urrea has left that region and has probably recrossed the mountains.  The communications are now infested only by bands of robbers, which are very numerous in the country.  Our escorts can thus be reduced much below the strength, which it has hitherto been necessary to employ.

I learn that Colonel Doniphan is probably by this time at Parras, on his way from Chihuahua to Saltillo, having anticipated my order to march on the latter place.

You will perceive from my order that we have received authentic intelligence of the fall of Verz Cruz.  Our latest date from the city of Mexico is March 31st, on which day General Santa Anna is issued an address or appeal to the Mexican people.  I do not enclose it, presuming that it will reach you much sooner by Vera Cruz or Tampico.

It is represented by a person who has just arrived from San Luis that not more than one half of Gen. Santa Anna’s original force was saved in the retreat after the battle of Buena Vista, and the his march is indicated by the dead strewed along the road for 60 leagues.  Nearly all the troops have been withdrawn from San Luis and the adjacent positions.

I am, sir, very respectfully you ob’t serv’t,

Z. TAYLOR
Major General U.S.A. commanding

The Adj. Gen. Of the army, Washington D.C.
[CPO]


NNR 72.202 May 29, 1847 Gen. Zachary Taylor's letter transmitting minor reports from the Battle of Buena Vista

"Army of Occupation."

Despatches from General Taylor's army received on the 21st from the camp at Monterey.

Headquarters Army of Occupation,

Camp near Monterey, April 21st, 1847.

Sir: Since my despatch of April 11th, Major Chevallie has reached this place with a part of his command, the remainder being detached with a  train now on its way up, via China.  Agreeably to my orders, Major Chevallie has explored the country between China and Montemorelos, and has ascertained satisfactorily that Gen. Urrea has left that region and has probably recrossed the mountains.-The communications are now infested only by bands of robbers which are very numerous in the country.  Our escorts can thus be reduced much below the strength which it has hitherto been necessary to employ.

I learn that Colonel Doniphan is in probably by this times at Parras, on his way from Chihuahua to Saltillo, having anticipated my orders to march on the latter place.

You will perceive from my orders that we have received authentic intelligence of he fall of Vera Cruz.  Our latest date from the city of Mexico is March 31st, on which day General Santa Anna issued an address or appeal to the Mexican people.  I do not inclose it, presuming that it will reach you much sooner by Vera Cruz or Tampico.

It is represented by a person who has just arrived from San Luis that not more than one half of Gen. Santa Anna's original force was saved in the retreat after the battle of Buena Vista, and that his march is indicated by the dead strewed along the road for 60 leagues.  Nearly all the troops have been withdrawn from San Luis and the adjacent positions.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obt't serv't
Z. Taylor,
Major General U.S.A. commanding.

The Adj. Gen. Of the army, Washington, D.C.
Headquarters Army of Occupation,

Camp near Monterey, April 17th 1847.

Sir: I respectfully transmit herewith the minor reports of the battle of Buena Vista, with accompanying documents, and those of the affairs with General Urrea's cavalry on the road hence to Camargo-all for file in your office.

I also transmit, in several packages, the proceedings of a court of inquiry called at Ague Nueva, March 4, at the request of Captain O'Brien, assistant quartermaster, and the proceedings of three general courts martial; of which Major (now Brevet lieut. Colonel) Craig, ordnance depatrment, Col. Roane, Arkansas cavalry, and Lieut. Col. Weller, 1st Ohio regiment, were presidents respectively.

I am, sir, very respectively, your ob't serv't,
Z. Taylor,
Major General U.S.A. Commanding.

The Adjutant General of the army, Washington, D.C.
[ANP]


NNR 72.202-204 May 29, 1847 Gen. John Ellis Wool's official report on Buena Vista

Battle of Buena Vista.

Gen. Wool's Report.

Headquarters Camp Taylor, Agua Nueva,
Twenty miles south of Saltillo, Mexico,

March 4, 1847.

Major: Agreeably to the orders from the commanding general, I have the honor to report that, on the 21st ult. the troops at Agua Nueva broke up their encampment and preceded by the supply and baggage train, marched for Buena Vista and Saltillo, except Col. Yell's regiment of Arkansas volunteers, which remained to look our for the enemy, reported to be advancing on Agua Nueva in great force, and to guard some public stores left a the haci3nda until transportation could be obtained to carry them to Buena Vista.

On the arrival of the commanding general at Encantada, he directed that Colonel McKee's regiment 2d Kentucky volunteers, and a section of Captain Washington's battery be kept at that place to give support to Colonel Yell in case he should be driven in by the enemy.  Between Encantada and Buena Vista, called the pass, Colonel Hardin's regiment 1st Illinois volunteers was stationed.  The rest of my command encamped near the hacienda of Buena Vista.  The major general commanding, accompanied by Lieutenant Colonel May's squadron (2d dragoons,) Captains Sherman's and Bragg's batteries, (3d artillery,) and the Mississippi regiment, commanded by Colonel Davis, proceeded to Saltillo to provide against the attack meditated by General Minon with a cavalry force reported to be 3,000 strong.  As many wagons as could be obtained were ordered to return forthwith to Agua Nueva and bring off what remained of the stores at that place.

In the course of the evening, agreeably to the instructions of the commanding general, transmitted from Saltillo, Colonel Marshall, with his regiment the first dragoons were ordered to Agua Nueva to reinforce Colonel Yell, who was directed, in case he should be attacked, to destroy everything at that place he could bot bring off, and to retire before 12 o'clock, PM. Colonel McKee at Encantada, with the section of artillery, was directed to join Colonel Yell on his retreat, and the whole to fall back to Buena Vista, should the enemy pursue them to that place.  Before leaving Agua Neuva, Colonel Yell's pickets were driven in by the advance parties of the Mexicans.  He then retired with the reinforcements, under the command of Colonel Marshall, after destroying a small quantity of corn yet remaining at the hacienda, and leaving a few wagons which had been precipitately abandoned by their teamsters.

All the advance parties came into Buena Vista, except Col. Hardin's regiment, before daylight on the morning of the 22d.

At 8 o'clock, A.M., on the 22d, I received notice that the Mexican army was at Agua Nueva, and ordered a section of Captain Washington's artillery to move foreword and join Colonel Hardin.  Shortly afterwards I repaired to that position where It had been determined to give battle to the enemy.  During the previous night, agreeably to my orders, Colonel Hardin's regiment had thrown up a parapet on the height, on the left of the road, and had dug a small ditch, and made a parapet extending from the road around the edge of the gully, on the right of he road.  They were then directed to dig a ditch and make a parapet across he road for the protection of Capt. Washington's artillery, leaving a narrow passage next to the hill, which was t be closed up by running into it two wagons loaded with stone.

About 9 o'clock, our pickets, stationed at Encantada, three and half miles distant, discovered the enemy advancing.  Word was immediately dispatched to the commanding general at Saltillo; and I ordered the troops at Buena Vista forthwith to be brought forward.

Captain Washington's battery was posted across the road, protected on its left by a commanding eminence, and its right by deep gullies.  The 3d Kentucky infantry, commanded by Colonel McKee, was stationed on a hill immediately in rear of Washington's battery.  The six companies of 1st Illinois regiment, commanded by Colonel Hardin, took post on the eminence on the left, and two companies, under Lieut. Colonel Weatherford, occupied the breastwork on the right to Washington's battery.  The 2d Illinois regiment was stationed on the left of the Kentucky regiment.  The Indiana brigade, commanded by Brigadier General Lane, was posted on a ridge immediately in rear of the front line, and Captain Stein's squadron in reserve, in rear of the Indiana brigade.  The Kentucky regiment of cavalry, under the commanded of Colonel Marshall, and the Arkansas regiment, under the command of Colonel Yell, were stationed to the left of the second line towards the mountains. Shortly afterwards the rifle companies of thee two regiments were dismounted, and, with the cavalry companies of the Kentucky regiment, and a battalion of riflemen from the Indiana brigade under Major Gorman, under the command of Colonel Marshall, were ordered to take post on the extreme left, and at the foot of the mountains.

These dispositions were approved by the major general commanding, who had now returned for Saltillo, bringing with him Lieut. Col. May's squadron of the 2d dragoons, Capt. Sherman's and Bragg's batteries of artillery, and the Mississippi regiment of riflemen.

The enemy had halted just beyond cannon shot, and displayed his forces on either side of the road, and commencing pushing his light infantry into the mountains on our left.  At the same time, indications of an attempt on our right induced the commanding general to order the 2d Kentucky infantry and Capt. Bragg's battery, with a detachment of mounted men, to take post on the right of the gullies, and at some distance in advance of Capt. Washington's battery, in the centre.

Capt. Sherman's battery was held in reserve in rear of the second line.

The enemy was now seen pushing his infantry on his right towards the heights, showing evidently an intention to turn our left in order to get possession of the key to our position-the eminence immediately on the left of Washington's artillery-and thus open a free passage to Saltillo.

Colonel Marshall, with his regiment, the Arkansas riflemen, under Lieutenant Colonel Roane, and the Indiana rifle battalion, under Major Gorman, was charged with meeting this party, and checking their movement on our left.  Brigader General Lane, with the 2d Indiana regiment, and a section of Capt. Washington's artillery, under Lieut. O'Brien, since captain in the quartermaster's department-was ordered to the extreme left and front of the plain, which was terminated by a deep ravine, extending from the mountain to the road, with orders to prevent the enemy from coming around by the base of the mountain.

At 2 o'clock as the enemy's light infantry were moving up the side of the mountain and in the ravines, they opened a fire on our riflemen from a large howitzer posted in the road; and between three and four o'clock Colonel Marshall engaged the Mexican infantry on the side of the mountain, and the firing had ceased, the major general commanding again returned to Saltillo to see to matters at that place, and to guard against Gen. Minon and his cavalry, taking with hi the Mississippi regiment and squadron of the 2d dragoons.

The troops remained under arms during the night in the position they occupied at the close of the day.  About two o'clock, aA.M., of the 23d, our pickets were driven in by the Mexicans, and at he dawn of day the action was renewed by the Mexican light infantry and our riflemen on the side of the mountain.

The enemy had succeeded during the night, and early in the morning, in gaining the very top of the mountain, and in passing to our left and rear. He had reinforced his extreme right by some 1,500 to 2,000 infantry.

Major Prail, 2d Illinois volunteers, was ordered, with his battalion of riflemen, to reinforce Col. Marshall, who was engaged holding the right of the enemy in check.

The enemy now opened a fire upon our left from a battery planted on the side of the mountain in ear where his light infantry had commenced ascending it-everything now indicating that the main attack would be against our left.

The 21d Kentucky infantry and Bragg's battery of artillery were, by instructions given to major Mansfield, ordered from the extreme right, and Sherman's battery ordered up from the rear to take post with Colonel Birrell's regiment, (2d Illinois volunteers) on the palateau which extends from the centre of the line to the foot of the mountain, the sides of which were now filled with the Mexican infantry and our riflemen, between whom the firing had become very brisk.  About this time the major general commanding was seen returning from Saltilo with the Mississippi regiment and the squadron of the 2d dragoons; and shortly after he arrived and took his position the centre of the field of battle, where he could see and direct the operations of the day.  At 8 o'clock a large body a of the enemy, composed of infantry, lancers and three pieces of artillery, moved down the high road upon our centre, held by  Capt. Washington's battery and the 1st Illinois volunteers, but were soon dispersed by the former.  The rapidity and precision of the fire of the artillery scattered and dispersed this force in a few minutes with considerable loss on their side, and little or none on our own.

In connexion with this movement, a heavy column of the enemy's infantry and cavalry and the battery on the side of the mountain moved against our left, which was held by Brigadier General Lane, with the 2d Indiana regiment, and Lieutenant O'Brien's section of artillery, by whom the enemy's fire was warmly returned, and, owing to the range, with great effect, by Lieutenant O'Brien's artillery.-General Lane, agreeably to my orders, wishing to bring his infantry within striking distance, ordered his line to move forward.  This order was duly obeyed by Lieutenant O'Brien.  The infantry, however, instead of advancing retired in disorder; and in spite of the utmost efforts of their general and his officers, left the artillery unsupported, and fled he field of battle.  Some of them were rallied by Col. Bowles, who, with the engagement fell in the ranks of the Mississippi riflemen, and during the day did good service with that gallant regiment.  I deeply regret to say that most of them did not return to the field, and many of them continued their flight to Saltillo.

Lieutenant O'Brien, being unsupported by any infantry, and not being able to make head against the heavy column bearing down upon him with a destructive fire, fell back on the centre, leaving one of his pieces, at which all the cannoneers and horses were either killed or disabled, in the hands of the enemy.  Seeing themselves cut off from the centre by the flight of the 2d Indiana regiment, and the consequent advance of the Mexican infantry and cavalry upon the ground previously occupied by it, the riflemen under the command of Colonel Marshall retreated from their position in the mountain, where they had been so successful engaged with the enemy, to the other side of the dry bed of a deep torrent that is immediately in the rear of our position.  Here many fled in disorder to the rear.  Some of them were subsequently rallied and brought again into action, with their brave companions; others were stopped at he hacienda of Buena Vista, an here reformed by their officers.

The enemy immediately brought forward a battery of three pieces, and took a position of the extreme left of our line, under the mountain and commenced an enfilading fire on our centre, which was returned with so much effect upon the advancing column of the Mexicans, containing near 6,000 infantry and lancers, that it forced them to keep to the upper side of the plateau close under the side of the mountain; and, instead of turning to the left and advancing on our centre, against the heavy fire of so much well served artillery, continue its course perpendicular to our line on the extreme left, crossed over the bed of the dry torrent in the direction taken by our retreating riflemen, keeping all the while close to the foot of the mountain.  Colonels Marshall and Yell with their cavalry companies, Colonel May, with his squadron of the 1st and 2d dragoons, and Captain, Pike's squadron Arkansas regiment, in connection with a brigade of infantry, formed of the Mississippi regiment, the 3d Indiana (Colonel Lane,) and a fragment of the 2d Indiana regiment under Colonel Bowles' and Bragg's artillery, and three pieces of Sherman's battery, succeeded in checking the march of this column.  The Mississippi regiment alone, and a howitzer under Captain Sherman, moved against some 4,000 of the enemy and stopped them in heir march upon Saltillo.  A large body of lancers, from this body, formed column in one of the mountain gorges, and advanced, through the Mexican infantry, to make a descent on the hacienda of Buena Vista, near which our rain of supplies and baggage has been packed.-They were gallantly and successfully met by our mounted men, under Colonels Marshall and Yell, and the attacking column separated-part returning to the mountain under cover of their infantry, and a part going through he hacienda.  Here the latter were met by a destructive fire from those men who had left the field in the early part of the action, and had been rallied by their officers. Colonel May's dragoons and a section of artillery, under Lieutenant Reynolds, coming up at this moment, complete the rout of this portion of the enemy's cavalry.  The column that had passed our left, and had gone some two miles to our rear, now faced about, and commenced retracing their steps, exposing their right flank to a very heavy and destructive fire from our infantry and artillery, who were drawn up in a line parallel to the march of the retreating column, of whom any were forced on and over the mountains and many dispersed.

Gen. Santa Anna, seeing the situation of this part of his army, and, no doubt, considering them as cut off, sent in a flag tot he major general commanding to know what he desired.  The general asked me to be the bearer of his answer, to which I cheerfully assented, and proceeded immediately to the enemy's battery under the mountains to see the Mexican general in chief.  But in consequence of a refusal to cease firing on our troops, to whom the news of he truce had not yet been communicated, and who were actively engaged with the Mexican infantry, I declared the parley at an end, and returned without seeing General Santa Anna, or communicating the answer of the general commanding.

The Mexican column was now in rapid retreat, pursued by our artillery, infantry and cavalry, and, notwithstanding the effect of our fire, they succeeded for the greater part, favored by the configuration of the ground, in crossing the bed of the torrent, and regaining the plateau from which they had previously descended.

Whilst this was taking place on the left and rear of the line, our centre, under the immediate eye of the commanding general, although it suffered much in killed and wounded, stood firm, and repelled every attempt to march upon it.

he Mexican forces being now concentrated on tour left, made a bold move to carry our centre by advancing with his whole strength from the left and front.  At this moment  Lieut. O'Brien was ordered to advance his battery and check this movement.-He did s in a bold and gallant manner, and maintained his position until his supporting force was completely routed by an immensely superior force.  His men and horses being nearly all killed and wounded, he found himself under the necessity of abandoning his pieces, and they fell into the hands of the enemy.  From this point the enemy marched upon the centre, where the shock was met by Col. McKee, the 1st Illinois, under Col. Hardin, and the 2d, under Col. Bissell, all under the immediate eye of the commanding general.  This was the hottest as well as the most critical part of the action; and at the moment when our troops were about giving way before the greatly superior force with which they were contending, the batteries of Captains Sherman and Bragg coming up most opportunely from the rear, and under the immediate direction of the commanding general, by a well directed fire checked and drove back with great loss the enemy, who had come close upon the muzzles of their pieces.  A part of the enemy's lancers took our infantry in flank, and drove them down the ravine in front of Captain Washington's battery, who saved them by a well directed  and well timed fore from his pieces.

This was the last great effort of Gen. Santa Anna; the firing, however, between the enemy's artillery and our own continued until night.

The troops lay on their arms in the position in which they were placed at evening.  Major Wareen's command, consisting of four companies Illinois infantry and a detachment of Capt. Webster's company, under Lieut. Donaldson, were brought on the field from Saltillo, where thy had performed, during the day, important services in connexion with Capt. Webster's battery, under a piece ably served by Lieut. (now Captain) Shover, 3d artillery, in repelling the attack of Gen. Minon and his cavalry on that place.  Every arrangement was made to engage the enemy early, the next morning, when, at daybreak, it was discovered he had retreated under cover of the night, leaving about 1000 dead and several hundred wounded on the field of battle, and 295 prisoners in our hands, one standard and a large number of arms.

Our own loss was, I deeply regret of say, very great, equaling if not exceeding in proportion to numbers engaged, that of the enemy.  In killed, wounded, and missing, it amounted to rising of 700.  Among the dead, some of he most gallant of our officers fell while leading their men to the charge, and some who are well known to the country for distinguished services on other fields: among whom were Col. A. Yell, of Arkansas, Col. M. Wm. McKee, Lieut. Colonel H. Clay, of Kentucky, and Col. Hardin, of Illinois.  I also lost my assistant adjutant general, Capt. Lincoln, who was as brave, gallant, and as accomplished an officer as I ever knew.  He fell in the execution of my orders, and in the attempt to rally our men.

The troops posted in the centre were constantly under the eye of the commanding general, and their movements and bearing during the battle are better known to him than myself.  I think it proper, however, to bear witness with him to the particular good conduct of the 1st Illinois volunteers, under Colonel Hardin, and after his death under Col. Bissell; and the 2d Kentucky infantry, under Col. McKee, Lieut. Col. Clay, and after their death, under Major Fry.-These regiments suffered greatly in the contest, and were ably and gallantly led on by their officers, as their number, names, and rank of the killed will abundantly testify.

I also desire to express my high admiration, and to offer my warmest thanks to Captains Washington, Sherman, and Bragg, and Lieutenants O'Brien and Thomas, and their batteries; to whose services at ths point, and on every other part of the field, I thik it but justice to say, we are mainly indebted for the great victory so successfully achieved by our arms ove th great force opposed to us-more than 20,000 men and 17 pieces of artillery.  Without our artillery we would not have have maintained our position a single hour.

Brigadier General Lane was very active and prompt in the discharge of his duty, and rendered good service throughout the day.  He reports, among many others, Colonel Lane and the 3d Indiana regiments as having done themselves great credit.  To Colonel Davis and the Mississippi regiment under his command, whose services were conspicuous in the open engagements on the rear of our left, great credit is due for the part they performed, and much praise for their conspicuous gallantry, which caused them to be a rallying point for the force that was driven in from the left, and who, in connexion with the 3d Indiana regiment, and a fragment of the 2d Indiana regiment, and a fragment of he 2d Indiana regiment, under its gallant colonel, constituted almost the only infantry opposed o the heavy column of the enemy.

Colonel Marshall rendered gallant and important services, both as the commander of he riflemen I the mountains, where he and his men were very effectual, and as the commander of the cavalry companies of his regiment, in connexion with those of the Arkansas regiment, under Colonel Yell, and after his death under Lt. Colonel Roane, (who commanded them in a gallant manner,) in their operations against he enemy's lancers.  Col. Marshall reports that Lt. Col. Field was everywhere during the battle, and equal entirely to his station, and rendered the most essential assistance.

Brevet Lieut. Colonel May, 2d dragoons, with the squadron of the 1st and 2d dragoons, and Capt. Pike's squadron of Arkansas cavalry, and a section of artillery, admirably served by Lieutenant Reynolds, 3d artillery, played and important part in checking and dispersing he enemy in the rear of our left.  They retired before him whenever he approached them.-The gallant Captain Steen whilst rallying under the orders of the commanding general, some men running from the field of battle, was severely wounded in the thigh.

Major McCullock, quartermaster in command of a Texas spy company, has, on the field, and in all the reconnaissance's for several days previous to the contest, given me great assistance and valuable information.

Though belonging to the staff of the major general commanding, yet the very important and valuable services of Major Mansfield, to whom I a am greatly indebted for the aid I received from his untiring exertions, activity, and extensive information, as well as for his gallant bearing during the days and hights of the 21st, 22d, 23d, and 24th, gives me the privilege of expressing to the commanding general my entire admiration of this accomplished officer's conduct.

My thanks are also due to Major Monroe, chief of artillery, for ht services rendered by him on the field as chief of artillery, and for his exertions in rallying the men at Buena Vista, and disposing of them at that place, to meet the attack of the enemy's lancers.  Paymaster Dix and Captain Leonard rendered very valuable aid by their gallantry in rallying the troops.  Lieut. Renham, engineer, was ver gallant, zealous, and efficient at all times, night and day, in the performance of the important duties with which he was charged.

Of my staff I cannot speak in too high terms; their devotion to duty at all times, day and night, and their activity and gallant bearing on the 21st, 22d, 23d and 24, not only command my admiration, but is worthy of all praise.  Of those entitled to this commendation I would mention the following:

Lieut. Irvin McDowell, my aid-de-camp, I would recommend to the special notice of the commanding general for his activity and devotion, at all times, in the discharge of his duties, and especially for his gallant and efficient services throughout the 22d and 23d, on the field of battle.

Of Colonel S. Churchill, inspector general, I would speak, for his assistance on the field, where his coolness and judgment were in accordance with his previous reputation as a brave veteran.  He had his horse shot under him during the heat of the action.  I would take occasion, at this place to express tot he commanding general the aid and support I have received from this officer in disciplining and instructing the troops under my command since the opening of the campaign.

Captain W. W. Chapman rendered me great assistance, as extra aid-de-camp, in gallantly conveying my orders, in rallying and sending back to the field many of the volunteers who had fallen back, and in his admirable arrangement for the defence of the train.  He has been a most active, efficient, and diligent officer during the whole campaign and I would recommend him particularly to the attention of the commanding general.

Lieutenant Sitgreaves, topographical engineer, was distinguished for his gallantry and good conduct, and especially in conveying my orders on the field of battle.

Capt. Geo. P. Howard, A.C.S., and Capt. C.W. Davis, A.Q.M., are equally entitled to praise for their efficient services and gallant bearing on the field of battle.

Surgeons Hitchcock, Levely, Hensley, Price, Roane, Madison, Peyton, Herick, Roberts, and Glenn, for heir devotion to the wounded of the Mexican army, as well as those of our won, are entitled to my highest praise.

Mr. Thomas H. Addecks, my interpreter, is entitled to high commendation for his readiness to engage in daring enterprises, and especially for fearlessly carrying my orders on the field of battle, on the 22d and 23d.

To these I would add Mr. E. C. March, a most valuable government agent, and who rendered me important services on the 22nd and 23rd, and conducted himself with great gallantry on the field of battle.

I would also mention Mr. A.R. Potts, Mr. Henry A. Harrison, Mr. C. J. Burgess, and Mr. J. E. Dusenbury, all valuable government agents, who rendered important services in the execution of my orders, and exhibited a bold and fearless spirit during the actions of the 22d and 23d.

I cannot close my report without expressing, officially and formally, as I have heretofore done personally to the major general commanding, the feelings of gratitude I have for the confidence and extreme consideration which have marked al his acts towards me, which has given me additional motives for exertion and increased zeal in the execution of the responsible duties with which I have been charge.

Herewith I have the honor to enclose a translation of the proclamation of the President General Santa Anna, dated the 27th January, 1847, at San Luis Potosi, when the army was about to leave for this place.

Also, a translation of his general order of the 21st of February, and a return of the Mexican prisoners, and the morning report of the force under my command on the 21st ultimo.

The forces engaged in the great battle of the 22nd and 23d ultimo were as follows:

The United States troops commanded by Major General Taylor, amounted to only 4,610, including officers.

The forces under the command of General Santa Anna amounted to 22,000.  Some of the Mexican officers, taken prisoners, stated the number to be 24,000, exclusive of artillery.  This number, I presume, included General Minon's cavalry, reported to be from 2,000 to 3,000.

The army is represented to be in a disorganized state, and that the losses in killed and wounded, and by desertion, exceed 6,000 men.  The dead, the dying, and the wounded in starving condition, everywhere to be seen on its route, bespeaks a hurried retreat and extreme distress.

I have ht honor to be, very respectfully, you obedient servant, John E. Wool,

Brigadier General.

To Maj. W.W.S. Bliss, Asst. Adj. Gen.  [ANP]


NNR 72.204 May 29, 1847 Extract from a letter of Gen. John Ellis Wool about Buena Vista

Gen. Wool's Account of the battle - The American Whig publishes exerts from a letter received from General Wool, at which he gives an account of the battle of Buena Vista. At the conclusion of it he says.

"If Gen. Scott had only left Gen. Taylor with a regiment of regular infantry General Santa Anna's army would have been annihilated, whilst for the want of a few regular infantry we came near losing the battle. At a moment when no one doubled that two thousand Mexican lancers were in our power, and would have become our prisoners, one of the Indiana volunteer regiments broke and fled the field of battle, which relieved the Mexicans from their critical position, and at the same time, joined by another column of lancers, bore down upon us, and came nigh wresting from us our strong position. It required all the activity and energy of General Taylor and myself, as well as all the staff officers to maintain our position. Fortunately, the Mississippi regiment and artillery came up in time to restore the fortunes of the day. The commanding General, Taylor, showed himself equal to the crisis, and with the Mexican lancers, but not until they had killed and wounded many of the bravest and most gallant of our little army. We finally repulsed the Mexicans at all points, when, under the darkness of the night, they made good their retreat. We could not, however, pursue them, for every man, horse and mule, was worn down with fatigue. For three nights we lay on our arms, and for more than twenty four hours we had been engaged with the enemy, and for sixteen hours subjected to a continuous and tremendous fire. Our position was a strong one and we made good use of it.

Santa Anna is rapidly retreating with his army, reduced to one half its original numbers, on San Luis Potosi; from thence it is reported he will proceed to Mexico, to denounce congress for not furnishing him with the necessary means of carrying on the war." [JLM]


NNR 72.204 May 29, 1847, troops, engaged, killed, and wounded at Buena Vista

General Wool’s account of the Battle- The American Whig publishes extracts from a letter received from General Wool, in which he gives an account of the battle of Buena Vista.  At the conclusion of it he says.

“If Gen. Scott had only left Gen. Taylor with a regiment of regular infantry.  General Santa Anna’s army would have been annihilated, whilst for the ant of a few regular infantry we came near losing the battle.  At a moment when no one doubted that two thousand Mexican lancers were in our power, and would have become prisoners, one of the Indians volunteer regiments broke and fled the field of battle, which relieved the Mexicans from their critical position, and at the same time, joined by another column of lancers, bored down upon us and came nigh wrestling from us our strong position.  It required all the activity and energy of General Taylor and myself, as well as all the staff officers to maintain our position.  Fortunately, the Mississippi regiment artillery came up in time to restore the fortunes of the day.  The commanding General Taylor, showed himself equal to the crisis, and with the artillery under a tremendous fire repelled the Mexican lancers, but not until they had killed and wounded many of the bravest and most gallant of our little army.  We finally repulsed the Mexicans at all points, when under the darkness of the night; they made good their retreat.  We could not however, pursue them for every man, horse, and mule was worn down with fatigue.  For three nights we lay on our arms, and for more than twenty-four hours we had been engaged with the enemy, and for sixteen hours subjected to a continuous and tremendous fire.  Our position was a strong one and we made good use of it.

Santa Anna is rapidly retreating with his army, reduced to one half of its original numbers, on San Luis Potosi; from thence it is reported he will proceed to Mexico, to denounce Congress for not furnishing him with the necessary means for carrying on the war.”  [CPO]


NNR 72.204-205 May 29, 1847, Com. Robert Field Stockton’s difference with Gen. Stephen Watts Kearny

DISPUTES ABOUT AUTHORITY AND LAURELS.

The posture of affairs as between our own officers in the new territory of which they or Com. Sloat, had taken possession, was exceedingly unpleasant when our latest information left them.  We have been reluctant to refer to the subject, which must be painful to all of us, and have refrained from doing so in expectation of obtaining something more authentic tan we have yet me with.  We are obliged to resort to statements which are evidently colored by the feelings and partialities of those from whom they proceed.  The Executive are no doubt in possession of far more of the facts in the case than it would at all be prudent in them to make public in the present state of affairs.  Those who censure an executive for not publishing forth with whatever comes under their notice in regard to the public service can have little idea of the responsibilities and difficulties incident to executive duties.

A fair and generous latitude in that respect is due from the public to the public authorities, and we have no doubt is freely awarded, notwithstanding the captious objections of partisans.  But to our subject:

On the arrival of the last dispatches from the Pacific squadron, a number of publications appeared from which we ascertain, that Gen. Kearny and Com. Stockton are at issue as to which is entitled to the government of California.  One account stated that Gen. Kearny had not at the time formed a junction with Com. Stockton, received his bevel and commission of governor of the territory, and that he therefore waived his authority for the occasion rather than that the public authority for the occasion rather than that the public service should suffer.  Another statement, and as we think the most probable one is, that Gen. Kearny carried out full powers as governor and military commander of California.  Whether they revoked the like powers when is presumed Com. Stockton took out also remains to be ascertained.  Col. Stevenson who left New York in command of the California expedition fitted out from thence, it was generally understood he took with him an authority from our government as the governor of California, which however he will hardly have an opportunity of exercising, as Col. Mason, of the U.S. army, was subsequently started express across the Peninsula of Panama, with authority to supercede him, and Com. Shubtick supercedes Com. Stockton as commander of the Pacific squadron.

After Com. Stockton took command, and before Gen. Kearny’s arrival, several unpleasant disasters occurred.  San Angelos, which Com. Sloat had captured, was retaken by the Mexicans.  Capt. Mervine of the nay, in attempting a recapture, landed according to orders some 200 seamen and marines without artillery.  The Mexicans had the advantage of having a couple of flying artillery.  The Mexicans had the advantage of having a couple of flying artillery which they worked very actively.  The Americans had some fifteen or twenty killed and wounded, and were obliged to relinquish their object.

The New York Sun gives the following statement: “When Gen. Kearny was on his march from Santa Fe, he met an officer and party on their way to the United States with dispatches from Com. Stockton, who informed him that the country was in a quiet state, which induced the general to send back a part of his force, and to come on with only 100 men in advance of the rest of his troops.  When within eight leagues of San Diego, to the surprise of all they were surrounded by the enemy from 300 to 400 strong.

“The general entrenched himself, and sent an express to Com. Stockton for assistance, who was at San Diego with about 500 sailors and marines; which not being promptly compiled with, from some cause not known, another messenger was dispatched by the general, on the third day, who informed the commodore that the general was surrounded by the enemy, that his little army was in great distress, and subsisting on their mules, and that he did not receive immediate relief, the general would cut his way through the enemy if it cost the lives of his whole party.  The commodore then sent out a force of 250 to 300, and as soon as they made their appearance, the cowardly Californians fled.  General Kearny then marched to San Diego, joined Com. Stockton, and planned the battles of the 8th and 9th of January, when La Ciudad de los Angelos was a second time taken.”

“The general showed his orders, instructions and appointment as military and civil governor of California to Com. Stockton, who immediately suspended the civil functions of the general, issued his own proclamation as governor, and afterwards appointed Lieut. Col Fredmont governor of the territory.  Gen. Kearny informed Com. Stockton that he would temporality submit to his assumption of authority, as he did not wish at this critical period to create a civil war, and soon after took passage in the Cyane for Monterey, where he met Com. Shubrick, who supercedes Com. Stockton as commander-in-chief of the naval forces.”  [CPO]


NNR 72.205 May 29, 1847, high prices of provisions in California

High Price and Scarcity of Provisions.  When the dale left Monterey, on the Pacific, February 5th, flour was selling at 440 a barrel; tea $3 per pound; brown sugar 50 cents; and our 6 cent brown domes tie cotton brought 50 cents a yard.  Letters say: “If the American troops looked for should arrive, there must be much suffering among the people, unless they b ring large supplies.  California cannot now sustain a large population.”  [CPO]


NNR 72.205 May 29, 1847, news from Santa Fe by Lt. William Guy Peck, account of his journey
72.205 May 29, 1847,Capt. John Charles Fremont arrives at Angels, notice of the situation in California
72.205 May 29, 1847, letter about the need for a military force in New Mexico

SANTA FE AND CALIFORNIA

From the St. Louis Republican, May 17.

Yesterday evening several gentleman arrived on board the John J. Hardin, direct from Santa Fe and California, from whom we have gathered the following information:

Lieut. Wm. G. Peck, of the topographical corps left Santa Fe in company with Messrs. Woods and Sandford, and their party.  At the time he left Santa Fe, Col. Price was still there, and all was quiet, but it was believed to be the sullen and stubborn quiet which superior force along compels.  Although the insurrection, which we have heretofore noticed, had been put down, it was the general opinion that they only needed the aid of a competent leader to rise again.  The civil government was going on trying the insurgents, Judge Beaubien presiding.

After Lieut. Peck was out some days from Santa Fe, he was joined by Mr. McKnight, from Chihuahua; Lieut. Theodore Talbot, who went out with Col. Fremont; Lieut. E. Beal, of the U. States Navy, C. Toplin, U. States Army; Christopher Carson; Robert E. Russell, and others, from California.  From these gentlemen we learn that the court at Taos had condemned a number of the insurgents to be hung, and that eleven had been executed and a large number whipped.  Six were hung on the day that Lieut. Talbot passed through Taos.

The executions excited the Mexicans very much, and when Mr. McKnight passed through Vegas they were endeavoring to raise volunteers for another insurrection.  The alcalde and other influential men were opposing the effort, but with what success remains to be seen.

At the bend of the Arkansas, a party of Pawnee Indians made an attack upon their camp, and attempted to excite a stampede among the horses, but didn’t t succeed.  They, however, stole two horses.  They shot a good many arrows into the camp, but without effect.  They appeared to have but one gun among them.  These gentlemen report that it is the intention of the Indians to attack every party which they think they are strong enough to contend with and are very hostile to us.  This being the case, it behooves the general government immediately to send out a force and whop them into better behavior.

Lieuts. Talbot, Beal, and the other gentlemen from California left San Diego on the 25th of February.  At the time of their departure, Lieut Col. Fremont was at Ciudad de Angelos, acting as governor of the territory under and appointment from Com. Stockton.  The commodore had returned on board his shop and had left the part of the coast.  Col. Wm. H. Russell, of Calloway County, in this state was setting as secretary of the territory.

Gen. Kearny was joined about the 9th of January at San Diego, by Lieut. Col. Cooke, with the battalion of Mormons under his command.  Great praise is bestowed on Col Cooke, for the condition in which he brought his command in.  It is said that all his men were in fine health, with their arms as bright as when they set out in March, in excellent discipline, and without any serious loss.

Soon after being joined by Col. Cooke, General Kearny with the Mormons and dragoons, preceded to Monterey, where he was when our informant left.  There he had been joined by the two artillery companions from Baltimore.  We cannot learn from our informants that any portion of Col. Stevenson’s command, from New York had arrived.  Com. Shubrick had joined Gen. Kearny at Monterey, but we are unable to learn what their operations would be.  The question of the right to act as governor of the territory was still in dispute between General Kearny and com. Stockton.  It was understood that Gen. Kearny intended setting out his return about the 1st of July, but the state of affairs, it was supposed might delay his departure.

Some of the gentleman named, we understand are bearers of dispatchers to Washington.

A correspondent of the St. Louis Republican writing from Santa Fe under date of the 7th April says:

“All is apparently quiet here, but every observing man knows that we are walking daily over a volcano which is ready to burst upon us if an opportunity offers.  As I said in a former letter, in peace or war, this country cannot be retained but by military force.  We hear that Colonel Doniphan intends to return to Missouri, through Texas.  If he does so before other troops arrive to relieve him, Chihuahua will fall again into the hands of the Mexicans.  For my part, I cannot think he will do so unwise a thing.”

A letter in the Republican, dated City of Angels, Mexico, January 26, speaking of the arrival of Col. Fremont’s force at that place, says:

“I cannot, in a short letter give you the details of our march from Monterey to this city of Angels, but it was replete with incidents, and throughout furnished me continued evidence of the gallantry, skillful maneuvering, and noble bearing of our youthful commander, Col. Fremont.  He is a scholar, and officer, and a gentleman.

“We found Gen. Kearny here with instructions from the secretary of war to conquer the country, and institute a civil government; but Com. Stockton who was also here, maintained that the conquest had been made by him and Colonel Fremont, and was an incident to it, the right of forming a civil government belonged to him; and that Gen. Kearny’s orders were now obsolete, because the business for which he had come, had been anticipated by others.”  [CPO]


NNR 72.206 May 29, 1847, letter from Secretary of War William Learned Marcy to Missouri Gov. John C. Edwards about requisition for volunteers

THE CALL FOR VOLUNTEERS FROM MISSOURI

The official papers in relation to this call here been placed in our hands, and we publish them below.  It will be observed, that the requisition is for a regiment of mounted men, but the government in a contingency which has happened contemplate a requisition for a regiment of infantry; and a letter from Governor Edwards says: “I have no doubt but a call will be made in a few days for infantry”

The governor has authorized Captain N. Koseialowski, of this city, who raised a company of volunteers last year fro the Santa Fe service, to recruit a company for this new regiment of volunteers.  If he can raise a suitable company in time, it will be received.

We understand that Mr. E. H. Shepard, of this city, has raised a company of volunteer infantry, and has gone to Jefferson City to tender their services to the governor.

[Missouri Rep.]

War Department, March 25, 1847.

Sir: The reports, which have reached this place from Santa Fe, are of a questionable character; yet they are calculated to excite some apprehension in regard to the condition of things at that place.  It is regretted that Col. Duniphan was sent down the Rio Grande towards Chihuahua.  As Gen. Wool did not proceed with his expedition to the latter place, the colonel and his command may find themselves in an exposed situation.

As soon as it became known here that General Kearny contemplated sending a part of the forces designated for Santa Fe in that direction, and that Gen. Wool might not proceed to Chihuahua, Gen. Taylor was apprised of Gen. Kearny’s suggestion, and requested to cause information to be sent to notify and such detachment that it would not find Chihuahua in our possession.  I am not aware that any such information has reached Col. Duniphan.  If he should have received timely notice of the fact, he may have returned, as it helped he has to Santa Fe.

It will be necessary, even if there be no disturbance at Santa Fe, to keep up quite as large a force, as that now stationed there.  The period of service of the volunteers, first mustered, will expire in June, July, and August, and others will be required to take their place.  These will be mainly volunteers, and it is quite probable that they will be drawn, in part or wholly from the state of Missouri, if they can be there readily organized.  It is designed to send them one in detachments with each train of supplies for the troops at Santa Fe, until a sufficient force shall be concentrated at that place to hold it safely; unless that state of affairs at Santa Fe should require a different arrangement.

If there has been an insertion attempted in New Mexico, and not fully put down, and increase of force may be there needed.  Should you receive accounts to be relied on, which satisfy you that an additional force is promptly required; you are requested, at once to take the necessary preliminary measures in anticipation of advices from this place, to have them held in readiness for the entering into the public service.  This it is expected may be done without incurring any public expense.  It is probable that the regiment, which was organized last autumn, and afterwards mustered out of service, may claim preference to others, and if so, I hope it will be consistent with the views of your Excellency to yield it to them.

The volunteers sent last year, were all mounted.  It is probable that in this respect there will be a change, and that most of the new volunteers for this service, will be infantry.

It is desired that the term of service should be during the war, unless sooner discharged; and it is hoped that this change as to term of service will present no embarrassment to obtaining the number, which may be required.  Those now in New Mexico will be invited to re-enter the service under the 3rd and 4th sections of an act of congress, of the 3rd of March, instant.  I herewith transmit to you a copy of the act.  By this act it will be perceived that a liberal bounty will be given to those who reengage in the public service, immediately after the expiration of their present term.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
W.W MARCY, Sec of War.

His Excellency, John C. Edwards,
Governor of Missouri.
[CPO]


NNR 72.208 May 29, 1847 Jalapa hospitals filled with sick

JALAPA, May 11. The general hospital is filled with sick and wounded, many of whom are dying daily. - The South Carolina regiment have the largest number, 155; the New Yorkers next. [JLM]


NNR 72.208 May 29, 1847, Mexican colors reach Washington

The Mexican Colors and Standards taken at Vera Cruz, have been deposited at the war department by the gallant Colonel Bankhead, who was charged with their delivery by Major General Scott.   [CPO]


NNR 72.208 May 29 Solon Borland, Maj. John Pollard Gained, Capt. Cassius Marcellus Clay, Midshipman Robert Clay Rogers, &c, prisoners set at liberty in Mexico
NNR 72.208 May 29, anarchy in the Mexican capital, states talks of separation

LATEST FROM GEN’L SCOTT’S ARMY.

The New Orleans Picayune of the 20th, contains a letter from Mr. Kendall, brought by this Mary Kingsland, which furnishes the agreeable intelligence that.

Majors Borland and Gaines, Capt. C. M. Clay, and Midshipman Rogers and other officers were set at liberty in the city of Mexico.

The proposition of the English government offering to mediator a peace, were taken up in the Mexican congress, and a motion to even consider them was lost, ayes 33, nays 44, “from this it would appear that the present congress is determined to shut the door.”

The diligence which reached Jalapa on the 11th was full of passengers from Mexico, all of whom say that in the capital there was no government, no order, all was anarchy, Anaya was president protem, but without authority or influence.  The states north talk of separating from Mexico, they send her no supplies, but little was doing towards defending the city.  “The property holders, the merchants and perhaps the clergy, the military that had disgraced themselves, and all the demagogues among the lawyers were for peace, but still it was far from being popular.”  [CPO]


NNR 72.208 May 29, 1847 half of Gen. Zachary Taylor's dragoons ordered to Veracruz to reinforce Gen. Winfield Scott

Army of Occupation.

Brazos dates to the 11th and Matamoros to the 9th, are received.  An express from Gen. Scott to General Taylor passed Matamoros on the 6th.  Fifteen hundred troops are encamped on the field of Palo Alto.

The New Orleans Picayune of the 20th, states that the destination of one half of the 3d dragoons that had been ordered to join Gen. Taylor, had bee changed.  There are about to embark to join Gen. Scott.  The editor infers from the diversion of the troops from the Rio Grande, that it is not intended that Gen. Taylor should advance.  [ANP] 


NNR 72.209 June 5, 1847, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna’s pass, New York “Sun”

Santa Anna’s Pass.  Since the denial of the Union that President Polk gave any pass to Santa Anna to enter Vera Cruz, the opposition Journals asserts that the order to allow him to pass emanated not directly from the president, but from the department.  The quotation, which the Union inserts from Pres. Polk’s annual message to congress, in reference to the subject clearly implies that the president considered it to be his best policy, if not his duty, to allow Santa Anna to return to Mexico, and there can be no doubt of his having encouraged him to do so, and of course would afford him every facility to 4effect the object.

The Richmond Enquirer, in a leading editorial, considers the allowing of Santa Annas return to have been a capital stroke of policy on the part of the president in a view of its having had the effect of giving to the Mexican army the very worst commander that they could have obtained.  This by the way, is not exactly so complimentary to our army as should have been expected from the Enquirer, as it implies of course that their victories were attributable in a great degree to the defective character of the Mexican commander.

The editor of the New York Sun, has been for some months past in Mexico.  The New York Mirror, intimates that he had a secret mission from President Polk to negotiate for peace.  It was announced some time since that he had been arrested and confined in Mexico.  The Sun denies that he was engaged in any agency from government of the kind, and says he was engaged in a depilation connected with the gold mines.  Whatever was his object, it is stated that he did not succeed.  [CPO]


NNR 72.209 June 5, 1847, steamer New Orleans purchased

Another steamer purchased by government—The steamship New Orleans was yesterday purchased by the government for $125,000—this sum to include the charter of three months, which expired yesterday.  The New Orleans has proved one of the staunchest and best sailing steamers navigating the gulf.  Picayune, May 8
    [CPO]


NNR 72.209 June 5, 1847, Lt. G.W. Harrison’s gallant act in cutting out an enemy brig

Lieut. Harrison of the United States navy.  We have seen a letter dated in January, from an office of our squadron in the Pacific, briefly describing a gallant action performed by Lieut. G. W. Harrison, in the boats of the Cyane, in cutting out an enemy’s brig from the port of Guaymas, where she was laying within pistol shot of the shore, protected by 500 troops and two pieces of cannon.  A continual fire of cannon and small arms was kept up on the assailants from the streets and houses, and it was for a while doubted, by their shipmates on board, whether they would succeed.  They did succeed, however boarded the brig, set her on fire and towed her out a blazing mass, under a shower of grape, and musketry.  The Cyane plied her guns during the attack, but owing to the shallowness of the water in the harbor she could approach me nearer than half a mile, and even then, was obliged to take such a position that an intervening hill sheltered the enemy.  Her fire consequently lent the boats but little aid, except by preventing the Mexicans from debouching on a narrow slip of ground, which lay between them and the water.  The boats’ crews were received with great enthusiasm on their return to the Cyane, and the captain praised, in warm terms, the intelligent, gallant and handsome manner in which his orders had been executed.  N.O Com. Bulletin.  [CPO]


NNR 72.209-72.210 June 5, 1847, comments on the Mexican tariff

“New Mexican Tariff”

From the New York Evening Post, of the 1st June.

Mr. Editor- In requesting space in your columns the following, from an evening paper, (evidently by one conversant with the subject, confirmatory of the views you so kindly published on the 8th instant, I beg distinctly to disapprove the imputation of an intent to deceive, the part of the administration, either our own countrymen or native Californians, and am still confident that correct statement of the evil effects of the “New Tariff” on Upper California will secure speedy relief.

I remain, sir, your obed’t serv’t
A FRIEND TO CALIFORNIA

[CPO]

NNR 72.210 June 5, 1847, Samuel Houston’s explanation for declining commission as major-general with the Army invading Mexico

To C. N. Webb, Esq.

General Samuel Houston, ex-president of, and now United States senator from Texas, passed through St. Augustine, on his way home on the 26th ult.   The Picayune says. “He remained there several hours, receiving the warm greetings of this numerous friends, and during the time made a speech to a large audience at the customhouse.  He gave a general account of his stewardship as a senator from the state, and among other things said that “the commission of major general in the army invading Mexico, was tendered to himself and colleague, Gen Rusk, but both had declined its acceptance- his own reason for doing so was, that he differed in opinion as to the proper plan of carrying on the war, with the officers who would have been his seniors in rank, and he would not assist in carrying out measures directly antagonistic to his own judgment.”

General H. as our readers are aware, has been spoken of and written about, as a suitable candidate for the next presidency.  [CPO]


NNR 72.210 June 5, 1847, comments on Gen. Winfield Scott’s proclamation

GEN. SCOTT’S PROCLAMATION

The Washington correspondent of the Philadelphia Ledger writes, May 30th:

The proclamation of General Scott is the theme of universal comment; but no one ventures to ensure it.  It is a document very much to the purpose, and that made me believe at first that it might, like the proclamation of General Taylor, have been either prepared in, or texturally furnished from, Washington.  On further inquiry, however, I learn that it is altogether the production of General Scott himself; though, in the confidential interviews he has had with the president and his cabinet, it may be supposed that the subject of a proclamation was talked of, and the points agreed upon, as this is the most natural way its coincidences with the views entertained by the administration can be accounted for.  I was perfectly correct in stating that the confidence reposed by the administration in General Scott, not only as a general and commander, but as a negotiator and diplomat, is unlimited and that he and Mr. Trist have full power to negotiate with Mexico should she exhibit any disposition to come to an amiable arrangement.

When General Scott’s proclamation was issued Mr. Trist, I believe, was not with General Scott, but still at Verz Cruz.  General Scott may have sent a copy of it confidentially to Mr. Trist, or Commodore Perry (which latter step all military usages would have required him, to take, in order that the commander of the fleet may not do things, or suffered them to be done, which might come in conflict with the commander in chief on terra firma, in order to be certain not to commit his government beyond what the latter would be willing to approve and consider itself bound by.  That General Scotts’ brought in unison, previous to Gen. Scott’s departure, no one can doubt in the fact of the general’s proclamation, but how, under those circumstances, the lieutenant general should have been started, is a wonder, and justifies to a certain extent the general’s apprehension of a “fire in the rear.”  [CPO]


NNR 72.214 June 5, 1847, Gen Winfield Scott’s proclamation to the Mexican nation

“ARMY OF INVASION”

THE GENERAL IN CHIEF OF THE ARMIES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA TO THE MEXICAN NATION:

Headquarters of the Army.
Jalapa, May 11, 1847.

Mexicans!  The recent events of the war, and the measures adopted in consequence by your government, made it my duty to address you to show you truths of which you are ignorant, because they have been criminally concealing from you.  I do not ask you to trust my words, but to judge of these truths by facts with the views and knowledge of you all.

Whatever may have been the origin of the war, which my country saw itself forced to undertake by irremediable causes, which I learn are unknown to the greater part of the Mexican nation, we regard it as a necessity, such is it always to both belligerents, and reason and justice, if not forgotten on both sides, are in dispute, each behaving them its own.  You have proof of this truth as well as ourselves, for in Mexico as in the United States, there have existed and do exist two opposite parties, desiring the one peace, the other war.  But government have sacred duties, from which they cannot depart, and often these duties impose, for national reasons, a silence and a reserve sometimes displeasing to the majority of those, who from views purely personal or individual make opposition.  To this a government cannot pay any regard, expecting the nation to place in it the confidence inherited by a magistracy of their own election.

Reasons of high policy and of continental American interest propitiated events, in spite of the circumspection of the cabinet of Washington, which ardently desiring to terminate its differences with Mexico, spared no resource, compatible with honor and dignity, to arrive at so desirable an end; and when it was indulging the most flattering hopes of accomplishing its aim by frank explanations and reasoning, addressed to the judgment and prudence of the virtuous and patriotic government of General D.J. Herrera, the misfortune least looked for dispelled this pleasant hope, and at the same time, blocked up every avenue which could lead to an honorable settlement between the two nations.  The new government discarded the national interests, as well as those of continental America and elected in preference foreign influences the most opposed to those interests, and the most fatal to the future of Mexican liberty and of the republican system, which the United States hold it a duty to preserve and protect.  Duty, honor, and dignity itself imposed upon us the necessity of not losing a season of which the monarchial party was taking violent advantage for not a moment was to be lost; and we acted with the promptness and decision necessary in a case so urgent, to avoid thereby a complication of interests, which might render our relations more difficult and involved.

Again the course of civil war the government of Paredes was overthrown.  We could not but hope this would prove a fortunate events, and that whatever other administration might represent the government, it would be less deluded, as well as more patriotic and prudent, if it looked to the common good, weighing probabilities, its own strength and resources, and especially the general opinion as to the inevitable results of a national war.  We were deceived, as perhaps you, Mexicans were also deceived, in judging of the true intentions of Gen. Santa Anna, whom you recalled, and whom our government permitted to return.

From this condition of things the Mexican nation has seen what have been the results, results lamented by all, and by us sincerely, for we appreciate, as is due, the valor and noble determination of the unfortunates who go to battle ill led, worse governed, and almost invariably outraged by deceit for perfidy.

We have witnessed and we cannot be taxed with partiality for lamenting with astonishment that eh heroic department of the garrison of Vera Cruz, in its valiant defense, was aspersed by the general who had just been defeated and put to shameful flight by a force far inferior to that which he commanded at Buena Vista; that this general, rewarding the insurgents and promoters of civil war in Mexico, heaped outrage on those who had singularly distinguished themselves by a resistance beyond what could be expected, and of admirable decision.

Finally, the bloody event of Cerro Gordo has shown the Mexican nation what it may reasonably expect, it is longer and continues blind to the true situation in which it has been placed by some generals whom it has most distinguished, and in whom it has most confided.

The hardest heart would be moved to greed in contemplating the battlefields of Mexico a moment after the last struggle.  Those generals whom the nation has, without service rendered, paid for some any years, with some honorable exceptions, have in the day of need betrayed it by their bad example for unskillful ness.  On that field, amongst the dead and dying, are seen no proofs of military honor; for they are reduced to the sad fate of the soldier, the same on every occasion, from Palo A lot to Cerro Gordo, the dead remain unburied and the wounded abandoned to the clemency and charity of the conqueror.  Soldiers who go to fight, expecting such a recompense deserve to be classed amongst the best in the world, since they are stimulated by no hope of ephemeral glory, of regret, of remembrance, or even of a grave.

Again, Mexicans of honorable pride, contemplate the lot of peaceful and laborious citizens in all classes of your society.  The possessions of the church menaced, an d held out as an enactment to revolution and anarchy; the fortunes of the rich proprietors pointed out for plunder to the ill-disposed; the merchant and the artisan, the laborer and the manufacturer, burdened with contributions, excises, monopolies, taxes, upon consumption, surrounded with restrictions and charged with odious internal customs; the man of letters and the statesman, the man of liberal knowledge who dates to speak, persecuted without trial by some faction, or by the rulers who abuse their rower, criminals unpunished and set at liberty, as were those of Perote: is this, then Mexicans, the liberty which you enjoy?

I will not believe that the Mexicans of the present day are wanting in courage to confess errors which do not dishonor them, and to adopt a system of true liberty of peace and union with their brethren and neighbors of the north; neither will I believe that they are ignorant of the falsity of the culminate of the press, intended to excite to hostility.  NO! Public sentiment is not to be created or animated by falsehood.  We have not profaned your temples, nor abused your women, nor seized your property, as they would have you believe.  We say this with pride, and we confirm it by your own bishops and by the clergy of Tampico, Tuspan, Matamoros, Monterey, Vera Cruz, and Jalapa, and by all the authorities, civil and religious, and the inhabitants of every town that we have occupied.  We adore the same God, and a large portion of our army, as well as of the population of the United States, are Catholic like yourselves.  We punish crime wherever we find it, and reward merit and virtue.

The army of the United States respects, and will always respect, private property of every description and the property of the Mexican church.  We to him who does not know who we are!

Mexicans, the past cannot now be remedied but the future may be provided for.  Repeatedly have I shown you that government and people of the United States desire peace, desire your sincere friendship.  Abandon, then, feverous prejudices to be the sport of individual ambition, and conduct yourselves like a great American nation; leave off at once colonial habits, and learn to be truly free, truly republican, soon you will become prosperous and happy, for you possess all the elements to be so.  Remember that you are Americans and that your happiness is not to come from Europe.

I desire, in conclusion to declare and with equal frankness that, if necessary an army of on hundred thousand could promptly be brought, and that the United States would not terminate their differences with Mexico in a manner uncertain precarious, or less dishonoring to yourselves.  I should insult the intelligent of this country if I had any doubt of their acquaintance with this truth.

The order to form guerrilla parties to attack us, I assure you, can produce nothing but evil to your country, and no evil to your army, which will know how to protect itself how to proceed against them; and if so far from conciliating you succeed in irritating, you will impose, upon us the hard necessity of retaliation, and then you cannot blame us for the consequences which will fall upon yourselves.

I am marching with my army upon Puebla and Mexico; I do not conceal it; from those capitals I shall again address you.  I desire peace, friendship, and union; it is for you to select whether you prefer war.  Under any circumstances, be assured I shall not fail my word.

WINFIELD SCOTT

[CPO]


NNR 72.214-72.215 June 5, 1847 AMERICAN PRISONERS IN MEXICO

Castle of Santiago. City of Mexico, April 3.

Dear Brother - I have written to you frequently since I became a prisoner of war. My former letter related to business almost exclusively.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

I shall now speak a little of Mexico and Mexicans.

From Saltillo to Agua Nueva is eight leagues and here there is fine water. Thence to San Juan de Venago 150 miles, there is no water except in tanks and wells. The tanks are built of earth and cement and filled in the wet season; but may be easily emptied by opening the bottoms. The wells can be readily ruined by throwing in dead animals. Hence the almost impossibility of an invading army marching through the country. This part of the country is also very unproductive, on account of the scarcity of water, it being impossible to irrigate to any extent from the tanks and wells, and agriculture cannot be prosecuted without copious irrigation, in consequence of the length of the droughts.

From San Jaun de Venegas to Matedaula is twenty four miles. This town is situated in a mining district and contains sixteen thousand inhabitants. From this place to San Luis Potosi there is a tolerably good supply of water. The country presents a beautiful level plain, bounded by rugged barren mountains. - The people are poor, miserable, stupid. The country is going to decay, evidences of which are seen at every step. This has been the case from the time of the revolution - some, indeed, say as far back as the invasion of Cortez.

San Luis Potosi is a beautiful town with some sixty thousand people. We arrived there on the 5th of February, and left the 15th. We passed a number of small towns containing from three to eight thousand people, and arrived at Queretaro on the 21st. This city I had never heard of before. It is the handsomest I have seen, and its reported population varied from thirty to seventy thousand souls. The buildings are truly superb, and the aqueduct, which supplies the city with water, is indeed magnificent.

We reached the vicinity of this place, Mexico on the 27th, when our conductors, learning that the civil war had broken out, detained us at a point three leagues off, for a day and a half - to preserve us from the mob as they said, but as we found out, to save themselves, as not knowing which party was uppermost, they did not know to which they belonged. We reached the castle after midnight and were smuggled into it with great privacy. A few moments after we entered an alarm was raised by the discharge of four guns in rapid succession. We heard some one say four men were killed and ten had escaped. We now ascertained that we were lodged in a prison containing about two hundred convicted felons. The escape made it necessary to change their cells and they were brought out and passed through the yard where we were, chained two and two, and placed in safe dungeons. The fight was yet raging in the city, and I shall never forget my entrée into the city of the Aztecs.

The civil war lasted till about the 20th ult. when the arrival of Santa Anna put an end to it. Whether there were many killed during the twenty day's fight I do not know; but it is said that a great many old women, cats and dogs were slain. The insurrection was a god send to Santa Anna as it furnished him a small job after his dreadful defeat at Buena Vista. He left here yesterday with the shattered fragments of his army, pretending that he would immolate himself, if need be, between this and Vera Cruz, should Gen. Scott attempt to march upon the capital.

This nation, so far as government is concerned, may be said to be annihilated. They are without an army, money, or men, capable of ruling. Santa Anna himself is said to be superior to his countrymen only in knowledge of the Mexican character and his ability in humbugging them. Whether a peace would follow the capture of this city is extremely uncertain; amongst our friends her the opinion is it will not.

General Scott having taken many prisoners at Vera Cruz we are in daily expectation of being exchanged, in which case we will rejoin the army and probably return to the United States as soon as we would had we never been captured. [Santa Anna appears to be as forgetful as his friend La Vega, as it seems to have escaped his memory that he had engaged with Gen. Taylor for the release of these prisoners. - Eds.]

I have written you several letters since my captivity.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Although in the city of Mexico I have seen but little of it - and that little through the iron gratings of the castle of Santiago. Whether we shall be indulged with a view of it after our release, I know not. I trust we shall.
Your affectionate brother.
JNO. P. GAINES
[JLM]


NNR 72.214-72.215 June 5, 1847 THE INDIANA VOLUNTEERS AT BUENA VISTA

When the first account of the Victory at Buena Vista reached us, we took the liberty of qualifying as we believed would prove to be but just, the relation relative to the retreat of the Indiana regiment. The subsequent official report went to confirm the first account. We delayed for further developments confident that it would be ascertained that the men composing the regiment in question were not as striking a contrast to the other volunteers on the field, as they stood implicated as being. A very different version of the whole affair was soon after given in the Indiana journals derived from letter from the army deeply implicating some of those that were represented as having acted with signal bravery and as retrieving the character of Indiana to some extent. These indicated that an inquiry would be demanded, and the truth would be elicited before proper tribunal. Col. Lane's statement of the attack came next, and then the finding of a court martial. We shall have the whole truth in due time.

COLONEL LANE'S STATEMENT.

The commandant of the 3d Indiana regiment writes to the editor of the New Orleans Delta as follows:

Camp Buena Vista, April 19, 1847.

It is an error that the Indiana brigade, as a brigade was in the fight. The first regiment was on the Rio Grande, the 2d on the extreme left of the line of battle, and the 3d on the extreme right - further separated than any two regiments upon the field.

[...] suppose your informant was led into error because Brigadier General Lane was with the 2d regiment. It is an error that my regiment ever hesitated for a single instant, and it has the signal merit of being one, if not the only one in the action, that did [not] retreat.

Our position was in the road, by which alone the artillery of the enemy could be brought forward, and only exposed to the artillery fire until the 2d Indiana, Kentucky, Illinois, Mississippi troops had been driven successively back by the overpowering force of the enemy. The enemy having been twice repulsed in our front and having completely turned our left flank and taken position next the mountain, we were ordered there, and formed a junction with Col. Davis' regiment and the 2d Indianians, which had been rallied. This force advanced upon the infantry and lancers and kept up a brisk fire until it was ordered to cease by Gen. Taylor. It was now that the lancers made the charge alluded to, and for the repulse of which the credit is given to the Mississippians. This charge alluded to , and for the repulse of which the credit is given to the Mississippians. This charge was made in column upon the extreme right of my regiment; the 2d Indianians and Mississippians being on our left. They were permitted to approach within twenty five steps of the line before I gave the command to fire; they were repulsed, and fled under cover of their battery, and their infantry dispersed among mountains. We now moved to the vicinity of O'Brien's battery, and when we arrived there the Kentucky and Illinois troops, overpowered by numbers were retreating, and the enemy pressing hotly upon them and the battery, which was in imminent danger of being captured. We opened a fire upon them, and they retreated in the greatest disorder. This last blow terminated the battle, and, instead of leaving the battle field as stated, we (the 3d Indianians) bivouacked in the most advanced position held by our troops in the morning, and the enemy drew off.

As troops never fought better then the 3d Indianians; as their steadiness and coolness is proverbial, (as you will see by the official report), I am astonished that such calumnies should be fabricated against it. We were brought into the actions when the day seemed extremely critical, and were victorious in every engagement, and, in my opinion, are entitled to the credit of having twice saved the fortunes of the day. I have not mentioned the retreat or chance of position of other regiments invidiously, but as a proof that the fortunes of the day, in an eminent degree, rested upon and was sustained by my regiment. So much for the 3d regiment of Indiana volunteers.

The 2d Indiana regiment opened the "ball" on the 23d, and I undertake to say they deserve credit for maintaining their first position as long as they did; they were on the extreme left next the mountain. They stood firm and steady as veterans, and exchanged twenty one rounds with a vastly superior force in their front; with their entire line, from left to right, raked by a deadly fire of grape and canister, from one 24 pounder and two 18's; with their right flank threatened, and their rear exposed from a force that was contending with the riflemen upon the mountain. They did not retreat until they were ordered to do so by their commander, as is in evidence before a court of inquiry now sitting. The only possible charge which can be made in truth against the 2d Indianians is that they did not rally as soon as they should; but the fault is not with them, but with the commander, who designated no force or point for them to rally upon.

It would be criminal in me to permit our brave soldiers, who have done so much to sustain their country's honor, to sleep under the gross injustice which your article does them, and I respectfully request that you will give this notice a place in your paper. Very respectfully. J.H. Lane [JLM]


NNR 72.215-72.216 June 5, 1847 Gen. Gideon Johnson Pillow's report on Cerro Gordo

Battle of Sierra Gordo.

Reports of Gen. Scott to the War Department.
Report of Briagadier General Pillow.

Headquarters 1st Brigade, Volunteer Division,
Plan del Rio, April 18, 1847.

Sir: I have the honor to report, for the information of the general commanding the division, that, in compliance with general orders No. 111, I took up a position with my brigade in front of the works occupied by the enemy's right wing, but had not time to gain this position before the attack on his left commenced.

My command was composed of the 1st and 2nd Tennessee and the 1st and 2d Pennsylvania foot, and a small detachment of Tennessee horse, commanded by Captian Caswell, and Capt. Williams' company of Kentucky volunteers.  It was divided into tow storming parties, each supported by a strong reserve.  IT was my intention to assail with these parties, simultaneously, the adjacent angles of batteries Nos. 1 and 2-those points having been indicated by the engineer officer on duty with the brigade, as those proper for the assault-and thus, if possible, turn the whole line of works; but before the proper dispositions for the assault could be made, our movements were discovered by the enemy, who immediately opened upon our ranks with a most galling fire of musketry, grape and canister. In this critical position of affairs, I found myself compelled either to retire beyond the range of the enemy's guns to complete my dispositions for the assault, or commence it at once with such force as I had already I  position; but apprehending the moral effect which a  retreat might produce upon troops many of whom were comparatively inexperienced and unaccustomed to fire, I resolved to adopt the latter alternative.

I therefore directed Col. Haskell, who commanded the assaulting force intended for the attack of battery No. 2, to assail that work with vigor, and carry it at the point of the bayonet; his party moved onward to the assault with great energy and enthusiasm, but, owing to the many serious obstacles, such as dense chaparral thickets and brush entanglements, the unexpected weight of artillery fire concentrated upon it from seven guns, and to the strong supporting force of infantry, it was compelled to retire with a great loss of both officers and men.

In the mean time, Col. Wynkoop, who commanded the storming party, designed to attack battery No. 1, succeeded in gaining the position where the assault was to have been made, but finding that the fire of the main attack on the enemy's left had ceased, I deemed it prudent to suspend further operations, until it should recommence, or until further instructions should be received from  the general in chief.  My whole force being drawn up for the attack of battery No. 1, I remained in this position until the news of the enemy's surrender arrived, when I withdrew my command to the national road.  It is proper to state here, that Lieut. Ripley, of the artillery, assisted by Lieut. Laidley, of the ordnance, although separated from the rest of my command by their position, were actively engaged in the service of an eight inch howitzer, which, with extraordinary exertions, they succeeded in having dragged over the eights upon the right bank of the river, and which they established so as to obtain an enfilading fire upon the enemy's lines.

Col. Haskell's assaulting force, composed of his own regiment, (2d Tennessee foot,) Captain Williams's Kentucky company, and Capt. Naylor's Company of 2d Pennsylvania regiment, being , from the nature of its duties, most exposed to the terrible fire of the enemy sustained the shock-both officers and men-with a firmness and constancy worth of high commendation.

In the action, Col. Campbell, finding that I was too severely wounded for the moment to give orders, assumed temporary command, and began, with his accustomed energy and promptitude, dispositions for another attack, which was only deferred by myself for reasons before stated.

Lieutenants Tower and McClellan,of the corps of engineers, displayed great zeal and activity in the discharge of their duties in connexion with my command.

My staff-composed of Captain Winship, A.A.G., Lieutenant Rains, my aid-de-camp, and Lieut. Anderson, 2d Tennessee foot, acting aid-de-camp-were of essential service to me; for on account of my wound in the early part of the action, I was compelled to rely more than ordinarily upon their assistance.

I should do violence to my own feelings, as well as injustice to my command, were I to omit a notice of their coolness and good conduct generally upon this occasion.  Although, at he time of their assault, the enemy was found to have a much larger amount of artillery bearing upon the approach of our troops than had been supposed, and which had been, until the moment, concealed by the nature of the ground, as well as by artificial arrangements, still none seemed to doubt its final accomplishment, or to shrink from its performance.

Respectfully submitted, G. J. Pillow,
Brig. General U.S.A.

To Wm. H. French a A. Act'g. Adj't. Gen.  [ANP]


NNR 72.216 June 5, 1847 Col. William Selby Harney's report on Cerro Gordo

Report of Col. Harney.

Jalapa, Mexico, April 21, 1847.

Sir: On the evening of he 16th inst: owing to the illness of Brevet Brig. Gen. Smith, I was placed in command of the 1st brigade of the 2nd division, and it is now my grateful duty to report the operations of that brigade in the actions of the 17th and 18th inst.  Our encampment at Plan del Rio enabled the engineer officers of make frequent and close observations on the enemy's position, and it was ascertained that he had fortified himself on a range of hills for two miles in a mountain pass, and that he last of his works was on the Sierra Gordo which, from its position and defences, was considered almost impregnable.  On the morning of the 17th the 2d division, under the command of Brig. Gen. Twiggs, was directed to turn the enemy by the right flank, and I was ordered by that officer to seize and maintain all the heights in the neighborhood of the Sierra Gordo, with, from their proximity and position, might be of advantage I an attack on that fortress.  Shortly after the column tuned off to the right from the main road, Brevet 1st Lieut. F. Gardner, 7th infantry  was directed with his company to move to the crest of a hill on the left, and to watch the enemy's movements.  While in the execution of this order, Lieut. Gardner became engaged with the enemy, but, he gallantly maintained his position against fearful odds, until he was succored by the riflemen under Major Sumner, and the artillery under Col. Childs, who drove the enemy, after a severe conflict, from their first position, and continued the pursuit until they made a second stand on a hill near the Sierra Gordo, within the range of heir grape and canister, and from which our troops suffered a severe loss but the hill was stormed and carried, and afterwards maintain, although he enemy made three successive charges to regain it.  A portion of the troops under Col. Childs led on by their zeal and impetuosity, rushed down the hill the ascent of the Sierra Gordo, but as an attack was not intended at that time they were recalled and joined Gen. Twiggs.  The rifles and 7th infantry slept on the hill, and to that point were brought, in the night, a 24 pounder and two 24 howitzers, which, at 7 o'clock in the morning , commenced a cannonade on the enemy's fortification of the Sierra Gordo.  Early in the morning I was reinforced by four companies 1st artillery, under Lieut. Col. Childs, and sox companies, 3d infantry, under Capt. Alexander, and I immediately gave directions to the different commanders to prepare their troops for storming Sierra Gordo.  The rifles were directed to move to their left in the ravine and to engaged the enemy; and I instructed Major Loring that, as soon as I discovered hat he had commenced the attack, I would move forward the storming force which I was about to organize.  The 7th infantry was formed on the right, the 3d infantry on the left, and the artillery was formed I rear of the infantry, with orders to support it.  Observing that a large force was moving from the left on the main road, towards the Sierra Gordo, I deemed it prudent to advance at once, and immediately ordered the charge to be sounded without waiting for the fire the riflemen.  The enemy poured upon my line a most galling fire of grape, cannister, and musketry from different positions around the hill; but my troops advanced intrepidly and as steadily as on a parade day.  I cannot speak too ardently of heir animation, zeal, and courage under such trying circumstances, and without which they never would have surmounted the natural and artificial obstacles which opposed their progress.  Around the hill, about 60 yards from the foot, there was a breastwork of stone, which was filled with Mexican troops, who offered an obstinate resistance, continuing to fire until the troops reached the breastwork, and where, for a few moments, bayonets were crossed.  Beyond this, and immediately around the fort, there was another work, from which oaur advance was again obstinately opposed; but the troops immediately surmount it, carried the fort, pulled down the Mexican flag, and played our colors amid the proud rejoicing of our troops.  Agreeably to instructions the rifles moved to the left, where they became engaged with a succoring force, but which they held in check, notwithstanding a most galling fire from the enemy's entrenchment's and from the musketry in front.  After the enemy's canon had been captured.  I directed Captain Maggruder to take charge of the pieces and to direct their fire upon the enemy, which he executed with zeal and ability.  It is also due to Lieut. Richardson to state that, as soon as he came into the fort, he took possession of one of the enemy's gun's , and, with his men, promptly turned it with great effect upon the enemy.  I also directed Lieut. Colonel Plympton, at the same time, to move with his regiment in the Jalapa road to cut off the enemy's retreat, which he promptly executed, and maintained his position until the forts and forces of the enemy had surrendered.  Such is a plain, but I know an imperfect and hasty account of the actions of the 17th and 18th inst:

For further particulars, I would respectively refer the commander of he division to the reports of the different commanders of regiments which are herewith enclosed.  It is now my delicate duty tot report he different acts of personal gallantry displayed by individual officers, non commissioned officers, and privates; and as many of these did not come under my own observation, I would again refer the commander of the division tot he different reports of the regimental commanders, with the hope that the merits of all, however humble their situation, may be properly brought before the notice of the government.  To Col. Plympton, Col. Childs, Major Sumner, Major Loring, and Capt. Alexander, my especial thanks are due for their coolness, zeal, and gallantry, and for the promptitude with which, on all occasions, they executed my orders.  Captain Step toe, 3d artillery, Lieut. Hagner, and Lieut. Reno, Ordinance department, and Lieut. Seyour, of the artillery, rendered efficient service in the management of the artillery on the hill. Lieut. G. W. Smith, of the engineers, with his company, rendered very efficient service in his own department, as well as in storming of the fort.  The conduct of Capt. Mason, of the rifles, who was so unfortunate as to lose his leg, came under my personal observation, and it is not the first time I have had an opportunity of witnessing his coolness and intrepidity in danger.  Capt. Magruder's gallantry was conspicuously displayed on several occasions, and he rendered me efficient service.  I lament to refer tot he death of Lieut. Ewell, whose gallant demeanor, throughout the several engagements with the enemy, attracted my special notice, and who fell in the breastwork noble lead his men to victory.  Particular mention is due to Capt. Hanson and Lieut. Gardner for distinguished gallantry.  Major Bainbridge, whose good conduct has been so conspicuous on so many occasions since the war with Mexico, was the second officer in rank in his regiment, and deserves my warmest approbation for his gallantry and promptitude.  Especial thanks are due to my personal staff, Lieut. Van Dorn, 7th infantry, Lieut. Oaks, 2d dragoons, and Lieut. Derby, topographical engineers, for the efficient aid which they rendered me both days in transmitting my orders, and for the individual gallantry which they uniformly displayed.  Lieut. Derby was wounded, and Lieut. Van Dorn killed two Mexican soldiers at the breastwork with his own hands.  I have been reluctant to mention the names of any, where all acted with so much energy, zeal, and intrepidity; no doubt many behaved as those I have mentioned, but who did not come under my observation; and I know that all, if occasion had offered, would have gladly embraced the opportunity for personal distinction.  In he two days,  had in my brigade, including the 3d infantry, 2 officers killed, 9 wounded; 29 non commissioned officers nd privates killed, 175 non commissioned officers and privates wounded.  The officers killed in my command are Lieuts. Ewell and Davis, of the rifles;-and wounded-Major Sumner, Capt. S.T. Mason, Lieuts. G. McLane, D.H. Maury; and A. Gibbs, of the rifles; Lieuts. J. N. Ward and. Bea, 3d infantry; Lieut. N.T.J. Dana, 7th infantry, and Lieut. Derby, topographical engineers.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. S. Harney,

Col. 2d dragoons, commanding 1st brigade.

To Lieut. W.T.H. Brooks, A.A.A. G. 2d division.
[ANP]


NNR 72.216-72.217 June 5, 1847 Col. Thomas Childs' report on Cerro Gordo

Headquarters 1st Artillery, 1st Brigade.

2d division, Army of Invasion.

Sir: Agreeably to instructions from Colonel Harney, commanding the 1st brigade, 2d division, of the army of invasion, I have the honor to submit the following report of the operations of the 1st regiment of artillery under my command, on the 17th and 18th of April, at Cerro Gordo.

On the 17, the 2d division marched from Plana del Rio in pursuance of orders from the headquarters of the army.  In taking up a position, the enemy appeared in large force on the hills in front of the mountain of Cerro Gordo.  The 1st brigade, under the command of Colonel Harney, consisting of the rifle regiment, the 1st artillery, and the 7th infantry, were ordered to drove back to enemy.  The two first named regiments, being nearest the enemy, advanced I line under a heavy fire, driving the Mexicans from hill to hill, and finally to their stronghold, and supposed impregnable position, the heights of Cerro Gordo.  In passing the rest of the hill immediately in front of Cerro Gordo, the 1st artillery became separated from the left of the rifles: and, supposing that as the action had commenced, it would only terminate with the capture of the height before us, and hearing a continued fire upon my left, the 1st artillery rushed down the side of the hill and commence the ascent of Cerro Gordo under a most galling fire.

Having reached within 150 yards of the batteries of the enemy, I found that no other troops had advanced over he hill, and but a portionof my own regiment consisting of a part of three companies, and amounting only to about 60 men, had come up; Captain Magruder, with his company, and Lieutenant Johnston, with a  part of Leiutenant Haskin's company, having been ordered by Major Sumner to remain where they then were, in rear of the crest of the hill, in front of Cerro Gordo.

Captain Magruder, in attempting afterwards to join me, with nine of his men, passed gallantly through a shower of bullets from the enemy's musketry, and Major Sumner, in coming to my support, was wounded.

Having maintained my position until the recall was several times sounded, and, seeing that the first attack was not to be made, I fell back with only men enough to carry down the wounded-having had 9 killed and 23 wounded.  Before leaving my position I was joined by Captain Nauman, who from severe indisposition, had not been able to keep up with his company.

I cannot close the notice of the operation of the regiment on this day without calling the attention of the commander of the brigade to the gallant conduct of Captain Burke, acting as my adjutant, to Capron, Lieuts. Haskin and Brannan, who, with the few men, stood the deadly fire of the enemy and encourage them to deeds of valor.-Among those who particularly distinguished themselves, were Sergeants Heymes, Teahan, and Private O'Brien, of company F; Corporal Littlebrand, of company B; and Corporals Harvey, Williams, and Private Bracklin, of company H.

It is proper for me to state hat Lieut. Gibbs, of the rifles, with ten or twelve men, haivng become separated from his regiment, joined the 1st artillery, and was particularly active nd gallant-having shot one of the enemy with his pistol, so close was our proximity.

On the 18th, the 1st artillerycomposed a protion of the storming party that so gloriouslycarried the height of Cerro Gordo defended by thousands of Mexicans; and I can do no less tha name the officers who participated in this bloody conflict, all if whom deserve the notice of the general in chief-They are as follows: Captains Naumen, Magruder, Capron, and Burke; Lieuts. Haskin, Dawson, Brannan, Coppee, an Hoffman.

I have again the pleasure to speak in high terms of Sergeant Holden, of company F. privates Ferguson and Foster, of company B. and Corporal Harvey and private Bracklin, of company H.

I beg particularly to notice the untiring attention of Assistant Surgeon Steiner to the wounded of the regiment, and to those of the enemy that fell into our hands. His professional services we in constant requisition for more than forty eight hours.

I have the honor, likewise, to transmit a Mexican standard captured by the regiment.

The loss of the 1st artillery, on this day, was 1 killed, and 17 wounded: making a total of 10 killed and 40 wounded-amounting to one third of the men actually engaged.  All which is respectfully submitted.

I am, sir, ver respectfully your obedient servant.

Thomas Childs,
Col. U.S. army, commanding 1st artillery.

Lieut. Earl Van Dorn, Act. Ass't Ad't General

Jalapa Mexico.
[ANP]


NNR 72.217 June 5, 1847 Maj. H.H. Loring's report on Cerro Gordo

Headquarters Reg. Of Mounted Riflemen.

Jalapa, April 23, 1847.

Colonel: I have the honor to report that the regiment of mounted riflemen, under he command of Major Sumner, was, one the 17th instant, directed, in advance of the 1st brigade, 2d division of regulars, then in motion, to take position with a view of turning or storming the enemy's position at the main height of the "Cerro Gordo."  The first squadron of riflemen was halted about 400 yards of the point of attack, partly under cover from the enemy's batteries.  While awaiting orders, it was fired upon by the enemy's battery in front and their skirmishers on its left flank.  The squadron was immediately deployed, and a charge ordered.  Simultaneously with this the enemy was attacked upon the summit and farther slope of the hill by the regiment of riflemen and a company of infantry. The enemy was driven from this position under cover of their own batteries.  In this attack Major Sumner, commanding the regiment of mounted riflemen, was severely wounded and carried to the rear, leaving myself I command.  The rear squadrons having been deployed on the left as skirmishers, advanced and continued the attack and assisted I driving the enemy into their works.  At this time the mountain howitzer battery having been placed I position upon the height from which the enemy was driven, the regiment was directed to sustain the battery in lace, and also to prevent the enemy from turning our left flank-a large force being seen advancing down the Jalapa road from the main height towards the two others-and here remained through the day and during the night, assisting, with others, in sustaining the heavy batteries that were planted.  At the dawn of day the brigade was ordered to prepare for battle.  At an early hour, and before the attack upon the min work, a large succoring force was seen advancing on the Jalapa road; the rifles were ordered to pass to the left, attract the attention of the enemy, and keep them in check until the storming of the heights commenced, in which the regiment was to join on the left flank.  During this diversion, it was exposed to a galling and destructive fire of round, grape, canister, and musketry, upon its front and both flanks, from the enemies' three main entrenchment's and batteries, in which it suffered great loss.  In this movement, a large force of the enemy was held in check, which, from their position, would have been able to have turned the assaulting column.  The general assault having been ordered, a portion of the regiment joining it, the works having been carried before the whole line, which was necessarily extended to the left, could possibly reach the heights; this being effected, the regiment, with others, was place in position on the heights.  Ina very short time the enemy surrendered.  The regiment of mounted riflemen followed, in company with others, the retreating army to within 10 miles of Jalapa.

The distinguished gallantry of the officers and men of the regiment of mounted rifles was so universal that the task of discriminating is one of extreme difficulty.

Foremost in the assaulting column, and that in the enemy's citadel, was 1st Lieut. Thomas Evell, of company "A," who, in desperate personal conflict with the last of the retreating foe, fell mortally wounded on the scene of his imperishable glory.

The regiment has also to deplore the death of 2d Lieut. Thomas Davis, company "H," who was killed gallantly advancing to the attack.

Capt. Mason, of company "F," had his leg carried off by a round shot whilst leading his company into action, and Lieut. D.H. Maury had his arm shattered in the conflict of the preceding morning

It is due the regimental staff, Lieut. Frost, regimental quartermaster, and Lieut. Jatch, adjutant, to state that they were upon all occasions found where their services were most wanted, and throughout both days highly distinguished, themselves by their gallantry and good conduct.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. H. Loring,

Major Comdg. R. M. R.

To Col. W.S. Harney,
Comdg. 1st Brigade Regulars
[ANP]


NNR 72.217 June 5, 1847 Capt. Thompson Morris' report on Cerro Gordo

Headquarters 2d Regiment, U.S. Infantry.

Jalapa, Mexico, April 20, 1847.

Sir: In obedience to instructions from brigade headquarters, I have the honor to report the following facts in relation to the operation of the 2d regiment of U. S. infantry, which I had the honor to commend at the recent engagement at the heights of the Cerro Gordo on the afternoon of the seventeenth, and on the morning of the eighteenth instant.

Early in the afternoon of the seventeenth instant, the "rifles" engaged the enemy on a height just to the left of their centre and drove off a large force and carried the first height, when the second infantry was ordered forward to their support; and on arriving in position was ordered to halt util further orders.  Shortly after, the regiment was ordered to press forward to the support of Brevet Col. Childs' command, then engaged in advance; but owning to the nature of the ground, which was rocky and precipitous, and to the distance from these latter, they had been withdrawn before it could come up with them.  All of this time a plunging and galling fire was kept up by the enemy from their batteries and their musketry without intermission.  Lieut. Jarvis, commanding company "A," was wounded so as to be obliged to retire from the field, and the command of the company was give to Lieut. Davis.  Two privates were also slightly wounded.

The regiment did not engage the enemy on that after noon owning to there not being time enough to do so before it would be dark; and accordingly it was place under partial cover near the base of the height above mentioned, and on which our battery was afterwards posted.  We remained during the night on our arms in order of battle, completely commanding the pass.

It affords me pleasure to mention that it has been reported to me that Lieut. Hayden, in charge of the pioneers of the division, was constantly employed inpreparing a road suitable for artillery to advance in, under a heavy fire, which service he performed with much coolness and energy.

Early in the morning of the 18th instant, the regiment was ordered forwart to take position on the Jalapa road in rear of the nemy's works.  At the commencement of this movement, which had to be made directly across a ravine swept byt e enemy's batteries, Captian Patten, commandig company "K," had his left hand nearly cut off by a grape shot, and the command of his company devolved upon sergeant Shaw, who behave well  throughout the day.  The enemy appeared increasing in numbers all ove the sides of the hills along which it was necessary to pass, and an order was given for a detachment of be sent out to drive them off at every hazard.

Capt. Penrose, commanding company "I," and Lieut. Davis, commanding company "A," the whole under the command of the former, were detached and deployed as skirmishers for this purpose, and I soon had the pleasure of seeing them charging up the height in rear of the main work of the enemy in a most gallant manner, and driving them from their positions of the height; while engaged in which Capt. Smith commanding company "B," and shortly after, Capt. Anderson, commanding company "H," were in lie manner detached; and I beg to refer to the reports of Capts. Smith, Penrose, and Anderson, herewith enclosed, for information respecting their commands.

During most of this time the regiment had been advancing towards the Jalapa road, but was at the same time ascending the height in reverse around the sides of which it had bee ordered to deploy as skirmishers.  No sooner had this height become our than the enemy appeared in large force on the Jalapa road and we were ordered to hasten to that point.  Capt. Canby with a small detachment, accompanied by Lieut. Lyon, pressed hotly on their rear, and were soon in possession of a batter of three pieces which had been firing upon us in reverse.

The Jalapa road was now gained and the enemy were flying in all directions.

Owing to the very difficult character of the ground, orders could bot be communicated to the whole regiment simultaneously, nor to even parts of it separated but a short distance from each other.

Capt. Kingsbury, acting major of the regiment, and Lieut. Jones, the adjutant of the 2d infantry, did much to ensure a harmony of action, an by their untiring exertions contributed to the general result of the day.

It gives me pleasure to state that the whole of the 2d regiment of infantry, officers and men, behaved with so much gallantry, that I am forced to regret I cannot make any more special mention of individuals than I have done.

"A list of the killed and wounded" id enclosed herewith.

"I am sir, with respect, your obedient servant,

T. Morris,
Capt. 2d Reg. Inf. Com'g.

Capt. E. R. S. Canby,
A.A.A. Gen. Headquarters 2d Brig. 2. Division.
[ANP]


NNR 72.217-72.218 June 5, 1847 Col. Bennet Riley's report on Cerro Gordo

Headquarters 2d Brigade, 2d division,
Jalapa Mexico, April 20, 1847.

Sir: I have the honor to submit, for the information of the brigadier general commanding the division, the following report of the operations of my brigade before Sierra Gordo, in the affairs of the 17th and 18th instants.  On the morning of the 17th, and while on the march from the camp at El Plana del Rio, the 3d infantry, commanded by Captain E. B. Alexander, was detached from my command by the orders of the brigadier general commanding.-Early in the afternoon of that day I received his instructions to move with the 2d infantry, Captain T. Morris commanding, to the heights in front of the Cerro Gordo, on which the first brigade was then engaged with the enemy, and to make an attack wherever I could do so with effect.  That regiment was accordingly le to the top of the top to the first height, and ordered to halt until the rear should close up.  In order to learn the position of affairs, I immediately proceeded to the opposite hill, then occupied by the regiment of mounted riflemen, when I was informed by Colonel Harney, commanding the 1st brigade, that no additional force was required at that point, but that it was essential that the height of had just left should be held.  Orders were immediately sent to the 2d infantry to remain in the position it then occupied.  Before the order could be communicated, one of the leading companies of the regiment (A) had crossed the ravine separating the heights, and was then lying under cover on the left of the rifles.  A few minutes afterwards I was requested by Colonel Harney to move my command around the hill to the assistance of Colonel Childs, commanding 1st artillery, who was warmly engaged on the opposite side, and required support, whilst a direct attack would be made by his command over the crest of the hill.  The advanced company of the 2d infantry was accordingly ordered around the ridge, and halted under cover ant at the foot of the hill on which Colonel Childs's command was engaged, for the purpose of concentrating the regiment before assailing the hill.  The remainder of he 2d infantry, being still in the position I which it had been halted, did not reach the new position.  The attack having been suspended, and the command of Colonel Childs withdrawn, it was halted, and took up a position on the road near the batteries.  The 4th artillery had remained , during the interval, as the guard for Talcott's and Taylor's batteries.  During the greater part of h night this regiment was employed in the arduous duty of placing the guns of the heavy battery in their positions on the height in front of the enemy's castle.  The 2d infantry was established upon the pass leading to the Jalapa road, and retained that position during the night.

Early on the morning of the 18th my brigade was moved in the direction of the enemy's left on the Jalapa road, under the guidance of Captain Lee, of the engineers, who was supported by company D, 4th artillery, commanded by Lieut. Benjamin.  This movement was made under a heavy fire from the castle and from the enemy's infantry posted on the ridge on our left.  When the advance of the 2d infantry reached the foot of this ridge, two companies of that regiment (A and I) were detached for the purpose of driving in the enemy's skirmishers.

Orders were at the same time given Major Gardner to make a similar detachment when the head of his regiment should reach that point.  The remainder of the brigade moved on in the original direction until halted by the orders of the brigadier general commanding, who also soon afterwards detached, in succession, company B, Capt. Smith, and company H, Captain Anderson, of the 2d infantry, and the 4th artillery, to support the companies first thrown forward.  The remainder of the 2d infantry was immediately afterwards ordered up for the same purpose.  Companies B and H, of the 2d infantry, joining A and I already engaged with the enemy, gallantly stormed the reverse of Cerro Gordo, driving the Mexicans from before them with great loss, and gaining the crest of the hill at he same moment that the 1st brigade reached it from the front-the advance of both brigades meeting near the castle, and joining in the pursuit  beyond the hill.  Of the companies of the 4th artillery and 2 nd infantry, last ordered up the hill but one, the advanced company of the latter, under Lieut. Lyon, reached the crest I time to be engaged with the enemy.

From the crest of the hill I discovered that the enemy's batteries on the plain below, which were still firing upon us, could be turned on the right and carried.  I immediately directed the advance of the 2d infantry, guided by Captain Canby, to move down, attack, and carry the batteries, and ordered the whole brigade to move as soon as possible in the enemy's camp.  A few minutes after these orders were given, I received, through Lieut. Tilden, my acting aid, the orders of the brigadier general commanding to move with my brigade upon the enemy's left.  The movement in that direction, already commenced, was accordingly hastened; but, from the great difficulty in communicating orders, it was sometime before my command was collected.  The batteries in the camp were abandoned by the enemy after a few harmless shots as our men approached them-that on the right, of three guns, was taken possession of by the advance of my brigade; the one on the left-two guns-by a body of volunteers.  A portion of company "D," under Lieut. Lyon, was pushed on in pursuit of the flying enemy, and company "E," under Lieut. Schureman, was established as a guard over the property found in the enemy's camp.

The whole of my command, every portion of which came under my observation at some period of the operations, was characterized by the utmost coolness and steadiness when exposed to a heavy fire of the enemy, which could not be returned, and the most intrepid gallantry when closely engaged.

To the commanders of the 4th artillery, Major Gardner, and of the 2d infantry, Capt. Morris, much credit is due for the promptness in transmitting my orders, and in moving their commands in obedience to them, under circumstances of great difficulty-the nature of the ground, and the extended order of the troops being such that council of actions was almost impossible.

My staff officers, Captain Canby, A.A.G., and Lieutenant Tilden, 2nd infantry, my acting aid, was constantly engaged in the affairs of the 17th and 18th, either in communicating order or in conducting detachments; and by their intelligence and activity in both capacities, rendered highly valuable services.

Although not appropriately within the range of this report, yet coming under my immediate observation, I cannot refrain from hearing testimony to the intrepid coolness and gallantry exhibited by Capt. Lee., United States engineers, when conducting the advance of my brigade under the heavy flank fire of the enemy.

In this connexion, the attention of the brigadier general commanding is particularly called to the cool and gallant conduct of the commander of supporting company, Lieut. Benjamin, 4th artillery.-The officers mentioned by battalion and detachment commander, in almost every instance, came under my own observation, and I am happy in adding my own testimony to that of their immediate commanders.

Authenticated copies of their reports, and a return of the killed, and wounded, and missing, of the brigade are herewith enclosed.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

B. Riley,
Brevet colonel commanding 2d brigade.

Lieut. W. T. H. Brooks,
Acting Ass't. Adj't Gen., 2d division.
[ANP]


NNR 72.218 June 5, 1847 Col. Joseph Plympton's report on Cerro Gordo

Headquarters 7th infantry,

Jalapa, Mexico, April 20th, 1847.

Sir: In obedience to your orders, I have the honor to report that the 1st brigade, 2d division of regulars, broke camp at El Plano del Rio, and moved under your command, at 8 o'clock, a.m., on the 17th inst., to turn the left flank of the enemy, if possible, and attack him in rear of his strong fortified position, in the mountain pass of El Cerro Gordo.

The watchfulness of the enemy, aided by the great labor we had to perform, enabled him to discover our movement before we had effected the object; hence a partial engagement was brought on, and one company (E) 7th infantry, under the command of Brevet 1st Lieutenant F. Gardner, was detached to skirmish with the enemy on our left flank, and the regiment under my command, then forming the left of your brigade, was ordered by Brigadier General Twiggs to advance on the general route to check the enemy's advance in that direction from a strong position on the height from one hundred to six hundred yards.

The enemy, seeing his view frustrated at this point, turned his attention to the vigorous attack made by our troops on his advance on our left; upon which General Twiggs ordered me to march my regiment by the left flank up the height, and report to you, to support and relieve the mounted riflemen, and afford them an opportunity, to get water. Upon reporting to you, I placed my regiment in the line established a little below the crest of the height, within six hundred yards of the enemy's battery.

At this time he had been driven back, in which Lieutenant Gardner participated, and rendered signal service.  On the morning of the 18th, your directed me to advance my regiment by the right flank, so as to cover the space made by a company of rifleman which had left to join its main body, and to be prepared to storm the enemy's fort on the height.  This order was promptly obeyed and the regiment waited in silence for the word of command, 'charge.'  This being repeated, the regiment charged with cheers-passing the crest of this height, and ascending under a raking fire of grape and canister and a heavy fire of musketry on my right, and extending towards the left and front.

Under the disadvantage of the enemy's heavy fire, and the rough and steep ascent of the mountain, to reach the fort at its summit, the same spirit prevailed in the regiment from right to left, and although it paused for a few moments for breath, and to force back the enemy, who made a strong effort to turn my right flank, in which I found it necessary, with the sufficient aid of Major Bainbridge, to strengthen and restore the line which has been weakened under the enemy's destructive fire, and particularly after Lieutenant Dana fall, supposed mortally wounded.  I then directed  Major Bainbridge to attend to the right, whilst I examined the position of the centre and left.  At this time the command "charge" was renewed, and the front was carried by a simultaneous rush of the 7th infantry, driving back the enemy with much slaughter; the enemy's flag at this moment being taken down by the intrepid and gallant Quartermaster Sergeant Henry, and the flag and standard of the 7t infantry were raised and floated in its place by the brave color sergeants Bradford, Brady, and Murphy, whom Lieut. Page, adjutant had left in pursuit of the enemy down the height.  It would appear invidious to name any one gentleman in commission of the regiment for any individual act of gallantry over another upon this gallant occasion, for all were individually determined to execute your orders to carry the fort of he enemy.  It is due to remark, tat the first officers who entered the fort of the enemy were Captains Paul, Whiting, and Handson, 1st Lieuts. Henshaw, Little, Adjutant Page, Gantt, and Brevet 1st Lieut. Gardner.

The enemy was driven out with great slaughter, and their guns turned upon them.

After the firing of the enemy had ceased at this point you ordered me to put myself at the head of the regiment, descend the mountain to the National road to cut off the retreat of the enemy, which order was promptly obeyed; and I believe your object thereby secured, as many thousands of the enemy immediately surrendered.

Deeming it an act of justice due to the gentlemen in commission of the 7th infantry on this occasion, I herewith annex a list of their names, viz:

Major Bainbridge, Captains Ross, Whiting, Paul, and Hanson, 1st Lieutenants Henshaw, Little, (regimental quartermaster,) Humber, Adjutant Page, Gantt, Dana, Brevet 1st Lieut. Gardner, 2d Lieut. Smith, and Brevet 2d Lieut. Maxie.

I am sir, respectfully, your obedient servant.
J. Plympton,
Lieutenant Col. 7th infantry

To Lieut. E. Van Dorn, Aid-de Camp.
[ANP]


NNR 72.218 June 5, 1847 report on the actions of Maj. John L. Gardner's artillery regiment at Cerro Gordo

Headquarters 4th Artillery,
Jalapa, Mexico, April 19, 1847.

Sir. In compliance with the directions contained in the circular of this date, addressed to regimental commanders, I have the honor to report the operations of the 4th artillery on the 17th and 18th inst.

The regiment forming the right of the 2d brigade of the 2d division, under my command, marched with the division on the morning of the 17th I its place, in the order of battle, on the difficult and critical expedition of turning the enemy's left flank, through a road of three or four miles in extent for the most part cut the previous day.

Nothing worthy of special remark occurred until he division had arrived near the enemy's strong point, called the Cerro Gordo, here the division was met by the fire of the enemy.  The fire becoming very warm, and the right flank of he troops engaged being threatened, I was ordered to cover with one company the advance of the mounted howitzer battery, the remaining companies to cover Captain Taylor's battery, itself threatened, through a gorge it he mountain.  Our troops maintained the position acquired on the height, and all bivouacked for the night.

The 4th artillery was then employed through the greater part of the nigh in the extremely arduous duty of taking the heavy gun and howitzer battery to the height wrested from the enemy.

On the morning of the 18th the regiment was ordered to join the 2d infantry and proceed on the line turning the enemy's left-company D, under Lieut. Benjamin, being detached as a guard to Capt. Lee, of the engineers.

The regiment was halted some fifteen minutes, and was then ordered by the general of division rapidly to advance-passing under the fire of Cerro Gordo, and file to the right into a ravine.  Our flank being here exposed, a portion of the regiment , under the order and lead of the general of division, rapidly advanced up the height, and then descended to the Jalapa road, and with its brigade moved it he direction of this city.

I would remark, that to Brevet Major Brown, with Lieutenant Howe (the adjutant) and Lieuts. Benjamin, Porter and Gill, the main credit is due, so far as the regiment was concerned of taking the heavy ordnance up the height that bore upon the enemy's works; and may be allowed to add, (probably a little out of place,) that the major, with Capt. Drum and Lieuts. McCowen and Benjamin, rendered highly valuable services in reconnoitering the enemy's position of the previous day.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obed't. serv't.
J. L. Gardner,
Maj. 4th Artillery, comd'g. regiment.

Capt. E. R. S. Canby, Assistant Adj't. General, 2d brigade, 2d division.
[ANP]


NNR 72.218-72.219 June 5, 1847 Maj. George Henry Talcott's report on Cerro Gordo

Jalapa, Mexico, April 21, 1847.

Sir: In obedience to instructions I have the honor to submit the following report of the movements of he howitzer and rocket battery under my command, while the 2d division, under General Twiggs, was forcing the pass of Cerro Gordo on the 17th and 18th inst.

On the 17th we followed the 1st brigade closely without assistance, until it ascended the hill on which the enemy was posted, when a halt was necessary till the general decided whether we should continue round the hill or take post on the top.

During the halt, Lieutenant Gordon, of the rifle regiment, temporarily attached to the battery, was wounded, and some other slight damage done to horses and battery.

Two pieces, and one-half our rockets, were soon ordered up the hill, under the command of Lieut. Reno, who, assisted by ten of the rifle regiment, easily and quickly placed them in a good position in advance of our line of troops.

The enemy shortly after appeared forming in the ravine and on the slope of their hill in large numbers as it to attack, but a few well directed rounds from the howitzers scattered and drove them back in confusion to their entrenchment's.

Orders were then given by Col. Harney, who commanded, to cease firing, unless the enemy approached, and the pieces were withdrawn to within our line on the hill.

The other two sections, under Lieuts. Callender and Gordon, were thrown to the extreme right to command the gorge of our route, when the enemy formed for the attack, and the battery remained as thus posted  till the 18th, except one piece, under Lieut. Gordon, withdrawn and held in reserve during the night.

On the morning of the 18th, two sections, under Lieutenant s Callender and Gordon, were in readiness to follow the right, but the pass having been blocked by a section of artillery, they could not be brought into action as desired, but were able to follow handsomely the troops in pursuit of the flying enemy.

The section and rockets on the hill, under Lieut. Reno, opened and fired on the enemy with great effect, till our troops had closed on them-the rockets first towards the enemy's left, below the hill into the cover occupied by his advanced force, and then he howitzers, by direction of Colonel harney, towards his right at troops in the hollow and a battery, while the 1st brigade was so gallantly storming the heights in front.

Thirty rockets and forty rounds of spherical case shot were fired in all by Lieutenant Reno, who deserves great credit for his judicious placing of he battery, and his cool and galling conduct in so efficiently using it.

The whole command behaved as was to have been expected, and we are fortunate in escaping with but one man severely wounded.

With the greatest respect, your most obedient servant,

G.H. Talcott, Major Commanding.

Lieutenant W. T. H. Brooks,
A.A.A. G., 2d division of reg.
[ANP]


NNR 72.219 June 5, 1847 Capt. Edmund Brooke Alexander's report on Cerro Gordo

Headquarters 3d Infantry,

Jalapa, April 20, 1847.

Colonel: On the morning of the 17th, the 3d infantry marched from the Plana del Rio, with the balance of the division, to the attack to the rear of the enemy's works at Cerro Gordo; but after the column had proceeded some four or five miles, I was ordered to await the arrival of a 24-pounder and howitzer battery, and to conduct them to their position.  This was a duty of much heavy labor, and was not completed until some time after dark; so that my regiment did not have the good fortune to participate in the achievements of that day.  Early on the morning of the 18th instant, I was ordered to proceed to the top to the eight, occupied by our troops, and to report to yourself.  Upon arriving there, I was informed that the Mexican works on the opposite height were to be immediately stormed. The 3d infantry was formed on the left of the front line of the attacking force; and when the order was given to advance, it moved steadily over the hill, under the heavy fire of canister and grape which was poured in from the opposite height.  That height was ascended with the same steadiness, the enemy was successively driven from his different lines of breastworks, and in an almost incredible short time, considering the obstacles natural and artificial, the height was ours.

I trust I will be pardoned if I indulge in a slight expression of pride at the conduct of my regiment throughout this affair; and when it is considered that it was composed of at least one half raw recruits, who had only had the benefit of some eleven days or two weeks imperfect drilling, and who fired a musket for he first time, when they came into this action, I feel assured that it will speak more for the gallant manner in which the men were conducted into action by their company officers than anything I can express.

Besides the general good conduct of the regiment, I feel it my duty to bring to your notice individual instances of gallantry which came under my observation.  I cannot speak in too high terms of the gallant bearing, throughout the day, of Capt. L. S. Craig, first Lieut. D. C. Buell, adjutant of the regiment, and second Lieutenants B. E. Bee H. B. Clitz, and J. N. Ward.  The latter was wounded a short time before the height was carried.

These officers came under my personal observation, and their conduct deserves the highest praise I can give it.  In the attack on the height, two companies of the regiment, Captain Gordon's and Lieut. Richardson's, became somewhat separated, moving around with the 7th to the opposite side of the hill, so that I cannot speak so particularly of them.  It is, however, in my knowledge that as soon as the height was carried, Lieut. Richardson manned one of the captured guns with men of his company, and fired upon the Mexicna positions.  I should also speak of Lieut. Bownman, regimental quartermaster, who went into action with the regiment entirely voluntarily, (his duty not requiring him to be there,) and who conducted himself with great coolness and credit to himself.

Lieutenant McConnell, of Lieut. Richardson's company, s reported to me to have conducted himself with a great deal of gallantry, being active in assisting Lieut. Richardson in working the captured guns.

Every possible care was bestowed upon our wounded by our assistant surgeon, Dr. Keeny, who was actively engaged during the greater part of the day after the attack.

Respectfully submitted:
E. B. Alexander,
Captain commanding Brigade.

Col. W. S. Harney, comd'g. 1st brigade.

P.S. Return of killed and wounded accompanies my report.  E.B.A.
[ANP]


NNR 72.219 June 5, 1847 arrival of the storeship Lexington in California, disposition of forces there, erection of fortifications

California.

The St. Louis Union has received from Mr. Benton full files of the "Californian," printed at Monterey by Messrs. Colton and Semple, down to the 13th February last.

That paper of the 6th of Feb. notices the arrival of the United States storeship Lexington.  Captain Tompkins. Which with his company and field artillery, is now stationed at Fort Mervine.  Lieut. Haleck, of the United States engineers, was to make permanent fortifications at the most prominent points along the coast.  He was well provided  with all necessary implements for the purpose, and had besides a saw  and grist mill.  The Lexington was loaded with batteries, 24 pounders, mortars, &c. for military purposes.  Three other transports with Col. Stevenson's regiment were shortly expected; "sufficient, with General Kearny's column, to secure California as a territory of the United States."  A fortification will be erected at San Francisco.  There is abundance of timber, and water power almost inexhaustible, up the Sacramento river.  [ANP]


NNR 72.219 June 5, 1847 report by Gen. Jose Maria Jarero on the Battle of Cerro Gordo

Mexican official Account of the battle of Cerro Gordo.-The annexed official account of the late fight, was despatched to the central government, in the city of Mexico, by General Jarero, after he became an inmate of the castle of San Juan d'Ulloa.

San Juan d'Ulloa, 23d April, 1847.

Most Excellent Sir:

Made prisoner or war, together with Brigadier General Romulus de la Vega, who is with me in this fortress, where we have been placed by the unfortunate events of the morning of the 18th instant, at Cerro Gordo; and separated from Brigadier General Don Louis Pinzon, I conceive it to be my duty to report to your excellency the occurrences of that day, the bitter results of which have place me in the power of the United States of the north.

His excellency the president of the Republic and general in chief of the army, directed Cerro Gordo to be fortified, on the left of the National road, or carriage way, from Jalapa.  This road crosses the brow of the mountain, and along it were place our infantry, together with the headquarters, believing that our cavalry were stationed near the Corral Falso and the Encerro.

The broad mountain, called the Telegraph, is the highest of the eminences of that chain, on the Vera Cruz side.  Beyond the Cerro, on the right of he present road, and at the point of intersection of the old road, the general in chief ordered a battery to be placed, which would overlook the wagon road, the deepest and narrowest place in the glen.  The old river road was commanded effectively by the heights, which were designated by the names of the advanced lines of the right, left and centre.  The first, and last named, and the river in front, along which the enemy was stationed; the second commanded, upon its left, the National road, at the point mentioned before, as the deepest in the glen, in such a  manner as to enable it to defend the passages from the old river road.  The command of these lines was assigned by the general in chief as follows:  The right, to General Luis Penson; the left, from the battery on the National road, to Gen. Romulus de la Vega; and the centre, to me.

We were in our positions on the 17th, when about noon, we saw the enemy advancing in column by the left of our vanguard, pushing directly forward for the heights, near the Telegraph.  The battery of the advanced line of he left opened its fire of round shot upon them, from our largest pieces and with the best effect.

Soon after the enemy was discovered from the salient angle, upon which another battery of the same advanced line had been place, which also opened its fire, together with the battery of the centre, both acting with such effect that the enemy was driven from his position in less than half an hour.  The enemy, compelled to abandon that point  by the injury received with the greatest firmness by our troops, and retired in great disorder, with considerable loss.

The following day, (unfortunate for the republic,) the 18th April, the enemy presented himself to renew the attack upon the Telegraph, and opened a fire upon all our fortified positions. The height, after a severe and bloody combat, was taken by main force, at the moment when my advanced line of the centre was attacked by another column, at the point directly under the command of Post Captain (naval) Don Buenaventura Araujo.  The battalions of Zacaputistla and Hatlanque, the Artillery and Pickets of Matamoros  and Libertad, covered themselves with glory, and effectively sustained the right wing of the left line, putting to flight the enemy's column in the short space of five or six minutes, which formed again on our right, among surrounding thickets and ridges.

The height of the Telegraph being taken, the enemy became a master of our rear guard on the left, and the receive orders of instructions from his excellency, the general in chief, I sent my adjutant, Lieutenant Francisco Ruiz, with orders to see him or the senior general, [providing Santa Anna had not run, we suppose,]-but he returned with the information that he found no one there-in our camp and headquarters-and that a flag of truce was flying attached, a fact which was subsequently confirmed by my own observation.

Under these circumstances, Gens. Pinzon, Vega, Noriega, Osando and myself held a consultation, and considering that, our position having been changed by the capture of the Telegraph height; that our rear guard was hemmed in by the enemy in front and rear, and that our supply of water, which had before been scantily furnished in barrels, was now entirely cut off; that the general in chief had previously withdrawn the battalion of grenadiers which had covered our rear guard in the woods, the enemy were thus masters of our fate-and although some of us, by or knowledge of the hollows and ridges, might have saved ourselves, we preferred to be prisoners, to the further sacrifice of the lies of our troops.

In giving myself up to the generals of the enemy I gave them to understand that on opprobrium to our honor to our country, belonged to he act, and although they were the conquerors, I could never in any form palliate the war, which they had made against my country.

In those expressions I was joined by Gen. R. D. de la Vega, whose services in and out of the republic have before this reflected so much honor upon the Mexican name.  Col. Jose Maria Pavon, Post Capt. Pedro Ruiz, Major Jose Maria Mta, Captains V. Arguelles, Gregorio del Callejo, Jose M. Nunez, Jose Maria Moreno, Silverio Velez, A. M. Gallegos, Adjutant M. Camacho, (Lieutenant of the navy,) Francisco Fernandez, sub-lieutenants B. Amable, J. R. Covarubias, and Jose Lastortas, all of whom were brought to this place, and as prisoners of war will be conducted to such place in the United States as the present government of Vera Cruz may direct.

I beg your excellency to lay this narrative before his excellency the president of the republic, and to remember me to him and to the nation, whom we should all serve to the last, that this result is an instance of the caprice of fortune, as at the same instant that our three lines of the van-guard had achieved a victory, driving our assailants before us, we found ourselves under the imperious necessity of surrendering ourselves to those who, on the height of the Telegraph, the National road and in our headquarters, had made themselves masters of the field.  In numbers there were more than twelve thousand Americans, against less than two thousand Mexicans, who were surrounded by their advanced lines.

I have the honor, &c.
Jose Maria Jarero.

To his excellency, the Minister of War.
[ANP]


NNR 72.219 June 5, 1847, Com. William Branford Shubrick’s order partially suspending the tariff on Mexican ports in California

CALIFORNIA

The St. Louis Union has received from Mr. Benton full files of the “Californian”, printed at Monterey by Messrs. Colton and Semple, down to the 13th February last.

That paper of the 6th of Feb. notices the arrival of the United States store shop Lexington.  Captain Tompkins, which with his company and field artillery, is now stationed at Fort Mervine.  Lieut. Halleck, of the United States engineers, was to make permanent fortifications at the most prominent points along the coast.  He was well provided with all necessary implements for the purpose, and had besides a saw and rust mill.  The Lexington was loaded with batteries, 24 pounders, mortars, for military purposes.  Three other transports with Col. Stevenson’s regiment were shortly expected; “sufficient, with General Kearny’s column, to secure California as a territory of the United States.”  A fortification will be erected at San Francisco.  There is an abundance of timber, and waterpower almost inexhaustible, up the Sacramento River.

The following general order will show this view taken by Commodore Shubrick of the extent of his powers:

To all whom it may concern:  The undersigned commander of the naval forces of the Unite d States in the Pacific ocean, in virtue of the authority vested in him by the president of the United States, and taking into consideration the injury caused to the agricultural pursuits of the inhabitants of California by the late unsuited state of the country, the great demand at president for all articles of provisions and for the probable increase of that demand, direct that for the spare of six months from the first of March next, viz: from the first of said month of March to the first of the moth of September next, the following articles of provisions shall be admitted into the ports of California, free of all charge or duty, viz: beef, pork, bread, flour, butter, cheese, sugar, and rice

W. BRADFORD SHUBRICK
Commander in Chief

[CPO]


NNR 72.219-72.220 June 5, 1847, affairs in California

The Californian of February the 13th says it learns by an arrival from Yerba Buena that a party of emigrants, 60 9in number, left on the other side of Californian mountain, had suffered severely.  Nineteen started for the valley, but only seven arrived, having been compelled to eat the dead bodies of their companions to save themselves from starvation.  Among the survivors were two girls.  A public meeting was held at once in Yerba Buena, and $800 raised for the relief of the sufferers in the mountains.  Ward and Smith offered their launch and Passed Midshipman Woodsworth, with a small party, started up the river with the intention of disembarking at the foot of the mountains and going on foot with packs of provisions to save the sufferers.  The distressed party lost their cattle on the Salt Plains at Hasting’s cut off, a route, which never should be traveled.

Mr. Larkin was at Monterey, attending to his business on the 13th of February, having been released by the enemy.  An English school was about to be established there.  The Alcalde publishes an order, forbidding men to employ Indians, unless they have certificates from their former employers that their services are not due to the latter for wages advanced.  Mr. Semple is about to found a city at San Francisco Bay, to be called Francisco.  He has purchased for that purpose the half of a five-mile tract.  [CPO]


NNR 72.220 June 5, 1847, Thomas Hart Benton’s card about Gen. Stephen Watts Kearney and Col. John Charles Fremont

Col. BENTON’S CARD TO THE EDITOR OF THE ST. LOUIS UNION.

The public mind has been misled in relation to General Kearny and Colonel Fremont, in California; and a letter written in Washington, assuming to speak semi-officially, and from a knowledge of the contents of unpublished dispatches, imputes, the supposed difference to an intrigue of mine to place Col. Fremont in command over General Kearny, and of which General Kearny had got wind.  He says:

It is supposed that General Kearny has reason to believe that, through the influence of Colonel Benton, Colonel Fremont is to be, or has been, put in command over him.”

To put an end and end to the anxiety of the friends of the two absent officers on account of such reports, I will here publish an extract from a private letter from General Kearny to myself, dated Ciudad de los Angelos, January 14, 1847, and brought in by the same messenger who brought his official dispatches.  Of course, I limit myself in the extract to what concerns Colonel Fremont and myself.  Gen. Kearny says:

“I have not written a line to you for three months, because no opportunity itself of sending a letter to you; one is now offered, by way of Panama, and I seize a few moments, and must write, though hurriedly.

After the revolt against Captain Gillespie, at the city of the Angels, in September last, Commodore Stockton sent Colonel Fremont to the Sacramento, to raise volunteers to put down what he termed the rebels.  On my arrival on the 12th of December, at San Diego, I found the commodore there, and prevailed upon him by the close of the mouth to send what force he could spare from there in this direction for the purpose of uniting with Colonel Fremont in an attack upon the Californians or to make a diversion in his favor.

On the 8th and 9th we encountered the whole force of the Californians, about 500 mounted men under Governor Flores, and defeated them each day, but as all our men, except about fifty volunteers, were on foot, and all the enemy were well mounted, we could not catch them.  The enemy finding that the struggle against us was useless, and unwilling to submit to, marched to meet Colonel Fremont, and on the 12th capitulated to him at San Fernando, twenty-five miles from here, agreeing to submit and to acknowledge the American authorities, never again to rise against them.  This day Colonel Fremont at the head of 400 volunteers entered the city.  He is now here and perfectly well, and has gained great credit for the manner in which he has raised his volunteers and conducted the expedition from the Sacramento.

Will you please in my name, congratulate Mrs. Fremont upon the honor and credit gamed by the colonel, with my best wishes for herself and all your family.”

So wrote General Kearny of Colonel Fremont on the 14th of January, and the praise he bestows on the raising the volunteers on the capitulation, are well merited.  Colonel Fremont had gone six hundred miles to the American settlements on the Sacramento to raise troops to reconquer the southern half of California, and had raised 400 men and brought them back in an incredibly short space of time.  He had done this without means, and legal authority, and wholly by his personal influence, and the weight of his personal character.  The defeated Mexicans marched two days to surrender to him, from their confidence in him, and the capitulation to which he admitted to them was wise, just and comfortable to the law of nations expected no oath of allegiance from conquered men deferring that until a definite treaty of peace should make them citizens of the United States.  He treated no one as a rebel.  He only exacted what the law of nations authorized, namely a promise of submission to the conquerors, revisiting in return protection for life, liberty, and property.  The capitulation pacified the country and prevented the wear from becoming guerrilla.

I publish this card to relieve the anxieties of the friends of the two absent officers, and of all well disposed persons, who would be sorry to see Colonel Fremont dishonor himself.  I do no publish it to contradict the Washington letter writer, nor do I object to his including my two sons in-law in his old and daily work against me: but I think that a writer who assumes to be semi official, and to has a knowledge of unpublished dispatches, and who is certainly cormorant, couchant, and levant about the departments, ought to have more respect for the president than to make him my instrument, and subject to my influence, in an intrigue to put Brigadier General Kearny under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Fremont.

THOMAS H. BENTON
St. Louis, May 14th, 1847.

[CPO]


NNR 72.222-72.223 June 5, 1847, Thomas Hart Benton’s remarks on the settlement of the northwest boundary dispute, the annexation of Texas, the war with Mexico, and anti-slavery propaganda

COLONEL BENTON’S SPEECH.
From the St. Louis Republican

This report, we are gratified to say, has the sanction of Col. Benton himself for its correctness.

Mr. Benton commenced with returning thanks for the honor of the invitation to a public dinner from his political friends.  He had declined the honor of the dinner, in conformity to a rule which he had long followed; and as for the speech which might have been expected at the dinner table, he preferred to make it under circumstances which admitted a more general attendance, and would prevent no one from hearing it who chose to listen to it.

Great questions, he said, he occupied the public mind, and received their solution, in the last two or three years of his public service, on all of which he had been called to act on a decided, and even a prominent part, and on each of which it was natural for him to say something on the present occasion.  The Oregon question was one of these.  At one time big with all the calamities of war, it was now hushed in repose, and the country tranquil and happy under its peaceful settlement.  His own course in relation to it had been consistent and uniform.  He had opposed the joint occupati0on treaty of 1818: he had labored for its termination ever since and he had always held the parallel of 49 to be the proper dividing line between the American territory of Oregon and the British territory of Frazer’s river.  But the public mind, and especially the mind of his own party, had been worked up to a different and a higher view of our rights.  54, 40, and all or none, had become our demand.  War was the British answer and although a threat of war would be no bar to a rightful demand, yet in answer to a wrongful one, it was very serious.  He believed the whole demand of the United States to be wrongful so far as it applied to Frazer’s river, which happened to run through the whole territory from fifty four forty to forty nine, and to have been discovered by the British in 1793, and covered by their forts since 1806.  The administration had taken high ground: the party sustained it: but it was an occasion, which required a public man to rise above party, and to look to his country alone.  He had resolved to do so, and to go for forty-nine, even if it should cost him his political existence.

This determination, though not formally promulgated, was no secret, and was early enough made known to his friends and to the administration.  From the first explosion of the question on April, 1845, from the first reverberation of the thunder which came rolling back from London, in answer to the president’s inaugural address, he had made known his opinions to the secretary of state, and informed him that he should support a treaty upon the line of 49, if the president made one upon that basis.  From that determination he had never swerved.  His friends thought there was great danger to him in the course he took: he himself did not think there was so much.  He knew his constituents had been wrought up to fifty-four forty, but he reli3ed upon their equity and intelligence to give him a fair harming and a safe deliverance.  He paid them the compliment to rely upon their justice and intelligence, and the event had not deceived him.  The boundary was settled at 49.  The British kept their river, and we kept ours.  War was averted.  Great Britain and the United States remain at peace: he and his constituents were at peace: and long might they all reason so.

The settlement of this question, Mr. B went on to say, have cleared away the only remaining difference between the two kindred nations.  It left them not only at peace, but also without a remaining cause of quarrel.  For the first time since the stamp act of 1764, the two nations came to agreement without a quarrel.  For the first time in nearly three generations of men, the two grand divisions o the Anglo-Saxon race, the northern stock in Great Britain and its gigantic progeny in our America were without a cause of dissension: and to crown this happy state to give to peace its highest ornament and noblest occupation, and to friendship its most endearing cement, a calamitous visitation in a part of the British empire has called forth all the sympathetic of the human heart, on the side of one nation, and all its gratitude from the other.  Ireland famishes! Succor and sympathy fly to her from the United States! And the swelling tide of gratitude comes rolling back better than being at war with each other, at war for Frazer’s river, under the sad delusion that it was a part of Oregon! He thanked God that he had been an instrument in diverting aiding to avert, this calamity, and in producing the present happy state between the two nations; and he thanked his constituents for approving his conduct in going for their present wishes.

The annexation of Texas, and its sequences, the present war with Mexico, was another of the great subjects on which he had been called to act within the last few years.  This great drama, Mr. B. said divided it into many acts, and covered along space of time, during all which he had been an actor in it, and he hoped a consistent and a prudent one.  He considered this drama as beginning 1819, when Mr. Monroe’s cabinet seceded Texas to Spain.  It was then given away; and if it had not been given away there could have been no war Mexico about getting it back.  He denounced that treaty in many newspaper articles as soon as it was made and vowed at the time unceasing efforts to get back the ceded province.  Mr. Adams’ administration with Mr. Clay secretary of state, presented the first opportunity to make the efforts for its recovery.  Mr. Clay as a member of the House of Representatives had severely condemned the treaty, which gave away Texas: Mr. Adams had opposed that article of the treaty at the council table when the majority of Mr. Monroe’s cabinet adopted it.  But this was not known to him until bong afterwards.  His reliance at the time was on Mr. Clay, as a western man, and from his publicity known optimist on the subject.  He and Mr. Clay were than separating in the new division of political parties, but it did not prevent them from communing together on the subject of Texas, and co-operating to get her back.  They had an interview at Tennison’s Hotel at Washington.  Among other things intended by the new administration.  Mr. C. mentioned the recovery of Texas: he cordially concurred, and promised his faithful cooperation.  The administration made the attempt: he wrote articles to promote it but the scheme failed.  Mr. Poinsett was then minister in Mexico, and favorable to the object, but could not succeed and so ended the first attempt to recover back the great province which the unwise treaty of 1819 had given away.  I speak historically, said Mr. B., and justly, and without design to favor or injure any man, but to place aright before my constituents my own conduct, and that of others, in this great drama, which has ended in a war between two republics, Mr. Adams, at the council table, voted against the article which gave Texas away.  Mr. Clay, in the House of Representatives, denounced the cession.  They made the first effort to get it back: and in a speech which professes to be fair and impartial, let justice be done to every actor.  Let every one take his proper place for censure or for praise in the great drama of the Texas question and its bloody sequence.

The next attempt was in Gen. Jackson’s time, Mr. Van Buren being secretary of state.  A larger sum was offered than in the previous administration, but with no better result.  The negotiation miscarried, though zealously supported by President Jackson, his secretary of state, and the minister at Mexico, He, Mr. B., co-operated with them, filing the newspapers with articles in praise of Texas, and using all the arguments for getting her back which have since been repeated by others who gave no help then.  And so the second attempt to repair the mischief of the treaty of 1819, failed as the first had done.

The mission of General Memucan Hunt, minister from Texas, was the next serious attempt to bring Texas herself into the Union; but the parties were then changed: it was after a battle of San Jacinto, and Texas herself became the applicant.  Mr. Van Buren was then president.  Mr. Forsyth his secretary of state, and both in favor of getting back the country.  But Texas and Mexico, though not fighting had not made peace: they were in the legal state of war with respect to each other: and to have admitted Texas into the Union would have been to adopt her side of war, and to have placed the United States at war with Mexico.

Neither justice nor policy permitted this, especially as, if left alone, they would make peace after awhile, and then annexation could be effected without a breach with Mexico.  Upon this view they acted.  Mr. B. concurred with them, and so did all the people of the United States.

The question of admission of Texas then went to sleep, and was quietly waiting the end of the war with Mexico.  All the old friends to the recovery of the country were wiling to await the event: but in the year 1842, during Mr. Tyler’s administration, a new set of friends, who had cared nothing about Texas before, and one of whom had given her away when we had her, became furious for immediate annexation; and the annexation treaty of 1844 was the fruit of that new and sudden impatience.  The old friends of Texas stood upon their ground: the countries were still at war, but actually negotiating for peace: they wanted Texas annexed, but without war with Mexico, and urged a little delay, to permit their ministers, then negotiating under the auspices of Great Britain and France to make peace.  All day was refused, the treaty was signed, and was rejected by the senate because its ratification would have been immediate war with Mexico.  He was one of the majorities of the senate, which rejected that treaty, and his constituents, though all in favor of annexation, appreciated his motives and justified his conduct, and he made them his profound thanks for the justice of that verdict, and the honor of that election.

The treaty of annexation was reject, but annexation in another form was still prosecuted.  A resolution for the admission of Texas as a state passed the House of Representatives; an additional alternative resolution was added in the senate, to appoint commissioners to negotiate for admission and to conciliate, and recognize Mexico, and thereby prevent the annexation from bringing on war.  The expiring administration of Mr. Tyler snatched the alternative from the hands of the president elect hurried off the house resolution by a midnight messenger, slammed the door of consolation in the face of Mexico, and inflamed her pride and resentment to the highest degree.  From that time forth everything berthed war between the two countries, which broke out the ensuing year.

Mr. B. said this way the history of this loss and gain of Texas, and its sequence, the war with Mexico.  The country is recovered a war has followed and the question now is how to finish it?  For himself he felt clear.  His policy had been uniform from first to last, it was to get back Texas, without a breach with Mexico; and he was certain it might have been done if wise and temperate counsels had prevailed.  The United States had only to wait for peace: that was upon the point of being signed in January, 1844, under the powerful mediation of Great Britain and France, when the then administration broke up the peaceful negotiation, dispersed the ministers, assumed the war, and placed the army and navy under the control of the President of Texas to fight Mexico.  The rejection of the treaty stopped the war then assumed: but the midnight transmission of the house resolution started it again, and soon placed the two republics in the unhappy condition in which they now stand.

Mr. B repeated.  His policy from beginning to ending had been to get back Texas without war, or even a breach of friendship with Mexico.  He was greatly averse to such a war.  He saw great and extraordinary evils in it.  Besides the evils common to all war, loss of lives, distress of families, interruption of commerce, ruin to many merchants, and a load of debts and taxes.  Besides all these ordinary evils incident to all wars, he saw others of anew and extraordinary kind of war with Mexico.  She was a republic, and a weak one, and our neighbor, and had done us the honor to copy our constitution and form of government, and had maintained civil wards at home to keep it up.  She was one of the Spanish American states, which stretch from the southern boundary of the United States to Cape Horn, the whole of which had copied our form of government, and established close political and commercial relations with us.  All these states had just emancipated themselves from European domination, adopted the republican system, and taken the United States for their model and their friend, the elder sister and parental guardian of the cordon of republics which stretched across the United States, at the head of this long chain of republics, was grand an impressive and imposed upon her an enlarge and enlightened system, which had been carefully acted upon by all American statesmen from the time these Spanish American states began to establish their independence.  Europe had a system of monarchies, consolidated by the holy alliance.  The new world had its system of republics, to be cemented and united by sympathy and friendship.  To maintain our position at the head of this republican system in the new world was due to the human race and ourselves.  To cherish and perpetuate these republics, to preserve their friendship and their commerce, to continue to be their political mentor, to continue them in the republican system of the new world, and prevent their relapse into the monarchial system of the old world, this way our true and noble policy.  War with any one of them would endanger that policy; for being all of the same, origin, religion, language, customs, they would naturally sympathize with each other, and having war with one, the friendship of all might be jeoparded.

Mr. B. had endeavored to act upon these enlarged principles, originating not with him but with enlightened statesmen before he came into public life.  He had endeavored to get back Texas without a war with Mexico, and was certain it might have been done with all ease by this simple process of leaving Mexico and Texas to make peace, and treating Mexico with the respect and deference due to a sister republic, the more proud and sensitive because weak and unusable to contend with us.  The first great error was the annexation treaty of 1842, and the manner in which it was conducted: that was the work of the Tyler administration, and of selfish and unworthy purposes.  The send great error, or worse than error, was the rejection of the senate’s alternative resolution, and dispatch of midnight messenger to Texas with the absolute resolution of admission, on the night of the 31 of March, 1845; that also was the work of the Tyler administration; and in the last moment of its expiring existence.  The first of these steps the treaty would have made instant war if it had been ratified by the senate, the second made the war! And now the great question it to finish it.  How finish it?  That was the question which every body was putting to him, and on which every one present, no doubt, would wish to hear from speak.  Bu this was not the time to speak upon the point.  The time would come but it was not now.  His opinion had been asked by the president, and given to him, and approved by him, and in time would be given to the public.

But he could say that relied more upon policy that upon arms to finish this war with a weak and proud neighbor.  Eight battles, she could not.  That was proved from San Jacinto to Sierra Gordo; and wherever the two races met, from the Gulf of Mexico to the Bay of San Francisco, victories would come as often as fights came, but there was a danger to be feared, the danger of fanaticism, and the conversion of the war into a death contest for country and religion.  The Spanish race is susceptible of deep national emotion, fanatical emotion, both religiously and politically, and of which their history furnishes abundant examples both into eh Old and in the New World, and from the time of the Carthaginians and the Romans to that of the French under Bonaparte.  Policy more than arms, but combined with arms, he considered the road to peace.

He would not say that victories alone would not bring peace they might do so, but not the kind of peace he was in search of.  He wanted the peace, which was not merely a collection of hostilities, but a restoration of the fruits and blessings of peace, the restoration of friendship and commerce, and of our position as head and chief and paternal guardian of the system of republics in the New World.  The peace, which leaves all the animosities and resentments of war behind, was not the peace, which the interests of the countries, and the good of the republican system, and the safety, and independent of the two Americans, required.

Mr. B. said he stood upon ground which he could not explore: he alluded to subject which he could not unfold: but he could say that it was a great error to confound the whole Mexican people, the whole eight million of their mixed population, under any one general view either politically, morally, or intellectually, or in their feelings towards the united States and the war.  It would be great error to confound this larger and mixed mass under any one general view and a worse error to act either militarily or politically on that view.  It had its division, both of races, and of political parties; and leaving out the illiterate, impoverished, and depressed part of the Indian race, which signified nothing politically, though the half of the whole population and the sole resource for day laborers and the rank and file of the army leaving out the depressed half, the other half if radically and irreconcilably divided in political stems, and in all the affections an views which result from that division.  The larger half of the enlightened half is republican, and has struggled since 1824 for our form of government, and always carries the election, the other rapt is the monarchial and the strongest, though least numerous, because it has the sinews of war, money and arms.  It rests upon the church and a standing army of near 20,000 officers and not much over 20,000 men.  The policy of the republican part leads them to peace and friendship with the United States; the policy of the monarchists leads them to European affections and American antipathies.  But there are points at which they all unite, the pride of the nationality, the love of religion and of country, and which makes them all equally formidable equally susceptible of being fanaticized both religiously and politically against a foreign invader.  This unites both parties against us now: but still there is a great difference between those who wish to be friends, and those who do not, between those who are willing to make permanent and cordial peace, and if they make one will only intend it for a treacherous and hollow truce.  This difference of parties should be known the American statesmen, and acted upon.  Unhappily the present war had given the monarchial party the ascendant, at the very moment that the elections were brining the republicans into power, and enabling them to re-establish our form of government.

Mr. B. said he had expressed his opinions publicly and responsibly in the senate, both in speeches and in votes, and privately and frankly to the president whenever asked.  He had done more.  He had been willing to residing his place in the senate and go to the field of operations, not so much to command armies as to make military movements subservient to diplomatic policy, and produce a peace which should be a restoration of friendship and not a mere truce, extorted by force from weakness, and leaving the animosities of war behind.  He who had refused embassies to the first courts of Europe, was willing to go to Mexico: he who had refused to let his friends propose him of first major general in May, which would have put him at the head of the army was willing to have taken a commission when the war began to take the appearance of continuing and long, and of becoming fanatical, and giving strength to the monarchial European party.  He was willing to have taken the place of lieutenant general; for that would have shocked no military feeling, and displaced no military man, and would have allowed a policy approved by the president to have been completely carried out.  He could say no more, at this time, upon that point, but when the plan which he submitted to the president comes to be made known, it would be seen that the military men would have nothing to complain of, that Gen. Taylor instead of struggling at Buena Vista with 5,000 men against 20,000 would have been advancing on Santa Anna with 20,000 that Gen. Scott, instead of entrenched army at Sierra Gordo would have probably found the road open to Mexico that the two generals would have probably met sooner at the city of Mexico, and found themselves attended by a diplomatic mission, nationally constituted, both in a geographical and in a political sense, and prepared to take advantage of all events to smooth the way to a solid and lasting peace.

Mr. Benton passed to a new subject, one which had not yet excited the public attention, but which in his opinion was pregnant with much danger, and required early attention.  It was not a question of foreign war, to be settled by arms or diplomacy, but of domestic legislation, to be settled by public opinion and by voters.  He alluded to the slavery propagandist resolutions, introduced into the senate towards the close of the last session, and which he had stigmatized as fire-bran on the day of their reintroduction.  On their face these resolutions contemplate a subversion of the Union, thrown guilt of the subversion upon those who oppose their enactment into law.  At the same time, they propose what no citizen of a non-slaveholding state can ever stand, and what many from the slaveholding states; himself in the number would not stand if they could.  The propose the abolition of all compromised, past and future, on the slavery question, and treat as violators of the rights of the states, and of the constitution, and as subverts of the union, all who will not agree to extended slavery to all the territories of the United States, even to the most remote and hyperborean, to Oregon itself, in the latitude of Wisconsin and the Lake of the Woods.  They go the precise length of the northern abolitionists and with the same practical consequence, only in a reversed form.  The abolition creed is, that the admission of constitution, and dissolution of the Union; the new resolutions declare that the prohibition of slavery in any territory of the Union as a violation of the constitution and of the rights of the states, and subversions of the Union!  So true it is, that extremes meet, and that all fanaticism, for against any dogma terminates at the same point of intolerance and defiance.

The first effect of this new slavery creed, which the south was summoned to adopt most summarily would be to establish a new political test for trying the orthodoxy of all candidates for the presidency, and as no northern man could stand such a test at home, the whole of their would be knocked in the head, so far as the south was concerned, at a single lick.  The next effect of these resolutions, if adopted, in the non-slaveholding states, would be to put an end to the present political editions of parties, and to substitute a new party in the south, bounded by geographical lines and founded on the sole principle of slavery propagandist.  The third effect of these resolutions would that which is stated, hypothetically on their face, namely, the subversion of the Union.

Seeing these resolutions in this dangerous point of view, Mr. B. had stigmatized them as a freestanding on the day of their reintroduction, and had since depreciated their application to the Oregon bill, by which the Oregon people were left without law or government for a yearlonger.  Many persons thought him too prompt in his denunciation of these resolutions perhaps the same persons thought him too prompt in douncing the Oregon joint occupation treaty in 1818, the treaty which gave away Texas in 1819, and all the measures of the Tyler administration which led to the Mexican war in 1846: but the truth might be that he was not too fast, but themselves too slow.  The resolutions appeared dangerous to him, and he struck them at their first apportion into eh senate chamber.  He had done his duty: he had sounded the alarm: it was for the role of the United States, all the friends of the Union to do the rest.  There was no Jackson now to save the Union by a voice, like the command of destiny, proclaiming “IT SHALL BE PRESEVERD.”

Mr. B. concluded with saying that he limited himself on the occasion, to the few subjects on which he had touched, without exhausting them.  They were subjects of present, interest, and of national import, and rose above the level of party, and were fit to be discussed in the assemblage, which was not one of party.  He had not acted upon them in a party character when before the senate, and did not speak of them as party measures now.  On proper subjects, when party principles were applicable, he was found close enough to his party tune.  When principles did not apply, when the subject was either too large or too small for party, when a foreign war, or domestic discussion, was the question, or a poor clerk, or laborer to be turned out of employment, on such great, and on such little subjects as these, he chose rather to act in the character of a patriot who felt for his country, and of a man who felt for his fellow man.  [CPO]


NNR 72.224 June 5, 1847, Mexican privateer Unico captures the Carmelita

MEXICAN PRIVATEER

A Barcelona date of the 3rd of May states that the Mexican privateer Unico, of Vera Cruz, carrying one gun and 53 men, had captured in the waters of Arica, and brought into Barcelona the American ship Carmelita, 190 tons, Captain Edwin, Littlefield, from Poace, with a cargo of coffee, bound to Trieste.

The above is no doubt true.  The American vessels named sailed from Puerto Rico the latter end of March.  [CPO]


NNR 72.224 June 5, 1847 Naval News

NAVAL. Capt. Mayo, U.S.N., governor of Alvarado, started with 80 men in gun boats on the 13th for Talascoya, situated nearly 100 miles S.W. from Alvarado. The place submitted, and he was received with respect. He considered it best not to leave a garrison. On his return down the narrow river, he was fired upon from the chaparral, and one officer and five seamen were wounded.

Com. Perry, with a squadron, had gone to the south, searching for laurels.

Nantla, capitulated to the sloop of war Germantown, on the 10th of May, and was retaken on the 11th by 300 Mexicans.

Major Dunmock, with one company of artillery and some recruits for the 5th and 7th infantry, arrived at Vera Cruz on the 17th, and takes post at the National bridge till further orders.

Just as the Palmetto was leaving, most of the muleteers of a train of 129 pack mules, loaded with flour and pork that had left the evening before for the army, returned to the city, having been fired on three miles out, and the whole train captured. [JLM]


NNR 72.231-72.232 June 12, 1847 address of the second regiment of Tennessee volunteers about Cerro Gordo

Cerro Gordo

From the New Orleans Picayune

Address of the 2nd Reg. Tennessee Volunteers.

If sacrifices in the service of the country entitle patriotic and brave men to a hearing before the tribunal of public opinion, the 2d regiment of Tennessee volunteers may surely claim that privilege.  The attack upon the enemy's batteries by that regiment was the only one of the battle of Cerro Gordo that failed; and although the general orders announcing this fact bear testimony to the courage of the men and gallantry of its officers, the regiment is concerned that the public shall know the circumstances of the assault, that it may be judged how far the commendation of official reports is deserving, and how far it has attempted to smother up an unsuccessful enterprise in the ambitious phraseology of a military despatch.  The commander in chief, the generals of divisions, and the heads of detachments have been heard.  That regiment now asks to be heard also, and this is all the recompense it seeks for the loss of comrades, mowed down in an effort upon which, it is contended, it was precipitated by the infatuation of a superior officer.

The general of division, whose military capacity is impeached by the regiment, has received the reward due only to exalted abilities or eminent services.  HE has enjoyed the credit to leading the 2d regiment of Tennessee volunteers upon the desperate charge in which its flower was cut down.  He hastened from the battle field and received he firstlings of the public gratitude from the fields of Cerro Gordo.  The sympathies of the people were excited on account of a wound, which was reported to have nearly severed his sword arm in twain, whilst in fact he carried the ball that hurt him  in his breeches pocket.  And the remnant of the only regiment of his brigade which was actively engaged in battle, and which was repulsed with terrific slaughter, without having accomplished anything, comes forward and asks the calm judgment of their countrymen upon the facts as thy occurred.  The survivors of the that fearful and needless slaughter have the reputation of being driven from the field, whilst from the blood of the slain incense is exhaled to glorify an officer, who in the language of the address, "neither led nor followed in that assault."

We have heard before now, and from sources which left no room to doubt its truth, a narrative of the events of the battle similar to that now made public.  We have heard these same facts from parties who were not interested in the successful assault, beyond the concern which was felt by soldiers and officers of different corps for brethren in arms.  And we have no doubt that public opinion will settle down in the conviction that the 2d regiment of Tennessee volunteers did all that men could do under the circumstances, and hat the assault miscarried because they were commanded to do an impossible thing by an officer who enjoys the exclusive credit of having ever ordered a regiment from that gallant state to make a charge which necessarily resulted in a repulse.  The fact that this regiment immediately rallied for another assault, and was ready to repeat an attack, over ground, upon which iin three minutes time, one fourth of its members were shot down, is an evidence of courage of the strongest signification.-These brave men were prepared to sacrifice themselves for the honor of their state and the glory of the United States, and they will not be the less cherished on that account by their fellow citizens for that, the most devoted chivalry, when misdirected, would only achieve and honorable martyrdom.


To the Public.

Certain impressions which are abroad with the public in reference to the operations of the brigade of Gen. Pillow, at the battle of Cerro Gordo, seem to require of the undersigned, officers of the 2d regiment Tennessee volunteers, a simple statement of facts.  IT will be seen that the statement differs materially from the accounts which have heretofore reached the public ear, and that the idea it conveys of the military talents of Gen. Pillow is by no means complimentary to that officer.  By the undersigned utterly disclaim any other motive in making this publication that such a s arises from a desire to do justice to others and to have justice for themselves.  They are unwilling to accord to the uncharitable the privilege of yielding to the brave men they commanded only that questionable sort of reputation which often ataches to men who have been engaged in an unsuccessful enterprise, unless it be shown that impossibilities were required of them.

On the evening of the 17th April last Gen. Scott promulgated to the army his orders for the action on the ensuing day.  TO Gen. Twiggs' division, with Shields' brigade, was assigned the duty of carrying the height of Cerro Gordo, of turning the enemy's left wing and securing the Jalapa road, in his rear, so as to intercept his retreat; while Gen. Pillow was to march "along the route he had carefully reconnoitered, and stand ready, as soon as he heard the report of small arms on our right, or sooner if circumstances should favor him, to pierce the enemy's line of batteries-the nearer the river the better, as he may select."  Gen. Pillow's plan of attack was arranged by himself, as follows:  The command of Col. Haskell, supported by Col. Roberts, 2d Pennsylvania volunteers, was to assail No. 2, the centre fieldwork on the enemy's right; while at the same moment No. 1, on the extreme right of the enemy's line, was to be attacked by Col. Wynkoop, 1st regiment Pennsylvania volunteers, supported by Col. Campbell, of the 1st Tennesseeans.

The right of the enemy extended from the left of the Jalapa road to the gorge of he mountains thro' which the river flows.  Along this line the enemy had established himself on three different heights, divided from each other by almost impassable ravines.  Each of thee three heights were strengthened by admirable constructed fieldworks, known to our engineers as No. 1, 2, and 3.  These works were manned by upwards of 3,000 men, 1,500 of whom occupied the central fieldwork.

There can be no doubt but that Gen. Santa Anna, relying ofnt he great natural strength of Cerro Gordo, and the apparent impassability of the ground on his left, had not taught himself to believe that General Scott would endeavor to turn his position there, but that he had strengthened his right under the impression that it was to be the great point of attack.

On the morning of the 18th the brigade of Gen. Pillow was moved by him from the camp in the following order-Co.. Wynkoop in front, followed by Col. Haskell, behind whom came Colonel Campbell, while Col. Roberts brought up the rear.  Diverging from the Jalapa road to the left, nearest the fieldworks, the regiments moving in the same order, each by the right flank, entered a narrow path leading to a point near the centre of the enemy's line of works.  In this order the brigade was moved to the scene of action.  Continuing along the path, the right of Col. Wynkoop's regiment had reached a point of rising ground about 350 yards from the enemy, when Gen. Pillow, fearful that the enemy had either discovered him or would do it, suddenly withdrew Col. Wynkoop by the left flank, filing him by the left flank square off tot he left from the path, and directed him to cross the ravine which was immediately on the left of the path and form his line of battle parallel with the enemy's works, under cover of the hill and chaparral and hold himself in readiness to assault No. 1.

While Col Wynkoop was executing this order as rapidly as the ruggedness of the ground would allow him, the General commenced the work of placing the command of Col. Haskell in position. This he did by directing Col. Haskell to rest his right on the right of the path, extending his left square off to the left so as to form his line of battle parallel with the centre fieldwork of the enemy.  By this maneuver it will be perceived that the ranks of Col. Haskell's command were reversed, the front rank becoming the rear and the right of the regiment its left.  While this novel order was in the process of execution, and before the independent company of Kentucky volunteers, under Capt. John S. Williams and Captain Charles Naylor's company of Pennsylvania volunteers, which were the 9th and 10th companies, had got into position, the enemy opened his fire upon us.  (It is proper to remark here that the command of Col. Haskell consisted of this own regiment and Capt. Williams's Kentucky company and Capt. Naylor's company of Pennsylvania volunteers.)  The General immediately ordered the assault.  The men answered the order with a  shout and advanced rapidly and with the greatest enthusiasm in the direction of the enemy who was totally concealed from them by the density of the chaparral.  Progressing steadily in the face of a most deadly and incessant fire for more than 250 yards, over a rugged and stony ascent, the command emerged from which the chaparral had been felled for nearly tow hundred yards and left lying on the ground.  Here we were greeted us by seven pieces of artillery immediately in front of us.  No. 1 opened on one of our flanks with two guns, No. 3 on the other with three, while two small pieces on an extension of the redoubt behind No. 2 kept time with the others.  This terrible fire was in the state of New Jersey, exceeds that of last year by 100,000 acres, which ought to yield three or four millions of bushels."  [ANP]


NNR 72.235 June 12, 1847 official report of Gen. Joseph Lane on action at Buena Vista

Headquarters 3d Brigade, 2st division,
Buena Vista, Mexico, Feb. 25, 1847.

Sir-I have the honor of laying before you the following report of that part of the battle of the 22d and 23d inst. in which the forces under my immediate command took part.

In obedience to your orders of the 22d, I took position on the left of the field upon which the battle was fought near the foot of the mountain, with the eighth battalion companies of the 2d regiment of my brigade, supported by three pieces of light artillery, commanded by Lieut. O'Brien.  The four rifle companies of this brigade, (two from the 2d, and tow from the 3d regiments) having been sent, under your orders together with two companies of Kentucky mounted riflemen, to occupy an eminence and ridge on the side of the mountain, to check the advance of the enemy, (two regiments(, who were attempting to turn the left flank of my position by climbing the sides of the mountain.

Those rifle companies took their position in the afternoon of the 22d-the four companies of Indiana, commanded by Major Forman, of the 3d regiment-the whole under the command of Col. Marshall, of Kentucky; and soon after the enemy opened a brisk fire upon our forces, but with but little effect, which they continued without intermission for three hours.  In the mean time, my men being secure from the enemy's balls, and watching their chances, and taking good aim, succeeded in killing and wounding some thirty or forty of the enemy.  In this engagement my loss was four men slightly wounded.

During the night of the 22d the enemy sent a reinforcement of about 1,500 men up the mountain, and succeeded in occupying heights which commanded the position of the riflemen.  My whole command slept upon the field that night on their arms.  As soon as it was light, on the morning the 23d, the enemy opened a severe fire from their while force on the mountain, now amounting in all to about 2,500 or 3,000 men, commanded by the Mexican, Col. Ampudia, it is believed.  Notwithstanding the great superiority of the enemy in numbers, our gallant riflemen held them in check for several hours, killing and wounding some fifty or sixty of their forces.

About 8 o'clock, a.m. of the 23d instant, an art of the Kentucky mounted riflemen and cavalry, (dismounted for that purpose) were sent up the side of the mountain to support the forces already there, at which time the fire of the enemy became tremendous, but which was returned by our gallant force for more than one hour longer.  My instructions from yourself were to hold my position on the left of the field against any force which the enemy might bring against me in that quarter.  The enemy had been in great force all the morning of the 23d, directly in my front, and in sight, but too far distant to be reached by Lieut. O'Brien's battery.

About 9 o'clock I was informed by Col. Churchill that the enemy were advancing towards my position in great force, sheltering themselves in a deep ravine which runs up towards the mountain directly in my front.  I immediately put my columns in motion, consisting of those eight battalion companies and Lieut. O'Brien's battery, amounting in all to about 400 men to meet them.  The enemy, when they deployed from the ravine and appeared on the ridge, displayed a force of about 4,000 infantry, supported by a large body of lancers.  The infantry immediately opened a most destructive fire, which was returned by my small command, both infantry and artillery, in a most gallant manner for sometime.  Is soon perceived that I was too far from the enemy for my muskets to take that deadly effect which I desired, and immediately sent my aid de camp to Lieutenant O'Brien, directing him to place his battery in a more advanced position, with the determination of advancing my whole line.  By this movement I should not only be near the enemy, but should also bring the company on my extreme left more completely into action, as the brow of the hill impeded their fire.-By this time the enemy' fire of musketry and the raking fire of ball and grape of their battery posted on my left flank had become terrible, and my infantry instead of advancing, as was ordered, I regret to say retired in some disorder from their position, notwithstanding my own and the severe efforts of my officers to prevent them.  About the same time, the riflemen and the cavalry on the mountain retired to the plain below.  The Arkansas cavalry, (who had been posted by your orders in my rear at the foot of the mountain to act as circumstances might require) also left their position, the whole making a retrograde movement towards the rear.  At the same time one of the Illinois regiments, not under my command, but stationed at some distance in rear and on the right of my position, also retired to the rear.  These troops, the most of them were immediately rallied and fought during the whole day like veterans.  A few of them, I regret to say, did not return to the field at all.  By this apparent success the enemy were much elated, and poured down along the side of the mountain on the extreme left of the field their thousands of infantry and lancers, and formed themselves in good order along the mountain fronting perpendicularly to where our lines had been posted.  At this critical juncture, the Mississippi regiment, under the command of Col. Davis, arrived on the field, and being joined by a part of the 2d Indiana, met the enemy in a mot gallant style, and after a most severe and bloody engagement, repulsed them with great loss.  In the mean time a large body of lancer, 600 or 800 in number, who had passed down along the left toward our rear, made a most desperate charge upon the Arkansas and Kentucky cavalry, with a view of cutting off and plundering the baggage train of the army which was at a ranche near the battlefield.

This charge was met and resisted most gallantly by those cavalry, aided by about two hundred infantry who had taken refuge there after they had retired, from the field.  This repulse discouraged the enemy, and the Mississippi regiment and part of the 2d Indiana, being joined by the 3d Indiana regiment commanded by Col. James H. Lane, now advanced up towards the foot of he mountain for the purpose of dislodging the enemy's force stationed there.  In this enterprise I was aided by Captain 's battery of light artillery and it was crowned with complete success, the enemy retreating in disorder, and with immense loss, back along side of the mountain to the position which they had occupied in morning some flying in terror up the sides of the mountain, and into the ravines, while a few were taken prisoners.  Amongst the last desperate attempts of the enemy to regain and hold the left of the field, was a charge made by a large body of lancers upon my command.  This charge for gallantry and determined  bravery on both sides, has been seldom equaled.  The forces on either side were nearly equal in numbers.  Instead of throwing my command into squares to resist the charge, the enemy were received in line of two ranks, my force reserving its fire until the enemy were within about seventy yards, which was delivered with a deadly aim, and which proved most destructive in its effects-the enemy flying in every direction in disorder, and making a precipitate retreat towards their own lines.  About sunset the enemy withdrew from the field, and the battle cease. In a brief report it is impossible to enter into the details of a day like the 23d.  The fighting throughout consisted of different engagements in different parts of the field, the whole of them warm and well contested; many of them bloody and terrible.  The men under my command actually discharged eighty and some ninety rounds  of cartridges at he enemy during the day.  The 2d regiment under my command which opened the battle on the plain, n such gallant style, deserves a passing remark.  I shall attempt to make so apology for their retreat; for it was their duty to stand or die to the last man until they received orders to retire; but I desire to call your attention to one fact connected with this affair.  They remained in their position, in line, receiving the fire of 3,000 or 4,000 infantry in front, exposed at he same time on the left flank to a most desperate ranking fire from the enemy's battery, posted within point blank shot, until they had deliberately discharged twenty rounds of cartridge at the enemy.

Some excuse may be framed for those who retired for a few minutes and then immediately rallied, and fought during the day; but unless they hasten to retrieve their reputations, disgrace must forever hang round he names of those who refused to return, and I regret to say there were a few of those from nearly every volunteer corps engaged.

In a battle so fierce and protracted as this, where there were so many exhibitions of coolness and bravery, it is a delicate and difficult task to particularize.  But justice compels me to mention Col. Davis and his regiment of Mississippians, who so nobly and so bravely came to the rescue at he proper time to save the fortune's of the day.

Col. J. H. Lane and the 3d regiment of my command were ordered in the action soon after Col. Davis; and the coolness and bravery displayed by both the officers and men of that regiment have rarely been equaled-never surpassed-by any troops at any time.  They have done infinite honor to the state and nation that gave them birth.  Lieutenant Col. Hadden, of the 2d regiment of my brigade; aided me in rallying his regiment after they retired; and he in person succeeded in marching a party of them back towards the enemy, with whom he immediately became engaged, and fortunately repulsed with considerable loss.  In another part of the field he succeeded in killing an officer of the enemy with hi own hand, by sending a rifle ball through him at a great distance.

I was also much indebted to Maj. Mooney, quarter master; Major Dix, paymaster: the gallant and lamented Capt. Lincoln, of Gen. Wool's staff; and to Lieut. Robinson, for their assistance in rallying the forces after they had retired from their position.-They all behaved nobly, and deserve the thanks of the country for the coolness and intrepidity which they displayed on that trying occasion.  The latter acting as my aid e camp during the entire day-is entitled to particular attention for the gallant manner in which he executed my orders.  Lieutenant O'Brien-who commanded the battery of light artillery on my right-is deserving of particular praise for his courage and self-possession throughout the day, moving and discharging his battery with all the coolness and precision of a day of ordinary parade. Major Mooney, quartermaster, and Major Morrison, commissary, attached to my brigade, although not belonging to the line of the army, nor expected to take an active part in the battle, are entitled to great honor for their bravery and coolness in promptly rallying the scattered forces at the rancho, who assisted, under the command of Major Morrison, in resisting the desperate charge of the lancers made upon the Arkansas and Kentucky cavalry, as, by this repulse, the whole baggage train of the army was saved from destruction.  This important duty they discharged, in addition to those which strictly appertained to their respective departments.  A statement of the killed and wounded has already been submitted, which need not be recapitulated here.  Although censure does justly attach to a few who proved recreant to their duty on that day, yet I am of he opinion that veteran troops, either of this or any other country, could not have fought and won the battle better than those engaged.  It is a victory without a parallel in this or any other war on this continent; and the men and officers who did their duty at the battle of Buena Vista deserve to have their names inscribed on the brightest pages of their country's history.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,
Joseph Lane,
Brig. Gen. Comd'g. 3d brigade.

To Brigadier General Wool, U.S. Army,
[ANP]


NNR 72.232-72.234 June 12, 1847 official reports of officers of the light artillery on their actions at Buena Vista

Battle of Buena Vista.
Light Artillery Report.
Official.
From General Taylor's Army.
Camp Taylor, near Agua Nueva, (Mexico,)
February 28, 1847.

Sir: Agreeably to your orders of to-day, I have the honor to report that my battery of artillery took position in the line of battle on the 22d instant, at its intersection with ht road leading to San Luis Potosi, which was maintained during the conflict.  Every demonstration of the enemy on this point was promptly repulsed.  Two instances, especially, are worthy of notice; the first, about 0 o'clock on the morning of the 23d, when the enemy appeared in very large force, consisting of lancers and infantry, covered by a very heavy battery of artillery.  The rapidity and precision of our fire scattered and dispersed this force in a few minutes, with considerable loss on his side, and little or none on our own.  The other occurred late in the day-after three regiments of our volunteers had been overpowered by the enemy, and a strong body of lancers, in close pursuit of them, was almost instantly driven back-thereby saving several hundred of our men from impending destruction.  During these operations, four pieces of my battery (which was composed of eight) were detached at different times, under 1st Lieutenant O'Brien, 4th artillery, and brevet 2d Lieutenants Bryan, topographical engineers, to a distant part of the field, and entirely out of my sight.  For the part taken by these gallant officers and their brave men, I am compelled to refer you to the report of Lieutenant O'Brien, which is herewith transmitted, and which also explains the cause of the loss of three pieces of his artillery.

Without entering into minor details of the engagement, which lasted the greater part of wo days, and during a large portion of which my battery was the object of a heavy fire from the enemy's large guns, I have only to bear willing testimony to the good conduct of the officers and men, without exception, who served under my immediate command and within the scope of my own eye.  Lieutenants Brent and Whiting, 4th artillery, commanded sections, and breved 2d Lieutenant Couch was either in command of a piece or in charge for promptitude and gallantry in carrying out my order should not be surpassed.  It is with great pleasure, therefore, that I recommend them to your favorable notice, and, through you, to the consideration of our government.  I would also ask for Lieutenants O'Brien and Bryan the rewards due distinguished merit.

Among my non-commissioned officers it might be considered invidious to draw distinctions, where all did so well.  The long experience, however, of my 1st sergeant, Shields, and the greater skill to which he had attained in gunnery, made the fire of his piece quite conspicuous amidst the general accuracy of the other cannoneers.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, you obedient servant,
J. M. Washington,
Captain 4th artillery, command battery.

Lieut. J. McDowell, acting assistant adjutant general, Gen. Wool's division, Mexico.

Camp on battle ground of Buena Vista, Mexico,
February 25, 1847.

Sir: I have the honor to report to you're the part taken in the action of the 23d instant, by that portion of artillery which was detached from your battery and placed under my command.

On the morning of the 22d instant I was placed on the elevated plain, which afterwards became the battle ground, in command of three pieces of light artillery, viz: one 12 pounder howitzer, one six pounder gun, and one four pounder Mexican gun.-No opportunity was afforded for the use of these pieces till the morning of the 23d instant, when I pushed the howitzer close tot he mountain and fired a few shells at a body of Mexicans that were advancing along its slope, in order to get possession of the head of ravine, near which our troops were then posted.  Finding the elevation ad distance so great as to cause some of my shot to be wasted, I discontinued the fire and moved my battery to the position assigned it in line.  During this time a battery of heavy Mexican artillery was playing against me, at such a distance that it was impossible for me to attempt to return its fire.

Soon after this, I was directed by Brigadier General lane to move my battery forward, in order to check the advance of some lancers who were reported to be coming up the ravine nearest the enemy's line.  The 2d regiment of Indiana volunteers was ordered to support me.

On arriving at the point indicated, I found myself within musket range of about three thousand Mexican infantry, while their battery three hundred yards on my left, was pouring in heavy discharged of grape and canister.  I opened the fire against the infantry and lancers with tremendous effect.  Every shot, whether canister or shell, seemed to tell.-The enemy wavered and fell back.  I advanced on him about fifty yards. He was strongly reinforced, until, in fact, I found his main body pressing on me.  The pieces were admirable served, but failed any longer to check his advance.  Every gap in the Mexican ranks was closed as soon as made.  On looking round, at this moment, I discovered that the tremendous cross fire of the enemy had forced the regiment ordered to my support to fall back.  Deeming it useless to remain alone, and sacrifice my pieces needlessly, I waited till the enemy came still closer, and then gave the order to limber up and retire.  I found that all the horses and all the cannoneers of the Mexican 4 pounder were either killed or disabled.  The other pieces were in but little better condition I succeeded, however, in withdrawing them, and retired to our line.

On arriving there, I had not a cannoneer to work the guns.  All had been disabled or killed.  Finding it impossible to replace them, either from the other batteries or any other source, I was compelled to return your battery, which was guarding the pass at the foot of the heights.

You then furnished me with two 6 pounders, with which I again ascended to the battle ground.  I then found myself opposed to a strong line of the Mexican infantry and cavalry and to one of their heavy batteries.  I was supported by a body of infantry posted in two ravines on my right and left.  The remainder of our artillery and infantry were engaged with the enemy about a half a mile, or more, to our left.  We kept the enemy in check, while our troops on the left drove the body opposed to them round the head of the ravine, where they united with those against whom I was firing.  At this moment, I received orders to push my section forward.  I advanced, and again opened a heavy fire.  The enemy was strongly reinforced by infantry  and lancers.  Finding themselves so superior on in numbers by their junction with this reinforcement, and with their troops driven from our left, they advanced.  The position of things now appeared very critical.  If the enemy succeeded in forcing our position at this pint, the day was theirs.  There was not other artillery opposed to them but my section and one other piece.  It was all important to maintain our ground until our artillery came round the ravine from the plain on our left and joined us.  I therefore determined to hold my post till the enemy reached the muzzles of my guns.  The firing from the section became more and more destructive as the enemy advanced.  It repelled a body of lancers which was about charging on the Illinois regiment.  My own loss was severe.  I had had two horses shot under me; the one I was then on was wounded and limping.  I had received a wound in the leg.  All my cannoneers, except a few recruits who had joined some days before, were killed or disabled.  In the midst of this heavy fire, with horses and men dropping around them, the few recruits who were fit for duty lost their presence of mind; and I found it impossible, with all my efforts, to keep them to their guns.  I remained with the pieces to the last, until the enemy came within a few yards of the, when I was forced to retire for the want of a single cannoneer to load or fire. I was, however, delighted to find that I had maintained my ground sufficiently long to cause the victory to be secured; for, at this moment, the rest of our artillery arrived and came into action.

You are, well aware that it is often the duty of an artillery officer to sacrifice his pieces for the safety of other troops.  Such was my position.  He could have saved the guns, had I withdrawn them earlier; but, in such case, the day might; perhaps have been lost.

The large number of killed and wounded (men and horses) in the small commanded me, will sufficiently show the nature of the service in which we were engaged.  There was but one man and two horses killed by round shot.  All the rest were struck by musketry or canister.

It is with unalloyed gratification that I have to speak of the conduct of Brevet Second Lieutenant Bryan, topographical engineers, who commanded two of the pieces that were first with me.  He had been for days suffering from sickness, and ought, in prudence, to have been then in bed. I saw him, when exposed to a close and murderous cross fire of grape and canister on one side, and musketry in front, directed the fire of his pieces, and give his commands with the same coolness as if he were on parade.  He received a flesh wound in the arm.  I beg leave, through you, earnestly to recommend him to the favorable notice of the government.

It is also my duty to commend greatly the coolness and bravery of Sergeants Williams and Queen, of your company, and of Sergeants Williams and Queen, of your company, and of Sergeants Evans and Moore, attacked to your company-the former of the 1st, the latter of the 2d Illinois volunteers.  Corporals Nixon and May, of your company, deserve equal praise.  Sergeant Pratt behaved with great coolness and courage, but was, unfortunately, wounded so early, that he could take but little part in the affair.  All the cannoneers, regulars and volunteers, who were with me in the beginning of the action, deserve high praise for their coolness, precision, and activity.  The same remark applies to those who were with me the second time, with the exception of a few raw recruits; who, I am inclined to think, were affected rather by the confusion incident to raw troops when exposed to a tremendous fire, than by fear.  Had they remained at their posts coolly, I might have delivered two more fires on the enemy before he reached the guns.

All which is respectfully submitted.
JNO. P.J. O'Brien,
Capt. U.S.A., Comd'g detachment Art.

To Captain J. M. Washington, Comd'g Company B, 4th Art.


Major: I have the honor to report, for the information of the commanding general, that as soon as the action commenced at Buena Vista on the

morning of the 23d instant, a large body of the enemy's cavalry, (supposed about eighteen hundred,) under General Minon, left the position they had occupied during the night, and began to move up near the base of the mountains to my left, apparently to make a demonstration on this redoubt and on the encampment on my right, and at the same time to place themselves in the rear of the army.  As soon as they came within range of my guns, I opened from both of my 24 pounder howitzers, which caused them some loss in men and horses, and drove them beyond the reach of my shot.  They succeeded, however, in occupying the road between the army and the town, where they remained for some hours, picking up such stragglers as attempted to leave the field and gain the city.  Between two and three o'clock, they began to move apparently with the design of gaining their former position; and as they could pass entirely beyond he range do the guns of the redoubt, I ordered one out under the command of Lieutenant Donaldson, supported by Capt. Wheeler's company if Illinois volunteers with directions to advance and take a position so as to annoy the enemy, but not to go beyond supporting distance of the gun remaining in the redoubt.  Lieut. Shover also advanced one six pounder from the camp, and both guns took such a position as to flank each other, and at the same time reach the enemy.  A brisk fire was then opened with fine effect, driving them with great precipitation and considerable loss up the base of the mountain, along which they skirted, till they gained the position they first occupied on the plain near the rancho de los Ceritos, where they apparently encamped for the night.  Next morning at daylight they were seen crossing the mountains, through the Palomas pass, since which they have not shown themselves on the Saltillo plain.

From all the information I can obtain, General Minon's loss must have amounted to fifty or sixty men and one captain, while no one was injured on our side.

I am, sir, most respectfully, your ob't ser't,
L.B. Webster,
Captain 1st Art., Com. Redoubt.

Maj. Munroe, Chief of Artillery.

Agua Nueva, March 2, 1847.
Sir: Having been directed to report the operations of my light battery, during the action of the 22d and 23d of February, I have ht honor to state, that the action of the 22d, having been confined to the skirmishing of the infantry on the left flank of our line of battle, the battery was not brought into action of that day, remaining in reserve a short distance in rear of our line.  Early on the morning of the 23d, Lieutenant Thomas's section took a position upon the plateau on our left; a 6 pounder, under Lieut. Thomas, in support of the right of a brigade of infantry, and a 12 pounder howitzer, under Lieutenant French, in support of its left.  Soon after this section had taken its position, the action became general upon this flank, and indeed throughout the line; and my reserve section was ordered up, and took position on the right of Lieut. Thomas's piece-three pieces of my battery forming the right of a line of artillery, having Captain Bragg's battery in the centre, and one of my howitzers on the left-the brigade of infantry having changed its position during the first part of the action, so as now to be engaged on the flanks of the artillery.  The action was here kept up with intense warmth, the enemy making many efforts to sweep us from the plateau, with the evident intention of gaining possession of the only practicable passage for his artillery across that flank of our line.  Though the plateau was held in spit of the desperate efforts of the enemy to gain it, yet, by closely hugging the mountain on our left, he succeeded in crossing large masses of cavalry and infantry over that part of our line, and thus seriously threatened in rear our most important positions.  Here a crotchet in rear, with its left resting on Buena Vista, having been hastily formed for the purpose of repulsing these rear attacks, I was ordered, with a  section of my battery, round to its support.  A 6 pounder, under Lieutenant Reynolds, was left for the immediate support of a brigade of infantry, composed of the Mississippi and 3d Indiana regiments, forming the right of the crotchet, whilst I moved forward with a 12 pounder howitzer to disperse a large body of infantry that had sought shelter from our fire in a gorge of the mountain in my immediate front.  This infantry having been dispersed and sent up the mountain, I then took the howitzer round to the immediate support of the Mississippi and 3d Indiana regiment-Lieutenant Reynolds's piece having been removed by Colonel May for the support of his squadron on the left of the crotchet.  Here I would state that Lieut. French having been severely wounded in their action, his detached piece fell in the hands of Lieutenant Garnett, 4th artillery, who conducted it with great ability until it joined Lieutenant Reynolds, on his way to the support of Buena Vista.  Although Lieutenant Reynolds did not reach that place with his two pieces in time to assist in repulsing the serious attack made upon it, yet he was enabled to bring up and serve his guns, so as to effectually disperse a large body of lancers which hd still held together, and showed a firm front on the left of the place.  The enemy having utterly failed in his attacks upon Buena Vista, and upon the left crotchet, he made another desperate effort to get possession of the key of our position by charging, with a heavy column of lancers, the right formed by the Mississippi and 3d Indiana regiments, and my 12 pound howitzer.  This column, with a body of infantry opened such a  galling fire as would almost stagger the best of troops.  The brigade of infantry very judiciously fell back a short distance to obtain an advantageous position to receive the charge: the movement being covered by my howitzer.  The proper position having been secured, a deadly fire was opened upon the column by the line of infantry, which at one hurled it into deep ravine below.  The unwavering firmness and deadly fire of he Mississippi regiment on this occasion showed them equal to the most veteran troops.  Every effort of the enemy having failed, he was compelled to retread before the forward movement of the troops forming the crotchet, who gradually wheeled to the right, closing upon his disorganized masses, and driving him back before a sharp fire of canister and shell from by battery, supported by that of Capt. Bragg of the left, and some pieces under Lieuts. O''Brien and Thomas upon the plateau on our right.  During this movement the several parts of the crotchet, before separated by deep ravines and gullies, now closed upon each other, permitting the two pieces under Lieut. Reynolds to now join me.  After having completely dispersed and driven the enemy into his old position, I was directed to take my battery back to the plateau, where I joined Lieut. Thomas, who had been constantly engaged during the forenoon in the preservation of that important position, and whom I found closely engaged with the enemy, and that too in a very advanced position. Here the enemy, tanking an other stand, again made his greatest efforts to sweep us from the plateau-the battle raging as hot as ever. The whole of my battery, supported by Capt. Bragg's and by the Mississippi and other regiments of infantry, was her engaged during the rest of the day.-The position was preserved, and my battery bivouacked upon an advanced position of the plateau during the night.  The enemy, having exhausted himself in his efforts to carry our positions, retired during the night with an immense loss.

I cannot close without taking pride in mentioning the warm and hearty cooperation given me by nearly every member of the company.  The services of Lieut. French, I regret to say, were lost early in the day, but his severe wound attests the zeal with which he entered upon the field.  Lieuts. Thomas and Reynolds behaved nobly throughout the action, and their coolness and firmness contributed not a little to the success of the day.  Lieut. Thomas more than sustained the reputation he has long enjoyed in his regiment as an accurate and scientific artillerist.

I also regard it my duty to bring to the notice of the commanding general Sergeant Swaine and Artificer Austin, whose services stood conspicuous during the day as the result of both distinguished skill and bravery.

I enclose here with a report of the casualties which occurred in the battery during the action.

I have the honor to be your most obedient servant,

T. W. Sherman,
Capt. 3d Art'y, com'g light company "E."

Major W. W. S. Bliss, Ass't Adj't Gen'l.

Agua Nueva, Mexico,
March 2, 1847.
Major: I have the honor to report that I marched from Saltillo, under instructions from Major Monroe, chief of artillery, on the morning of the 22d of February, 1847, with one section (two pieces) of my battery-one gun under Captain Shover, having been detached for the defence of the town, and one under 2d Lieutenant Kilburn, to escort a train.  On my arrival at Buena Vista, I was placed in reserve, and directed to hold myself in readiness for orders.  About noon, under instructions from the commanding general, I crossed the deep ravine to the right of the road, and took up a commanding position on the extreme right of our line, supported by Col. McKee's regiment of Kentucky infantry.  In this position, after throwing up a slight breastwork, I placed my guns in battery, and remained through the night, keeping a vigilant watch.

Early on the morning of the 23d skirmishing commenced on the extreme left of our line.  From my position, I could clearly observe the enemy's movements, and perceived that, unless I recrossed the ravine, I should be excluded from the action then about to commence.  At this time I was visited by Major Mansfield, engineers, and, after a short consultation, finding we fully coincided, I started to recross the ravine, and rejoin our main body.  On facing to the rear, a heavy cloud of dust was perceived several miles off on the Saltillo road, and, knowing the enemy had a cavalry force in that direction, I feared he was moving upon our depot and train.-With the concurrence of Major Mansfield, I moved rapidly to that point, and on my arrival met a horseman who reported the force to be the commanding general with his escort.  The action had now commence in my rear, and I coutermarched and moved up to our lines.  Passing no one in my route to instruct me, and finding an opening on the left of Capt. Stein's squadron, 1st dragoons, I came into action with marked effect on masses of the enemy's infantry then hotly pressing our front.  Here I remained, and kept up my fire until I observed our left flank turned, and the enemy rapidly gaining our rear.-being very closely pressed with musketry in front, and without adequate support, I retired some two or three hundred yards, and changed the direction of my fire to the left, so as to harass the head of the enemy's column, and check his advance upon our rear.  A impassible ravine prevented my gaining his front. In this position my guns were arduously served for a considerable time.  Captain Sherman was in my vicinity, and fired in the same direction with admirable effect.  So destructive was our fire that the enemy's column was divided, and a large portion of it retired, leaving those in front, as I hoped, totally cut off.  I immediately limbered to the front, and moved up in the direction of the foot of the mountains.  Passing Colonel Hardin, with his regiment if Illinois infantry, I requested his support, which was promptly given.  Having advanced as far as I deemed prudent against so heavy a force as opposed me, I came into action, and again played upon the enemy's infantry and cavalry.  It was but a short time, however, before I discovered a light battery of several guns had been advanced by the enemy with in canister range of me; and in a short time it was opened with such effect, that I saw my men and horses must all fall if I maintained my position.  I accordingly retired again beyond their range and fired upon the force which had gained our rear.  I am particularly indebted to the lamented Colonel Hardin for his able support under this heavy fire.

My ammunition, by this time, was exhausted from my limber boxes; my old cannoneers could not leave their guns; and my recruits-for the first time under fire-I found unequal to the task of replenishing my supply.  I therefore moved under cover in the ravine behind me, and rapidly transferred my ammunition to the forward boxes. Before completing it, a loud noise and a cloud of dust attracted my attention to the depot and train.  I moved off in that direction, without orders at a rapid pace, supposing the enemy had attacked that point, and my presence might be essential in maintaining it.

Finding, when I arrived, that the attack had been made and repulsed, I directed my attention to the large infantry and cavalry force which had turned our left flank, and was still advancing.  At this time I saw that lieutenant Kilburn had joined me with his gun. He had been actively and gallantly engaged in my vicinity during the greater part of the day; but my close occupation caused me to overlook him.  Seeing that fore which had turned us was gradually moving along the foot of the mountain towards Saltillo, and was only held in check by Captain Sherman, with one gun, under the support of the Mississippi riflemen, which he had daringly advanced against at least 4,000 of the enemy, I put my battery in motion towards them, and sought support from scattered parties of mounted men in the vicinity of the train.  About fifty followed me.  By the time I arrived within range of the enemy-my movement being very slow, owing to the jaded condition of my horses-I noticed the Mississippi regiment gallantly led against a force immensely superior.  Overwhelmed by numbers, it was forced to fall back.  I am happy to believe that my rapid and well directed fire, opened just at this time, held the enemy in check until Colonel Davis could gain a position, and assume a stand.  Under my fire the enemy retired some hundred yards, and I advanced the same distance, and again came into action.  From this point I several times fell back, and as often advanced, regulating my movements by those of the enemy, my support being weak and uncertain.  The effect of my fire was very apparent, frequently throwing whole columns into disorder. Whilst thus engaged, Gen. Wool came up, and at my request, ordered our cavalry, then some distance to my left, to move to my support.  I at once approached within canister range, and felt confident I should inflict a loss upon the enemy from which he could not possibly recover.  A white flat, however, rapidly passed me, and I ceased my fire.  The enemy seized the opportunity, availed themselves of he protection of our flag, and drew off beyond the range of our guns.

As they were retiring by the very route they had advanced, I feared they would avail themselves of our weakness at that point and renew the attack, regardless of our flag; I accordingly reversed my battery, and urged my horses to their utmost.  They were so exhausted, however, that a walk was all that could be forced from them by both whip and spur.  Several deep ravines had to be passed by circuitous routes before I could reach my desired position; and, as I feared, before I could possibly get there, and awful roar of musketry commenced.-Knowing the importance of my presence, I left some of my heaviest carriages, caissons, and pushed on with such as could move most rapidly.  Having gained a point from which my guns could be used, I put them in battery, and loaded with canister.  Now, for the first time, I felt the imminent peril in which we stood.  Our infantry was routed, our advanced artillery captured, and the enemy in heavy force coming upon us at a run.  Feeling that the day depended upon the successful stand of our artillery,  I appealed to the commanding general, who was near, for support.  None was to be had; and, under his instructions to maintain our position at every hazard, I returned to my battery, encouraged my men, and, when the enemy arrived within good rage, poured forth the canister as rapidly as my guns could be loaded.  At the first discharge, I observed the enemy falter, and in a short time he was in full retreat.  A very heavy loss must have been sustained by him, however, before he got beyond our range.  My guns were now advanced several hundred yards, and opened on a position held by the enemy, with a battery of heavier calibre than our own-the same from which our left flank had been driven in the forenoon.  Under the support of the Mississippi regiment, I continued my fire until convinced that nothing could be effected-the enemy holding an eminence from which we could not dislodge him without a sacrifice which might compromise the success of the day.  I accordingly withdrew their fire.

Thus closed my severe labors for the day, except a few scattered shot fired at different parties of the enemy passing within our range.  I had expended about 250 rounds of ammunition for each gun.

About sunset I withdrew my battery in the ravine in rear of our line, and took a position for the night from which I could readily move to any assailable point.  Here I reminded-officers and men on the alert, and horses in harness.  At daylight the next morning the rear guard of the enemy was seen in full retreat; and a minute examination f the field showed the awful destruction to his ranks, which we could scarcely realize before, but which not fully accounted for his movement.

Captain W. H. Shover, my 1st lieutenant, having been detached with one of my guns for he defence of Saltillo, I must refer to his report for a full account of the operations of that portion of my company.  His deportment there, when viewed in connexion with his former distinguished conduct on more that one occasion, and his long and arduous services since the commencement of the war-he being the only officer with my battery who originally accompanied it to the field-deserve, and I hope will receive, the special notice of the commanding general.

Of Lieut. Kilburn, whose coolness, efficiency, and gallantry came under my particular notice, I cannot speak in terms of more complimentary than he deserves. His services are invaluable to me, whether in the camp, on the march or in action.  I feel that it is unnecessary for me to say more of men, than to express the hope and belief that they have fully sustained the distinguished reputation the company has enjoyed since it first encountered the enemy of the field of Palo Alto.

It is a source of regret that, just at his critical time, I should have had so many recruits but partially instructed.  By it, the accuracy and rapidity of my fire were both impaired, and my attention was frequently withdrawn from its proper direction to encourage, inspire and instruct them.  The want of a full complement of officers to my company was also seriously felt.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obed't. serv't.,
Braxton Bragg,
Capt. 3d art'y, commanding light Co. "C."

To Maj. W.W. S. Bliss, Ass't Adj't Gen'l, army of occupation.
[ANP]


NNR 72.234-72.235 June 12, 1847 report from Col. Charles Augustus May on actions of the dragoons at Buena Vista

Dragoon Camp, (near Agua Nueva, Mexico,)
March 3, 1847.

Major.  In compliance with your directions, I have the honor to submit the following report of the services rendered by my command in the affair of the 22d, and the battle of the 23d ult. with the Mexican army.  Immediately on receiving intelligence of the advance of the Mexican forces on the morning of the 22d, I accompanied the general chief with my squadron to the battle field.  The action not becoming general that day, the duties of my squadron, consisting of seventy-two total, seventy-six aggregate.-As soon as I reached the scene of action, I took position near the squadron of the 1st dragoons, so as to be able to co-operate with it, if necessary, and also to be in supporting distance of Captain Sherman's battery.  Shortly after this the battle became general, the enemy's grand column of attack having forced the position occupied originally by the Kentucky and Arkansas mounted volunteers, and driving them before it, was rapidly gaining ground towards our rear.  At this moment the commanding general directed me to assume command of the dragons, and check that column.

Capt. Stein, 1st dragoons, being absent or engaged in some other portion of the field, the command of the squadron of the 1st dragoons devolved on Lieut. Rucker.  Owing to the numerous deep ravines cutting the entire field of battle, I was compelled to pursue a circuitous route to gain the head or front of the advancing column.  On my way thither I was joined by Capt. Pike, Arkansas mounted volunteers, with his squadron, who informed me he had been ordered to report to me for duty.  So soon as I appeared with my command in front of the enemy, his cavalry halted, under cover of a deep ravine, supported by large masses of infantry.  At the same time Cols. Marshall and yell, separated from my command by a deep ravine, advanced their respective commands towards the enemy.  By these combined movements the progress of the seemingly victorious column was checked.  I maintained that position nearly an hour; during which time the enemy didn't advance beyond he defensive position assumed on my first appearance I his front.  I was, however, unable to charge his cavalry, owing to he intervention of deep ravines.

The position I then occupied was eminently favorable for the use of artillery, and I accordingly despatched Lieut. Wood, may adjutant, to the commanding general requesting a piece of artillery to be sent to me.  Before the arrival, however, of the piece of artillery placed under my orders by the general, I was ordered by Brigadier General Wool to return to the position I occupied first in the morning to support the batteries situated on the ridge nearest to he enemy, and which were also immediately under the eye of he general-in-chief.  While in that position I was directed to detach Lieutenant Rucker, with the squadron of the 1st dragoons, with orders to proceed up the ravine under cover of the ridge and to charge the enemy's batteries situated on the plateau at the base of the mountain.  He had not, however, proceeded more than a few hundred yards, when it was observed that he enemy's column on the left flank was again advancing, driving the Kentucky and Arkansas mounted volunteers, and menacing our rear.  I was ordered by the commanding general to recall the squadron of the 1st dragoons and to proceed with my three squadrons and a section of artillery under Lieut. J.F. Reynolds, to check and force back this column.  Before the squadron of the 1st dragoons could be recalled, it had gone so far up the ravine as to be in close range of the enemy's artillery.  It was thus, for a short time, exposed to a severe fire, which resulted in the loss of a few men.  The other two squadrons and the section of artillery were in the mean time placed in motion for Buena Vista, where a portion of our supplies were stored, and against which the enemy was directing his movements.  Lieut. Rucker joined me near the rancho, and in time to assist me in checking he heavy cavalry force, which was then very near and immediately in our front.  A portion of the enemy's cavalry, amounting, perhaps to two hundred men, not perceiving my command, crossed the main road near to the rancho and received a destructive fire from a number of volunteers assembled there.  The remaining heavy column was immediately checked and retired in great disorder towards the mountains on our left, before, however, I could place my command n position to charge.  Being unable, from the heavy clouds of dust, to observe immediately the movements of the body of cavalry which had passed the rancho, I followed it up and fond it had crossed the deep and marshy ravine on the right of the road, and was attempting to gain the mountains on the right.-I immediately ordered Lieut. Reynolds to bring his section into battery, which he did promptly, and, by a few well directed shots, dispersed and drove the enemy in confusion over the mountains.  I next directed my attention to the annoying column which had occupied so strong a position on our left flank and read during the whole day, and immediately moved my command to a position whence I could use my artillery on the masses crowded it he ravines and gorges of the mountains.  As I was leaving the rancho =, I was joined by about two hundred foot volunteers, under Major Gorman, and a detachment of Arkansas mounted volunteers, under Lieut. Colonel Roane.  Believing my command now sufficiently strong for any contingency which might arise, I advanced it steadily towards the foot of the mountains and to within a few hundred yard sot he position occupied by the enemy.  I then directed Lieutenant Reynolds to bring his section again into battery; and, in the course of half an hour, by the steady and destructive fire of hi artillery, the enemy was forced to fall beck.  This advantage I followed up; in doing which I was joined by a section of artillery under Captain Bragg.  My command still continued to advance, and the enemy to retire.  We soon gained a position where we were able to deliver a destructive fire, which caused the enemy to retreat in confusion.  While the artillery was thus engaged, by order of General Wool I steadily advanced the cavalry; but, owing to the deep ravines which separated my command from the enemy, I was unable to gain ground on him.  The enemy having been thus forced to abandon his position on our left and rear, I was again directed to assume a position in supporting distance of Captain Sherman's battery, which occupied its former position on our left and rear, I was again directed to assume a position in supporting distance of Captain Sherman's battery, which occupied its former position some time, the general in chief directed me to move my command up the ravine towards the enemy's batteries and to prevent any further advance on that flank.  This position was occupied until the close of the battle, the enemy never again daring to attempt any movement towards our rear.  The cavalry, except Captain Pike's squadron, which was detached for picket service on the right of the road, occupied, during the night of the 23d, the ground near where I was directed last to take my position before the close of the battle.-Finding, on the morning of the 24th, that enemy had retreated it was joined by Capt. Pike's squadron, and ordered by the general in pursuit.

In closing this report, I should o injustice to my feeling were I to omit to bring to the notice of the commanding general the steady bearing and gallant conduct of the officers and men of my command.-The squadrons of the 1st and 2d dragoons, under command of Lieutenants Rucker and Campbell, and the squadron of Arkansas mounted volunteers, under Captain Pike, displayed the greatest coolness and steadiness under the heaviest fire of the enemy, and the greatest promptitude in obeying all may commands that day.  To Lieutenant Thos. J. Wood, my adjutant, my thanks are particularly due for the prompt manner in which he conveyed my orders, and for the battle energy and zeal he displayed throughout the battle, and to Lieutenant Reynolds, 3d artillery, I must also tender my warmest thanks for the gallant and bold manner in which he maneuvered his section of artillery, which rendered the most important and effective service.

I regret my inability to state the killed and wounded of the whole command, squadron commanders not having furnished me the necessary information.

I have the honor to be, your very obed't. serv't.
C. A. May,
Brevet Lieut. Col. 2d dragoons, com'dg.

Major W.W.S. Bliss, Assistant Adj't Gen'l. army of occupation.  [ANP]


NNR 72.235-236 June 12, 1847, accounts on the situation at Santa Fe, news of Col. Alexander Doniphan’s expedition

“ARMY OF THE NORTH”

SANTE FE- The St. Louis Republican of the 28th ultimo says:

“About a dozen volunteers discharged from service in Col. Price’s regiment at Santa Fe, on account of ill health arrived in the city yesterday on the John J. Hardm.  They left Santa Fe in detached parties, the latest on the 21st of the April, and reached independence on Sunday last.  They brought a mail with them; but as it was deposited in the post office at Independence, our letters have not yet reached us.

We learn, generally, from these volunteers that everything was in a tranquil state when they left Santa Fe.  The natives of the country were deprived of the means of doing mischief, even if they were so disposed, having no arms upon which they could rely and no ammunition.  The courts of the trials of the rebels had closed both at Taos and Santa Fe, and the sanguinary executions, which had taken place under their adjudication, were at end.  The old man at Santa Fe, under sentence of death for the part he played in the drama of rebellion, was awaiting the decisions of the president of the United States in his case on a representation of all the facts, as contained in papers which passed through this place some weeks since.

Colonel Price was in command at Santa Fe, which has proved the graveyard, for many young and gallant men.  Our informant states, that nearly four hundred persons were buried there, and in the company commanded by Captain Horine, of St. Genevieve, 11 deaths had taken place.  13 others were discharged from eh same company on account of ill health.  One hundred had been discharged from Colonel Price’s regiment, on the same account.

In coming in, these parties met great numbers of Indians, whose principal object seemed to be the stealing of mules and horses.  On the 12th instant, they were attacked at Pawnee fork, by about one hundred Comanche and Arapahoe Indians, and in the fight one Indian, the leader of the band was killed and several wounded, one or two of the Americans were slightly wounded.  The Indians succeeded in driving off one hundred and five head of horses and mules, principally the property of a party of Mexican traders, traveling in company.  The party, on their arrival at Independence, numbered 65 men, with 18 wagons and $65,000 in specie, belonging to Mexican traders.

The winter at Santa Fe had been excessively sever and of great duration.  A man by the name of Hicks was killed at fandango in Santa Fe, shortly before the last of the company left.

Of the number of volunteers at Santa Fe, very few will enroll themselves for a new term of service.”

The St. Louis New Era at the same date says:

“A party of Mexican traders arrived this morning from Santa Fe, brining with them $65,000 in specie.  They contemplate going pat to purchase goods.  Another party is on them, and brings with them also a large amount of money.

We are delighted to learn by the latest dates from Saltillo that the AMERICAN XENOPHON, Col. Doniphan had been heard from.  After returning to Chihuahua, as we mentioned before, had reached his started his march towards Saltillo.  He had reached Parras, and was expected at Saltillo in a day or two, escorted by Capt. Pike, whose company of Arkansas, cavalry whose company of Arkansas had been dispatched for the purpose by Gen. Wool.  A letter to Gen. Cushing from Monterey, states that Col. Doniphan was expected down the river shortly with his command.  Massena’s masterly movement with the French army when surrounded by the Russian Suwarrow, had been fairly matched by our intrepid western volunteers.  [CPO]


NNR 72.240, June 12, 1847 ARMY OF INVASION

ARMY OF INVASION

Vera Cruz dates to the 25th, and Tampico to the 27th, reached New Orleans on the 31st May.

No arrivals from Gen. Scott's army at Vera Cruz for several days.  The diligence due on the 24th from Mexico, had not arrived.  Mr. Kendall writes from Jalapa, May 16th, that owing to the non-arrival of the train expected that day, Gen. Scott would not be able to leave for some days.  No official account of Gen. Worth's entrance into Puebla had reached headquarters on the 20th, although he occupied the place on the 15th.  On the 21st, a diligence arrived with intelligence that all was quiet at Puebla.

The Jalapa stage was attacked by rancheros or robbers a few miles from Puente Nacional, on the 23d ult., and robbed.  The driver managed to escape after having been dreadfully beaten, and reaching Vera Cruz, gave the alarm.  It is much feared the passengers have been killed.  This circumstance, however, must not be taken as a guerrilla affair. For it does not appear that there are any regularly organized bands between Vera Cruz and Jalapa.  The assailants were, no doubt, acting independently, and were careless whom they attacked, friend or foe, countryman or foreigner, provided they obtained booty.

El Republicano of the 19th announces that General Bravo has proposed to the supreme government that American prisoners should be sent off "successively and with due security" to Tampico to be released, inasmuch as Mexican prisoners taken at the Augostura and Sierra Gordo and been released without condition. [WFF]


NNR 72.240 June 12, 1847, Mexican proposal to release American prisoners at Tampico

ARMY OF INVASION

Vera Cruz dates to the 25th, and Tampico to the 27th reached New Orleans on the 31st May.

No arrivals from Gen. Scott’s army at Vera Cruz for several days.  The diligence due on the 24th from Mexico has not arrived.  Mr. Kendall writes from Jalapa, May 16th, that owing to the non-arrival of the train expected that day, Gen. Scott would not be able to leave there for some days.  No official account of Gen. Worth’s entrance into Puebla had reached headquarters on the 20th, although he occupied the place on the 15th.  On the 21st, a diligence arrived with intelligence that all was quiet at Puebla.

The Jalapa stage was attacked by rancheros or robbers a few miles from Puente National, on the 23rd and robbed.  The driver managed to escape after having been beaten and reaching Vera Cruz gave the alarm.  It is much feared the passengers have been killed.  This circumstance, however must not be taken as a guerrilla affair, for it does not appear that there are any regularly organized bands between Vera Cruz and Jalapa.  The assailants were, no doubt acting independently, and were careless whom they attacked, friend or foe, countryman or foreigner, provided they obtain booty.

El Republicano of the 19th announces that General Bravo has proposed to the supreme government that American prisoners should be sent off “successively and with due security” to Tampico to be released in as much as Mexican prisoners taken at the Augostura and Sierra Gordo had been released without condition.  [CPO]


NNR 72.240 June 12, 1847, Com. Matthew Calbraith Perry’s cruise putting the tariff into effect

NAVAL.  Com Perry has returned to Sacrificio from his cruise to the south, having touched at Laguna, Frontera, and other reports on the coast putting the American-Mexican tariff in operation.  He took possession of the fort at the mouth of the river Guascaualco, and of a town some 20 miles up that river.

On the 19th the English frigate Alarm, brig Darling and steamer Vesuvius, left the anchorage of Sacrificios for Havana, with several cases of yellow fever on board.  The vomito has made its appearance in this city, but as yet in few cases.  Vera Cruz has already nearly recovered from the effects of the siege, the people are returning, the knocked down houses are being rebuilt, the streets cleaned, shops opened, and all the activity of a seaport displayed.  Among other things we have an American circus in full operation.  [CPO]


NNR 72.240 June 12, 1847 Naval News

NAVAL. Com. Perry has returned to Sacrificio from his cruize to the south, having touched at Laguna, Frontera, and other ports on the coast, putting the American-Mexican tariff in operation. He took possession of the fort at the mouth of the river Guascaualco, and of a town some twenty miles up that river.

On the 19th, the English frigate Alarm, brig Daring, and steamer Vesuvius, left the anchorage of Sacrificios for Havana, with several cases of yellow fever on board. The vomito has made its appearance in this city, but as yet in few cases. Vera Cruz has already nearly recovered from the effects of the seige - the people are returning, the knocked down houses are being rebuilt, the streets cleaned, shops opened, and all the activity of a seaport displayed. Among other things we have an American circus in full operation. [JLM]


NNR 72.240 June 12, 1847 recovery of Veracruz from the effects of the siege

On the 19th, the English frigate Alarm, brig. Daring, and steamer Vesuvius, with several cases of yellow fever on board.  The vomito has made its appearance in this city, but as yet in few cases.  Vera Cruz has already nearly recovered from the effects of the siege-the people are returning, the knocked down houses are being rebuilt, the streets cleaned, shops opened, and all the activity of a seaport displayed.  Among other things we have an American circus in full operation.  [ANP]


NNR 72.240 June 12, 1847, denunciation of Gen. Winfield Scott’s proclamation to the Mexican people

MEXICO

By way of Tampico, city of Mexico dates to the 19th of May have reached New Orleans.

The election of president was held on the 15th of May, but as the election is made by the states, it will be some time before the result can be known.  Herrera, ex-president, had received the vote of Queretaro, which probably gave rise to the report that he had been elected president.  Each state, so far as heard from, has voted for candidates of their own, no candidate having as yet more than one vote, nor had Santa Anna received a vote, so far.  Alverez is a competitor for the presidency.  After placing Acapulco on the Pacific in a state of defense, he is now approaching the capital at the head of 4,000 troops.  Melchor Ocamp a friend of Anaya, is also a candidate and got the vote of Puebla.  Angel Trias got the vote of Mexico.

General Scott’s proclamation to the people of Mexico, reached the Mexican congress on the 14th May.  The Republicano denounces it severely.  [CPO]


NNR 72.240 June 12, 1847, Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna returns to Mexico City, is stoned
NNR 72.240 June 12, 1847, Mexican fortifications
NNR 72.240 June 12, 1847, Pacific squadron threatens Mazatlan and San Blas

Santa Anna at the Capital-  Santa Anna after precipitately quitting Puebla, as Gen. Worth advanced and took possession thereof on the 15th published an account of his previous operations, and of the skirmish near Puebla with his cavalry, in which he admits the loss of some half dozen men.  Another of his publications gave account of preparations for defending the approaches to the capital.  He afterwards issued a manifesto, addressed to the nation, but of which no copy has yet been received.

Leaving his army, variously estimated at from 15,000 to 30,000 men to the command of other officers, Santa Anna proceeded towards the capital, which he entered on eh 19th of May.  His reception was very different from what he had hoped.  “The populace or rabble, principally leperos, assembled to receive the President an interim and at first showered upon him curses, both “loud and deep”, and soon afterwards commenced stoning him.  An armed force of his friends with great difficulty saved his life, and conveyed him to the palace.  La Patria, the Spanish paper at New Orleans, has this information from a commercial correspondent at Mexico, whose letter is dated the 21st of May.

The Republicano of the 18th tells us that the Mexicans were fortifying the hills or bridges of Loreto, Guadalope and San Juan, and that an advanced division of Mexicans had been pushed as far as Rio Prieto, four leagues west of Puebla.

The Pacific Squadron, on the 28th of April a squadron of six of eight vessels was off Mazatlan, and a thousand men were to disembark to take the town.  Letters from Mazatlan say they were making there every operation for defense, but if the descent is made in as great force as it is represented, they can make no defense of much account.  Other accounts say that the port of San Blas too was menaced by our squadron, and that is was the purpose of the Americans to land and take the town.  [CPO]


NNR 72.240 June 12, 1847, expectation that Gen. Zachary Taylor will advance to San Luis Potosi
NNR 72.240 June 12, 1847, fatal duel between lieutenants in the Virginia volunteers
NNR 72.240 June 12, 1847, reduction in the force under Gen. Zachary Taylor through return of volunteers
NNR 72.240 June 12, 1847, Gen. Caleb Cushing ordered to join Gen. Zachary Taylor
NNR 72.240 June 12, 1847, indignation of the Matamoras traders over the Mexican tariff

ARMY OF OCCUPATION

Brazos dates to the 25th, Monterey to the 15th and Saltillo to the 14tth of May, were received at New Orleans.

A letter to the N.O. Delta dated Monterey 15th May says: “Here we are pretty much after the old sort.  Again all thing, seem to denote a movement of this column, and I think, by the 1st of June, old Rough and Ready will pack hi knapsack for San Luis Potosi.  I intended going, and have attached myself to the company of Captain J. H. Bean.  The young captain is from old Kentucky, and is a good specimen of that noble state, of whose gallantry and courage Americans say well, be proud.  You may look out for squalls at San Louis.  They say it is there the Mexicans will make their final great struggle, but we will see what we shall see.  The whether here at present, is as hot, if not more hot, then you have it in New Orleans.”

An article in the Picayune, leads us to apprehend that a duel had taken place between a couple of lieutenants of the Virginia volunteers, at China about the 21st, in which both the combatants were killed.  The name of one Mahan is given, the other not recalled.  We hope the whole story may prove to be unfounded.

Lieut. Mahan was a law student, the son of F. Mahan, the publisher of Taylor’s fashions, Philadelphia, where the lieutenant left a wife and had two children, one born since he left for Mexico.  He took an active part in raising the fifty-one recruits from the city of Philadelphia for the VA regiment, and preceded with them to Richmond, under assurances from the Virginia recruiting officer, that he should be one of the lieutenants of the company.  At Richmond he found competitors, and it was not until the Pennsylvanians refused to embark for Mexico unless he was made an officer, that his claim was recognized.  Ill feeling was engendered, and a sad tragedy has resulted.

General Taylor had been unwell, but has recovered.

A letter from the Brazos correspondent of the New Orleans Bee furnishes particulars respecting the return of the volunteers that had constituted most of Gen. Taylor’s forces at Buena Vista.  They were all en route for home, and reinforcements on their way to replace them, were by no means equal in numbers, nor were what there were of them, yet disciplined, or even organized, except one or two regiments.  The writer thinks it manifest that General Taylor will neither be in force or donation to make a movement beyond his present location, shortly.

Gen. Cushing had received orders to proceed with the Massachusetts regiment from Matamoras, to join Gen. Taylor.  Though not recovered, he designed setting out in a few days.  Capt. E. Webster now at New Orleans, has been appointed aid to Gen. Cushing.  An election was to be held in the Massachusetts regiment on eh 27th, for a colonel to succeed Col. Now Gen. Cushing.  Three men of the regiment recently deserted, and attempting to reach Brazos, were murdered by a party of Comanche’s that met with them.

The Ohio regiment was to leave Monterey on the 19th and the 1st Indiana regiment on the 20th for home.

The traders of Matamoras are indigent at the new tariff to Mexican ports.  The flag advises them to call public meeting to denounce it.

The Indians are becoming very troublesome in Texas and along the Rio Grande.  [CPO]


NNR 72.240 June 12, 1847, movement of the “American Star” from Jalapa to Puebla

“THE AMERICAN STAR,” reaches us from a friend and gallant officer.  The editor in the number for the 13th of May, announces that having no affinity to the “fixed starts” his star will rise no more at Jalapa.  He shoots for the darkest quarter in the horizon, there to contribute his mite to enlighten the benighted.  After rising again at Puebla, for a short season, he expects to assist in illuminating “the halls.”  [CPO]


NNR 72.240 June 12, 1847 Tennessee volunteers return to New Orleans

The Heroes of Monterey. - Just one year ago there marched through our streets as noble and splendid a body of men as ever went forth to battle. They were about nine hundred strong. The men were in the vigor of youthful manhood, and as in perfet order and with military precision they paraded through our city, the admiration of our people broke forth in loud applause of the gallant array. This was the first Tennessee regiment, under the heroic vterean Col. Campbell. They left our city fresh from their own happy homes in the mountains and by the river sieds in beautiful Tennessee, full of hope, ambition, and patriotism: they departed in cheerful spirits with impatient ardor for the scene of war. * * *

On Friday last the whole of this gallant regiment, whose history we have thus briefly sketched, arrived in our city. It numbers just three hundred and fifty, about one third the force with which it left. And this loss it has sustained in a twelve months' campaign. It has averaged a loss of fifty men a month. [NGP]


NNR 72.241 June 12, 1847 disruption of finance and trade at New Orleans because of the government's mode of handling disbursements for the war

Money Matters At The South. Money and exchange. The exchanges continue depressed, and money scarce, principally, if not exclusively, owing to the action of the government. The complaints are justly loud and general, as to the mode the department has adopted, for making their numerous and heavy payments at this place, in which, notwithstanding its manifest injustice to individuals, and the general injury and derangement it occasions to the business of the city, they will still persevere.

Parties having claims for supplies, or otherwise, are still compelled to take drafts on the north, and those receiving army bills from Mexico, can only get them settled in the same manner, all, or most of which drafts coming on the market, in addition to the usual supply of bills from regular business operations, depresses exchange and obliges the holders to part with them at from 2 to 2 1/2, and in some instances even at 3 per cent loss.

In looking over the American newspapers published in Mexico, we see the disbursing officers of the army advertising their bills on New Orleans for sale, and when parties, with full confidence in the good faith of the government, pay their specie funds for these drafts, they find, on presenting them to the proper officer at this place, that the government has entirely neglected to provide and funds to meet the payment, and they have no claim for damages nor interest, which they would have against an individual. They are then compelled to go without their money, or take in settlement other drafts on distant point, on which they must suffer a heavy loss! The natural consequence of this violation of the public's faith has been to destroy the credit of these drafts in Mexico, and to deprive the government of the great facility of obtaining specie there, free of expense, thus obliging them to send coin from the United States at an enormous cost, particularly when it is recollected what are the expenses for transportation there, to say nothing of the necessity of escorts, to protect it, and the loss of the services of these troops.

But oppressive and unjust as is the tax thus inflicted on individuals, it is not a tythe to what it saddles upon the planters and farmers of the country, who have sent their produce for sale at this place. The present state of exchanges in this city, is an actual and indisputable tax, of one dollar upon every bale of cotton - of fifteen cents on every barrel of flour, and two cents upon every bushel of corn, sold in New Orleans, during the present state of things.

To a business man all this is self-evident, and requires no explanation, for it is very clear that parties who buy and ship produce, landed in a foreign port, must include the loss of exchange on their bills, just as much as the cost of freight; and a purchaser, who will give ten cents per pound for cotton, when he sells his bill at two and a half per cent loss, would give ten and a quarter cents, if he could obtain par for his drafts.

Including what the two armies in Mexico will require, the public expenditure at New Orleans, between this and the first of August, will, it is said, be five millions of dollars; and if the present system is to be continued, and this large sum to be raised by forcing government drafts on the market, the effect on exchange, and the general injury to business, may readily be imagined.

Our banks already hold between four and five millions of northern, exchange, and there is still immense quantity of produce to go forward, (of cotton alone, the present stock is about 175,000 bales, worth seven million dollars,) all of which when shipped must be drawn for. These mercantile bills will furnish a supply, fully equal to what the market can legitimately absorb, and to have the government drafts thrown upon it, in the extra amount of four or five millions, cannot result otherwise than injuriously.

This derangement of exchanges, and consequent loss to the growers of produce, is one of the legitimate results of the subtreasury system, but, at present, greatly aggravated by the want of foresight, or want of financial knowledge, or of both, at Washington.

It is more inexcusable, because Mr. Walker has the prompt and effectual remedy in his hands, by issuing treasury notes to the parties here, in payment for their claims. But if he is unwilling to allow them the benefit of the premium, they at present command him even sell them in the market, and put the premium into the Treasury, and then pay the claimants in par funds. Let us, at any rate, no longer see the disgraceful practice continued of the treasury sheltering itself behind its immunity from the operation of legal proceedings and compelling its creditors to accept a depreciated currency in settlement of just demands. [NGP]


NNR 72.241 June 12, 1847 production of bombshells at Saint Louis

The St. Louis New Era says that several of the founderies in that city have been kept busily employed, of late, by orders from Government for bombshells, for which they are paid five cents a pound. Since the war commenced, the whole quantity turned out, in that city, exceeds 420 tons. The St. Louis bombs are said to be equal in quality to those made in the Eastern States. They are, doubtless, warranted to kill! [NGP]


NNR 72.242 June 12, 1847 modification of the tariff on Mexico

Sir: In compliance with your directions, I have examined the questions presented by the secretary of war, in regard to the military contributions proposed to be levied in Mexico under the tariff and regulations sanctioned by you on the 31st of March last, and respectfully recommend the following modifications, viz:

1st: On all manufactures of cotton, or of cotton mixed with any other material except wool, worsted, and silk in the piece or in any other form, a duty, as a military contribution, or thirty per cent ad valorem.

2nd: When goods on which the duties are levied by weight are imported into said ports in the package, the duties shall be collected on the net weight only; and in all cases an allowance shall be made for all deficiencies, leakage, breakage, or damage, proved to have actually occurred during the yokage of importation, and made known before the goods is warehoused.

3rd: The period named in the 8th of said regulations, during which the goods may remain in warehouse before the payment of duties, is extended from thirty to ninety days; and within said ninety days any portion of the said goods on which the duties of a military contribution, have been paid may be taken, fee of any further duty at any other port or ports of Mexico in our military possession; the facts of the case, with a particular description of said goods, and the statement that the duties thereon have been paid, being cotton from by the proper officer of the port or ports of shipment.

4th: It is intended to provide by the treaty of produce that all goods imported during the war into any of the Mexican ports in our military possessions should be exempt from any new import duty of confiscation by Mexico, in the same manner as said goods had been imported, and paid the import duties prescribed by the government of Mexico.

Most respectfully, your ob't serv't
R.J. Walker,
Secretary of the Treasury

[NGP]


NNR 72.244 June 12, 1847 prompt response in Illinois to War Department requisition for additional troops

Requisition for volunteers from Illinois. The war department has called upon the governor of Illinois for an additional regiment of volunteer infantry, and one company of mounted men. This is in addition to the regiment of infantry and the mounted company recently called from the state, for which the governor issued his proclamation on the 29th of April, and on the 8th of May, four companies more than were required had reported themselves ready for the field:

From
Schuyler county cavalry Capt. A. Dunlap
Bond do infantry Thos. Bond
Manion do do C. Turner
Williamson do do J. Cunningham
Brown do do E. B. Newby
St. Clair do do G. W. Cook
Cook do do - - Kerney
La Salle do do H.J. Reed
Williamson do do Jas. Hampton
Shelby do do R. Madison
Pike do do J.B. Donaldson

Four companies, one from Alton, Captain Wheeler; one from Edwardsville, Capt. Niles; one from Vandalia, Captain Lee; and one from, Green, Capt. Bristow, were reported but a few hours after the requisition was filled.  [NGP]


NNR 72.244 June 12, 1847 return of Mississippi volunteers from Mexico to New Orleans

Mississippi troops arrived. On Saturday morning companies F, K, and I, on the 1st Mississippi regiment arrived in the sch. P. B. Savoy, from Brazos St. Jago. These companies are commanded by Capatain Delaye, Taylor and Rogers. The Savoy left the Brazos on the 30th.

The brig Forrest arrived yesterday from the Brazos bringing five more companies of the 1st regiment Mississippi volunteers, company A, Capt. Sharp; company B, Capt. Cooper; company C, Capt. Willis; company E, Lieut. Fletcher, commanding; company H, Capt. Glendenning and Col. Jefferson Davis, numbering 185 men rank and file. [NGP]


NNR 72.244 June 12, 1847notice of Army troop movements

Troops. The steamer Arkansas No. 4 Captain Beatty, from Little Rock, brought down Capt. Woods, with company C, 12th regiment U.S. Infantry from fort Smith.

The steamship Fashion left Vera Cruz 30th unit and reached New Orleans on the 3rd with Lieut. Murray, company E, 2nd regiment Pennsylvania volunteers; Lieut. L.H. Kane, company D, 1st regiment regulars; Lieut. Fellngale, 1st regiment. Pennsylvania volunteers; James Johnson, quartermaster's sergeant, 2nd regiment Pennsylvania volunteers, and about forty discharged volunteers, many of them wounded and very sick.

The ship Zenobia arrived at Vera Cruz from New York on the 28th, having on board 193 troops principally of the 4th and 5th, 1st, Lieut. H. Price of the 4th infantry, and 2nd Lieut. J.W. Lendrum of the 3rd infantry. Fourteen of the men, were recruits for several regiments of infantry, under command of Capt. J.H. Whipple, of the 5th.  [NGP]


NNR 72.244 June 12, 1847 return of the Tennessee volunteers to Nashville

Tennessee Volunteers. The principal portion of the first Tennessee volunteer regiment reached Nashville Thursday and Friday week. They were received by the citizens with every public demonstration. All business was suspended during the reception, and the people turned out in mass and escorted them from the boat to the market house, where they were welcomed home by Major R. B. Turner. During the evening the rejoicing was kept up by a torch - light procession, firing of salutes, &c.   [NGP]


NNR 72.244 June 12, 1847 return of the Louisville Legion from Mexico

The Louisville Legion of Volunteers, returning from the wars, (their term having expired,) arrived at home on Tuesday morning last. The citizens of Louisville had gotten up a grand parade to receive the brave fellows; but it wouldn't do, the moment the boats touched the wharf all hands jumped on ship and "broke" for home, to see their sweethearts and wives. [NGP]


NNR 72.245 June 12, 1847 Gov. Jared W. Williams of New Hampshire on the war

Under this administration our rights have been manfully asserted and maintained - our resources and means of national security and defense augmented, and the area of this great republic and the blessings of Christianity and free government, greatly extended.

True it is to be regretted that the republic of Mexico should have refused the just and conciliatory terms proffered her by our government for an amiable adjustment of difficulties, and that misguided counsels should have instigated her citizens to invade our soil, slay our innocent citizens, and involve our country in war. It is however, consolatory to know that inability to resist could alone have justified our government in longer forbearing to protect our rights against Mexican barbarry and outrage. Any further surrender would have furnished proof that there was no limit in degradation and disgrace to which we might not be carried, and that we were unworthy to enjoy the liberty purchased by the blood of our fathers. Our country fortunately under the smiles of heaven has her destiny in her own hands. Though strongly attached to peace, when duty requires her to relinquish it, danger has no terrors to deter her from the performance of her sacred obligations. These obligations have been clearly delineated in the appeal made by our patriotic president to the people, and with heartfelt and patriotic feeling they nobly responded to the appeal. Shielded by the justice of their cause, they gallantly rushed to the battle field, and by deeds of invincible valor vanquished greatly superior forces of the enemy, and vindicated the rights and honor of our country.

So strong, however, is the disposition of some detract from the justice of the war and the imperishable fame acquired by its brave officers and soldiers, that they would gladly connect its objects with the extension of slavery. [NGP]


NNR 72.246 June 12, 1847 new regiment of Texas six months' men in service

Volunteers. Texas has now in the service a new regiment of six month's men, recently organized at Brazos: three companies under Major Chevalin; six companies under Major Thomas J. Smith; M'Callouch's company of Rangers, Captain Conner's company, General Lamar; and perhaps some others. [NGP]


NNR 72.249 June 19, 1847 several Mexican robbers taken and tried, robbery of Mexicans by their countrymen

From the Vera Cruz Eagle of the 29th of May.

HORRID.--It is with pain mingled with a desire for vengeance that we undertake to relate another massacre of our countrymen in the most cruel and brutal manner. In our paper of last Saturday (only one week ago) we announced the fact that Col. Sowers was in this city as bearer of despatches to General Scott, and to-day we are called upon to inform the public of his horrid death--not with his enemy in front to oppose him, but cowardly shot by those who dared not show themselves.

It appears that he left this city on Saturday last, with an escort of five men and Lieutenant Donnell of Capt. Wheat's company; expecting to find the captain at Santa Fe, or at most a very short distance the other side. They arrived at Santa Fe and lodged there during the night, finding that Capt. Wheat had left; in the morning, anxious to push forward (although it was ascertained that Capt. W. was some thirty miles ahead) with an addition of two more to the escort, Col. Sowers set out for Jalapa. The next that we know of this little party is by the arrival of one of the men, who returned and reported its surprise and destruction. In consequence of the falsity of the greater number of similar stories, Col. Wilson, our governor, had the man arrested as a deserter.--Thus matters stood until yesterday, when developments were made by an arrival from Jalapa--the first that had reached us for a week--tending to confirm our worst fears.

We conversed yesterday with a gentleman who arrived in the morning, and he informs us that at a point two miles on the other side of Puente Nacional, he saw the ruins of the diligence, underneath which was a human body stripped, with the exception of a pair of drawers, and mutilated in the most beastly manner. This is supposed to be the body of Colonel Sowers. Near him lay another perfectly naked and likewise dreadfully mangled. Our informant was assured that five other bodies lay in some thick chaparral a short distance from the road. Now the number of killed, with the man who escaped, exactly corresponds with that of the party which accompanied the unfortunate Colonel Sowers, and leaves no doubt in our mind of its destruction.

A party of Mexican robbers recently captured near Vera Cruz by a party of amateurs under Col. Banks. Ten of them have been tried for robbing, secreting arms and ammunition, &c. Five have been acquitted and five convicted. The latter were sentenced to four and a half months' work upon the public streets and thoroughfares in chains. Two more yet remained to be tried. We hope this example may be salutary.

The Eagle informs us that on the 28th a party of six Mexicans, coming into Vera Cruz from Santa Fe were attacked by some of their own countrymen and robbed of all they had about them. [CCB]


NNR 72.248 June 12, 1847 shipment of over two million in specie to the south

Specie. Government has recently shipped over $2,000,000 in specie to the south. [NGP]


NNR 72.249 June 19, 1847 vomito prevailing at Veracruz

The yellow fever, el vomito, as it should be called, is not getting really serious amongst us.  Thirteen cases terminated fatally yesterday, and to-day already I have heard of the death of three individuals whom I personally knew.  Two of these are from New Orleans, Mr. Cohen, of the firm of Smithfield and Cohen, and a Mr. Michael, more recently from Tampico.  Col. Kearny, the government contractor is now lying in a very dangerous state.  [ANP]


NNR 72.249 June 19, 1848 rumors of Jose Joaquin Herrera's election premature, Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna still at Mexico and in the presidential chair

Well, our reports of Herrera's elections prove to have been premature, to say the least of it. Santa Anna is at the capital, in much less discredit that we have been led to believe, and in the full of exercise of the functions of his office. Upon his arrival he proposed to resign his seat, but contrived matters so as to have his proposition rejected.

An election will take place on the 13th, when it is hoped that Herrera will be chosen; but Santa Anna creatures are too numerous, and its possible now to favorable for the control of the required interests, to permit me to indulge in such a hope, in any degree confidently.

He expresses an intention to fortify the town, at least with a large ditch and embankment, and to place a force in the city capable of keeping off the Americans. For these purposes he demands four hundred thousand dollars, and has impressed all the horses and mules that can be reached.

A letter from a well informed German merchant of the capital, to his brother in this city says, that Santa Anna has within his control a force of near ten thousand men, besides those on their way under Alvarez, and that he will soon have an army around him capable of annoying, if not of seriously opposing Gen. Scott. Valencia and Bravo are said to have resigned their respective commands. The government is to be established at Morelia.

No disturbances whatever had taken place at Puebla; on the contrary, the people both of the city and country seemed to be much pleased with their conquerors, and trade is quite brisk. Communication with the seacoast seems only to be required, to bring all right again. Generals Scott and Worth were both in Puebla when the courier passed through that city. [NGP]


NNR 72.249 June 19, 1847 recruitment of reinforcements to replace the twelve months' volunteers in Mexico

Reinforcements - The Washington Union says: - "We learn that the measure adopted by the government to send forward reinforcements to replace the twelve months' volunteers withdrawn from the army under the immediate orders of Major General Scott, have been very successful; and that, although the twelve months' troops have left the seat of war some weeks before the expiration of their term, their places will soon be supplied by other troops.

It is calculated that nearly 7,000 regulars, old and new regiments, will soon reinforce the main army via Vera Cruz - of which between 2,000 and 3,000 doubtless have arrived at Vera Cruz in all April and May; and, of the residue, a large proportion will reach that place, it is supposed, by the middle of June." [NGP]


NNR 72.249 June 19, 1847 Col. Sowers with dispatches for Gen. Winfield Scott massacred and the dispatches captured

Horrid. It is with pain mingled with a desire for vengeance that we undertake to relate another massacre of our countrymen in the most cruel and brutal manner. In our paper of last Saturday (only one week ago) we announced the fact that col. Sowers was in this city as bearer of dispatched to General Scott, and today we are called upon to inform the public of his horrid death - not with his enemy in front to oppose him, but cowardly shot by those who dared not show themselves.

It appears that he left this city on Saturday last, with an escort of five men and Lieut. McDonnell of Capt. Wheat's company, expecting to find the captain at Santa Fe, or at most a very short distance the other side. They arrived at Santa Fe and lodged there during the night, finding that Capt. Wheat had left; in the morning, anxious to push forward (although it was ascertained that Capt. W. was some thirty miles ahead) with an addition of two more to the escort, Col. Sowers set out for Jalapa. The next that we know of this little party is by the arrival of one of the men, who returned and reported its surprise and destruction. In consequence of the falsity of the greater number of similar stories, Col. Wilson our governor, had the man arrested as a deserter. - Thus matters stood until yesterday, when developments were made by an arrival from Jalapa - the first that bad reached us for a week - tending to confirm our worst fears.

We conversed yesterday with a gentleman who arrive din the morning, and he informs us that a point two miles on the other side of Puente Nacional, he saw the ruins of diligence, underneath which was a human body stripped, with the exception of a pair of drawers, and mutilated in the most beastly manner. This is supposed to be the body of Col. Sowers. Near him lay another perfectly naked and likewise dreadfully mangled. Our informant was assured that five other bodies lay in some thick chaparral a short distance from the road. Now the number of killed, with the man who escaped, exactly corresponds with that of the party which accompanied the unfortunate Col. Sowers, and leaves no doubt in our mind of its destruction.

A party of Mexican robbers recently captured near Vera Cruz by a party of amateurs under Col. Banks. Ten of them have been tried for robbing, secreting arms and ammunition, &c Five have been acquitted and five convicted. The latter were sentenced to four and a half months' work upon the public streets and thoroughfares in chains. Two more yet remained to be tried. We hope this example may be salutary.

The Eagle informs us that on the 28th a party of six Mexicans coming into Vera Cruz from Santa Fe were attacked by some of their own countrymen and robbed of all they carried with them. [NGP]


NNR 72.249 June 19, 1847 Mexicans fortifying Rio Frio Pass

The Rio Frio Pass - Now becomes the great point of interest, as the enemy intend to make a stand there, and that we shall have another severe battle. A gentleman who has traveled through the country, and is familiar with this pass, describes it as much more formidable than that of Cerro Gordo. It goes through the mountain with a steep ascent and for nearly three miles the road, with high and rugged sides, is only sufficient to admit the passage of a single wagon at a time. There is, no possibility of turning it, and no mode of attack, except by a direct movement, through the pass. If this really be so, we should think, that with ordinary sciences and courage, it could be readily defended, but we heard pretty much the same story of Cerro Gordo some other plan of attack will be more practicable, than by marching through a single narrow gorge of the mountain, for two or three miles under the fire of an enemy, on the steep sides of the road. The pass is about 36 miles from the capital, and Rio Frio (Cold River) supplies the city with water. [NGP]


NNR 72.249 June 19, 1847 rumors of insurrection at Puebla

Vera Cruz dates to the 1st of June were received at New Orleans on the 1st an exciting rumor from Puebla, mentioned in letters from Vera Cruz, that the citizens of Puebla had risen upon Gen. Worth, and cut off six or seven hundred of his men. The rumor was in every man's mouth at Vera Cruz and much credence given to it. The latest accounts prove the tale to be unfounded. [NGP]


NNR 72.249 June 19, 1847 Gen. Winfield Scott advances; Gen. David Emanuel Twiggs enters Puebla

Gen. Scott left Jalapa on the 23rd for Puebla, at the head of nearly 6,000 men.

Gen. Twiggs' division part of Scott's force entered Puebla on the 28th - all well. [NGP]


NNR 72.249 June 19, 1847 rumor of a Mexican advance on Puebla

The rumors at Puebla on the 29th was, that Generals Bustamente and Leon were advancing with a large Mexican force. [NGP]


NNR 72.250 June 19, 1847 Gen. Winfield Scott between Puebla and Perote

The New Orleans Bulletin says - Gen. Scott had not reached Puebla, but was between that place and Perote. [NGP]


NNR 72.250 June 19, 1847 prisoners at liberty

Major Gaines, Borland, Cassiums Clay, Midshipman Rodgers, and all the other American prisoners, have been released, and were at liberty in the city. [NGP]


NNR 72.250 June 19, 1847 Jose Joaquin de Herrera elected president of Mexico, clergy favor peace

Herrera had been elected president, and the clergy were in favor of peace. It was said he could immediately make a public declaration to that effect. We saw a letter by the last arrival, from an officer in Gen. Scott's army, and whose situation was highly favorable for obtaining correct information, which said peace would shortly be made. [NGP]


NNR 72.250 June 19, 1847 sickness at Veracruz

Sickness prevailed to a great extent at Vera Cruz.  There were 49 deaths the day of the departure of the New Orleans, and 1,800 in hospital, this included the wounded and those that had been sent from Cerro Gordo.  [ANP]


NNR 72.250 June 19, 1847 rumors of a change in military command in Mexico, progress of the peace party

The Arco Iris also learned through several persons at Vera Cruz, who received information from the interior, that the peace part in the capital was divided into two parts, one in favor of Santa Anna, and the other in favor of Herrera who were the two prominent candidates for the presidency. [NGP]


NNR 72.250 June 19, 1847 arrival of a train at Jalapa, Capt. Samuel Hamilton Walker's skirmishes with lancers

A train of 200 wagons arrived yesterday afternoon from Vera Cruz, and proceeded this morning, in company with Gen. Twiggs's division towards Puebla and the city of Mexico. Captain Walker's gallant band of mounted men accompanied the train, and during the journey had two skirmishes with a superior force of Mexican lancers or robbers.

The last took place at Santa Fe, at an early hour in the morning of Wednesday last, which resulted in the complete rout of the enemy, over 200 hundred in number, who had 10 killed and many wounded. Our men had several wounded, but none dangerously. The 2nd dragoons who were first attacked by the lancers, while reposing in slumber, had six killed and eleven wounded. Walker, in person, pursued the wretches, as far and well as the darkness of the occasion would admit, captured six prisoners, who were handed over to the dragoons, and almost instantly shot dead. Captain Walker has 180 men, only 100 of which are mounted. They are a fine body, and their gallant commander is now "the lion" of Jalapa.

Gen. P.F. Smith has recovered his health, and has taken command of his brigade, the 1st in Gen. Twiggs division. He marched on Saturday last, with Gen. Scott, for Perote. [NGP]


NNR 72.250 troops at Veracruz waiting to start for the interior

A letter dated Vera Cruz, May 31 says: There are low about one thousand troops here, ready and anxious I assure you, to start for the interior as soon as the specie arrives.  The officers complain much at being kept here so long in a sickly encampment.  There a some ten or fifteen hundred men waiting to march.

[The force which reached Vera Cruz under Gen. Cadwallader on the 1st June, from Brazos, we presume would number at least 1,500 in addition to the above, ready to march to join Gen. Scott.]

Gen. La Vega it at Jalapa on parole.  [ANP]


NNR 72.250 June 19, 1847 George Wilkins Kendall states Gen. Winfield Scott's aggregate available force at 9,000 men

A statement is made in many of the papers of the United States, I believe in the Union among others, to the effect that Gen. Scott will shortly have 20,000 men with which to march upon the city of Mexico. The assertion may not be positively made, but it is given in such a way that the public may really think that he has this overwhelming force. Now what is the real state of the case? I will give it formed upon the last . . . [illegible].

There are not on this line of operations including the garrisons of Vera Cruz, Jalapa and Perote there are not, I say more than 9,000 effective men, all told none are more than 100 percent at the present time on the way to swell the [illegible] [NGP]


NNR 72.250 June 19, 1847 election of Massachusetts officers, departure from Matamoros

From the Matamoros Flag we learn that Lieut. Col. Abbot with four companies of Massachusetts volunteers escorting a wagon train and a number of artillery horses, took up the line of march for Cerralvo on Saturday, the 29th. Col. Wright, with the remaining six companies, was to proceed by boat to Camargo hence to Monterey, as soon as transportation could be had. The troops remaining at Matamoros after the departure of the Massachusetts regiment will be three companies of the 3rd dragoons - Hayes, Butler's, and Merrick's. These dragoon companies are not yet furnished with horses. [NGP]


NNR 72.250 June 19, 1847 Col. Jack Hays at Palo Alto with his Rangers

Col. Jack Hays, with his regiment of Texas rangers, was at Palo Alto, ready to march for General Taylor's headquarters. They are said to be a fine body of men. [NGP]


NNR 72.250 June 19, 1847 troops at Saltillo anticipating an advance to San Luis

The correspondent of the Picayune writes: We all look forward here to the prospect of a speedy movement upon San Luis with confidence, and daily expect the arrival of fresh troops from below.

It is thought that the Parras route will be selected and it is represented to me as a most delightful one. A train is about starting off and I have not time to write more. It is the 2nd Ohio regiment that goes today. They are now entering the town. [NGP]


NNR 72.250, 72.251 forces, how posted
NNR 72.250 June 19, 1847 third dragoons ordered to join Gen. Winfield Scott

The destination of one half the 31st regiment of dragoons, which was ordered to join Gen. Taylor, has been changed. Five companies have been ordered to join Gen. Scott. Three of these companies - to wit: Capt. Duperu's of Louisiana, Capt. Gaither's, of Kentucky, and Capt. Ford's of Indiana, leave this evening in the Fashion for Vera Cruz, under Lieut. Col. T.P. Moore. Capt. McReynolds company, from Michigan, will probably leave tomorrow on the steamship Mary Kingsland for the same destination.  [NGP]


NNR 72.250 June 19, 1847 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna resigns executive power (not accepted)

The diversion of troops intended for Gen. Taylor would lead us to suppose that it is not signed that the Rio Grande army shall make adjustments towards San Luis Potosi for some time. Colonel Butler takes but half a (unreadable), we have good reason to believe he was . . . [illegible] half felt along the lines of Canales opened up. The material composing his command is the best quality and there is no more vigorous officer in the service than he. [NGP]


NNR 72.250 June 19, 1847 condition of the city and country

A letter from San Luis, Mexico says the country adjacent was completely stripped of all produce to feed the army of 30,000 men who Anna kept up there for months prior to the battle of Buena Vista, and now even the citizens of the country are suffering for want of the common necessities of life. The Mexican Government makes no promise whatever for the wounded soldiery, and that . . . [illegible] be seen dragging their mangled limbs up streets, and begging, alas, too often in need of bread. [NGP]


NNR 72.250 June 19, 1847 Gen. Caleb Cushing to be governor of New Leon

Gen. Cushin is to be military governor of Leon. The Massachusetts regiment has . . . [illegible] moros. Lieut. Col. Abbot, with four company Massachusetts volunteers, escorting a wagon and a number of artillery horses, to up the march for Cerralvo on the 29th ultimo, Col. Abbot with the remaining six companies, proceeded to Camargo, thence to Monterey as soon as . . . [illegible] can be had. [NGP]


NNR 72.251 June 19, 1847 term of volunteers under Gen. Zachary Taylor expires

Gneral Taylor's Forces. The Flag has a long article entitled "facts against fiction" in which the statement of the Union that the twelve months' volunteers are to be replaced by fresh troops sufficient to swell the forces under Gen. Taylor to nearly 10,000 men is controverted, The Flag says: But four regiments of the late ten have been allotted to Gen. Taylor, and those even, but a few companies have arrived, although the twelve month volunteers are being mustered out with the utmost celerity. But supposing these four regiments to be complete, and here is all the force that is even promised to this division army. The three and a half regiments above alluded to, comprise, 2,400

Four regiments, considering of the Virginia,
North Carolina, Massachusetts, and Mississippi, 2,400

 Six companies of artillery,            420
                               Four companies of dragoons     240
                               and of mounted Texans, about   350
                                                                                                    5,810 total

From this deduct for sickness and other casualties
                                                         At least twenty per cent. 1,700
And we have Gen. Taylors real effective force                                   4,640

From this small force garrisons are to be supplied for the longest line of communication known to the modern times, extending from the Gulf of Mexico to the confines of the desert beyond the Sierra Madre. By stripping this line almost to the verge of total abandonment jeopardizing immense depots of provisions and military stores, &c., Gen. Taylor would leave Saltillo at the head of about 2000 men.

This, with due deference to the late edition as Washington, is the Rio Grande arithmetic, where we counted muskets in the field, instead of parading unfilled muster rolls; or in plain English, the fact as it really exists, instead of the round assertion of warrior-politicians. [NGP]


NNR 72.251 June 19, 1847 steamboats lost on the Rio Grande

The Gazelle laden with government stores, totally lost: The Savine, Capt. Sterret, sunk; the brig Hatchee sunk; the Lama, collapsed a flue. [NGP]


NNR 72.251 June 19, 1847 further discussion of reinforcements for Gen. Zachary Taylor

Gen. Taylors force - The New Orleans Delta, of the 8th instant, says -- "We yesterday conversed with several gentlemen who came passengers in the steamship New Orleans, from the Brazos; they are directly from Gen. Taylor's camp. Whether, when Gen. Taylor would be fully reinforced, he would make any advance movement was known. At present there is nothing to give indication of it. The dispatches from Washington, of which Mr. Parish was bearer, who has before this reached the general's camp, may influence his movements."

It is strange enough, and it goes to show what little concert of action or interchange of opinion there is between the two commanding generals, that Gen. Taylor should, on the 28th have received a letter from Gen. Scott, addressed to him at San Luis Potosi. Kentucky, Illinois, Ohio, Mississippi, Indiana, and Arkansas withdrew from the field between the 1st and 25th, 13th regiments. He would have only the two squadrons of May and Steen, Bragg's and Washington's batteries, and Hunt's company of artillery, but that the new regiments of volunteers are coming to supply the place about to be vacated. Virginia has sent forward a regiment of infantry, Mississippi another, North Carolina another, and Massachusetts another. Texas has the three mounted companies of Chevalie in the field, and Gen. Taylor is to have four of the ten regiments lately raised. This gives him eight regiments to supply the loss of thirteen. Half of the force of Gen. Taylor is disposed of in p lacing garrisons at points on the line of communications with his supplies. [NGP]


NNR 72.251 June 19, 1847 address of the clergy of San Luis Potosi to the people of Mexico

The clergy of this state would not be a depository of the high and sublime power which has been placed in its hands, nor worthy of the glorious name of Mexicans, if it should behold the last sigh of our holy religion and our beloved country, and remain in cold indifference, without raising its voice to arouse its compatriots from that indolent apathy in which for more than a year they have been submerged; and if it should not cause them to comprehend our present lamentable and disastrous situation, and to know and secure the means of our salvation. To do this, is our sole object.

The cabinet of Washington have determined to perpetrate, in the present age, a horrible crime - rare, indeed, in the annals of the whole world: Ambitious to extend their prosperity and temporal power, and to perpetuate their race to the last of coming generations, they have not hesitated to violate towards the gentle society of Mexico the most sacred of human rights. In their wild delirium, they behold, with raving thirst, the opulence of our temples, the riches of our church, the magnificence of our homesteads, the angelic beauty of our weaker sex, the immense and inexhaustible treasures of our mountains, the fertility of our fields, and the beautiful variety of our climate; and ever the implacable enemies of our race and origin, they have taken rapid steps to extinguish our name, and possess themselves of all these precious gifts.

You have already seen them, compatriots. In vain is the memory of the thousand and thousand assassinations committed at Palo Alto Tesaca de la Paima, Monterey, Augostura, Vera Cruz, and Cerro Gordo - in vain have we seen multitudes of Mexicans wandering in the woods, and pursued like wild beasts in heir own country robbed of their property and driven from their families - in vain do we recall the multitude of peaceable and honorable men, who have been insulted, seized and beaten, in presence of a beloved daughter or idolized wife - in vain do we recollect the proud barbarity, the shameless cruelty required to burn the village, to stay the simple rustic, the feeble woman, and the innocent child, as we beheld at Agua Nueva, Hidalgo, and other towns at the North. But what can we hope from a horde of robbers, destitute of humanity - monsters, who bid defiance to the laws of nature when they even insult, rob and condemn God in his hold temple? - When a man enters on a career of vice, and throws aside the reins of religion, the insensibility and obduracy of which he is capable can hardly be believed. What can we expect from these Vandals, vomited from hell to scourge the nations, when we know that they worship no God but gold, and aspire to no happiness but the gratification of their brutal passions?- A wise writer of the last century has said that "man without religion is a terrible animal, who appears only to enjoy his liberty in destroying and devouring." Such in effect, appears to be the picture which providence, with a high design, has designed to present to us. Yes compatriots! You have seen it - our religion, our country, our liberty our lives, our property - nothing - nothing is respected: and if they spare even our existence, it is merely for the purpose of returning it to profit in the unhappy condition of slavery. And finally, they will endeavor, as we have already said, to blot our name from the catalogue of nations.

Fellow citizens of Potosi! Can you behold, with walking eyes, and without the blood freezing in your veins a condition so humiliating, a fate so disastrous and frightful? Can your bold and valiant character behold without rage that the foot of a heretic adventurer should defile your magnificent temples, destroy your venerated images, and trample even upon your God, overthrowing your holy sacraments, and depriving the Christian soul of the sublime virtues and exalted enjoyments of the angels? Will you permit that a covetous and barbarous stranger should outrage that God who has visited and consoled you in your infirmities - who accompanies you in the horrible transition from life to the enjoyment of the eternal beatitude? Will you consent, brave Potosians! To have the holy rites of your church abolished, and the sign of your redemption exterminated? Finally, fellow citizens, will you be insensible to the loss of your religion, your temples, and even to the sweet name of Christians? Yet all this will happen to you. Your families will hunger after the bread of the Word, and the eternal consolations which the adorable religion of Jesus can alone dispense, and there will be none who can furnish them.

The invader does not retrogade. He has surrounded, in a manner, our territory - he has left us hardly a retreat. We ought not, in so perilous a situation, to abandon a cause truly important and common, wholly to our armed force, weak by its numbers, impotent by its smallness - weak through its poverty, its sufferings and its past labors, through worthy by its never sufficiently estimated valor. - No! It concerns our common interests - all that man holds most dear on earth. Let us fly them, all of us, to the combat - placing ourselves under the direction of our authorities - let us fully and sincerely place, in their hands, our fortunes and our persons - let us enlist with promptitude, and with whatever arms we may be able to obtain - let us throw aside the senseless desire of living longer - let us encourage solely an insatiable desire to die for our religion! Our country, and the honor of our families - make effective that compassion, hitherto sterile, which you should show for your tender children. Let us die before we see ourselves degraded to slaves in a strange land, deserted, or followed, perhaps, by some ancient father, some son, or a wife whose lineaments are already changed, every where abhorred, our powers prostrated by the weight of indigence, sending forth cries and lamentations, without finding a single being to extend to us a hand of pity! Potosinos! For the slave there is no consolation; his respect and his glory are eclipsed forever.

These are the sole means of salvation. Let us all unite. Let us forget our domestic disagreements: - and authorities, army, people and priesthood, all form a compact mass and resign ourselves to death rather than turn our backs to the enemy, or survive our misfortunes and disgrace. Let us swear to God to die for His religion, and to the country for its independence. Let us swear to the tender child, the delicate maiden, and the decrepit age, that we shalt have sunk into the grave before one of those proud Vandals shall place a hand upon them!

Potosinos! These are the words of your clergy, and we shall not fail to inculcate, in the villages and towns, and from the pulpits of the capital, these grand sentiments. In your hands is the religion which your fathers have left you, the country which Heaven has awarded you, the honor of your daughters and your wives, the lives of your tender infants, and your whole future fate. If you wish it, you may enjoy them all. It depends on a heroic sacrifices - Make it!

Two fates are left open for you: To be vile slaves, or independent Catholics. Choose. If the former, bend the knee to the invaders if the latter, prepare for the combat.

Comprehend it - these are the last moments. If my indolence your incurring unhappy late, if your religion must fly to a more hardy soil, disgrace and sin will fall upon you. To your Priesthood will rest in the satisfaction of having exposed to you the danger and indicated the means most affectual and best adapt to your circumstances. And we conjure you to listen to our words without emotion, assume that you meet in us a tender parent who consoles your families, a human friend who adopts your wounds, a Christian Priest who dispenses to you the last consolations of religion, who guards and remembers your ashes; a companion that does not abandon you in the day of battle, and who now ever are willing to bare his breast in defense of the religion of Jesus Christ and of the most beloved republic of Mexico.

(signed) Manuel Diez
Fr Manuel Navarrete,
Primo Feliciano Castru,
Fr Ignacio Sampayo,
Fr Blas Enciso
Fr Jose De San Alberto,
Dr Fr Felix Rosa Angel

San Luis Potosi, April 28th 1847.
[NGP]


NNR 72.251-72.252 June 19, 1847 Lt. William H. Shover's official report on the Battle of Buena Vista

(Undecipherable Text)

On the morning of the 22d I was left at the camp near Saltillo with one piece of artillery (6 pounder) to assist in protecting the camp.  Two companies of Mississippi riflemen left in the camp for its defence.  During the afternoon the wagons were so placed as to forma barricade for part of the camp, the front being protected by my gun and two companies of riflemen, with a cross fire in front from the fort.

On the morning of the 23d, the General gave me directions to watch the motions of a large body of the enemy's cavalry in the plain below Saltillo; and if they came up upon the plain below Saltillo; and if they came up upon the plain above the city and attacked the camp, to "defend it to the last extremity."

Soon after the General left for the lines beyond Buena Vista, I discovered small parties of the enemy coming up from the lower plain, and climbing high into the mountains to the left of the road, evidently to overlook the upper plain and battle field.

Just at this time two heavy squadrons of the enemy's lancers came upon the plain at the foot of the mountain, and above Arispa's Mills.  They advanced rapidly towards the road and halted near it so as to be just out of the reach of my gun and those at the fort.  I fired two shots, but without effect.  N this position they picked up a few stragglers.  As the runaways from the army reported our force routed, and believing we should have to make a desperate stand to defend the camp, I deemed it impossible, at that moment, to attack them on the open plain.  I had my gun ready, horses harnessed, &c., to make a dash at the first favorable moment:

I watched with a  glass, from an elevated position, and saw that our troops were not all routed, and that from the direction in which our cannon were firing that every thing was going well in our lines.  The lookouts in the mountains had evidently communicated by signals with the enemy in the plain below the city; for early in the afternoon, the whole body of the enemy's cavalry (mostly lancers) came upon the plain in one vast column.  They halted in column behind the advanced squadrons near the road.  Capt. Webster, from the fort, fired some shells at them, but without effect, as the distance was too great.

After remaining a short time in this position they wheeled into line and moved off towards the mountain, and obliquely towards Buena Vista.  I saw this was the time to attack them, believing that I could drive them from the plain, or else bring them down in a charge upon our position, where I knew perfectly well, with two companies of riflemen to support me, we could beat them off, and rout them.  Thus my first intention was to advance rapidly upon them, and fire, and retire to camp if they attempted to charge with their whole force.

Accordingly I advanced at a rapid gallop, with a single piece, in an open plain, upon from fifteen hundred to two thousand cavalry, mostly lancers.-By the time I was within striking distance, the whole column was in motion towards the lower plain.  I halted and fired several shots at the flank of the column.  I again advanced upon them, halted and fired a few rounds in rapid succession, producing some confusion at least, in their ranks.  About this time a large crowd of stragglers, &c., something like a hundred, had gathered about my gun, mounted in all sorts of style, and armed, some with swords, some with pistols, some with muskets, rifles, doubled barreled guns, &c.. and yelling tremendously, but with out any order or organization.

I again advanced and fired several rounds, when I discovered that Captain Webster had started a piece to my support.  About this time I found I was getting rather too far from camp to retreat if the enemy made a rapid charge, thus placing myself and command in imminent danger unless I observed great caution.  I discovered hat the head of the enemy's column was far advanced along the foot of the mountains, and, in consequence of the many ravines, could not readily come to the assistance of the rear.  I again advanced with confidence, believing I could easily keep off the rear of the column.  When within good range of the foot of the mountain, nearly all the enemy had passed into the ravines and behind a small hill in my front.  Suddenly I discovered a single horseman in our front watching our movements.  I suspected at once that there was a large force drawn up under cover of the hill to charge upon my gun the moment I should come upon the hill, the hill, thus, being within two or three hundred yards of them.  I advanced alone at full gallop several hundred yards, when suddenly I saw, close in front of me, a heavy column, eight deep, ready for the charge.  I galloped back, moved my piece to the right to a commanding position, and fired a single shot into them, when they all fled.  Just at this moment, by some accident, the pole of the gun-limber was broken.  I immediately caused the limber of the caisson to supply its place.  The men, with most commendable activity, replaced it with a spare pole from the caisson.  Whilst this was being done, I galloped to the top of the hill above Arispa's mills, where a grand sight burst upon my view.  The whole column was winding its way along the foot of the mountain and through the ravines, more than half the column being in range of my gun.  I galloped back to bring it up, placed it in position and fired rapidly into their crowded ranks, producing considerable confusion and much execution.  One squadron was faced to the rear by fours, and began to move back briskly with the evident intention of charging me, when a shot sent into their ranks sent them off to the left about in a gallop.  I continued to fire upon them as long as they were in reach, evidently doing them much damage.  Owing to the deep ravines over which they passed I could follow them no further, but I felt very much gratified that we had been able to drive them from the plain.

During the latter part of the firing, the howitzer under Lieut. Donaldson did serious execution as we could see shells bursting in and near their ranks.

Thus having followed the enemy over an open plain for near three miles, from which he was compelled to retire, I leisurely returned to camp.

W. H. Shover, 1st Lieut. 3d Art.

To Capt. B. Bragg, comd'g light company C, 2d artillery
[ANP]


NNR 72.252 June 19, 1847 dismal picture of affairs at Santa Fe

"We have a military establishment wastefully extravagant to the government, but which has most signally failed of redeeming any of the promises made by General Kearny, in his proclamation. Instead of being the strong arm on which the civil authority can depend to enforce order and law, and administrator justice to all, the soldiery have degenerated into a military mob, are the most open violators of law and order, and daily heap insult and injury upon the people of the territory; and as matters now stand the civil government is powerless to grant them redress." [NGP]


NNR 72.252 June 19, 1847 Col. Alexander William Doniphan's advance corps reaches Saltillo, affairs on the route

Col. Mitchell with the advance of Col. Doniphan's command, including a picked party, were expected to reach Buena Vista about the 15th of May.

In passing through Durango, they took possession of a small fort, and 1 captain, 21 privates and 46 stand of arms. These were released on parole and furnished with defenses against the Camanches. At Massey, they have 125 muskets and 35 lances, but the troops had fled. [NGP]


NNR 72.252 June 19, 1847 a march from Camargo to Monterey

On our way from Camargo to this place through several ranchos, or small settlements of the houses have been burnt down since . . . [illegible] of the seventy teamsters, of whom you have heard of before now. For three miles each side of the road, where this brutal crime committed are strewed the bodies of the dead, which are still lying exposed to the heat of the sun, out and mangled in such a way as to shock the sense of humanity: and the wildest savage that ever run the forest wonder at the sight. But, to describe that troubling scene, as we passed that morning, to think, defy the descriptive powers of mankind to be first seen to be realized and keep you and the good people of Mexico from witnessing such a sight. And here is the scene which brought forth all the sympathetic nature. It was a respectable looking . . . [illegible] of his brother who had gone but a short trip to Monterey, with ten thousand dollars worth of goods, when he, among the rest came to an untimely end, and his goods perhaps the there . . . [illegible] the backs of the wives and children of the skinned rascals. It was heard rendering and extreme to see the brother of the deceased buried in tears, and overwhelmed with grief, attentively examining the decomposed bodies of those unfortunate men. But, alas, they had laid too long in that situation for any to be recognized, even by their nearest relations. We had all said in my last letter a company of Texas Rangers, who were the advance guard of . . . [illegible] rain, and on witnessing what I have described above, they swore they would have revenge, and just before coming in Monterey they struck off through the chaparral, and next morning a complaint was sent in to General Taylor, stating that twenty eight of their neighbors had been murdered last night by the Texan Rangers. Gen. Taylor called a court of inquiry, but as the rangers have no uniform, either officers or men (and I am told, that when they get into a scrape of that kind they change clothes with each other, for fear of detection,) and as nothing could be clearly proved against them, individually, the matter was dropped. The city of Monterey is not what it is represented to be at home and the individual who says that the streets, houses, public buildings, public works and the like are handsome, or even what is called neat, has a taste that I do not admire; and , I think, will get a few to side with him. And even the ladies, some will say that they account for my not admiring their beauty. The many fine crystal streams, shade trees, and gardens, (although the latter has not been cultivated since the capture of the town,) together with the varied high and lofty mountains, are, in my opinions, all that can be admired in or about the Virgin city, as it is called, because, during the war with Old Spain, the town of Monterey was not taken, and, has been the stronghold of Mexico ever since, until old Rough and Ready, and the 1st Ohio regiment, together with the bold Montgomery Guards, of your city, entered on the 21st of September, 1846 and made Ampudia condescend and acknowledge that Old Zack was not only Mr. Taylor, as he styled him on a former occasion but that he was General Taylor, and nobody else.

The next town to be stormed by the 1st Ohio regiment will be Cincinnati, about the middle of June or the first of July.

This will be my last till I see you.
R.M.M.

[NGP]


NNR 72.252 June 19, 1847 Mormon detachment near San Diego

By the last accounts from California, Lt. Col. Cookie, with his command of 350 Mormons, from Santa Fe, was within a few days march of San Diego, on the Pacific. [NGP]


NNR 72.256 June 19, 1847 Nicholas Philip Trist said to be clothed with full power to conclude a treaty

The Washington correspondent of the N. York Courier and Enquirer writes on the 19th, in the most confident language, predicated he says upon information from New Orleans, and from Jalapa, which admits of no mistake, "that the treaty prepared to be signed by Mr. Trist as commissioner, has been seen at Jalapa; that Mr. Trist is clothed with the fullest diplomatic powers to conclude a definitive treaty of peace, upon the terms and articles as set forth in the project exhibited at Jalapa, and need not wait for any further instructions from Washington, but can have the treaty as it is, signed by him, ratified at once by the Mexican government. I assert further, that Gen. Scott is to cooperate in the negotiation and carrying the treaty into effect." [NGP]


NNR 72.257 June 19, 1847 discharge of the Baltimore Battalion at Tampico

I t has been the earnest wish of the col. Commanding, that orders from the general headquarters of the army should have been received directing him where and when the battalion of Baltimore and Washington volunteers should be honorably mustered out of service; but circumstances not within his control have obliged him to detain it at Tampico until the last day of its term of service. He cannot here refrain from expressing the satisfaction he has experienced in beholding this brave body at its post where it is so much needed, and where he would gladly retain it during the continuation of the war; nevertheless, as that period had arrived, when the expiration of the relations so long amicably existing between that corps and their commanders must cease, he herewith proclaims it honorably discharged, this day. His excellency the president of the United States foreseeing these results, and desiring the continuance of the service of volunteers, requisite for the prosecution of the plans in the event of the prolongation of hostilities with the enemy, the Col. Commanding would testify his desire that these well drilled, experienced and gallant companies would again promptly present themselves for enrollment under their respective officers, determined to abide the issue of their country's struggle, whatever it may be, secure in their acknowledged prowess and capacity in asserting her rights. Maj. Buchanan, whose well tried fidelity, and judicious performance of service have won the entire confidence of your commander, who seizes this opportunity to make known his thanks, and has been officially authorized to make terms with the officers and men of this battalion - from the city of heroic monuments and patriotic associations - by which, if any of you shall think proper to enroll yourselves, leave of absence for sixty days will be given, and on your return to Mexico the $12 bounty paid; and highly pleased will the commander be if even one company will raise their standard on the parade for this purpose; but if not, and he is left to see you pass away, he offers you his cordial good wishes that you may have a speedy passage, and find your families, relatives and friends ready and joyous to greet you, as your honorable services justly entitle you.

By order of Col. Gates
E.G. Beckwith, A.A.A.G.
[NGP]


NNR 72.258 June 26, 1847 Mexican privateers in the Mediterranean

MEXICAN PRIVATEERS.--Government, as well as insurance companies and shippers, were somewhat startled a few weeks since by the announcement from Europe that an American schooner had been captured by a privateer under Mexican colors fitted out from Barcelona, and that the prize was carried into that port. It was stated that orders were promptly issued to some of our armed ships to repair immediately to the Mediterranean for the protection of American commerce in that quarter. Apprehensions subsided considerably on learning by a subsequent arrival from Europe, that so far from countenancing the proceeding, the Spanish authorities had promptly released the captured vessel, and condemned the privateers for capturing her. Decided demonstrations against allowing such captures were made at London also on this occasion.

But a new source of uneasiness is started--The Boston Journal of the 19th says: "Captain Ingersoll, of the barque Nautilus, which vessel arrived at this port last night from Gibraltar, says, that four feluccas, under Mexican commissions, were known to be cruising in the Mediterranean, and one, formerly belonging to Gibraltar, was said to have been stopped by the French authorities while fitting out at or near Oran, on the coast of Barbary. A river to the south of Mogadore, on the Barbary coast, was said to be the place where they carried their prizes. One of these feluccas was said to be cruising to the westward of the Straits." [CCB]


NNR 72.258 June 26, 1847 remarks on case of Lt. Charles G. Hunter

The Southern Patriot, commenting on Com. Perry's reprimand, says "The latter is really a model of official sermonizing. One would be inclined to think, on reading it that Lieut. Hunter had been guilty of treason, cowardice, or military imbecility at least, instead of an act of gallantry, which, however contrary to the wishes of his superiors, was certainly not very injurious to the interests of his country. O'meara states in his "Voice from St. Helena" that Napoleon found great fault with Wellington, and complained that at the battle of Waterloo the ron Duke did not beat him according to the approved principles of war. This or something like it, appears to be the amount of charges against the gallant Hunter. In taking the tow of Alvarado, he did not go to work secundum artem, and be is dismissed from the squadron least he should take any more places in the same irregular and unscientific method." [NGP]


NNR 72.264 June 26, 1847 intense heat at Veracruz, fever on the increase
72.264 Train under Col. James Simmons McIntosh to leave Veracruz

"ARMY OF INVASION."

Major General Gideon J. Pillow left New Orleans on the 9th instant, in the steamer Fashion for Vera Cruz, together with Col. G. W. Morgan, 15th infantry; Major G. A. Caldwell, of the Voltigeurs; Wm. Trousdale, of the 14th infantry, and the following officers and men attached to his regiment, viz: Captains Pierce B. Anderson, Thomas Glen, Julian P. Breedlove, and Robert G. Beale; Lieut. Jas Blackburn, Thomas Shields, Richard Steele, Samuel B. Davis, Alex C. Layne, Henry B. Kelley, James G. Fitzgerald, Geo. W. Morgan, Nelson McClannahan, and Perrin Watson, with 287 men.

The New Orleans Picayune of the 13th contains intelligence from Vera Cruz to the 5th June, by the steam ship Fanny.

There had been no arrival from Gen. Scott's army since the night of the 31st. ult.

The heat at Vera Cruz was intense, the thermometer ranging for ten days from 87 degrees to 92 degrees day and night in the shade. The fever was on the increase, though when taken in time, the phsician had been pretty successful in its treatment.

A large train was to leave Vera Cruz on the morning of the 5th instant, for Puebla, under the command of Colonel McIntosh. It was to carry up a mail, the first, says the Eagle, for nearly a month and about $300,000 in specie, in charge of Major A. G. Bennett, paymaster. The train was to be escorted by a large force of soldiery composed of company F of the 4th infantry, company B 5th infantry, company G of the 7th infantry, companies D, G, and K of the 3d. dragoons--in all about 800 men. [CCB]


NNR 72.264 June 26, 1847 discussion of the forces under Gens. Winfield Scott and Zachary Taylor, their proposed operations

Considerations were manifested sometime since, for fear government would allow the term of the twelve months volunteers to expire before sufficient reinforcements were furnished to enable the commanders of the armies in Mexico to avail themselves of their recent victories, or to continue their operations according to the project of the campaign. The Washington "Union" replied to publications which appeared on the subject, by a semi-official statement derived from the departments, showing conclusively, according to their arithmetic, that there was not the least danger to be apprehended, but that both Gen. Scott, and Gen. Taylor would receive reinforcements in time and in numbers to prevent any inconvenience to either, the troops the anticipated return of the volunteers, and that both would be in sufficient force to prevent any delay occurring from their withdrawal.

We had hardly completed the publication of those assurances however before the fact became undeniable that the operations of Gen. Scott and Gen. Taylor were paralyzed by the return of the twelve months men, leaving them with forces entirely inadequate to make forward movements with. Neither of them could venture to advance with such a force as was left them, and both were, beyond all question when the last intelligence left them, at a dead half for want of reinforcements.

The Washington "Union" very properly resort once more to the departments for official information wherewith to relieve public anxiety upon the subject. The public are entitled to the best information that can be obtained upon so important point. But whist copying the figures and following the calculations of the officers and clerks in the departments, there is no concealing the disparity between those figures and estimates predicated thereon and the actual returns received from the armies. With the political party complexion which many of the papers on each side attempt to give to so grave subject, the people have just right to complain. They want the facts in the premises; from these they will judge for themselves.

We inserted in our last, one article from Jalapa and another from the Vera Cruz Eagle giving statements as to the forces under Gen. Scott, and in the same number, a statement from he Matamoro "Flag" as to the forces under Gen. Taylor's command all of them in reply to the statement which the "Union" had inserted, as from the department assuring the country that the armies under both those commanders would be in ample force to proceed the campaign without delay. The whole of the articles we find inserted in the Union of the . . . [illegible] and treated as misrepresentations seized upon by the opposition presses for vile purposed. They tempted to make party capital, and is some certain statements, is too true, nevertheless, there is so much accuracy in the figures and known facts where the statements give, that the statements to with the "Union" now resorts, as derived from the department, may have as . . . [illegible] efficiency in enabling either General to advance very speedily, as their former statement "derived for the war office" had in enabling them to propose without one day's delay. We would willingly believe to the utmost, but cannot conceal our misfinding.

As to the notion of Gen. Taylor advancing to San Luis Potosi with the force now under his command, the "Union" is conclusive. In their article on the 17th, the Union thus notices the comments of the New Orleans Picayune upon the statement in Matamoros Flag, to which we have alluded.

The Picayune said, "The belief has been very propagated in various influential quarters, months, that Gen. Taylor was to move upon San Luis Potosi. From various statements, from time to time made in the Union, the country has been led to believe that Gen. Taylor has had, or shortly will have, forces adequate to commence his march with letters from Gen. Scott and his army, for the (unreadable) of Gen. Taylor, are addressed "Headquarters command". Taylor's army, San Luis Potosi" It will not be long before we shall hear reproaches cast upon the hero of Buena Vista for his inactivity.

The Union replies "The Picayune labors under one mistake. We have seen allusions made in the western papers, and in letters, of Gen. Taylor's preparing to move upon San Luis Potosi. We have never sought to countenance such a belief. We would never have stated that such was the instruction of the war department, or such the plan of the General. Besides every military man know, that in a war with Mexico, there is a time for all things. The climate of the northern and of the southern portions is different. We could not have attacked Vera Cruz when the war broke out, for fear of the vomito Nor could we very well advance upon San Luis Potosi until the rainy season commences." [NGP]


NNR 72.264-72.265 June 26, 1847 remarks on amount of Gen. Zachary Taylor's forces, unpublished letter from Gen. Zachary Taylor, reinforcements

AN UNPUBLISHED LETTER OF GEN. TAYLOR. The following is a portion of a letter from a gentleman in Pensacola in the New Orleans Bulletin.

"Superb as the battle of Buena Vista was in all its details; skillful as was the selection of the ground; devoted as were those who laid down their lives en face to the enemy; distinguished as was every man who bore arms that day; yet all these glories fade in comparison with the determination of that calm old man, who was called upon to decide between a retreat and assured security within the walls of Monterey or a battle with four times the number he could bring into the field.

He reasoned thus, here are 6,000 men left to hold Saltillo and our positions at Angostura, with the alternative of retreat upon Monterey, where there are provisions for six months. Circumstances justify a retreat. There are precedents for it, and the order of Gen. Scott. If the army retreats the consequences are certain. It will be safe in Monterey until reinforcements can reach it, but before these reinforcements can arrive the numerous enemy, falling by our flanks, will occupy the Rio Grande from Camargo to the Brazos, destroying the garrisons and magazines, and cutting off the communications. This result will be most disastrous. It is inevitable. If the army remains in its present position, there is a chance of success, and supposing it happily realized, everything is saved. But the chances are in favor of the triumph of 20,000 men, led on by the hope that our small forces of undisciplined troops must give way in the attack and by the expectation of great booty.

In the first case, then, the consequences of retreat are certain.

In the second case, the consequences of defeat would be no less disastrous than in the first case, but to the latter must also be added the immolation of our army. But still it affords a chance of success. We will take that chance! So deciding, General Taylor quietly gave his orders, and after the day's work was done, sat down on the night of the 21st of February, just seven hours before he was attacked by Santa Anna, and wrote to his relative and friend, describing his situation, and speaking plainly, but with dignity, of the treatment he had received from his supervisors; also of his arrangement to meet the approaching crisis; of his confidence in his little army; of his hopes, but not of his fears. One sheet, and the page of another, as record, were thus devoted. The remaining pages were given to his private affairs, directing the management of his estate, and expressing affection for his family.

The writer of this communication has been honored with a perusal of that letter. He marked the bold character in which it was written; the even lines and the unblotted pages, giving evidence that it was written as calmly as if the writer had been seated by the fireside of his own happy home. It was written in simple but easy style, without effort, as one wishes to write to relatives and friends. But still it bore evidence, as all his writings do, of a clear judgment and pure thought. CEPHALUS.

Pensacola, June 4, 1847."
[CCB]


NNR 72.265 June 26, 1847 communications to Gen. Zachary Taylor from San Luis Potosi, expectation of an advance on San Luis and Mexico City

A short time after my last letter closed the town was thrown into a fever of excitement by the arrival at Gen. Wool's camp of two Mexican officers from San Luis Potosi, charged with dispatches for their contents, but to believe that they had come from the city of Mexico and contained the intelligence that an armistice had been granted, and that negotiations for peace were under discussion between Gen. Scott and Santa Anna.

Exstatic was the joy of many who are in for the war and pine for the day when they shall rejoin their friends and families. The dispatches were immediately forwarded to Gen. Taylor by Lieut. Franklin, and the Mexican officers treated with the most marked courtesy by our officers at this post. They professed ignorance of the character of the dispatches, but believed that the above was their purport. Singular to say, this ideas was generally believed; for myself I have so little confidence in any thing Mexican, that I believe it to be a paper from the department of San Luis a remonstrance against the advance of Gen. Taylor, or something of that character.

Private letters received from San Luis by citizens here, brought by the Mexican officers, announced that the inhabitants were in a state of excitement from the expected approach of our army from this quarter, which was looked for by the 28th instant. The dispatches arrived her eon Tuesday and were immediately forwarded, and the protracted absence of the bearer, Lieut. Franklin, tended to excite the curiosity felt to be apprised of their contents.

About 1 oclock today he returned, and lo! The bubble bursts. The important dispatch was a communication from the Governor of San Luis Potosi, announcing that he had beard of the intended approach of the American army, and begging to inquire whether it was the intention of the commanding general to conduct the war according to the usages of civilized nations, or according to the manner adopted by the Camanches.

There is no doubt that we shall march upon San Luis at a very early period, as soon as a sufficient number of troops arrive from below, and from San Luis to the city of Mexico. A communication received from Gen. Scott by Gen. Taylor a few days ago, giving a brief account of the battle near Jalapa, directs Gen. T. to more at once, or as early as possible, from San Luis where he expected the letter would reach him, to the city of Mexico. So that Gen. Taylor will not probably remain any time at San Luis, unless he receives orders there but leaving a garrison for the place, will proceed with the residue of his command to the city of Mexico.

The two Illinois regiments will march from here on the 30th or 31st and the Arkansas cavalry on the 1st of June. The two Indiana regiments, 2nd and 3rd, will proceed on Monday. The troops then, of the old stock, will be gone, except Ben McCulloch's company of Texan Rangers, now commanded by Lieut. Tobin, and not a company will go to San Luis, except the artillery batteries, that have been in any of large fights with Gen. Taylor.

Another letter says, "The volunteers are returning from Gen. Taylor with great rapidity. Ere this he is left without any of the volunteers who fought under him at Buena Vista." [NGP]


NNR 72.265 June 26, 1847 general orders of War Department commending conduct at Veracruz

[General Orders, No. 146.]

Headquarters of the Army,

Jalapa, May 10, 1847.

The despatch, given below, is announced in this form, for the information of the gallant officers and men of the army of Vera Cruz remaining in Mexico, that they may see how joyously their glorious achievements have been received by the government and people at home:

War Department, April 12, 1847.

Sir: the gratifying intelligence of the bombardment of Vera Cruz, and of the capture of that city and the strong fortress of San Juan, together with the surrender of the Mexican army which garrisoned the two places, effected by the joint and cordial co-operation of the army and navy, was officially made known here by your despatch of the 20th ult., and others of a previous date.

The expedition, so far as it embraced thee important objects, has been carried out in a manner highly creditable to yourself, to the commander of our squadron in the gulf, and to the gallant officers and brave soldiers, marines, and sailors, engaged in the difficult and dangerous enterprise.

In compliance with the direction of the president, it is my pleasing duty to make known to yourself, and through you to the army under your command, the high gratification which this additional instance of the eminent skill and good conduct of our officers, and of the endurance and intrepidity of our soldiers, has given him.

This signal triumph of our arms has called forth rejoicings throughout the nation, mingled with heartfelt gratitude to those who, in winning battles for their country, are everywhere securing glory and face for themselves.  That the possession of so important a place in the enemy's country as the city of Vera Cruz strongly fortified and garrisoned by a large body of troops, and a castle renowned for its strength and deemed impregnable by its defenses, have been obtained at so small a sacrifice, is just cause of admiration; and while millions of our fellow citizens joyously exult at this splendid achievement, it is pleasing to reflect that so few among us have occasion to mourn.

Though the sacrifice of life on our part has been comparatively small, yet the nation has cause to regret the loss of some of the bravest and best of her gallant sons.  The tribute of honor and respect rendered by a grateful people, will embalm their memories, and assuage the grief of their relatives and friends.

I have the honor to be, &c.,
W. L. March, Secretary of War.

Major General Winfield Scott,
Commanding the Army of the U. States, Mexico.

By command of Maj. Gen. Scott:

H. L. Scott, A.A.A.G.
[ANP]


NNR 72.265 June 26, 1847 communication of Secretary of War William Learned Marcy on the success at Buena Vista

The following "orders," issued by General Taylor, have been transmitted by him to the war department.

[Orders No. 46]

Headquarters Army of Occupation,
Camp near Monterey, May 1847.

Under the instructions of the secretary of War, the commanding general has the gratification to publish to the troops of his command the following communication, received by him from the war department:

"War Department, April 3, 1847.

"Sir: Your communications of the 24th and 25th of February and the 1st of March, announcing the brilliant success of the troops under your command at Buena Vista, against the force of the enemy vastly superior in numbers, have been laid before the president: and I am instructed to convey to you his high appreciation of the distinguished services rendered to the country by yourself and the officers and soldiers of your command on that occasion.

"The victory achieved at Buena Vista, while it adds new glory to our arms, and furnishes new proofs of the valor and brave daring of our officers and soldiers, will excite the admiration and call for the gratitude of the nation.

"The single fact that five thousand of our troops, nearly all volunteers, who, yielding to the impulse of patriotism, had rallied to their country's standard for a temporary service, were brought into conflict with an army of twenty thousand, mostly veteran soldiers, and not only with stood and repulsed the assaults of the numerous host, led by their most experienced general, but in a protracted battle of two days won a glorious victory, is the most indubitable evidence of the skill and gallant conduct of our officers and the devoted heroism of the troops under their command.  It will ever be a proud distinction to have been in the memorable battle of Buena Vista.

"The general joy which the intelligence of this success of our arms has spread through the land is mingled with regret that it has been obtained as so great a price-that so many heroic men have fallen in that sangninary conflict.  They died in the intrepid discharge of a patriotic duty, and will be honored and lamented by a grateful nation.

"You will cause this communication to be published to the troops under your command.

"I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,  (signed)

"W.L. Marcy, Secretary of War."

By order of Major General Taylor:

W.W.S. Bliss,
Assistant Adjutant General.  [ANP]


NNR 72.265 June 26, 1847 Gen. Zachary Taylor's announcement of Gen. Winfield Scott's victory at Cerro Gordo

[Orders No. 47.]

Headquarters Army of Occupation.
Camp near Monterey, May 8, 1847.

The commanding general has the satisfaction of announcing to the troops of his command another decisive victory achieved by the American forces under Major General Scott, on the 18th of April, at Cerro Gordo, in the State of Vera Cruz.  The Mexican army under the immediate orders of Gen. Santa Anna, president  of the Republic, is known to have been entirely routed, with the loss of all its artillery and munitions of war.

The army of occupation will hail with joy this brilliant success of the American arms.

By order Major General Taylor:

W.W.S. Bliss,
Assistant Adjutant General.  [ANP]


NNR 72.265 June 26, 1847 number of Mexican cannon captured so far in the war

The number of cannon captured by our forces in Mexico exceeds 500, most of them very heavy pieces. There were captured at

Resaca de la Palma 8
At Matamoros, say 20
At Monterey, about 50
At Vera Cruz, town and castle 400
At Alvarado 60
Total 538

If stacked together they would make quite a pyramid.  [NGP]


NNR 72.265-266 June 26, 1847 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's official notice of Gen. Winfield Scott's proclamation

Army of operations Excellent sir: The commandant of the flying revenue guard of tobacco of Orizaba, the Col. Juan N Caraveo, whom I left with his command near the National road between Perote and Napalucan, to observe the movements of the enemy and to harrass him when the opportunity might offer, has remitted to me the accompanying documents which were taken from the enemy's mail trail which left Jalapa for Col. Worth's camp.

Among them you will find Gen. Scott's proclamation to the Mexican nation, which, from its style appears to have been written originally in Spanish and not translated from the English.

This proclamation of Scott is written with the most refined hypocrisy and with the most infamous perfidy. It is the greatest insult yet offered to the Mexican people, whom it has attempted to lull to make a victim of race, when in another place it feels no embarrassment in proclaiming by the press and in its official documents, that it carries on against us war of conquest, and that this war must be made at the cost of the blood and treasury of this unfortunate country.

Your excellency will not in one of the accompanying intercepted letters, that Scott, the Inspector General of the United States Army, considers the above proclamation well adapted to aid the views of the invaders.

You will observe that this letter harmonizes with others which have been lately published in this capital, and which with reason have been regarded by all well disposed Mexicans as more prejudicial for the venom which they conceal that the loss of a battle.

But in the midst of the malevolence which Gen. Scott shows he has against me, he does me too much honor when he says that they had been deceived as to my real intentions, and that on account of this mistake his government had permitted me to pass to my country. Indeed, most excellent sir, the United States did deceive themselves when they dreamed that I was capable of betraying my country. Before this should happen, I would prefer to be consumed by fire, and my ashes should be scattered that not a single atom be left.

Would to God the Mexicans would open their eyes to discover the poison in the golden chalice that the perfidious Scott proffers to them, and that the reply to his proclamation may be one shout of universal indignation against the invaders of our soil. Let a war he made against these without period, that when we may no longer be able, because Providence may have decreed the subjugation of this unfortunate country, there may remain to our children or grand children, when the wrath of the Omnipotent shall have passed, the noble work of revenging the outrages committed by the republic of the United States on Mexico.

God and Liberty!
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna.

[NGP]


NNR 72.266 June 26, 1847 Gen. Zachary Taylor's farewell to the Mississippi regiment

The Mississippi regiment of volunteers; those men who so signally distinguished themselves at Buena Vista, have reached New Orleans on their way home, their term of service having expired. One of the New Orleans papers says: Gen. Taylor was extremely affected, on bidding adieu to this gallant regiment. When the time arrived for their parting, and the men were filing past him, almost choked with emotion, he exclaimed "Go on boys, go on, I can't speak." It was his intention to address them on their return home, but the recollection of the trying scenes in which they had stood by each other, quite overpowered him. [NGP]


NNR 72.266 June 26, 1847 Col. Alexander William Doniphan's command passes down the Rio Grande, reaches New Orleans

We heartily rejoice to learn that the colonel with seven companies of Missouri volunteers under his command reached New Orleans where they met a most cordial and hearty welcome. Honors, gallantly won, were showered think and fast upon them. They look as if they had seen hard se rvice, and will remain a few days in the city.  [NGP]


NNR 72.266 June 26, 1847 arrival of gentlemen from Santa Fe

Several gentleman, among whom were Dr. Edmondson and Lieut. Hawkins, arrived here yesterday, on the steamer J.J. Hardin, direct from Santa Fe, which place they left on the 3rd of May. Everything was quiet up to that time, and nothing later had been received from California. The sickness among the troops at Santa Fe, which had been very extensive and fatal, had partially subsided, and very few cases were occurring. The party consisted of twenty-seven persons, with four wagons. They saw no Indians on the route; but some of them made their way into the camp one night, including the vigilance of one guard, and succeeded in stealing three mules. Several parties traders and government trains were met this side of the Semirone; but of the latter, only one or two were beyond Council Grove. One of the trains was fired upon by the Indians, at the Cotton Woods, but no injury was done. A Santa Fe mail was brought in, and left at Fort Leavenworth, but the letters have not yet reached this city. [NGP]




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