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Vol. 72, March-April 1847

July 1844-April 1846 May-July 1846 August-October 1846 November-December 1846 January-February 1847 March-April 1847
May-June 1847 July-August 1847 September-October 1847 November-December 1847 January-March & July December 1848


NNR 72.001 Mexican ministers resign, disorder, confusion
72.001 church party in Mexico openly preaching rebellion, resisting act levying on church property

NNR 72.007 letters from Santa Fe describing operations in New Mexico

NNR 72.016 Gen. Winfield Scott leaves Brazos for Tampico
NNR 72.016 American troops near Veracruz
NNR 72.016 American transport ships at Brazos

NNR 72.016 account of the prisoners taken by the Mexicans

NNR 72.016 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna moves from San Luis, speculations as to his object

NNR 72.016 battle at El Paso

NNR 72.016 Col. Lewis Gustavus DeRussy reaches Tampico with the shipwrecked Louisiana regiment

NNR 72.016 text of the three-million bill to enable the president to conclude a peace with Mexico

NNR 72.019 general orders on organization of the troops raised for service in Mexico

NNR 72.019 notice of award of brevets

NNR 72.020 movements of troops from Fort Snelling to Mexico

NNR 72.020-72.021 Gen. William Orlando Butler returns to New Orleans, his remarks on the war
NNR 72.020-72.021 report that Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna had ordered the evacuation of Veracruz

NNR 72.020 trials for loss of the Boston and Truxton

NNR 72.021 Gen. Zachary Taylor's headquarters advances to Agua Nueva and Gen. John Ellis Wool to Buena Vista
NNR 72.021 reports of Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's approach
NNR 72.021 capture of Capt. Heady and seventeen Kentucky volunteers and Maj. Solon Borland's and John Pollard Gaines' detachments

NNR 72.021 anxiety at Tampico over reports of a battle supposed to have been fought near Monterey

NNR 72.021 expectation of the administration of a speedy peace with Mexico
NNR 72.021 letter from Mexico City about the levy on church property, the Mexican sense of grievance and desire for a durable peace

NNR 72.021-72.022 description of Lobos Island

NNR 72.022 report of Col. Alexander William Doniphan's taking of El Paso

NNR 72.022 revolution at Santa Fe foiled

NNR 72.022 accounts of Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, his activities at San Luis Potosi
NNR 72.022 Mexican troops at Veracruz and San Juan de Ulloa, Mexican preparations for the defense of Veracruz
NNR 72.022 Mexican law for seizing church property a dead letter
NNR 72.022 disorganization among the Mexican ministers and Congress
NNR 72.022 rumor in Cuba of Gen. Minon's victory
NNR 72.022 reaction in Mexico to the advance of the Americans
NNR 72.022 ships running the blockade at Veracruz, ships captured
NNR 72.022 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's reaction to a plan for making him dictator
NNR 72.022 reports of the Mexican forces at San Luis Potosi
NNR 72.022 Gen. Gabriel Valencia said to be planning an attack on Tampico

NNR 72.032 preparations for attacking Veracruz, delay, ships to be employed

NNR 72.032 "Irish Legion" of deserters from the United States to the Mexicans

NNR 72.033-72.034 adventure of Capt. Dan D. Henrie

NNR 72.035 account of the mounted riflemen at Jefferson Barracks

NNR 72.035 Gen. Winfield Scott reaches Tampico from the Rio Grande, proceeds to Lobos
NNR 72.035 the squadron off Veracruz, discussion of place to debarkation for troops
NNR 72.035 Gen. David Emanuel Twiggs' division embarked from Tampico for Lobos Island

NNR 72.035-72.036 preparations at Tampico for the descent on Veracruz
NNR 72.036 Mexican preparations for the defense of Veracruz
NNR 72.036 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's force on leaving San Luis to encounter Gen. Zachary Taylor's Army, he reaches Matehala, account of his march and destitution, his financiering dictatorship

NNR 72.036 Alejandro Jose Atocha reaches Veracruz with dispatches proposing peace, returns to Washington
NNR 72.037 Mexican preparations for defense of Veracruz, consideration of its defenses
NNR 72.037 reception of Senor Alejandro Jose Atocha, return, reports respecting him, his dispatches

NNR 72.037 Gov. Charles Bent killed, state of affairs at New Mexico
NNR 72.037, 72.038 Lt. James William Abert's letter about his return from Santa Fe
NNR 72.037 Col. Alexander William Doniphan defeats the Mexicans at Bracito

NNR 72.037 Mexican financial difficulties because of resistance to the law confiscating church property

NNR 72.037-72.038 march of Mormon battalion toward California

NNR 72.038 account of the Santa Fe insurrection

NNR 72.048 Gen. William Jenkins Worth's division embarks from Brazos
NNR 72.048 reports arrive that Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna was moving on Monterey in large force, and that Gen. Zachary Taylor was falling back
NNR 72.048 Gen. Jose Urrea's movements in same direction
NNR 72.048 Gen. Carrabajal's cordon of posts round Matamoros, &c.
NNR 72.048 reports of the advance of Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna reach the Rio Grande
NNR 72.048 train between Camargo and Monterey believed cut off

NNR 72.048 last two companies of Massachusetts volunteers leave Boston

NNR 72.048 Gen. Stephen Watts Kearny's code of laws for New Mexico

NNR 72.048 recruits embarking from New York for Tampico

NNR 72.049 Gen. Winfield Scott's general order No. 20 respecting atrocities

NNR 72.057-72.058 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's proclamation before quitting San Luis

NNR 72.058-72.059 comments on the series of demonstrations toward peace undertaken by the executive

NNR 72.059 collection of troops and transports at Lobos Island for the demonstration on Veracruz
NNR 72.059 howitzers sent to Veracruz

NNR 72.059 Mexican reports of a severe battle and that Gen. Zachary Taylor was retiring, great anxiety, all communications with Monterey cut off
NNR 72.059 Mississippi regiment relieves the Indiana regiment

NNR 72.059 Col. Samuel Ryan Curtis' requisition for 50,000 volunteers, reply of the governor of Louisiana

NNR 72.059 great doubts as to movements of Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna amongst our commanders

NNR 72.059-72.060 editorial remarks on the campaign

NNR 72.060 latest official accounts from Gen. Zachary Taylor

NNR 72.061-72.062 memoranda of Dr. Jarvis, alarming rumors respecting Gen. Zachary Taylor's Army, excitement on the Rio Grande

NNR 72.062 remarks of the London Times on the war

NNR 72.064 posture of the fleets and armies
NNR 72.064 anxiety to ascertain the result of the combat between Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna and Zachary Taylor, various rumors

NNR 72.064, 72.065 Gen. Jose Mariano de Salas commences revolution in the capital

NNR 72.065 letter on the demoralization of forces under Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

NNR 72.065 Gen. Stephen Watts Kearny reaches California, attacks Los Angeles

NNR 72.066 appointment of staff officers by Gen. Winfield Scott

NNR 72.066 circular on re-enlistment of volunteers whose terms have expired in Mexico

NNR 72.066-067 account of the loss of the Somers

NNR 72.067 offer of premium for an essay on the war with Mexico

NNR 72.068 Gen. Zachary Taylor's dispatches on the Battle of Buena Vista

NNR 72.068 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna summons Gen. Zachary Taylor to surrender

NNR 72.068 losses of the Kentucky volunteer regiment at Buena Vista

NNR 72.068-72.069 dispatch from Com. David Conner on the investment of Veracruz

NNR 72.069 landing of the Army at Veracruz

NNR 72.069 news of the victory at Buena Vista
NNR 72.069 operations on the route from Camargo
NNR 72.069 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's letter announcing victory of Buena Vista (or Angostura)

NNR 72.069-72.070 American officers killed and wounded at Buena Vista

NNR 72.070 details of the victory at Buena Vista

NNR 72.070 Col. George Washington Morgan attacked

NNR 72.070-72.071 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's letter to governor of San Luis on the victory at Buena Vista

NNR 72.071 letter about a march from Camargo to Monterey

NNR 72.071 Lt. C.H. Kribben's account of the Battle of Bracito

NNR 72.071-72.072 article from El Republicano about the war with the United States

NNR 72.072 further details about the victory at Buena Vista
NNR 72.072 publication in Mexico City of the American proposal for peace
NNR 72.072 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna retired from Agua Nueva toward Parras, Gen. Zachary Taylor still at Buena Vista
NNR 72.072 route of dispatches from Buena Vista to New Orleans

NNR 72.072 Mexican preparations to oppose the American attack at Veracruz

NNR 72.072 Gen. Zachary Taylor expected to open communications from Monterey to Camargo

NNR 72.072 Gen. Jose Urrea retreating before Col. Samuel Ryan Curtis

NNR 72.072 adventures of Col. Alphonse Dupera of Louisiana as a spy 

NNR 72.072-72.073 details of the insurrection in New Mexico

NNR 72.080 editorial remarks on the victory of Buena Vista

NNR 72.080 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's official report of the Battle of Buena Vista[see also, 72.117-119]

NNR 72.081 bombardment and surrender of Veracruz and of the castle, officers killed and wounded

NNR 72.081 Col. Alexander William Doniphan occupies El Paso
NNR 72.081 New Mexico insurrectionists defeated, severely punished by Col. Sterling Price

NNR 72.081 Lt. Talbot's daring feat at Santa Barbara

NNR 72.082 history and description of San Juan De Ulloa castle

NNR 72.082 concentration of troops at Pittsburgh for New Orleans and Mexico

NNR 72.082 notice of Pennsylvania volunteers first in the field

NNR 72.082 sickness at Lobos

NNR 72.082 "fixing responsibility"

NNR 72.082 Gen. Zachary Taylor's general orders after the Battle of Buena Vista

NNR 72.083 compliment of the Washington Union to Gen. Zachary Taylor's general orders after Buena Vista

NNR 72.083 coolness and bravery of the Mississippi and Illinois volunteers at Buena Vista, faltering of the Indiana regiment
NNR 72.083 Gen. John Ellis Wool's greeting to Gen. Zachary Taylor after the victory at Buena Vista, his comments on the battle

NNR 72.083 description of the fortifications of San Juan de Ulloa

NNR 72.083 Mexican accounts of Buena Vista, proclamation of the victory by the governor of San Luis Potosi

NNR 72.084 general orders issued by Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna after Buena Vista

NNR 72.084-72.086 various accounts of the Battle of Buena Vista

NNR 72.086 guerrilla warfare on our part

NNR 72.086-72.088 account of the surrender of Monclova

 NNR 72.089 guerrilla warfare on our part

NNR 72.090 Union's statement of forces under Gen. Zachary Taylor

NNR 72.093-72.095 correspondence involved in levying a tariff on Mexican ports

NNR 72.096 naval operations in the Gulf, loss of horses

NNR 72.096 Gen. Winfield Scott's official report of landing and investing Veracruz, correspondence relative to foreigners in the city

NNR 72.098 historical account of San Juan de Ulloa

NNR 72.098-72.099 notice of troop movements

NNR 72.099-72.100 Col. Joseph K.F. Mansfield's account of the Battle of Buena Vista

NNR 72.100 the siege of Veracruz, operations after surrender, forces employed in the siege

NNR 72.100, 72.102 Col. Alexander William Doniphan takes Chihuahua

NNR 72.100 Gen. Zachary Taylor's movement to re-open communication, pursues Gen. Jose Urrea

NNR 72.100 movements at Camargo

NNR 72.100 fighting between factions in Mexico City

NNR 72.100 rising of Indians of New Mexico against the Americans

NNR 72.100 triumphal entry of Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna into San Luis Potosi

NNR 72.100-72.101 Gen. Winfield Scott's orders on occupying Veracruz

NNR 72.101-72.102 Col. Stephen Ormsby's official report of the Battle of Monterey

NNR 72.102 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's return to San Luis

NNR 72.102 letter of Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna to Valentin Gomez Farias, announcing that he should march to the capital to quiet contending factions

NNR 72.102 Col. William Selby Harney's fight near Veracruz

NNR 72.107-72.110 official report of the capitulation and surrender of Veracruz and of the Castle of San Juan de Ulloa

NNR 72.109 order of Com. Matthew Calbraith Perry terminating intercourse with Veracruz

NNR 72.110-72.111 orders and correspondence relating to naval operations off Veracruz

NNR 72.111 vessels lost near Veracruz in two northers

NNR 72.112 prospects of peace

NNR 72.112 Gen. Zachary Taylor's pursuit of Gen. Jose Urrea unavailing, he returns to Saltillo, impression that he will advance to San Luis

NNR 72.112 lack of Mexican troops on route to Mexico City

NNR 72.112 Gen. John Anthony Quitman's brigade marches on Alvarado, Navy vessels sail for Alvarado

NNR 72.112 Army movements towards the capital

NNR 72.112 Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna arrives at Mexico City, assumes executive duties, his cabinet, orders troops to Veracruz

NNR 72.113 "Have we conquered a peace?"

NNR 72.113 comments on the assignment of the eighteen million loan

NNR 72.114 regiment of Massachusetts volunteers at Matamoros

NNR 72.114 Alvarado surrenders to Lt. Charles G. Hunter, Com. Matthew Calbraith Perry's official report

NNR 72.114-72.115 forces under Com. Robert Field Stockton and Gen. Stephen Watts Kearny attack Gen. Jose Maria Flores, two engagements, Flores retreats and surrenders to Col. John Charles Fremont

NNR 72.115-72.117 Gen. Zachary Taylor's official report on the battle of Buena Vista [INCOMPLETE]

NNR 72.119-72.121 nineteen days hard campaign and fighting between Santa Fe and Taos

NNR 72.121-72.122 Col. Sterling Price's official report on the revolution in New Mexico

NNR 72.122-72.123 diary of the siege of Veracruz

NNR 72.128, 72.135-72.136 Gen. Zachary Taylor's letter to Gen. E.G.W. Butler on Gen. William Orlando Butler, the presidency, Buena Vista, &c.

NNR 72.128 illuminations in honor of victories

NNR 72.128 killed and wounded in New Mexico

NNR 72.128 Gen. Stephen Watts Kearny's winter march, encounters with Andros Pico, reaches San Diego

NNR 72.001 March 6, 1847 Mexican ministers resign, disorder, confusion and Church party in Mexico openly preaching rebellion; resisting act levying on church property

MEXICO. A letter dated U.S. squadron off Anton Lizardo Feb. 2, 1847, represents the condition of affairs at the Mexican capital as in the last degree of disorder. The members of the cabinet one after another are compelled by difficulties to resign from their stations. Only one it is said was officiating--and his resignation is subsequently announced though appointed but the week before. Gomes Farias, the vice president, was exerting his authority manfully, but against odds which he cannot long maintain. The church party openly preaches rebellion, and has everywhere so stoutly resisted the act of congress levying upon their property, that the law is totally inoperative. All other means resorted in for raising money to carry on the war which has proved abortive. [MLL]

NNR 72.007, March 6, 1847 ARMY OF THE NORTH

Intelligence has at length reached us from Santa Fe, from which all our readers are by this time anxious for information. We give them at full, as we find them in the St. Louis Republican, from their correspondents.

From these accounts, we infer that the battle which took place at El Paso, of which we gave a brief account in our last, derived from the city of Mexico, must have been fought by Capt. Cook, who is here reported to have been left in a council of his officers deliberating whether to make the attack. He was in advance of both Colonels Donaphan and Price. The former was left at Tome, on the Rio del Norte, encamped with the traders and waiting for reinforcements and quartermaster's supplies. Col. Price was still at Santa Fe. [AMA]

NNR 72.016, March 6, 1847 WAR WITH MEXICO

FROM OUR ARMY--The schr. Harmonious, Walker brings Brazos, dates to New Orleans to the 18th of Feb., and the steamer Cora., to the 19 th .

General Scott sailed on the 13 th ; General Worth was still diligently occupied whenever weather permitted, in shipping and forwarding troops, munitions, and supplies towards Lobos. The prevalence of Northers had retarded operation. For a number of days it was impossible for the transports to communicate with the shore.

A different account states, that General Scott was at Brazos on the 17 th , employed in forwarding the embarkation for Lobos, and he sailed on the 18th .

The American forces in the vicinity of Vera Cruz at our last dates, numbered about 7000.

The transport ship American 650 tons which left New York, on the 17th of January, loaded partly with surf boats, reached Brazos, on the 6 th of Feb. About 30 transport vessels were lying off Brazos bar on the 17th , and as many more within the bar, loading and embarking troops with all activity. [AMA]

NNR 72.016, March 6, 1847 THE CAPTURED AMERICANS

Minon's own report of the exploit, sets down the number of Americans taken at 82, besides one Mexican, Galeano, used as spy and guide by the American detachment, and who, notwithstanding the remonstrance of Major Gaines, was immediately put to the sword.

Another list of the captured, includes the names of Captain Albert Pike, of the Arkansas, and Capt. William Heady, of Kentucky. The latter, with seventeen men was taken two days after the capture of Major Borland's party, by a party of Rancheros. The parties captured consist of fifty Arkansas troops, and two parties of Kentuckians, one twenty five, the other eighteen. Their camp was surrounded at night, after a march of forty miles. Report says, that Cassius M. Clay, wished to break the ranks, but the others refused to join him. The Mexicans numbered from 1500 to 2000, according to the same accounts. Others say not over 500. DAN HENRIE, well known as a Mier prisoner, and who acted as interpreter to the Arkansas troops, having had some experience of a Mexican prison, concluded it about sale to try virtue of Major Gaines' horse dashing past the Mexican guard, escaped their fire, and--was off to parts unknown.

The rest of the prisoners arrived at San Luis on the 26 th --and were received with ever demonstration of Mexican triumph. [AMA]

NNR 72.016 March 6, 1847 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna moves from San Luis, speculations at to his object

A DEMONSTRATION BY SANTA ANNA--The Mexican army is in motion and from San Luis Potesi--Our officers are divided in opinion as the their real destination.

           Santa Anna's address to his "companions in arms" dated San Luis Potesi, January 27th, says: "The operations of the enemy demand that we should move precipitately upon his principal line, and we go to execute it. The independence, the honor, and the destiny of the nation depend at this moment on your decisions. Soldiers! The entire world observes us, and will expect our sets to be as heroic as they as necessary. Privations of all kinds surround us in consequence of the neglect shown towards us, for more than a month, by those who should provide your pay and provisions. But when has misery debilitated your spirits or weakened your enthusiasm! The Mexican soldier is well known for his frugality and patience under suffering--never wanting magazines for marches across the deserts, and always counting upon the resources of the enemy to provide for his wants. To-day we shall undertake to march over a desert country without succor or provisions. But be assured that we will immediately provided from those of the enemy, and with them you will be sufficiently remembered.  My friends we go to open the campaign.  What days of glory await us! What flattering future for our country! How satisfactorily when we contemplate that we have saved its independence! How the world will admire us! And when in the bosoms of our families we shall relate the risks and fatigues which we have endured, the combats with and triumphs over a daring and presumptuous enemy, and hereafter, when telling our children that we have saved out country a second time, the jubilee will be complete, and the sacrifices will appear to us to be nothing. Soldiers! Harry forth in the defense of your country. The cause we sustain is a holy one; never have we struggled more for justice, because we fight for honor and religion of our wives and children! What sacrifice, then, can be too great for objects so dear? Let our motto be, "CONQUER OR DIE!" Let us answer before the great  Eternal that we will not want an instant in purging our soil of the stranger who has dared to profess it with his presence. No treaty, nothing which may not be heroic and proud."




           Some believe that Santa Anna has issued this as a feint, and that his real object is to move to the defense of Santa Cruz. Others think his design is on the dictatorship and settle affairs at the city of Mexico.

It is certain however, that on the 27th of January, there marched out of San Luis towards Fanque de in Vaea, (the place where the Minon captured the American detachment,) three bodies of infantry, a brigade of cavalry, and another of artillery, having with them 24 pounders, three 18 pounders, four 16 pounders, and four lighter pieces, and that two days after another division would march in the same direction.

           These movements are corroborated by a letter from Tampico, dated the 9th of February, published in the La Patria, Spanish paper at New Orleans, which on authority of a letter from San Luis says, "16,000 of the most brilliant troops are marching for the road between Saltillo and Monterey."

           A letter from Tula, Feb. 3 says, "On the 1st Feb. Gen. Parodi" with the 12th regiment of the line, styled the 'faithful soldiers of San Luis' 1,500 strong and the battalion of 'the national guards of Jalico' with three pieces of artillery, were marching in the direction of Monterey by the road of Maetherala. The sierre is fortified at every point by the battalions of Puebla, Guarda Costa de Tampico, the company of veterans, and three companies of cavalry. In the village, Col. Jose Antonio del Castillo is stationed with a respectable force to defend that point. Gen. Urrea, with 1,500 men of the 1st regiment of cavalry, 'Primero Republicano' must have already arrived at Victoria de Temaulipas."

           The foregoing renders it highly probable that Gen. Taylor will once more be in the hottest of the fray, and have the war to manage. The last accounts stated that he was getting "ready" and Santa Anna will find him to be a "rough" customer.

           Gen. Wool apprized Gen. Taylor, towards the end of January, that he anticipated an attack at Saltillo. In consequence, Gen. Taylor left Monterey on the 1st of February, with his staff for Saltillo. He took with him Bragg's battery and Thomas's battery, the 1st Mississippi rifles, and May's squadron of dragoons. Capt. Thomas F. Marshall was to leave Monterey for Saltillo with Gen. Taylor.--The American forces at Saltillo would be between 5,000-6,000 men. In addition to the two batteries named above, the batteries of Capt. Washington and Captain Webster were at Saltillo, and at last accounts the troops were throwing up formidable fortifications.

           The number of troops left at Monterey does not exceed 500 men, but the citadel or "Black Fort" is field by them, and there is no route by which the Mexicans can approach the city with artillery, save by Saltillo. Without artillery any attempt upon Monterey would be futile. The troops at Monterey consist of principally Ohio and Indiana volunteers, all under the command of Col. Rogers. Captain Arnold, of the 2nd dragoon, has also been ordered to Monterey from the mouth of the Rio Grande.

           Our own notion is that Santa Anna knows better than to attack our army in post. Our line of operations is so widely dispersed that he can annoy them exceedingly by interrupting communications and supplies, and cutting off detachments. The approach of Urrea towards Metamoros is rather startling. [MLL]

NNR 72.016, March 6, 1847 THE BATTLE AT EL PASO

The N.O. Picayune of the 25 th ult. says: "We have conversed with an intelligent Spanish gentleman who left Durango on the 15 th January--Senor Benito Velez, a nephew, we learn, of Peter Harmony, of New York. Senor Velez confirms all that we have said of the action near El Paso on the 25 thof December. The loss of the Mexicans in that affair was about 180 men. No news had reached Durango of the fall of Chihuahua when our informant left there. On the 10 th of January, General Heredia left Durango for Chihuahua at the head of 700 men, of whom 160 were cavalry. He took with him 1,500 muskets and two pieces of artillery. When he reached Cuencame, in the north part of the state of Durango, he heard the news of the action near El Paso; and, leaving there his infantry, he pushed on to Chihuahua with his cavalry, with the view to assume the command of the government forces there. The cavalry of Cuiltz, which was in the action of the 25 thof December, and which protected, as far as possible, the retreat of the Mexicans upon El Paso, and afterwards Carizal, has dwindled down to a handful by desertions which took place at the different rancheros on the route.

The Mexican papers contain violent denunciations of their countrymen for permitting a handful of Missourians to capture El Paso, the key to Chihuahua. One paper speaking of the Mexicans, says--"they ran like the devil," and of the principal commander--"he ran forty leagues before he stopped."

COL. DE RUSSY AND THE LOUISANA REGIMENT. Our last left this gallant officer and his command, wrecked upon Mexican coast, in the transport ship Ondiake, in eminent peril. We rejoice to announce his arrival at Tampico, on the 4 th Feb:, with the whole corpse except seven men, who, unable to make the forced march which was necessary, had to be left, as they could be carried no further on litters. One of the seven overtook the detachment before they reached Tampico.

Col. de Russy, the morning he landed from the wreck, was visited by the Mexicans who proferred assistance. In the afternoon a flag from Gen. Cos summoned to an immediate surrender to the 1,800 Mexicans he pretend to have under him. He had but 980 men. Col. de R. obtained until 9 o'clock next morning to deliberate. At night fall fires were lighted, everything that would encumber was left, the detachment started for Tampico, and made 35 miles the first 24 hours, without meeting with an armed Mexican. The whole of them were exceedingly exhausted when they reached Tampico. [AMA]

NNR 72.016 March 6, 1847 Col. DeRussy reaches Tampico with the shipwrecked Louisiana regiment

COL. DE RUSSY AND THE LOUISIANA REGIMENT--Our last left this gallant officer and his command wrecked upon the Mexican coast, in the transport ship Ondiake, in eminent peril. We rejoice to announce his arrival at Tampico, on the 4th of Feb., where the whole corps except seven men, who, unable to make the forced march which was necessary, had to be left, as they could be carried no further on litters. One of the seven overtook the detachment before they reached Tampico.

Col. DeRussy, the morning he landed from the wreck, was visited by Mexicans who proffered assistance. In the afternoon a flag from Gen. Cos summoned to an immediate surrender to the 1,800 Mexicans he pretend to have under him. He had but 980 men. Col. De R. obtained until 9 o'clock next morning to deliberate. At night fall fires were lighted, everything that would encumber was left, the detachment started for Tampico, and made 35 miles the first 24 hours, without meeting with an armed Mexican. The whole of them were exceedingly exhausted when they reached Tampico. [MLL]

NNR 72.016 March 6, 1847 Three million dollar bill


AS ACT appropriating three million dollars to enable the president to conclude a treaty of peace and limits with Mexico.

           Be it enacted by the Senate and the House of Representatives of the United States of America in congress assembled. That whereas a state of war now exists between the United States and the Republic of Mexico, which it is desirable should be speedily terminated upon the terms just and honorable to both nations; and whereas assurances have heretofore been given to the government of Mexico that it was the desire of their president to settle all questions between the two countries; and whereas the President may be able to conclude a treaty of peace with the Republic of Mexico prior to the next session of congress, it means for that object are at his disposal; and whereas, in the adjustment of so many complicated questions as now exist between the two countries, it may possibly happen that an expenditure or money will be called for by the stipulations of any treaty which may be entered on to; therefore the sum of three million dollars be, and the same is hereby appropriated, out of any money in the treasury not otherwise appropriated, to enable the president to sign a treaty of peace, limits, and boundaries with the Republic of Mexico, to be used by him in the event that said treaty , when signed by the authorized agents of the two governments, and duty ratified by Mexico, shall call for the expenditure of the same, or any part thereof, full and accurate accounts for which expenditure shall be by him transmitted to congress at as early a day as practical.

Speaker of the House of Representatives

George M. Dallas,
Vice President of the United States and President of the Senate

Approved, March 3, 1847

           JAMES K. POLK


NNR 72.019 March 13, 1847 General orders on the organization of the troops raised for service in Mexico



War Dept., Adjt. General office
Washington, March 4, 1847

1.      The regiment authorized to be raised under the "approved February 11th, 1847" will be recruited, armed and equipped for active duty in the field without delay; and the several officers appointed in each will report for orders and recruiting instructions to their respective colonels, who will establish their recruiting headquarters at some central position and report to the adjutant general. Colonels are charged with superintending the recruiting of their respective regiments; and will assign the lieutenant colonel and majors to such sub-recruiting districts as may be found expedient. When two or more companies and raised and sent to any depots, or ordered to the seat of war, a field officer should be assigned to the command.

2.      The established recruiting regulations will be strictly observed by all officers, and the required returns, muster, and descriptive rolls, reports, &c. will be regularly made and transmitted through the proper officer to the adjutant general and other chiefs of staff, in strict conformity with the rules of service and the blanks with which they have been furnished. The attention of recruiting officers is specially directed to the prompt rendition of the recruiting accounts, and the abstract of contingent expenses, required for the second auditor, and the colonel as superintendent, which must be forwarded within three days after the expiration of each month or semi-monthly when called for. See paragraphs 50, 51, and &c. revised recruiting regulations, 1847.

3.      As soon as eighty men shall be enlisted by a captain and two subalterns, they will be inspected, mustered, armed, and equipped as a company, and be considered ready to take the field.  The final assignment of the subalterns, and the permanent designation of companies by the letters of the alphabet, will be made by the colonel at the proper time. See paragraph 43 "General Regulations for the Army."

4.      The attention of recruiting officers and commanders of posts is directed to paragraph 73 of General regulations. Recruits must be drilled in the school of the soldier, as far as practical, from the moment of enlistment, even when there may be no arms at the rendezvous, until sent to join their companies or regiments.

5.      The officers of the new regiment (infantry and dragoons) will furnish themselves with the prescribed infantry tactics (See Scott's system). Cavalry tactics will not be furnished until the regiment is supplied with horses, until which time the dragoon officers and men will be well drilled as foot soldiers.

6.      The officers appointed, and the ten companies to be recruited in the States of Maine, 4; New Hampshire, 2; Vermont, 1; Rhode Island; 1; and Connecticut, 2; will constitute the "ninth regiment of infantry" to be commanded by Colonel---; headquarters established for the present at Boston. Fort Constitution and Fort Adams, RI will be used as recruiting depots for the regiment and the concentration of companies, preparatory to their immediate embarkation for the rest of the war.

7.      The officers appointed, and the ten companies of infantry to be recruited in New York, 7; and New Jersey, 3; will constitute "the tenth regiment of infantry," under Colonel Robert E. Temple; headquarters at New York. Fort Hamilton and Lafayette will be the receiving depots for this regiment.

8.      The officers appointed, and the ten companies of infantry to be recruited in Pennsylvania, 6; Delaware, 1; and Virginia, 3; will constitute "the eleventh regiment of infantry" Under Col. Albert C. Ramsey; headquarters at Baltimore. The companies to be raised in the interior of Pennsylvania for the regiment will proceed to Point Isabel, under their respective captains, via the Ohio River, and embark at Pittsburgh or Wheeling, as may be most convenient; and those recruited in Philadelphia and Delaware will rendezvous at Fort Mill, preparatory to immediate embarkation for the same point; the companies raised in eastern Virginia will be sent to New Orleans, and then to Point Isabel, with the least practicable delay, where the regiment will be concentrated.

9.      The officers appointed, and the ten companies of infantry to be recruited in North Carolina, 2; S. Carolina, 2; Texas, 2; Arkansas, 2; and Missouri, 2; will constitute the "twelfth regiment of infantry" under Colonel Louis D. Wilson; headquarters at New Orleans. The companies will be raised in North and South Carolina will rendezvous at Fort Moultrie, SC, preparatory to their immediate departure for Point Isabel; and the companies to be recruited in Texas, Arkansas, and Missouri will proceed, as soon as organized, under their respective captains, via New Orleans, to Point Isabel.

10.   The officers appointed, and the ten companies of infantry to be raised in Virginia, 1; Georgia, 4; Alabama, 4; and Florida, 1; will constitute the "thirteenth regiment of infantry" under Colonel Robert M. Echols; headquarters at New Orleans.

11.   The officers appointed and the ten companies of infantry to be raised in Louisiana, 5; Tennessee, 4; and Illinois, 1; will constitute the "fourteenth regiment of infantry" under Colonel Wm. Trousdale; headquarters at New Orleans.

12.   The officers appointed, and the ten companies of infantry to be raised in Ohio, 5; Michigan, 3; Iowa, 1; and Wisconsin, 1; will constitute the "fifteenth regiment of infantry" under Colonel George W. Morgan; headquarters at Cincinnati.

13.   The officers appointed, and the ten companies of infantry to be raised in Kentucky, 4; Indiana, 4; and Illinois, 2; will constitute the "sixteenth regiment of infantry" under Colonel J.W. Tibbatis; headquarters at Newport, KY.

14.   As soon as any company to be recruited for the 13th, 14th, 15th, or 16th regiments shall be raised and organized; it will proceed without further delay to Point Isabel, under the captain, by the most expedient route, unless otherwise ordered, where these regiments will be concentrated.

15.   The officers appointed and the ten companies of infantry raised in Pennsylvania, 2; Maryland, 3; Virginia, 2; Miss., 1; Georgia, 1; and Kentucky 1; will constitute the "regiment of volunteers" under Colonel T.P. Andrews; headquarters for the present at Washington, D.C. The companies recruited in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia will be concentrated at Fort Monroe, preparatory to their immediate embarkation for the seat of war; and those to be raised in Mississippi, Georgia, and Kentucky will proceed direct to Mexico, under their respective captains, as soon as organized.

16.   "The third regiment of dragoons" is to be raised in the following states: Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Alabama, Louisiana, Kentucky, and Indiana--in each company, Colonel Edward G. W. Butler; headquarters at New Orleans. As soon as raised and organized, the companies will proceed direct, under their respective captains, without loss of time to Point Isabel.

17.   The foregoing arrangement of regiments and assignment of companies are made for the present with a view to expedite the recruiting service--subject hereafter to such revisions and modifications as the good of the service may require.

18.   The president expects that the new regiments will be raised and brought into the field in the shortest practicable time. The public interest require that the recruiting service be pushed with the greatest vigor by every officer employed in it; and, at the same time, the strictest economy is enjoined in all expenditures and arrangements, &c. Efforts must not be limited to one rendezvous or neighborhood, but auxiliary stations, within a convenient range, should be temporarily established by the same officer, according to the facilities of intercourse and the chances of success, &c.

BY order,

R. Jones, Adjt. General


NNR 72.019 March 13, 1847 Notice of awards of brevets

Brevets--The Washington Union says--"We understand that many brevets were conferred by the president, by and with the advice and consent of the senate, the last evening of the session, and that the official general order for publishing the name is n the course of preparation. We shall take pleasure in laying before our readers as soon as we can obtain a copy of it. We announced the other day that the brevet of Major General had been conferred on Brigadier General Worth for 'gallant and notorious conduct' at the Battle of Monterey; and in anticipation of the official inst. we now mention the names of Col. Percifer F. Smith, of the regiment of mounted riflemen, to be brigadier general by the brevet, and Lieut. Colonel Henry Wilson, of the first regiment of the infantry, to be colonel by brevet, for their gallant and meritorious conduct in the capture of Monterey. Lieut. Col. John Garland, of the 4th regiment of infantry, to be colonel by brevet, and Captain Thomas Childe, of the 3rdregiment of artillery, and lieut. col. by brevet, to be colonel by brevet, for their gallant and meritorious conduct in the battle of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma," &c., &c. [MLL]

NNR 72.020 March 13, 1847 Movement of troops from Fort Snelling to Mexico

The company of the United State infantry, spoken of a few weeks ago as having been ordered from Fort Snelling to Mexico, arrived yesterday on the steamer Tioga, which took them on board at Bridgeport, they having performed the rest of the journey on foot. They left Fort Snelling fifty- five in number on the 19th of January. On the way down, four were discharged, and on of the privates, whose name was Richard Monohan, fell overboard from the steamer Tioga yesterday, and was drowned. The men suffered a great deal from the cold on the journey and several of them had their hands, feet, and ears frozen. The officers in command are Captain Plummer, and Lieut. Granger and Donham. [MLL]

NNR 72.020-72.021 March 13, 1847 General William Orlando Butler returns to New Orleans, his remarks on the war and report that General Santa Anna had ordered the evacuation of Vera Cruz

           A letter dated at New Orleans, March 1, 1847, to the editors of National Intelligence say--General Butler arrived here yesterday. Among the leading items of the news is the reported evacuation of Vera Cruz, by order of Santa Anna. As regards the city, I should think this very probable, as the garrison could not defend it against Gen. Scott, and the troops of which that garrison is composed will be of more service with Santa Anna, particularly if he contemplates an attack on Gen. Scott, as it is probable he does.

           Gentlemen who have conversed with Gen. Butler says he freely expresses his opinion as to the proper, indeed, the only mode of conducting the war, and which coincides with the views of Mr. Calhoun--to take and fortify by posting a line of territory, and wither capture of blockade their ports without any attempt to penetrate the interior. The line to be taken, he thinks should be the one, (whatever it may be), which the government intends to insist on as permanent boundaries between the two countries, and he says 15,000 men would be sufficient to hold and protect it from the Gulf to the Pacific.

           Gen. Butler justly says that, admitting we advance into the country with every success that could be expected, and even captured the city of Mexico, it would not have any material effect on the enemy, nor place us any nearer to peace than we are now, and we should never command any more territory than what we actually covered with our bayonets, and would be constantly surrounded by a hostile population, and the Mexicans would have nothing to do but avoid fighting, and let out armies waste away, as it rapidly would do, by fatigue, sickness, and constant guerrilla war.

           He seems to think it is probable that Santa Anna has removed with his whole force to Vera Cruz, and with a view of giving Gen. Scott a grand fight; though he says it would be impolite for him to do so under any circumstances, but that his plans should be to let our army advance into the interior without taking a general battle, but merely to harass them, and cut off stranglers or detachments. Any serious repulse to an advancing army would be fatal to them under the circumstances.

           The administration have got themselves and the country into a most acquired predicament as to this war, so blindly and rashly undertaken; for, as recently observed in the senate, we have the wolf by the tail, and it is equally dangerous to hold on or let go. There is no doubt to the fact that, sooner or later, we will have to come to the point of holding on to what we have, and the prevailing opinion in the army is, that we should give up the idea of penetrating into the country. The views and intentions, however, of the administration are different; they are actually at this moment calculating on an advance of Gen. Taylor from Saltillo, and their measures will hastily result in some serious misfortune, that will rouse the indignation of the whole country.

           All the officers from Mexico speak in high terms of the Mexican cavalry, and admit that they are fully equal to our mounted volunteers, man for man, and greatly out number forces of that description.

           I do not believe we shall have any decisive intelligence from Vera Cruz till the close of this month; as the issue of Gen. Worth's troops will not leave the Brazos before the 6th or 8thof this month, and the whole force cannot be collected at Lobos and Tampico before the 15th, and if they were as said that they may, it would be at least the 10th before they reached Vera Cruz.

           Those who pretend to know the best, say that the castle can only be taken by bombardment, and that if the garrison is properly supplied, it will be very difficult to take it at all, and at any rate will require a long time to do so.

           It is difficult from the conflicting opinions to form any correct ideas on the subject, but I shall not be surprised if it should be an easy conquest. [MLL]

NNR 72.020 March 13, 1847 Trials for the loss of Boston and Truxton

COURT MARTIAL. Commander Pearson, tried at Norfolk for the loss of the sloop of war BOSTON, has been found guilty and sentenced to one year's suspension.

           Past midshipman Rolando, acting as master of the Boston, was also tried and acquitted of any blame for the loss of the ship.

           Commander Carpenter, tried by the same court for the loss of the brig of war Truxton, was found guilty, and cashiered, but recommended to the mercy of the president, who has modified the sentence to one year's suspension. [MLL]

NNR 72.021 March 13, 1847 General Taylor's headquarters advances to Agua Nueva and Gen. Wool to Buena Vista

FROM THE ARMY--Letters have just been received in this city from the camps of Generals Taylor and Wool. The headquarters of the latter were at Buena Vista on the 29th of January and of the former at Agua Nueva, eighteen miles south of Saltillo, on the 7th of February.

           The letters from General Wool's camps state that since the 27th of January they had the usual nightly alarms of the approach of the enemy, and that there reports had all come from Saltillo. The enemy was said undoubtedly at Incarnacion, and perhaps small parties had been within twelve leagues of Saltillo. It was also reported that a considerable number of rancheros had embodied themselves and were not far off, lying in wait for any small reconnoitering parties that may come their way. The report had reached the camp (on the night of the 28th) that a party, consisting of Captain Heady and seventeen, Kentucky volunteers, were captured on the 27th by a party of rancheros, under the following circumstances: Capt. H. as sent out on a reconnoitering party by Lt. Col. Field. When about ten or fifteen miles away from their station they stopped at a rancho, and asked for liquor to drink. It was immediately furnished, and in abundance. The men became intoxicated, and in that condition left the rancho. They were afterwards captured, and, as reported, without resistance or a gun being fired.

           There was no idea entertained at the date of writing this letter that the town of Saltillo, or the troops at Buena Vista were to be attacked. It was supposed that some decisive measures would be taken to check the reconnoitering parties of the enemy.

           These letters give further accounts of the capture of Major Borland. It appears that an alarm of being given at the approach of the Mexicans upon Saltillo, Gen. Wool sent Major B. with fifty men to make a reconnaissance on the San Luis Potesi road, and, if practicable, to go as far as Incarnacion, about fifty-five miles from Saltillo, for the purpose of ascertaining whether or not the enemy had advanced to that place, and to report the result of that observations. He left on the 18th instant, and arrived at the Incarnacion the next morning but found no troops there; they having left the morning before. Instead of returning as ordered, the major took the liberty of halting and sent an express to Col. Yell for reinforcement. Col. Yell, on receiving the major's application sent a request to Gen. Wool for permission to go with his whole regiment to join the major and to go on as far as Salado. The application was sent by General Wool to Major General Butler, who refused it, but sent Gen. Wool word by the bearer that he would see the general in a few moments. Shortly after Gen. Wool sent the refusal to Col. Yell. An interview then took place between the two generals. Then Gen. Wool proposed an immediate recall of Major Borland. Gen. Butler said it was necessary to send the order, as he was immediately going to see Col. Yell, and, if necessary, he would give the order.

           It appears that Major Borland was joined by Major Gaines and Capt. Clay's companies, about thirty to thirty-five strong, who were ordered by General Butler to make a reconnaissance in the same direction. They decided at once to continue their reconnaissance as far as Salado; the result of which was a surprise and capture of the whole party of about five hundred Mexican cavalry, commanded by General Minion. It was reported that they were surprised early in the morning, whilst asleep, with no pickets or sentinels, to guard against the surprise. Colonel Yell was afterwards sent with part of his regiment on the Potesi road, to ascertain the truth of the report, with instructions to be cautious; but, on preceding to the Incarnacion he found no troops; yet he received information of the approach of General Minion, with 3,000 cavalry, on which he retired to camp. Every precaution was subsequently taken to have an active reconnaissance on the roads by which the enemy could approach. As these unfortunate occurrences had been the result of vigilance and disobedience of orders, it is hoped that they may prove a lesson to our troops.

           General Taylor had changed his headquarters from Monterey to Agua Nueva, eighteen miles south of Saltillo, where he arrived on the 5th instant, bringing forward in the first instance, Lieut. Col. May's squadron of dragoons, two batteries, (Sherman's and Bragg's) and the regiment of Mississippi riflemen. He was subsequently joined by the Kentucky and Indiana regiments, and other troops were expected from Saltillo. It seemed to be understood that Gen. Taylor was determined to hold both Saltillo and Agua Nueva in its front. It was supposed that the scarcity of water and supplies for a long distance in front would compel the enemy either to risk an engagement in the field or to hold himself aloof from our troops. No intelligence has been received from the interior more recent or authentic than has been hitherto communicated. But the impression is that three was no considerable force in front, nor was it supposed to be likely that any serious demonstration would be made in that direction. The population of Saltillo was fast returning to the city, and it was hoped that, under the judicious management of Major Warren, a discreet officer of the Illinois volunteers, who commands in the worn, the people may remain quietly in their houses.

           Lots have been received in Washington of the men belonging to the Kentucky mounted volunteers who had been captured at Incarnacion, amounting to thirty-five, and also those of the Arkansas regiment captured at the same place, amounting also to thirty-five. [MLL]

NNR 72.021 March 13, 1847 Anxiety at Tampico over reports of a battle supposed to have been fought near Monterey

From Tampico, by way of New Orleans, we have dates to the 17th of February. Much anxiety was awakened there to have the truth or falsity of an account brought in by three Mexicans from Victoria, of a sanguinary battle having been fought at or near Monterey between Santa Anna and Gen. Taylor. They stated that General Taylor had fallen back from Saltillo, to Monterey, that Santa Anna had ventured to attack them, a long conflict ensued--loss of life on both sides exceeded any of the engagements--that Santa Anna finally gave way, having suffered so severely in killed and wounded--amongst the latter was Gen. Arista.

Our advice from Gen. Taylor is later than the period on which the battle was said to have been fought. They make no mention of the affair. It is quite possible the Mexicans were sent to Tampico with a view of creating a diversion.

           Of real movements made Santa Anna and his army from San Luis de Potosi, we are as yet entirely without satisfactory accounts, and shall be very curious to know what was the object of his move. [MLL]

NNR 72.021 letter from Mexico City about the levy on church property, the Mexican sense of grievance and desire for a durable peace

The Baltimore American of the 10 th says--It is intimated by letters from Washington that president and other officials there entertain the confident expectation of a speedy peace with Mexico. This belief is an approaching pacification is said to be founded on the use that is to made of the three millions entrusted by special appropriation to the president. Having no confidence, for our own part, in the pacific disposition of the Mexican people; none in Santa Anna's power, if he has the will, to expect such overtures as we are prepared to make; and therefore none, not the slightest, in the speedy conclusion of the war, we mention these rumors from Washington as indicating, we fear, rather the wishes than the convictions of reasonable and well informed men.

It is only necessary to place ourselves for a moment in the position of the Mexicans, and then allow them what we claim for ourselves, the possession of the feelings, sympathies and sentiments of men, to understand the exasperated hostility with which they must be aroused and stimulated to resist to the death the powerful invaders of their country. We cannot expect people to smile upon us when we have just provoked them by blows. To conciliate and to fight the same party, at one and the same time, would be to render all efforts both at fighting and at conciliation abortive. Hence the inconclusive results of Mr. Polk's management of our difficulty with Mexico. And the infatuation which possessed him when he plunged into the war, and which has marked his course in the prosecution of it, seems to accompany him still. He is not full of the project of the three million bill money--a ridiculous scheme which must end in disgrace.

The administration, we believe, has never yet perceived the really serious nature of this Mexican war. In so far as it relates to political interests, in the way of placing vast patronage in the president's hands and furnishing profitable contracts for the reward of the meritorious or for the encouragement of the wavering, it has probably been appreciated to the full. But there are other points of view in which some, not partizans, may be disposed to regard it.

We find in the New York Journal of Commerce some extracts from a letter dated "City of Mexico, January 28, 1847," apparently written by a Mexican of intelligence.

"You will discover our sense of injury to be great by the prompt punishment received by those of our citizens who have by force attempted to resist the will of the Junta in the matter of the law relating to church property. There is, then, as before remarked, but small expectation that the two nations will be able to come to terms at present, notwithstanding the storm that appears to be gathering for the subjugation of the city of Vera Cruz. The force loan upon, or seizure as some call it, of the church party, in defense of the nation, you will understand, is not carried out to impair the usefulness of the church itself. The property in question is promulgated to be the gift of individuals of the nation: it is considered national property, under God in the custody of the church, for use in just such an emergency as, at this time, threatens the independence of the country. As the agent of heaven for good to us, to whom can we turn more properly in the hour of necessity than to our church?

These are but a few appeals uttered in defense of the law. The exigency of the case impels the carrying out of a measure, which, under different circumstances, there would be few among us disposed to sanction. Some call the law a sacrilege; others say, if it is, the United States are the actors of it, by forcing upon us the necessary of performing it. The fault, then, lies at the door of our sister republic. Does it or does it not? The many generous sentiments discovered in many of the presses and in the speeches of some of the members of congress of the United States, I will here take occasion to observe, engage our attention. They are a relief to us under the circumstances; but the relief of mere language in a few, has little of satisfaction in it, so long as the nation itself is opposed to us. We are not so blinded by our conviction that we are right, as to be incapable of comprehending the instrumentality that prevents its satisfactory acknowledgement on the part of the United States.

We believe it nevertheless the duty of an elevated patriotism: that we should enforce something like an admission of the wrong done us, not for the benefit of our own republic merely, but for the less selfish motive that the peace that must be eventually arrived at, may be founded upon durable basis. Should Vera Cruz be taken, our nation will not be conquered. If even a march be successfully forced to our capital city, we shall still not be conquered; our enemy will be in a state of siege in our very midst. What is to happen under these circumstances, it is impossible to know. We shall, however, do our best to protect the interests involved. A single reverse will place the army of our enemy in a critical position. That desirable object affected, it may then be necessary and proper to offer the alternative we hesitate to yield on compulsion. The honor of our nationality demands of us the tremendous sacrifices under which we suffer. If we err in prizing the dignity of that, it will be an error for which posterity will not condemn us." [AMA]

NNR 72.021 March 13, 1847 Description of Lobos Island

THE ISLAND OF LOBOS--The island of Lobos having become a place of some interest for many of our citizens as the place of rendezvous of that portion of our army which is detained for the attack on Vera Cruz, we extract the following brief account of it from the correspondence of the Philadelphia North American:

Island of Lobos, Gulf of Mexico

-February 7, 1847

          "This letter is written upon the most delightful tropical island ever trodden by adventurers from any climb.

          "The island of Lobos is a lovely little spot, formed entirely of coral, about two miles in circumference, twelve miles from the Mexican shore, about 60 miles from Tampico, and some 130 miles from Vera Cruz. It is covered (or was before we landed) with a variety of trees and shrubs, the highest of the former about twenty-five feet high, and there are so thickly covered with vines that one can hardly get through them. There is hardly a tree or shrub, or plant growing there that I have ever before seen. Banyan trees spreading over large spaces of gourds, their limbs forming props as they pierce into the earth and take root, while the tops thickly thatched with evergreen vines, form most beautiful arches. Lemon, lime, fig, palm, cane, and a hundred other species of wood are growing with all the freshness and beauty of the Indies. There is plenty of water to be had by digging four to six feet. It is brackish and sweet, but we are getting used to it, and like it nearly as well as ship water. Fish and sea fowl we have is profusion. With there we have delightful air, that fourteen hours of the twenty-four make the place delightfully pleasant.

          "It will be difficult, I imagine, to convince you, who will read this scrawl besides great coal fires, that we are literally roasting during a portion of the day. The sun is so hot that our faces and arms are blistered if exposed but a few minutes. Tuesday, by Fahrenheit, in the shade, I scored 92 degrees. The universal remark among the volunteers is, 'if this is winter, what will summer be?'

          "General Scott is daily expected here, and we shall soon he joined by seven thousand troops from Tampico, &c. There are six companies of Louisiana and South Carolina troops already here. They arrived on the 3rd instant. They were all in fine health, and are encamped besides us." [MLL]

NNR 72.022 March 13, 1847 Report of Colonel Alexander Doniphan's taking of El Paso


The St. Louis Republican has accounts from Santa Fe to the 14th of January. At that time but little further was known of the movements of Colonel Doniphan. Some Mexicans, who were in the battle of Brazito, reported that Colonel Doniphan entered El Paso on the 28th of December, and took possession without resistance--the military force which he met on the 25thand defeated having scattered to the mountains.

           The attempt to produce a revolution in Santa Fe was to have been made on Christmas night. It was a time when great numbers of Mexicans were expected to congregate in Santa Fe for the purpose of attending the ceremonies of the Catholic Church. A very large number were in attendance from all sections of the country; and no doubt by preconcert. A priest from El Paso, habited as greaser, was present and took an active part in all the preliminary arrangements. But the whole plot was disclosed to the Americans by Mexican women, and the authorities were able to secure a good many of the leaders. [MLL]


The St. Louis Republican has accounts from Santa Fe to the 14 th of January. At that time but little further was known of the movements of Colonel Doniphan. Some Mexicans, who were in the battle of Brazito, reported that Colonel Doniphan entered El Paso on the 28 th of December, and took possession without resistance--the military force which he met on the 25 thand defeated having scattered to the mountains.

The attempt to produce a revolution in Santa Fe was to have been made on Christmas night. It was a time, when a great number of Mexicans were expected to congregate in Santa Fe for the purpose of attending the ceremonies of the Catholic church. A very large number were in attendance from all sections of the country; and no doubt by preconcert. A priest from El Paso, habited as a greaser, was present and took an active part in all the preliminary arrangements. But the whole plot was disclosed to the Americans by the Mexican women, and the authorities were able to secure a good many of the leaders. [AMA]

NNR 72.022, March 13, 1847 MEXICO--DEFERRED ARTICLE, Santa Anna, Vera Cruz

The British Steamer arrived at Havana from Vera Cruz furnish dates from thence to the 1st --and city of Mexico to the 29 th of January. We give brief extracts:

The rumor of the assassination of Santa Anna turns out to be unfounded; so also of his active opposition to the seizure of church property. At last accounts he was still at San Luis Potosi. Vera Cruz papers of the 28 th ult., announce that letters from San Luis speak of his immediate departure for Tula. Letters from the city of Mexico are to the same effect, and represent, that he would move at the head of the main body of his forces. His whole strength does not exceed 23,000 men of all arms--represented to be in a deplorable situation for want of means, destitute of clothing and provisions; one regiment had actually left for the city of Mexico.

Santa Anna employs his time in gambling and cock fighting and writing menacing and energetic representations to congress for money. He quite recently won $34,000 at monte from his own officers, very many of whom are very young men. The latest accounts we have seen from San Luis say that he would move upon Tula the morning of the 27 th ult. This is stated in a letter dated the 26th .

Gen. La Vega has been appointed commandant general of Vera Cruz.

Private accounts, from responsible sources, set down the number of troops in the city of Vera Cruz at 3400--some say 3000. The garrison of San Juan de Ulua does not exceed 100 troops. Some accounts represent that there are two months provisions in the castle, but we have a letter from a gentleman who has access to the most respectable sources of information, but whom we need not name, in which he assures us that there is not a barrel of salted provisions in the castle, are dependent upon the back country for their daily supplies of food. So far as the troops in the city are concerned, this has long been the case.

The congress of the state of Vera Cruz had issued a manifest calling on the people at all hazards to resist the invasion of the Americans. During the month of January the approaches to Vera Cruz on the road to the interior were strengthened by a battery of heavy guns.

The law authorising the seizure of fifteen millions of property belonging to the church promises to be a dead letter. The property consists almost wholly of real estate in different cities of the republic. Even if the law of congress be enforced, it is said that no one will advance money upon the property so seized much less purchase it. The whole body of the clergy had protested against the seizure as sacrilegious and they were supported by large portions of lower classes of the people. Santa Anna gave in his adhesion to the measure with great reluctance.

One of the clergy in the city of Mexico has been imprisoned for his factious opposition to the measure. At our last accounts the Mexican congress had before it a modification of the law, which would render it less burdensome, but without changing the principle.

Our letters say that all the late ministers have resigned. The ministers of foreign affairs and of finances have certainly done so. To add to the general disorganization, the Mexican congress is said to have determined to dissolve about the first of the present month.

A report was in circulation in Havana, derived from a letter of the very latest date from Vera Cruz that Gen. Minon had had an engagement with some American troops, near Victoria, and taken 800 of them prisoners. This transpired through the Mexican consul at Havana, and was totally discredited rumor was founded upon Minon's exploit near Saltillo. We find the prize seized by Minon noticed in the Indicator. That paper sets down the number of his prisoners at seventy, two of whom, it says, are field officers, and four company officers.

The Mexicans appear to be particularly well informed of the movements and positions of our troops. They give, from time to time, the forces at Tampico, Saltillo and Victoria and other places. Everywhere they see our arms advancing, and, to the consternation of all parties, sweeping all before them. This occasions much speculation in Mexico, as will be imagined, as to the final issue. Letters from Havana express the belief, founded upon information from high quarters in Mexico, that heir government will very soon enter into negotiations for peace, from total inability to subsist and protract the struggle. Still we read that one regiment of the Auxiliaries of San Luis had made formal proclamations that they would allow no treaty to be negotiated with the Americans, until the latter had entirely evacuated the country.

Several vessels have succeeded in running the blockade of Vera Cruz, a Sardinian brig and Spanish schooner were among the number. Officers write that with their present class of force it is impossible to prevent this. The Princess Marie, of Bordeaux has been seized by the squadron for irregularity in her papers, and it was thought would be sent to this port. The bark Felix, likewise of Bordeaux, has also been seized and sent into Anton Lizardo. We believe the sloop of war Albany made these captures. Conner has returned from Laguna to the station of the squadron.

A project has been started in Mazatlan of declaring Santa Anna dictator. This drew from him an immediate declaration that as he did not aspire to the presidency, he would use all his force to put down any movement in Sonora or any other state which would threaten to kindle political commotion. The latest dates from San Luis Potosi are to the 26 th ultimo. The army had not then moved, but the Vera Cruz Vindicator of the 21 st ult: thinks that it had done so subsequently, being enabled to do so by the funds raised by the state of San Luis.

Gen. Valencia is said by the same paper to mediate a descent upon Tampico. [AMA]

NNR 72.032 March 13, 1847 Preparations for attacking Veracruz, delay, ships to be employed

           The attack on Vera Cruz.-According to Gen. Scott's project it is stadet, was to have commenced on the 20th of March, or at the earliest possible day thereafter.  The New York Express states "that active preparations are making and nearly completed at the Brooklyn Navy Yard, in the fitting out of two vessels, to be used as bomb ketches in the contemplated attack.   They have been strengthened in every possible way by strong oaken knees, secured by bolts and screws, massive oaken frake work, and iron braces running through the vessel, secured upon the outer sides by broad iron plates.   Each of the vessels is to carry, besides guns of smaller caliber, an immense gun upon deck (and a smaller one below) weighing about eight tons, and which will throw shot or shells of ten inches diameter a distance of of three and a half miles.  It is calculated they will be at Vera Cruz ready for service by the 1st of April."

            The U. States bomb ketches Etna and Stromboli, commanded by Captains G. J. Van Brunt and W.S. Walker are to sail from Boston for the gulf in a few days.

            From this it would appear that the period of attack had been somewhat delayed.  Gen. Scott left Brazos for the point of action about the 18th February.

            The new sloop of war Germantown, lately launched at Philadelphia and since fitted out at Gosport, on the 10th instant was towed by the steamer Engineer to the anchorage, and will sail in a few days.-Whether for the gulf or for the Pacific, we are not confident.   Commander Franklin Buchanan, lat superintendent of the naval school at Annapolis, commands her.

            The following vessels the N. Y. Herald says, will compose the squadron that will attack Vera Cruz:-

Line ship Ohio, Capt. Stringham 74 guns
Frigate Potomac, Capt. Aulic 44     "  
Frigate Raritan, Capt. Forrest  44     "  
Sloop of War John Adams, Capt. McCluney  20     "  
Sloop of War St. Mary's, Capt. Saunders 20     "  
Sloop of War Albany, Capt. Breese 20     "  
Sloop of War Decatur, Com. Pinokney 16     "  
Brig of War Porpoise,, 10     "  
Brig of War Perry,, 10     "  
Schr. of war Bonita,, 1     "  
Schr. of war Reefer,, 1     "  
Schr. of war Petre, Lieut. Shaw 1     "  
Schr. of war Tampico, Mid. Perry 1     "  
Schr. of war Nonata, Mid. Smith 1     "  
Steamer Mississippi, Com, Perry, paix. 1     "  
Steamer Princeton, Capt. Engle 9     "  
Steamer Spitfire, Capt. Tattnall 3     "  
Steamer Vixen, Capt. Sands 3     "  
Steamer McLean, Capt. Howard 3     "  
Steamer Union, Capt. Rudd 4     "  
Steamer Alleghany, Capt. Hunter  10     "  
Steamer Hunter, Lieut. McLaughlin  6     "  
Steamer Petrila,, 6     "  
Steamer Scorpion, Com. Bigelow, 64 pr. 1     "  
Steamer Scourge, Lieut. Hunter, 64 pr. 1     "  
Store ship Relief,, 6     "  
Store ship Supply, , 2     "  
Store ship Fredonia,, 2     "  
Bomb ketch Stromboli, Com.Walker, 85 pr. 1     "  
Bomb ketch Aetna, Com. Van Brunt, 85 pr. 1     "  
Bomb ketch Vesuvius,, 85 pr. 2     "  
Bomb ketch Hecla,, 85 pr. 1     "  
Bomb ketch Electra,, 85 pr. 1     "  
Sloop Marmer,, 1    "  
Cutter Forward, Capt Nones 6     "  
Total number of guns 324


NNR 72.032 March 13, 1847 "Irish Legion" of deserters from the United States to the Mexicans

DESERTERS FROM THE ARMY--As the bounty for enlisting is increased in amount, the number of attempts to obtain the bounty by abandoned characters, with a view awaiting the public, will increase in full proportion.

           The adjunct general of the United States, has advertised rewards amounting in the aggregate to over $33,300 for arresting 1,011 deserters from the U.S. army.

           The Irish Legion--El Republicano of Mexico has the following:

           "We had the pleasure on Sunday last of seeing a company of Americans deserters, principally Irish, reviewed by his excellency the general in chief. They are perfectly armed and equipped, and are on the point of departure for Tula. This company have made a particular standard for themselves, on one side of which is seen the national cost of arms, with the motto, "Long live the republic of Mexico." On the other side is a figure of St. Patrick, their patron. There brave men who have abandoned one of the most unjust of causes for the purpose of defending the territory of their adopted country, will find in the Mexicans, a frank and loyal heart, open and hospitable; and besides, a just and ample recompense for their merited services. [MLL]

NNR 72.033 March 20, 1847 Adventure of Capt. Dan D. Henrie


           When the two accounting parties under Majors Borland and Gaines were captured by the Mexican forces under General Minion, on the 23rd of January, about sixty miles from Saltillo, there were taken with them a Texan, Capt. Dan Henrie, and a Mexican guide who had been compelled to act as such.  Before the Americans surrendered, Gen. Minon pledged his honor that Captain Henrie should be treated as a prisoner of war, and should not be hurt, and that the Mexican guide should have a fair trial. Soon afterwards the Mexican guide was shot down, by order of the Mexican general--a circumstance which indicated clearly to the captain what his fate was to be. The subsequent occurrences connected with his escape were narrated by himself:

           The whole party remained at Incarnacion that day. The next morning, the 24th, the prisoners were stated ender a guard of 200 men, for San Luis Potesi. Majors Gaines and Borland were permitted to retain their horses and arms; the rest of the prisoners were stript of both. Capts. Clay and Dainey among other commissioned officers, were furnished with mustang ponies; the remainder marched on foot.

           The treatment of the Mexican guide induced Capt. Henrie to believe that he might share the same fate. He had no confidence whatever in the word of general Minon. During the day he remarked that officers talking to each other and looking at him. Manuel Sanchez that lives in Saltillo, and who also received from our officers many thousand dollars for corn, was with Gen. Minon. He recognized Henrie, and riding up to him said, "Well, sir, I suppose you will visit the city of Mexico a second time." "That is very doubtful," replied Henrie. In the afternoon the express came with a letter. Some acts of the officer who received it aroused  Henrie's suspicions further, and turning short around where the officer was watching him. He believed they designed to murder him, and he determined to make his mistake if possible, and advised some of the prisoners of it.

           By some accident, during the evening he found himself on Major Gaines' mare, one of the best blooded nags in Kentucky, and the Major's pistols still remaining in the holsters. The prisoners had become considerably scattered near sunset, and Capt. Henrie set himself busily to work to make them keep close together.

           To do this he rode back, within ten miles of the rear of the line, when, discovering a small interval in the line of the Mexican guard, he suddenly put spurs into the mare and darted through the lines. The guard immediately wheeled in pursuit, but their ponies were no match for a Kentucky blood horse, and before a gun could be fairly leveled at him he had darted out of reach. He had three ranchos to pass. As he passed these he found that the Mexicans in pursuit gave the alarm to the rancheros, who followed him with fresh horses; still he outstripped them all. After passing the last rancho he had pulled up his mare, to rest her, when a single Mexican came up supposing him to be unharmed. He waited until he came within thirty steps, when cocking the pistol he fired the dueling pistol and the Mexican rolled off.

           In a short time another came nearer; he likewise permitted him to approach still nearer, when he wheeled and shot him down. He loaded his pistol, and after going some distance another started up from behind some bushes near the road, and rode at him; he shot at him, with what success he could not tell, but was not pursued by that Mexican any farther When he came to Incarnacion he had found that the camp had been alarmed, as he supposes by some one who had passed him when he left the road. Diverging from this strait course, he crossed several roads and evaded a number of parties who were in pursuit. At length he came to a plain where there was no place to hide. The moon was shining, and he could see a large number of men in pursuit. Putting spurs to his now jaded mare, he made for a mountain valley, and following it to the east, he at length eluded his pursuers. He traveled up into the valley forty miles, as he supposed, hoping to find water for himself or for his famished mare, and the next morning after his escape the noble animal expired, more from the want of water than from fatigue.

           Capt. Henrie now had to make it on foot. He wandered about all day, trying to find a path across the mountain. In the evening he found some water to quench his thirst. He then determined to retrace his steps down the valley, and did so, marching without food or water, frequently seeing parties of Mexicans, whom he had to avoid. On the 28th he killed a rat with a club, part of which he ate and put the balance in his pocket for another meal.

           On the night of the 28thhe reached the road, and followed it until an hour after sunset, when he discovered a party of horsemen approaching. Not knowing whether they were friends or enemies, he concealed himself until they came near, when he discovered they were a picket guard of the Arkansas troops. He gave one shout and gave up--nature was exhausted. His nerves, which had been strung up to the highest degree of tension, became unstrung, and he was almost helpless. They put him on a horse and took him to Agua Nueva, where Capt. Pike commanded an outpost.

           Capt. Pike informed me that when Henrie came in he was the most miserable looking being he ever saw. His shoes were worn out, his pantaloons cut in rags, his head was bare, and his hair and beard matted, his hands, feet, and legs were filled with thorns from the prickly pear, and his shin was parched and withered with privation, exposure, and exertion. He had tasted no water for four days, and seemed almost famished for want of it. The soldiers gathered round him, and all that was in their wallets was at his service as they had recently had a new outfit of clothing, Capt. H. was soon newly fitted out. After resting awhile, and getting some food he was able to ride to this place. He says that during the pursuit, there were more than one hundred shots fired at him, one of which passed through his hair. [MLL]

NNR 72.035 March 20, 1847 Account of the mounted riflemen at Jefferson Barracks

           The regiment of Mounted Riflemen are thus described by a correspondent of the Buffalo Commercial Advertiser, writing from Jefferson Barracks, Mo. 24th, Nov. 1846.

           There are now at this point about five hundred men of the regiment who were enlisted in the short space of four months. Of these, all of nine-tenths are Americans, enlisted in the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, and Tennessee. Very few were enlisted in the northern and eastern states. Two companies of the regiment were organized in September, and one is already serving in Mexico. These are commanded by Capts. Mason and Walker.

           I will venture to say that a finer body of men were never enlisted in this country. They are strong, athletic fellows, who appear capable of enduring and hardships. A good proportion of them are over six feet in height, and not a few will go six foot four "in their stockings." They have been well as cavalry tactics, and should occasion require they can act as trailleurs, or light infantry.

           Owing principally to the low stage of water in the river the arms and clothing for the regiment did not arrive until a few days since. This has been a serious impediment to us, as the order for us, as the order for us to repair to Point Isabel was issued from the Adjunct General's office six weeks since. Our squadron, composed of two companies commanded by Capt. Sanderson and Crittenden, leave tomorrow, and the other companies will leave as soon as horses can be procured by the quartermaster at St. Louis.

           We are to be armed with the short rifle, and we hope the requisition which has also been made for sabers and pistols will be favored. In the absence of Col. Smith and Lieut. Col. Fremont, already in Mexico, the regiment is to be commanded by Major Burridge. [MLL]

NNR 72.035 March 20, 1847 General Scott reaches Tampico from the Rio Grande, proceeds to Lobos.

War With Mexico.

            Major General Scott, and suite, embarked from the Rio Grande in the steamer Massachusetts, and reached Tampico on the evening of the 19th February.  He met with "a thundering reception," of course.   Landing next morning he proceeded to Gen. Patterson's head quarters, and received the attention due to a commanding officer and the welcome of his friends.  He found about 9,000 men at Tampico, preparing to embark.  Four brigades, under Genl's. Twiggs, Pillow, Shield. and Quitman, were to embark on the 20thand 21st.

            The scene in and about Tampico, is stated to be stirring in the extreme.  Reviews of troops, in regiments and brigades, were daily taking place; vessels were continually arriving with goods, merchandize, military stores, &c., the American population were all in intense excitement, regarding coming events.   Every thing announced action, in its utmost intensity.   All quiet, with regard to the enemy, in the interior.

            On the 21st, Gen. Scott, and suite left Tampico, in the Mississippi for the island of Lobos, where about 2,500 men had already encamped on the 17th of February.

            The squadron off Vera Cruz consisted of the Potomac, Raritan, John Adams, Albany, Princeton, and a fleet of small craft.   Gen. Scott had been expected daily for some time.   The ships and troops would rendezvous, it was said, at Anton de Lizardo, but the place of debarkation would not be finally settled on until the arrival of Gen. Scott-it would either be at Anton de Lizardo, 9 miles from Vera Cruz, or opposite Sacrificios-at either of which places it would be done under complete protection from the guns of the ships.

            A letter from Mr. Lumsden, one of the editors of the Picayune, written at Tampico ont e 20th of February, says:

            Gen. Twiggs' division is first under marching orders, and leaves to-day.  All is bustle, and very soon we shall not have more troops here than are barely sufficient to take care of the town.  I think my mind is pretty well made up to go and see the Vera Cruz fandango.  I was unlucky enough to miss the sport at Monterey, and do not feel willing to be absent when the "ball" opens at Vera Cruz.

            To give you some idea of what is expected to be done, I will show you a portion  of what is going down in the way of munitions: First, there are some 100,000 rounds of heavy ammunition; rockets, shells and an enormous supply of all sorts of combustibles, with 40 mortars and columbiads-some of them ten inches calibre; from 10 to 20 24-pounders; 3 field batteries, consisting of six and twelve-pounders, and twelve and twenty-four pound howitzers.   With all these go the sappers and miners and the pontoon train.

            The United States schooner Tampico, acting master M. C. Perry, Jr., sails this morning for Lobos Island and Anton Lizardo, with despatches from Gen. Scott.

            A postscript to this letter, dated February 23d, says:-

            I have not much to add-in fact it is almost impossible to gather any thing here in the way of what is called army news-so secret is every thing kept.  There is not a Mexican in this whole country who does not know that our troops are going to Vera Cruz, while in the United States, and even here, our own people are all in the dark.  Santa Anna manages to keep himself well advised of our movements-I almost venture to say that he now knows as much of our plans and intentions, and of our strength and numbers in the field as any of those who are at headquarters, in Washington city.  Despatches of the greatest moment are sent through the enemy's country, almost totally unguarded, and, like weak and straggling forages, and mules and wagons without good and strong escorts, they fall into the hands of our foes.

            All the forces now here, except the Louisiana volunteers, the Baltimore battalion, and one company of artillery will be on the way to Vera Cruz in a short time.  Those that I have named will be left here, under the command of Col. Gates, to garrison the city.

            Every thing indicates a movement upon Vera Cruz, which place, so far from being abandoned by the Mexicans, appears to be making efforts for defence.  Men, women and children are said to be labouring on the works for defence, making ditches, removing sand banks, &c. Additional troops have arrived, and it is   stated that Santa Anna has advanced $75,000 of his personal estate for the immediate exigencies of the place.

            Advices at New Orleans from the mouth of he Rio Grande are to the 27 th February.  General Worth's division was embarking with all possible speed.   [ANP]

NNR 72.036 March 20, 1847. Mexican preparations at Tampico for the defense of Veracruz

            Propositions to Negotiate.-The New Orleans Picayune of the 10th says-

            Senor D. Alejandro Jose Atocha, bearer of dispatches from the government of the United States to Mexico, supposed to contain another proposition of peace, was landed at Vera Cruz on the 9th ult., from the American squadron, and left for the capital the same evening in company with Lieut. Col. Adams, and in aid of Gen. Morales.

            By the arrival of the U. States revenue cutter Forward, Captain Nones, a large mail was yesterday received from Anton Lizardo.   Our own letters come down to the 28th of February, on when day a Norther prevailed which prevented the Forward from leaving before the 2d of March the information which follows we derive exclusively from our letters and papers.

            Senor Atocha, whose arrival at Vera Cruz, with despatches, we announced yesterday, went over there on the Forward from this city direct.   He returned from the capital on the 26th ult., and repaired again immediately on board the Forward, and is now, we presume, on his way to Washington.  It is not supposed he has accomplished much by his mission.-The Mexicans had personal objections to him, and his reception by the authorities of Vera Cruz, and the people and government of Mexico, was any thing but cordial.

            Passed Midshipman Rogers has been ordered to Ferote, and is now confined in that gloomy prison.

            We learn that the blockade of Vera Cruz continues to be violated with almost perfect impunity.-This is attributed not more to the want of vessels of the proper description, than to the instuctions by which the commodore enforces the law of blockade.

            Two barques have arrived off Vera Cruz with volunteers from the north, and gone into Anton Lizardo.   One of them is the St. Cloud from Hampton Roads, with a portion of the Virginia troops.

            The news from Santa Anna is no later than we have already given, though it is more full.  Although Santa Anna announces the capture of Capt. Heady and his small company of Kentuckians, we find no mention of the murder of Lieut. Ritchie, and the seizure of his despatches.  The despatches have not formally been made public by him.

            The latest advices we see from Chihuahua, are to the 16 th of January, a fortnight later than our former accounts.   The city had not then been taken by our troops, nor do we see any thing said of their advance upon it.

            The New Orleans Bulletin, referring to the news by the United States schoner Forward, says that the despatches brought by Mr. Atocha are said to be of high importance; but the content had not in any way transpired, though it was reported that there was a prospect of a favorable termination of the negotiations.

            The Washington  correspondent of the New York Journal of Commerce writes-

            "The Mississippi, which sailed on the 7th, carried out, as I now learn, full instructions from our government to the able and intelligent United States consul in the city of Mexico, Mr. Black, who is still employed there as a means of communication between the two governments.   Mr. Black will enunciate the 'three million bill,' which conveys on its face, to the Mexican government the expression of a desire, on the part of the American congress, to obtain "a speedy and honorable peace" with Mexico.-The Mississippi may possibly arrive at Vera Cruz, if the equinoctial gales do not interrupt her, by the 20th March.  It strikes me that, very possibly, preliminaries for a treaty of peace will be settled before the intended assault  upon Vera Cruz and the castle.  That was the opinion expressed by Mr. Soule before he left the city."   [ANP]

NNR 72.037 March 20, 1847. Mexican preparations for defense of Veracruz, consideration of its defenses

United States Squadron, Feb 26, 1847.

            The subject of Mr. Atocha's despatches, is dis cu ssed in the recent papers, but I have not seen or heard of any all sign to it.  The Vera Cruz papers state our government have proposed to Mexico an indemnity of twenty millions for the line of the 26th parallel from the mouth of the Rio del Norte to the Pacific .  It is understood that Mr. Atocha's remarks have confirmed this statement so far as this: that fifteen millions are offered for the above mentioned boundary line, the United States waiving all claims on Mexico, and assuming the indemnities due her citizens.

            Personally, Senor Atocha appears to have been the most unacceptable person we could have sent to Mexico.   His reception at Vera Cruz was anything but flattering.   He landed at Vera Cruz on the 9th, I believe, and reached Mexico, according to the papers on the 13th.   The next day he was ordered to leave the capital for a hacienda near Jalapa, there to await the response of the government.   It is rumored that his proposals have been despatched to Santa Anna.   Judging from the tone of the newspapers, I should suppose that they would be rejected with disdain.  One print declares that it is the greatest insult which has yet been offered to Mexico; another asks how long Mexico will permit herself to be set at thought.  The odium in which Senor Atocha is held has apparently prejudiced the proposals, whatever they may be.

            Santa Anna was, by the latest accounts, (coming down to the 14th instant from Guadalaxara,) still advancing towards Saltillo, and had reached Cedral.  On the 12 th an extraordinary snow storm occurred at San Luis.   We may expect melancholy accounts from the denuded Mexican army.

            The opposition to the law confiscating the church states is unabated, and is beginning to assume a more systematic character.   The state of Jalisco had suspended the execution of the law until congress can consider the petitious of the several states for its repeal.   Distrusting capitalists consider the investments as too insecure for speculation, even at enormous discounts.   The amount of property held in (indecipherable word) is estimated at 50,000,000 and the government cannot, at the proposed rates, raise 10,000,000 by the sacrifice of he whole of this property.   Mr. Vaddy Thompson says that his residence in Mexico has thoroughly convinced him that no political moment can succeed to which the priesthood is opposed.  The issue of this favorite financial scheme for young Farias is likely to illustrate the truth of the remark, as there is much reason to suppose that the law will eventually be repealed.

            The people of Vera Cruz have turned out en masse to clear away the sand embanked against the walls of the city, on the northern and western side, and to (indecipherable words).   The women and children were actively engaged in carrying away the sand.  [ANP]

NNR 72.037 March 20, 1847 Mexican financial difficulties because of resistance to law confiscating church property

    The opposition to the law confiscating the church estates is unabated, and is beginning to assume a more systematic character. The state of Jalisco had suspended the execution of the law until congress can consider the petitions of the several states for its repeal. Distrusting capitalists consider these investments as too insecure for speculation, even at enormous discounts. The amount of property held in Mortamoros is estimated at 50,000,000, and the government cannot, at the proposed rates, raise 10,000,000 by the sacrifice of the whole of this property. Mr. Wendry Thompson says that his residence in Mexico had thoroughly convinced him that no political movement can succeed to which the priesthood is opposed. The state of this favorite financial scheme of young Farias is likely to illustrate the truth of the remark, as there is much reason to suppose that the law will eventually be repealed.

    The people of Vera Cruz turned out en masse to clear away the sand embanked against the walls of the city, on the northern and western side, and to dig a ditch. The women and children were actively engaged in carrying away the sand. [MLL]

72.037 March 20, 1847 March of the Mormon battalion toward California


           Extracted from a letter, dated at Los Playna, Sonora, on the 24th of November, written by an officer in the command of Col. Cooke, who is at the head of the Mormon battalion on its way to California:

           "We are now about three hundred and fifty miles from Santa Fe, on our way to California. So far, we have been successful in finding a good road, that may be considered a natural one, for we have had but little work to do. We find water scarce, and prospects will worse ahead, thought I am in hopes we shall not suffer. The grass for our animals is very fine. We have crossed several high mountains, or rather passed through them, without difficulty, and have suffered but little from cold. Our course has been further south than we wished to follow, but it was necessary on account of water. We are about fifty miles northwest of Yara, so by referring to the map, you can see our present position. From here we go to San Bernadino, and then to the Rio San Pedro, and down that river to the Gulf of California, and thence across to San Diego, and up the coast to Monterey. There are journey westward will be ended. We will retire at least seventy days yet to perform the trip, for our animals must necessarily fall if we attempt to push them. They are our only hope, and it behooves us to favor them in every possible way. This is a wild country, and too far from the home ever to be settled on by white men. The health of the command is good; in fact, the sir is too pure to have disease of any kind generated into it." [MLL]

NNR 72.038 March 20, 1847 Account of the Santa Fe insurrection


Pittsburgh, March 16

           By the river we have St. Louis papers four days in advance of the mall, with dates from Santa Fe covering important news. There has been an extensive Mexican insurrection at Taos. All the Spaniards who evinced any sympathy with the American cause had been compelled to escape.

           Gov. Bent, Stephen Lee, acting sheriff, General Elliot Lee, Henry Seal and twenty Americans were killed and their families deported. The chief Alealde was also killed. This all occurred on the 7th of January. The insurrection had made formidable head and the dissatisfaction was rapidly spreading. The insurrectionists were sending expresses out all over the country to raise assistance. The number engaged in the outbreak at Taos was about 600. They were using every argument to incite the Indiana to hostilities and were making preparations to take possession of Santa Fe.

           The Americans at Santa Fe had only about 500 effective men there; the rest were on the sick list or had left to join Col. Doniphan. Such being their situation they cannot send succor out, as they are hardly able to defend themselves. It is thought that Santa Fe must be captured, as neither the nor the block houses are completed.

           It is announced as the intention of the insurrectionists who captured Taos, to take possession of the wagon trains, which are carrying forward our supplies, and thus cut off all communication.

           The representations made to Col. Doniphan, that Chihuahua would be an easy conquest, were evidently intended as a lure to entrap him, beget a spirit of security, and lead him far off into the interior, where he might easily out off.

           It is the universal opinion in Santa Fe that is Gen. Wool had gone direct to Chihuahua there would have been no trouble in New Mexico. Col. Doniphan had possession of El Paso del Norte on the 28th of December. Letters have been received from the governor of Chihuahua, stating that Gen. Wool was within three days march of the capital. This, too, was doubtless another rose to lure Col. Doniphan on in confidence, and cut him off from all chance of escape, or falling back upon Santa Fe, to relieve it in its emergency.

           The Mexicans are in hold in their tone and confident of capturing Col. Doniphan and has command, which consists of about 600 men, 500 being of his own troops, the regiment of mounted Missouri volunteers, and a detachment of 100 men from Santa Fe, under the command of Lieutenant Col. Mitchell, of the 2ndregiment--consisting of 30 men from Clark's battalion of light artillery, under command of Capt. Hudson and Lieut. Kribben, and 70 from Colonel Price's regiment and Colonel Willock's battalion. They then assert that they will massacre every American in New Mexico and confiscate all their goods.

           A letter from Lieutenant Albert, United States topographical engineer of later date, confirms all the above intelligence. The details of the battle of Braesto [?] are also confirmed. The massacre beyond doubt has been a horrible one, of which we have as yet heard from the beginning, and the insurrection had been kept so quiet until all was ready for the outbreak, that our handful of troops there must be demolished, before any effort can be made to relieve them from the most advanced of our western military posts.

           Lieut. Albert's men suffered severely coming to Missouri. Th calls upon the government for prompt assistance and large reinforcements are strenuous; and the actuation of our gallant men, far away from succor, in the heart of an enemies country, shows the rashness which has characterized the whole advance in New Mexico.

           Eight of the leading men engaged in the conspiracy have arrived (our dispatch does not say where) who have made a full confession of the whole thing.

           Letters received also state that Col. Cook and the Mormon battalion  were 350 miles beyond Santa Fe. They were in generally good health and progressing slowly.--Phila. North Amer. [MLL]

NNR 72.037-038, March 20, 1847 NEW MEXICO--SANTA FE--IMPORTANT

Pittsburg, March 16

By river we have St. Louis papers four days in advance of the mail, with dates from Santa Fe covering important news. There has been an extensive Mexican insurrection at Taos. All the Spaniards who evinced any sympathy with the American cause had been compelled to escape.

Gov. Bent, Stephen Lee, acting sheriff, General Elliot Lee, Henry Seal and twenty Americans were killed and their families despoiled. The chief Alcalde was also killed. This all occurred on the 17 th January. The insurrection had made formidable head and the disaffection was rapidly spreading. The insurrectionists were sending expresses out all over the country to raise assistance. The number engaged in the outbreak at Taos was about 600. They were using every argument to incite the Indians to hostilities and were making preparations to take possession of Santa Fe.

The Americans at Santa Fe had only about 500 effective men there; the rest were on the sick list or had left to join Col. Doniphan. Such being their situation they cannot send succor out, as they are hardly able to defend themselves. It is thought that Santa Fe must be captured, as neither the fort nor block houses are completed.

It is announced as the intention of the insurrectionists who captured Taos, to take possession of the government wagon trains, which are carrying forward our supplies, and thus cut off all communication.

The representations made to Col. Doniphan, that Chihuahua would be an easy conquest, were evidently intended as a lure to entrap him, beget a spirit of security, and lead him far off into the interior, where he might be easily cut off.

It is the universal opinion in Santa Fe that if Gen. Wool had gone direct to Chihuahua there would have been no trouble in New Mexico. Col. Doniphan had possession of El Paso del Norte on the 28 th December. Letters had been received from the governor of Chihuahua, stating that Gen. Wool was within three days march of the capital. This, too, was doubtless another ruse to lure Col. Daniphan on in confidence, and cut him off from all chances of escape, or of falling back upon Santa Fe, to relieve it in its emergency.

The Mexicans are bold in their tone and confident of capturing Col. Doniphan and his command, which consists of about 600 men, 500 of them being of his own troops, the first regiment of mounted Missouri volunteers, and a detachment of 100 men from Santa Fe, under command of Lieutenant Col. Mitchell, of the 2ndregiment--consisting of 30 men from Clark's battalion of light artillery, under command of Capt. Hudson and Lieut. Kribben, and 70 from Colonel Price's regiment and Colonel Willock's battalion. They then assert that they will massacre every American in New Mexico and confiscate all their goods.

A letter from Lieutenant Abert, United States topographical engineer, of later date, confirms all the above intelligence. The details of the battle of Bracito are also confirmed. The massacre beyond doubt has been a horrible one, of which we have as yet heard but the beginning, and the insurrection has been kept so quiet until all was ready for the outbreak, that our handful of troops there must be demolished, before any effort can be made to relieve them from the most advanced of our western military posts.

Lieut. Abert's men suffered severely coming to Missouri. The calls upon government for prompt assistance and large reinforcements are strenuous; and the situation of our gallant men, far away from succor, in the heart of an enemy's country, shows the rashness, which has characterized the whole advance into New Mexico.

Eight of the leading men engaged in the conspiracy have arrived, (our despatch does not say where,) who have made a full confession of the whole plot.

Letters received also state that Col. Cook and the Mormon battalion were 350 miles beyond Santa Fe. They were generally in good health and progressing slowly. [AMA]

NNR 72.048 March 20, 1847 Gen. Carrabajal's cordon of posts round Matamoros, &c.


War with Mexico.

            Latest from the Army.-The schr. John Howell reached New Orleans on the 12 th, with Brazos St. Jago dates to the 28 th ult.

            General Worth left Brazos on the 25th, in the steamer Edith, one company of artillery, one of dragoons, and the light batteries had all embarked.  Six companies of dragoons remained, waiting for transports.

            Capt. Hughes, of he Illinois volunteers, left Gen. Taylor's camp, 20 miles below Saltillo, on the 13th and Monterey on the 15th ,-all quiet then.  Gen. T. designed to remain at his camp till the 1st April.

            There were many reports at Brazos Santiago, on the 28 th ult.  It was rumored that a large body of Mexicans were in the neighborhood of Saltillo, and that Gen. Taylor had fallen back on Monterey, and expected every day to have a battle, as the Mexicans were following him up.

            The New Orleans Mercury, March 12, evening, says-

            We learn from Captain Somers, of the schooner James & Samuel, which arrived to day from Brazos Santiago, that an express came into that place on the 4th instant, stating that a Mexican force had passed Matamoros on the opposite (Texas) side of the river on the morning of the 4th .  Captain Somers could not learn the number of men, or who commanded them.   This arrival brought no letters or papers for this city.

            The New Orleans Delta of the 12th says-

            The reports in circulation, as to the advance of the enemy, 15,000 strong, on Saltillo, are, beyond a doubt, true; and Gen. Taylor has by this time, either fought and whipped the Mexicans again, at Agua Nueva, or has fallen back on Monterey.  The great fear entertained by General Taylor's friends is, that should he fall back on Monterey, and a force of 15,000 should advance upon that place, that being obliged to keep his whole force (5000) at Monterey, the enemy would be strong enough to detach a portion, (say 5000,) to act on his base of operations, and by uniting with the force known to be under Urrea, (some 3500 or 4000 men,) effectually break up in detail, Camargo, Matamoros and the Brazos St. Jago, thereby cutting off all supplies from General Taylor, and obliging him to subsist in a country even now drained by the demands of so large a force as we have maintained, in the country around Monterey.-The black fort at Monterey may be made impregnable, and with even the small force under his command General Taylor could hold it against any force the Mexicans might bring against it, should be compelled to retire on that position.   Camargo is tolerably well fortified, and Matamoros has recently been fortified under the direction and superintendence of Col. Lloyd Tilghman.

            Besides the large force advancing under Santa Anna from San Luis Potosi, and that of Urrea by the way of Victoria, there is another force of the enemy under Canales, who has a force under his command well calculated to give great annoyance along the whole line of the Rio Grande.   This is the force referred to by Colonel Morgan, as acting between Monterey and Camargo.  A portion of it is under Carrabajal, engaged in levying a tax on all goods brought into, and carried out of Matoamoras by traders.

            Carrabajal, with his bandit rancheros, has established a cordon of posts for 39 miles around Matamoros, and in the absence of custom house buildings holds his revenue court under some convenient tree.   Such is his audacity, that on the 15th ult. he slept with his command of 100 men, at P uerta Verdes only one league from Matamoros, awaiting a stock of goods supposed to be coming from the Boca del Rio, by way of Burrita.   The commanding officer at Matamoros has no cavalry at his disposal, and this Carrabajal is perfectly aware of, and can levy his contributions, with impunity, even within a mile of the city.   [ANP]

NNR 72.048 March 20, 1847  The last two companies of Massachusetts volunteers leave from Boston

The barque Smyrna left Boston on the 18th, with the two last companies of the Massachusetts volunteer regiment, under Captain Nicholas and Walsh. Major Abbot went out in the Smyrna. Col. Cushing is to embark in a few days. [MLL]

NNR 72.048 March 20, 1847  Gen. Stephen Watts Kearny's code of laws for New Mexico


           We are indebted to a friend of Santa Fe, for a copy of the organic law for the government of the territory of New Mexico, and also for a code of laws, established by Gen. Kearny, to carry out the provision of the constitution. This work comprises 115 pages, and the text is in Spanish and English, placed in juxtaposition. We have already published a synopsis of the constitution. The laws are fashioned very much after our own, saving such changed as are demanded by the condition of the people of New Mexico--are arranged under regular breads, and embrace everything necessary to preserve the rights of the people.

           A delegate congress is to be elected on the first Monday, August, 1847. St. Louis Rep. [MLL]

NNR 72.048 March 20, 1847 recruits embarking from New York for Tampico.

            Military Movements. -A detachment of 400 recruits for the 3d and 4th regiments of artillery, embarked on the ship Orpheust yesterday afternoon, from Governor's Island, for Tampico.  There recruits are under the command of Liut. Schuyler Hamilton, 1st regiment of U. S. Infantry.  Liut: S. B. Hayman, 7thinfantry, accompanies the detachment.   Another detachment of 120 men, under the command of Liut. J. H. Potter, 7th infantry, also left the Island on the bark Lewis.   These men are for the companies of the 1st and 2d regiments of artillery, serving with Gen. Taylor at Saltillo.-N.Y. Herald.   [ANP]

NNR 72.049 March 27, 1847 Gen. Scott general order No. 20 respecting atrocities

Tampico, February 19, 1847

1.      It may well be apprehended that many grave offences nor provided for in the act of congress establishing rules and articles for the government to …[large water stain has permanently damaged the rest of the first paragraph].

2.      Assassination, murder, malicious wounding, maiming, rape, malicious assault and battery, robbery, theft; the wanton desecration of churches, cemeteries, or other religious edifices and fixtures, and the destruction, except by order of a superior officer, of public or private property, are such offences.

3.      The good of the service, the honor of the United States, and the interests of humanity, imperiously demand that every crime committed above should be severely punished.

4.      But the written code, as above, commonly called the "rules and articles of war" provides for the punishment of not one of their crimes, even when committed by the individuals of the army upon the persons or property of the same, except in the very restricted case in the ninth of those articles, not for like outrages, committed by the same individuals, upon the persons or property of a hostile country, except very partially, in the 51st, 52nd, and 55th articles; and the same code is absolutely silent as to all the injuries which may be inflicted upon the individuals of the army, or their property, against the laws of war, by individuals of a hostile country.

5.      It is evident that the 99th article, independent of any reference to the restriction of the 87th is wholly nugatory in reaching any one of those high crimes.

6.      For all the offences, therefore, enumerated in the second paragraph above, which may be committed abroad, in, by, or upon the army, a supplemental code is absolutely needed.

7.      That unwritten code is martial law, as an addition to the military code, prescribed by congress in the rules and articles of war, and which unwritten code all armies, in hostile countries, are forced to adopt, not only for their own safety, but for the protection of unoffending inhabitants and their property, about the theatre of military operations, against the injuries contrary to the laws of war.

8.      From the same supreme necessity, martial law is hereby declared, as a supplemental code in and all about all camps, posts, and hospitals which may be occupied by any part of the forces of the United States in Mexico, and in and about all columns, escorts, convoys, guards, and detachments of the said forces, while engaged in prosecuting the existing war in and against said republic.

9.      Accordingly, every crime enumerated in paragraph 2 above, above, whether committed--By any inhabitant of Mexico, sojourner, or traveler therein upon the person or property of any individual of the United States forces, retainer, or follower of the same: By any individual of the said forces, retainer, or follower, of the same, upon the person or property of any inhabitant of  Mexico, sojourner, traveler, therein; order any individual of the said forces, retainer, or follower, of the same, shall be duly tried and punished under the said supplemental code.

10.   For the purpose it is ordered that all offenders in the matter aforesaid shall be promptly seized and confined, and reported for trial before military commissions, to be duly appointed as follows:

11.   Every military commission under this order will be appointed, governed, and limited, as prescribed by the 65th, 66th, 67th, and 97th of the said rules and articles of war; and the proceedings of such commissions will be duly recorded, in writing, reviewed, revised, disapproved, or approved, and the sentences executed--all is in the cases of the proceedings and sentences of court-martials; provided that no military commission shall try any case clearly cognizable, by court-martial…{completely illegible from the same stain as before)

12.   This order will be read at the head of every company of the United States' forces serving in Mexico or about to enter on that theater of war.

By Command of Major General Scott,


NNR 72.057-058, March 27, 1847 PROCLAMATION OF SANTA ANNA

COUNTRYMEN--Faithful to the solemn promises which I made on my return to this country in August last, and determined to respect the national will, whatever it should be, I have all my attention to the defence of the country, to the sustaining of her threatened liberties, to restore to our arms their old brilliancy, (which had been tarnished in the late conflicts,) and the rout the enemy who attempts to blot out Mexico from the catalogue of nations. Fully satisfied with the honor of exposing my life for the good of my country, (and perhaps, not without hopes of acquiring an immortal name, in securing her glory forever, by placing her in that prominent position which she ought to occupy amongst the civilized nations of this part of the globe,) I came to take command of the army. I knew very well how dangerous the enterprise was; I knew the risks and compromises I would have to incur, I knew that the army was very small, and disorganized in consequence of the late discords, and that they were few of the corps who retained relicts of instruction and discipline; I knew that the exchequer of the nation was exhausted; that public spirit was broken down, and that all were tired of the repeated revolutions which have been taking place constantly, during the long period of more than twenty-five years; but I was determined to sacrifice myself for my country, and without hesitation I instantly took the immense responsibility on my shoulders.

Surrounded by difficulties and thousands of obstacles, which I had seen without being able to surmount, and to do all which, as a Mexican and as a general who loves his country and his honor, I might think expedient and necessary, I felt very much afflicted, considering myself as the great centre of all hopes, and I trembled contemplating how closely leagued are my destinies with those of this country, which is so beloved by me. A single fault on my part could have submerged her forever in abyss of ignominy; and that it was easy to do but difficult to mend.

The supreme government knew all my afflictions and fears, as I took care of advising it of all, placing constantly before it the doleful picture of the sufferings which the army was enduring. And I continually requested them to send resources to cover the great and urgent necessities with which I was surrounded; but I did not wish to publish my frequent and nearly daily communications, fearing that my letters might be badly interpreted, and also that the enemy would be made acquainted by them of our painful and difficult situation, and would have recovered more courage and probably have undertaken larger enterprises.

I thought of deserving, by such noble conduct, the esteem of all my fellow citizens, who, certainly, being aware of the facts, could not do less than appreciate in it all that should be considered noble and great. But, unfortunately, I see that I was mistaken, and that far from granting to me their sympathy, if not praise, they heap upon me their affronts and vituperation. I am accused of apathy and inaction. It is supposed that I see with cool indifference the ills of the country, and some of them have gone so far as to present me in the eyes of the world as a traitor.

Why then this detention in San Luis? says the hostile party of the press. Why, when the general of the enemy freely and with a small body of troops explores the States of Coahuila, Nueva Leon, and Tamaulipas, do they not go out and meet him? Why does not the commander in chief advance into the country? Fellow citizens, hear me, and believe that no one wishes more than myself that the day of glory for the country, the day of confusion and horror to the unjust enemy, should shine; but, unfortunately, holy as my wishes are, the difficulties are great with which I am beset.

On my arrival at the capitol, the army was not what it is today, as you will easily see by my narration. Since that time it has been increased three-fourths of its original force. I did not find here, nor was there any, in any other places, a deposit of men, horse, or equipments. I was compelled first to send for the men of all the states to fill up the regiments. A soldier cannot be made at once, and the whole world knows that the ordnance requires four months at least of instruction, for the purpose of being able to do duty in time of peace. Would it have been prudent, then, wishing to escape from the note of inaction to take the initiative, and to present myself to the field with an army of novices, composed of men taken up in the moment from their domestic occupation? Would the people not accuse me then, and with more reason, of having exposed to an evident danger, the honor of our arms and the liberty of our country, having committed the imprudence of operation with men and not with soldiers? Was it not my duty to prepare ammunition--to collect and improve the arms--to bring from all points the artillery, and at last to gather all the war materials? Think about this with impartiality, and afterwards judge if I deserve to be reprimanded. But it is not sufficient; if we desire to secure a victory to our arms, that the army which I have the honor to command should be numerous and disciplined; it is not sufficient if this army is possessed of the most eminent enthusiasm to avenge the outrages that have been done to the nation; this is a great deal, certainly, but it is by not means all that is required. Full of fire, and desirous of glory, the gallant republicans of the army of the Alps would not have been able to do what they did if instead of finding the beautiful and fertile fields of Italy, they had met with barren deserts and obliged to cross in the horrid nudity in which they were. No help could be given to them for the moment, but their young general, from the snowy top of the Alps, pointed out to them the relic cities which would become a prize to their army. They saw with wonder the magnificent palaces to which victory led them. Has the Mexican soldier the same perspection? He has to march through his own country, and he is obliged to respect the houses and the property of his countrymen, who expect from him protection. All nearly deserted, it does not offer a shelter against the elements, nor a sufficient quantity of water for the men and horses; if we advance, it is necessary to put from distance to distance depots of provisions where the soldier will be able to find, after being worn down by fatigue and hunger, the necessary resources to live on. Without this it seems impossible for the army to make any movement. Has anything been done concerning this important matter, although I have made thousands of representations? It is very painful to tell it, Mexicans, but I cannot keep it secret any longer; nothing has been done, and what is worse, I don't see that there is any prospect of doing it. They army is kept in a state of great nakedness, and in the most dreadful misery--so much so that for twenty-five days I have not been able to pay their rations, which have been therefore taken on credit.

The heroic defenders of Monterey, wounded by the balls of the enemy, are lying here, quite abandoned, without any other assistance than that which the charity and the patriotism of a few inhabitants give them.

There is not in this fellow citizens, any exaggeration. I appeal to the testimony of the authorities of San Luis; since the 25 th of December it has been scarcely possible to assist the troops with two days' pay, which has served more to pay off old debts than to attend to present necessities. Of the $400,000 appropriated for the expenses of the army, only $175,000 have come to hand which was received in December last, and nothing this present month; and in order to help the great wants I was compelled to engage my personal credit for the amount of $20,000 which were lent to me on pledge of my private property, and which were sent to the division in observation at Tula. Could the army under such miserable circumstances, make a movement? Far, very far, am I from insinuating that the Mexican soldier depends upon the promptness with which his country pays him, but there are difficulties which it is impossible for us to overcome. It is impossible to give rations to the troops when there are no rations, or to pay them when there is no money. This is, as described, the situation of the army, as courageous, and as full of patriotism as any other in the world, which it will sacrifice itself with its chiefs for the national honor; it is its wish, and if it asks for assistance, only to satisfy its wants, it does it so as to be able to approach the enemy, to sustain its good name, and the glory and liberty of the nation to which it belongs.

Useless have been, till today, all the endeavors I have used, all the steps that I have taken, having view of the receipts of the necessary funds. Notes over notes were almost daily repeated, showing the horrid state in which the troops were placed. The answers to all these were promises and remote hopes, which I fear will never be realized, or if so, they will come perhaps too late.

I think that I have fulfilled, by this, my duties because it is not for me to propose the way of providing the necessary funds, and I have only to say that if the nation wishes, as I think, to carry on the war, it must be known that those small sums that have been from time to time remitted are not of great help, because they will do only to cover the wants of a day; they are not sufficient to make permanent impression, nor to base further operations upon. If those who are able to do it are not willing to help the army, the only protection which the country has will be exposed, and they may lose all, with their independence, and they will be obliged to transmit to posterity a name full of ignominy.

Countrymen: I would have omitted to present to you such a picture as that given to you now, and which I know will fill your hearts with bitterness; but I find myself compelled to give you notice of all that occurs. It would be a crime were it not brought to your notice. I do not accuse any one, nor do I direct myself to any body; but I cannot consent that, the honor of they army, and mine also, should suffer when in no period of our history has the army deserved more credit and more esteem from the whole country.

Concerning myself, I shall repeat the last time, Mexicans, that I still recollect that the nation called me to defend her in the present contest, and to restore to her her liberty, honor, and glory, or perish with her. This is my only desire, and I do not want, nor do I pretend anything else. But if, unfortunately, credit should not be given to my words--if, against all hopes, somebody should think me not capable of keeping faith with them, I shall prove it with deeds. Tell me, if it is desired to deliver up to the command of the army, and I will do it, although I would lose by that the last opportunity to acquire an immortal name; because when it concerns my country, her feelings and glory, there is nothing, nothing in the world, difficult to me. I will retire if it is thought useful, not to take the power which was conferred upon me a few days ago, because I have already said more than once that I do not wish any more employment nor other honor than that of saving my country in the present war with the United States; and as soon as it has been done I shall retire to my domestic hearth, and no human power will be able to take me from thence to public life. And still if my self-denial is not judged sufficient--if my presence is thought dangerous on the soil on which I was born--I shall seek in a foreign country an asylum for my last days, in which I shall pray constantly for the prosperity and increase of my country. For, very far am I from having an ambition less noble and praiseworthy because, undeceived of the value of power and distinction, there only remains to me one true pleasure, which is to deserve and enjoy the applause and esteem of my fellow citizens.

Headquarters, San Luis Potosi, Jan. 26, 1847


NNR 72.058 March 27, 1847 Comments on the series of demonstrations toward peace undertaken by the executive


A series of demonstrations, have been made for our Executive, which, if judiciously conceived, have certainly been most unfortunate in their results.

The whole country was taken by surprise, when the president in his annual message of December 1845, announced to congress that a minister had already embarked and was probably by that time in Mexico, charged with the duty of proposing terms with a view of avoiding war. The most profound secrecy imposed upon that occasion. The object of secrecy was said to be to steal a march upon the European governments. We took occasion, at the time, to express deep felt regret that an open, formal, respectful, and imposing mission, had not been preferred to a secret one--and that a purpose had not been publicly avoided, of proposing to Mexico to purchase, for a fair equivalent, the California, and to adjust the boundary lines between us, as well as all other subjects of the difference, in an amicable as well as equitable spirit. Twenty, or twenty-five millions of dollars would have been cheerfully paid by the country for the Mexican ports upon the Pacific and intervening territory. Such a sum, offered in a manner not wounding to the pride of the Mexican nation, would have been a relief to them, and one in their known financial difficulties, not to be disregarded. Mexico might and we think ought to have been approached for a purchase of California, as France was for the purchase of Louisiana, and Spain was for that for Florida. It would have been a plain "business transaction," and instead of being roused at once to the defense of their sovereignty, instead of having their self-respect and pride to rally and maintain, they would have come to the question as a matter of interest--is California, and the slender chance there is of Mexico retaining it much longer, worth more than the United States now offers us for it? Mexican statesmen as well as all other intelligent men, must, know, that it is beyond the power of any government to arrest the tide or turn the humor of emigration which is sweeping onward with resistance impetuously from east to west--and they must be aware too, that the Mexican government could not long pretend to control the new population which California is about to acquire in this process. Had they not better embrace the opportunity of getting a fair price for the territory, than by attempting to hold on, inevitably lose it?

Such, we have very little doubt, might have been made the question of the Mexicans--had they been approached by as every sovereign independent power has a right to require, and as a weak and touchy neighbor would be more likely to be scrupulous is requiring and which a republic, of all other governments, is bound to be scrupulous about.

Instead of being so approached, it unfortunately happened that when Mr. Sidell reached the republic of Mexico, he took the Mexican people as much by surprise as his appointment occasioned there. The executive of Mexico, tottering before, was overwhelmed by the suspicion which Mr. Sidell's approach is so secret, so questionable a manner, aroused against them. Herrara fell, under the weight of these implications. Paredes succeeded to power upon the very question of rejecting the overture which Mr. Sidell was suspected of making.

A second demonstration was made, it is supposed, by a mission to Cuba, whilst Santa Anna was resident upon that island, which was certainly not more fortunate in its results, even if more judicious in its inception.

A third approach, if we may credit the United States Gazette, and other prominent journals, has recently attempted, with no better success. The following extract will furnish our readers  with a specimen of what is said upon the subject. We look for some official or semi-official notice of the affair, to place the Executive in its proper position.

From the United States Gazette


"Meanwhile, we hear of a peace mission, kept secret till now, of Senor Atocha, a resident of the city, but a South American (and a Mexican, we believe) by birth."

The above is from the New York Express. We wish to notice a slight inaccuracy in the remarks of our contemporary, and then to note a flagrant wrong by the government. Atocha, we believe, is not a Mexican, by birth; if he is, he certainly cannot be a South American.

But let us look at the mission of this man, if indeed, he really has had any mission. Whom has the President of the United States sent on a deliberate errand to the Mexican government, to a people proverbially jealous of personal and national policy?

Atocha, we have heard, is a native of Old Spain. He went some years ago to Mexico, where he resided, but having rendered himself very odious to the government, he was dismissed from the country, and left it in disgrace. He then landed at New Orleans where, after some time, he was admitted as one of the police of the city. There he made out an account against the Mexican government, of the items of which, or the vouchers, we know nothing. Subsequently, he preceded north, and after various movements, it seems he was selected, of all men in the United States, to go on a delicate mission to Mexico, to be the bearer of the wishes and views of the republic of the United States, of which we do not know that he is even a citizen, to the republic of Mexico, from which he had been banished.

We speak from information: and if our information is correct, surely nothing could be considered more injudicious (to use no harder term), than the employment of such a man upon such a mission to such a people. It is not strange that the extraordinary minister of the United States should have found a great difficulty in landing, and it is less strange that the editors of the Mexican papers should express a belief that his mission would prove abortive; for successful and unsuccessful, as the obstinacy or miseries of the Mexican may triumph, it is evident that no ordinary circumstances could warrant the president of the United States to entrusting the affairs of government with this type of man. And no man with any respect for the government of an independent nation, would offend that nation by sending an important message, leading to a national negotiation, by a person situated as that man is with Mexico.

We hope, or rather we desire, that peace may be result from this, or some other proposition; but we cannot believe that the people will sustain such a step as has been taken, if any such mission has been made. There are gentlemen enough in the United States, who speak the Spanish language well, to do the errands of the government; and if nothing but a partisan will serve the president, we doubt not that some of his own side could be found. [MLL]

NNR 72.059 March 27, 1827 collection of troops and transports at Lobos Island for the demonstration on Veracruz

            The Army of Invasion.  Whilst General Taylor with his new command, consisting principally of volunteers, is contending near  Saltillo with five times their number of Mexicans, commanded by the most distinguished officers in the Mexican army, General Scott with the main body of regulars, and a formidable portion of the volunteers, are engaged in a demonstration upon Vera Cruz.

            After a very short delay at Tampico, General Scott embarked from thence on the 21st Feb. for the little island of Lobos, from which we have dates to the 1stMarch, at which time about eighty sail of transports, &c. were then laying, and on board of which had been embarked nearly everything that had been on the island, men munitions, provisions; &c.  They expected to leave the island on the 2d for Anton Lizardo, and that the assault on Vera Cruz would be made on the 10th of March.

            General Worth reached Lobos on the 1st.-Gen. Twiggs arrived a few days before.

            Gen. Patterson was still at Tampico on the 3d of March, on which day the Louisiana volunteers that had been at Lobos arrived, and with their associates that had been wrecked in the Ondiaka, were to garrison Tampico.  They had suffered severely by sickness.

            The Mississippi volunteers that were at Lobos, part of the 2d regiment, had suffered terribly by sickness and look miserably.   They were ordered to repair to Monterey and report to Gen. Taylor, and had embarked accordingly.

            The three men that were under arrest as spies at Lobos were tried after General Scott's arrival, and acquitted.

            The Alexandria Gazette says-We have seen a letter from the Island of Lobos, dated the 28th of February, which states that there has been a most unreasonable delay in the arrival of transports and munitions of war at that place.  They are six weeks later than they out to have been, and up to the latest dates all the troops had not arrived, and several vessels contaning ordnance strores, such as cannon and mortars, wore wanting.   The expedition to Vera Cruz will consist of about 12,000 troops and probably 100 sails of all kinds.  Gen. Scott, it is said, expects to have boats enough to land 5,000 troops at once.

             A letter in the New York Journal of Commerce states that forty howitzers, capable of discharging forty shells in a minute, have been sent to Vera Cruz, to be used half a mile in the rear of that city.  The letter adds-"They can, from that point, destroy the town in a few hours, if necessary.  If the Mexican army should make a rally, gen. Scott will be ready to receive them.   The position also commands the Castle,-and, at a distance of three quarters of a mile, beyond the reach of any gun in the Castle.   We have also the best engineer officers in the world."

            The latest date from Gen. Scott's division of our forces was brought to New Orleans by the brig Ann Still, which left Tampico on the 3d inst.  Captain Stafford, 8 th regiment U. S. infantry, came passenger; having fallen into the hold of the vessel whilst disembarking his company, and broken two of his ribs, he returns to recruit.

            A correspondent of the Picayune, writing from Tampico, February 28, says-"This morning the U. States steamer Edith, from Brazos Santiago, with Gen. Worth and staff and two companies of troops on board, touched off the bar at the mouth of our river, coming to anchor two miles outside, and sent despatches up to Gen. Patterson.   I went down with a friend and saw Gen. Worth; found him in good health and fine spirits.  The Edith being bound for Lobos Island, sailod on her course at half past 2 P.M.   The U. S. steamer Alabama, now lying in the stream oppose the city, is to sail to-morrow with General Patterson, staff and troops.   The steamer Virginia, with Gen. Pillow, do. do. do.   If the transports on the way here from the Brazos arrive, it is probable that by the last of this week all the forces to leave will have sailed.

            "Whether there be a battle any where else, it seems to be pretty certain that we shall have one at Vera Cruz, and before we get to Vera Cruz.  It is known here that the enemy are preparing to give us a warm reception on landing.   In the rear of Anton Lizardo they have built strong fortifications, too far for the guns of our squadron to bear upon them, but in reach of the point of landing.

            "On these fortifications very heavy guns are mounted, and other arrangements are made and being made, to make a desperate stand against the landing of our troops.  It is also to be expected that the city of Vera Cruz is in a condition to make bloody resistance.  But a few days, I hope, will tell the tale, and make all speculation unnecessary.   Who doubts the issue?

"Tampico, March 2.

            "I will give the last rumor.   News reached here ye s terday that Gen. Minon, leading the advance of Santa Anna's forces against Gen. Taylor, with 500 men, had attempted to surprise Gen. T. by a night assault, but that he met with a total disappointment.   The whole force was defeated-how many killed and made prisoners not stated precisely, but they were essentially whipped."

NNR 72.059 March 27, 1847 Col. Samuel Curtis' requisition for 50,000 volunteer and the reply of the Governor of Louisiana

Call for Volunteers--By the annexed letter from Col. Curtis, commanding at Camargo, it will be seen that a call has been made for a large number of volunteers, for the defense of the Rio Grande.

           Headquarters, Camargo, March 2, 1847

           SIR--I send an officer to headquarters, at Washington, making a requisition on the president of the U. States for fifty thousand six months volunteers. All communication has for several days been cut off between this place and the army above, and I see the adequate relief this side of New Orleans. I request you, therefore, to call out ten thousand men of the character of troops, and I anticipate they will be recognized under the call of the president.

           As fast as any considerable force can be accumulated, let then be forwarded to Brazos Santiago. All troops as far as practicable, should be armed before leaving the United States, and the officers commanding companies should take in charge ammunition enough to distribute, in case of emergency, forty rounds at least.

           Very respectfully, your obed't servant,

           SAMUEL R. CURTIS, Col. Com'ing

To the governor of Louisiana.

The New Orleans Tropic says that the governor of Louisiana expresses his readiness, with his accustomed patriotic fervor, "to pull off his coat and go to work to raise volunteers, and he hopes all good citizens will aid him." This hope, (adds the Tropic) he will assuredly realize; for the citizens of Louisiana, of all parties, will stand by their chief magistrate in any responsibility he may assume in this emergency. [MLL]

NNR 72.059, March 27, 1847 WAR WITH MEXICO

The whole country has been kept during the week in a state of intense and daily increasing anxiety. The imminent peril and sufferings to which the several detachments constituting "the army of the north," were evidently exposed when our last accounts left them, and which it was our painful duty to publish in the last number of the Register, were scarcely known before intelligence arrived of the "Army of the Centre" under Gen. Wool and "the Army of Occupation,"--what was left of it, both unified under command of General Taylor, and comprising together about 2,000 men, were attacked by Santa Anna with a force so vastly superior, as to leave the issue very doubtful if not disastrous.

The first report, reached us on Saturday night, that a battle or battles had been fought, in which two thousand of our army, and four or five thousand of the Mexicans had been killed or wounded--and that General Taylor was falling back on Monterey--that in the mean time a formidable division of Mexicans under Urrea was advancing upon Camargo--that a number of wagons on their route from Camargo to Monterey had been taken by the Mexicans, their teamsters all murdered, and that all communication with Monterey was cut off.

The communications have but cut off, but the rumors of the battles are altogether derived from Mexican authority. When the last accounts left Gen. Taylor, a fight was expected immediately.

By the Palmetto steamship which reached New Orleans on the 15 th , we have Galverston dates to the 6 th , Brazos dates to the 7 th , and Camargo to the (?) instant, but nothing later than the 23d ult. from Monterey.

The 2d Mississippi regiment reached Matamoros on the 5 th instant. They relieve the Indiana regiment, which was to leave the 6 th for Camargo. [AMA]

NNR 72.059-060, March 27, 1847 THE CAMPAIGN; EDITORIAL REMARKS

Our government have had considerable difficulty in understanding Santa Anna's game. Many believed that in spite of all his pretenses, he was in reality disposedto take the two or three millions of dollars from the United States and to ask our aid to maintain him in supremacy at Mexico, in order to render the concessions he might make, available. The president may have continued to entertain this opinion. Perhaps Gen. Benton shared this opinion with him.

Our generals in the field appear to have been no less puzzled to understand the arch Mexican's movements. When he publicly announced in general orders and in his address to his companions in arms, his design to march to the north and fight the invaders of Mexico at all hazards--and at the same time published the remonstrance which is inserted in this number of the Register, exposing the utter destitution of his army, of requisite means for such a conflict, few appeared to believe in his sincerity, or to think it possible that he could attempt such a march. His sincerity was doubted. All were curious to know his real purpose.

It appears by the issue, that for once at least Santa Anna was candid. He apprised friends and foes of the direction he was about to take, and the plight he was taking it in. Whether he has been successful or not, must soon be ascertained. One thing has been ascertained, and that is, that he is a skillful, bold, and intrepid commander.

By one of the most daring expedients we have ever read of, he succeeded in obtaining General Scott's express, containing his entire plan for the ensuing campaign, which our readers will also find inserted amongst the documents inserted in this number. Of this knowledge he had availed himself, and took his own measures accordingly.

General Taylor has been not only a brae and sagacious, but also a most fortunate officer. He was the first, if we mistake not, to win the brevet in the war with Great Britain, in 1812--and the first to be brevetted for still greater distinction in the present war. It is to be hoped that his luck will not have failed him in the present emergency. What a good commander could do under the circumstances, we have full faith in his having done. He may again have full faith in his having done. He may again have been victorious in the unequal conflict to which he has been exposed. If he has been, his former laurels may possibly fade in comparison with those he has now won. If on the contrary, he shall have been overwhelmed, but we refrain from that theme.

Whilst on one hand we have it confidently assumed, and that too in articles evidently penned by men of superior military intelligence, that General Taylor would by no means have been justifiable in waiting Santa Anna's attack either at Agua Nueva, or at Saltillo, but must have prudently fallen back upon Monterey in time to prevent disaster, we have it on the other hand asserted in the New York Sun, on authority of a letter from an individual in the army, dated at Monterey the 20th Feb. which says, that Gen. Taylor selected Agua Nueva for a field-fight with Santa Anna's whole army and that Gen. Marshall, on the day named, left Monterey with four pieces of artillery, and all the disposed forces, to join Gen. Taylor, who was then hourly expecting an attack from Santa Anna. From the tenor of the letter, it would seem that Gen. Taylor had selected his ground for a fight. The tenor of all the letters from that direction, including the latest from Gen. Taylor himself, instead of retiring from their advanced positions.

By the latest arrival from Tampico we have city of Mexico dates to the 27 th February. A letter is published from Santa Anna, dated the 17 th Feb. from San Salvador, at 10 o'clock, a.m. In this he says Gen. Taylor was in force at Agua Nueva--twenty leagues distant--and preparing for a general action, with seven or eight thousand troops, and with more than twenty pieces of artillery. He announces his own intention to fight him on the 21 st, and adds: "By the time this letter reaches you, there will have been a great action fought, the result of which will be of incalculable consequence to the country." He represents his own troops to be full of enthusiasm.

The latest movement of Santa Anna's force is indicated in a number of El Rupublicano of the 25 th ult. It is published as very important. It is a letter from San Luis Potosi dated February 20 th , which announces the receipt of information by a captain who had just arrived, that "the Yankees had abandoned Agua Nueva, at which point they had fortified, retreating upon Saltillo. Our active General Santa Anna has cut off their retreat upon Monterey, by interposing between Monterey, and Saltillo Gens. Minon and Torrejon."

But on the other hand again, the last line of Mr. Kendall's latest postscript from Tampico of the 7 th of March says: "General Taylor has had no fight, but has fallen back on Saltillo and Monterey."

The Savannah Republican has information said to be derived from Lieut. F. of the regular army, on his way to Washington. Lieut. F. had seen, since, he left Monterey, a letter from Gen. Taylor to his son in law, Dr. Wood, in which he says, that he was sixteen miles from Saltillo, with his own and Wool's command, amounting to 5,800 effective men, and was retiring quietly to Monterey.

There would seem to have been fault somewhere, that thus within the brief space of eight months, the whole country should twice be thrown into a state of alarm for the safety of General Taylor's command, and that requisitions should twice have to be made extra-officially upon the nearest state authorities for troops to fly to the rescue. In the first instances Gen. Taylor escaped as if by miracle; we say nothing of the miracles that required to be performed to insure success at Monterey, with an army without a battering train to assault such fortifications as were there won.

General Gaines was in command of the southern military division last May, when General Taylor was in imminent danger between Matamoros and Point Isabel. That officer immediately assumed the responsibility of making a requisition for volunteers upon Louisiana and the neighboring states, to rescue General Taylor. The requisition was promptly met, but the general had to suffer for exercising unauthorized power in the premises. Colonel Curtis, who is represented to be "a cool, judicious, and deliberate officer," seems not to have been admonished by General Gaines' fate in that instance. The general's requisition was for a few battalions at most. Colonel Curtis draws with a bolder pen; ten thousand men from the single state of Louisiana--and fifty thousand men--the total amount of volunteers authorised by the act of congress, forgetting we presume the portion of the fifty thousand that are already in the field under the act alluded to, the whole fifty thousand are embraced in the colonel's requisition upon the president!

Colonel Curtis no doubt feels the deep responsibility of his own position, in command at Camargo, where it is stated that government stores, munitions, clothing and supplies for the army are deposited to the value of five or six millions of dollars. This would be a prize in the present condition of the Mexican army worth fighting for. A formidable division of Mexicans under Urrea and several predatory corps, are undoubtedly in that direction. If General Taylor has not severely defeated Santa Anna--if, as is supposed, he has retired to Monterey, with a design of there defending himself, that place will be invested, and a large portion of Santa Anna's army may be detached towards the Rio Grande in pursuit of what they are so much in need of.

Meantime, General Scott, it will be seen, is actively occupied in approaching Vera Cruz. The probability is, that before this time he is in possession of that city, and with an army of 12 to 15,000 of our choicest troops, he is there, within 252 miles of the city of Mexico, and 240 miles from Tampico. From Tampico to San Luis Potosi, is 120 miles; from San Louis Potosi to Mexico is 380 miles, and to Saltillo 320 miles. Santa Anna left San Luis the 3d, and is said to have fought General Taylor on the 22d or 23d of February. By the 10 thof March, the day assigned by report for General Scott to attack Vera Cruz, Santa Anna may have accomplished something of his errand to the north, and be able to retrace his steps in time to defend. San Luis before Gen. Scott could reach that place.

Vera Cruz has a population of not over six or seven thousand. Its importance to Mexico is as a commercial sea port, of which she has so few that are safe upon her eastern coast. In a time of war, when the commerce of Mexico is entirely suspended by blockade, Vera Cruz is comparatively valueless to them. To the United States it would be an important key, but not so important we apprehend, as that its possession would, as some assert, enable us to dictate a peace.

These are all speculations. True, but when intense interest is excited, it is impossible to restrain the mind from searching for probabilities. It is not only prudent, it is a duty to look out, and see, as well as we can, how the land lies. [AMA]


The painful anxiety which now pervades the public mind in regard to the situation of General Taylor's army, has induced us to apply to the war department for the latest authentic information on the subject. We have been furnished with two following dispatches, the last received from General Taylor, and we now lay them before our readers--Wash. Union

Agua Nueva, 18 miles south of Saltillo,
February 7, 1847.

Sir: I changed my headquarters to this place on the 5 th inst., bringing forward, in the first instance, Lieut. Col. May's squadron of dragoons; two batteries, (Sherman's and Bragg's) and the regiment of Mississippi riflemen. Yesterday the second Kentucky and second and third Indiana regiments came up, and will be joined in a day or two by the other troops in and near Saltillo, except the small garrison of seven companies left in that town.

Although advised by Major General Scott to evacuate Saltillo, I am confirmed in my purpose of holding not only that point, but this position in front. Not to speak of the pernicious moral effect upon volunteer troops of falling back from points which we have gained, there are powerful military reasons for occupying this extremity of the pass rather than the other. The scarcity of water and supplies for a long distance in front compels the enemy either to risk an engagement in the field, or to hold himself aloof from us; while, if we fall back on Monterey, he could establish himself strongly at Saltillo, and be in a position to annoy more effectively our flanks and our communications.

I have no intelligence from the interior more recent or authentic than that heretofore communicated. There is understood to be no considerable force in our front, nor is it likely that any serious demonstration will be made in this direction. The frequent alarms since the middle of December, seem to have been without substantial foundation. I am happy to add that the population of Saltillo is fast returning to the city. Under the judicious management of Major Warren, a discreet officer of Illinois volunteers, who commands in the town, it is hoped that the people may remain quietly in their homes.

I respectfully inclose copies of statements, showing the names of the officers and men recently captured by the enemy, as reported in my despatch No. 11. I am sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

Major General U.S. army commanding.

The ADJUTANT GENERAL of the army,
Washington, D.C.

NNR 72.061 March 27, 1847 Memoranda of Dr. Jarvis, alarming rumors respecting Gen. Taylor's Army, and excitement in the Rio Grande

From the New Orleans Picayune, March 14

           The United States schooner Agripa arrived yesterday afternoon, from the mouth of the Rio Grande, having sailed thence on the 6th instant. Dr. Jarvis, of the U.S. Army, came passenger on her. He is the bearer of the dispatches from Col. Curtis, commanded at Camargo, to the government at Washington.

           Dr. Jarvis left on the 21st instant. There had been nothing received by Gen. Taylor for several days. The rumors which prevailed were brought through by Mexicans, and were of most contradictory character. To enable us to distinguish what is known to be true from what is  merely rumored, and thus to correct as far as possible by the exaggerated reports in circulation, Dr. Jarvis has at our request furnished us with the following memoranda of events during the month of February of which he was personally cognizant.


           Left Monterey on the morning of the 21st of February for Matamoros. At that time no apprehension of expectation of the approach of Santa Anna towards Saltillo was entertained, either by us or by the Mexicans, so far as we could learn by the latter. A large force of cavalry was known, however, to be in the front of Gen. Taylor, which of course was made known by their capture of the detachment of the Arkansas and Kentucky cavalry advanced beyond San Incarnacion. The force of cavalry on this side of the Sierra Madre under command of General Urrea, estimated from six to eight thousand, was said to be at Victoria, and part as far towards Monterey as Mont Morales, when I left the former place. They were, in fact, in Victoria at the time of our troops marched to that place in January last, and returned to Tula as an advance brigade under General Quitman entered the town. The were supposed to setting up a corps of observation, and a belief was entertained that they would seize the first favorable opportunity to strike on our line of communication between Camargo and Monterey, and capture such trains as should happen to be on the road at that time. Gen. Taylor must have apprehended some intentions of this kind, for on my arrival at Matamoros I found them fortifying the piazza of that place in consequence of orders just received from Gen. Taylor to guard against the sudden attack of the whole or part of this force.

I left Camargo on the morning of the 26th of February to return to Monterey, in company with a train of 70 wagons, laden with supplies, and escorted by a company of cavalry, under command of Capt. T.F. Marshall, and a detachment of 20 men belonging to the 23 dragoons. We had not preceded to five miles when an order for our return, in consequence of instruction just received by express, which passes us on the road, directed to the quartermaster at Monterey, which were received from Col. Whitting assistant quartermaster general at the headquarters of General Taylor, directing, for the future, that all trains be stopped, as certain information had been received that a large force of enemy's cavalry, say four or five thousand, was in or near China, and that Cadereits are already occupied them. These last particulars are contained in a hasty note from the quartermaster at Monterey, dated February 23rd, and terminating  it with the remark, "look out." With Col. Whiting's instructions also came the order of Gen. Taylor, dated Agua Nueva, February 21, the last one received up to the time of my leaving Camargo, March 2. This order is doubtless the dispatch of Gen. Taylor calling for reinforcements--alluded to by Capt. Montgomery in his note, as mentioned to him by Col. Harding.

           On the morning of the 27th another express arrived at Camargo from the from the quartermaster at Monterey, stating, in a note, that he had sent one off the day before, but apprehended that he may have been put off, and, as he understood from Col. Whiting that there were important dispatches from General Taylor calling for reinforcements, he had sent another to advise of this fact.

           About 2 o'clock the same day another express arrived with a note from the same officer, dated Monterey, 11 o'clock A.M. February 23, saying an express had just arrived from Saltillo bringing information that Santa Anna sent a summon to Gen. Taylor demanding his surrender. The general told him to come and take him. Santa Anna stated that he had twenty thousand men and that if Taylor demanding his surrender he would eat up in pieces. The note concludes: "The express which left after dark last night says that Taylor was giving the Mexicans hell."

           This may be considered the last official communication received, all the subsequent information being derived from the Mexicans. I might here remark, that a note was received from the post master at Monterey, at the same time with the last communication of Capt. Montgomery, which gives the additional particulars that Gen. Taylor had fallen back from Agua Nueva to Saltillo, which I should infer also from the notes of Capt. M., although he does not directly say so.  The Mexicans say  they lost six pieces of candy at the former place. He moreover states that the General Marshall had gone  to the pass of Los Muertos with a view of fortifying it, and large quantities of ammunition had been dispatched from Monterey from Saltillo.

           The detachments of the 34 Ohio regiment, under Colonel Morgan and Lieut. Col. Irving--the former having seven companies at Seraivo, and the latter three at Marin--it was greatly feared at Camargo had been cut off by a large force of three thousand men, who are said to have occupied the latter place on the afternoon of the 23rd. Lieut. Col. Irving, in obedience to general order No. 11, is said to have left Marin in the morning of the same day it was occupied by the enemy, marching towards Seraivo, with a view of forming a junction with Col. Morgan, and than preceding to Monterey. Col. Morgan left Seraivo on the 24th, having destroyed, in obedience to the endorsement on the same general order, all such provision and supplies as he could not carry with him. He must of consequence have encountered the enemy in his route, as they had already, as we have seen above, occupied in force Marin, lying between him and Monterey.

           Moreover, a train of 120 wagons, which left the 16th or the 17th, laden with provisions, clothing, and &c. is said to have been attacked on the 24th, at or near Ramos, lying between Seraivo and Marin, and, with the escort, captured. The intelligence was brought in by a American or Mexican mule driver, who was with the train, and escaped at the time of the capture. He says that the Mexican s charged at the same time both the front and the rear of the train. After the bring (which was of short duration) ceased, he cautiously ventured from out of the chaparral, with a view of finding some of his comrades. He discovered the Mexican s busily engaged with unharnessing the mules from the wagons, and seeing none of his own party, made his way back, carefully avoiding the road to Camargo.

A hundred Mexican stories were in circulation at Camargo when I left in reference to the battle going on between Gen. Taylor and Santa Anna. They say it has already continued three days, with considerable loss on our side, but much greater on that of the Mexicans. Subsequent accounts represent Gen. Taylor as having fallen back on Monterey. The day I left Camargo a letter was received from the alcade of Vicer, saying that the Mexican troops had entered that town, twenty-four miles distant from the former place, and had made him prisoner of consequence of his endeavoring to secret stories left behind in his charge when Lieut. Col. McCook evacuated the place. Col. Curtis intended to march with his regiment to Monterey in the moment Col. Drake with the 34th  Indiana regiment arrived from Matamoras to retrieve him. The latter officer was awaiting the arrival of the Mississippi regiment, which I met on the river a short distance below Matamoras, on its way up. The regiment and six companies of the Virginia regiment, under Lieut. Col. Randolph, which arrived at Camargo the day I left that place, are the only volunteer regiments that had arrived having been sent below to Lobos. From what source Gen. Taylor is to expect relief is impossible to say.--Every soldier, and, in fact, double or thrice the number that now constitute the garrisons at the different depots, are actually necessary for their defense, and not one can be spared. Information can hardly reach Gen. Scott in time for him to march a division to his relief.

In addition to the above, which reduces to some order and certainly our information from the Rio Grande, we learn further from Dr. Jarvis that a bearer of dispatches had left Camargo from Tampico, and sailed from the mouth of the Rio Grande on the 6th instant, on the McKim. Id the information we give in another column from Tampico be entirely authentic, the messenger would not reach his destination till the departure of all the troops which can be spared from that point. It would seem, however, that Tampico, by the way of Victoria, General Taylor, by the way of Victoria, General Taylor must look for his reinforcements.

The Mexican citizens in the valley of the Rio Grande are abandoning their homes in crowds. Matamoras and Camargo are stripped of their native inhabitants. They dread the approach of their own army more than the presence of ours.

No fears are expressed for the safety of Camargo, where we have a vast amount of stores. There are 1,500 fighting men in the place, including all classes. They are well armed, and the place so strongly fortified that it will not probably be attempted. [MLL]


The steamer Hibernia reached Boston on the 20 th bringing Liverpool dates to the 4 th inst.

This arrival furnishes but little political intelligence. Europe is intensely occupied by apprehensions of a want of bread.

Our Mexican war. The London Times, of the 25 th February, has an article of the war are exceedingly confused. The ease with which towns are taken, provinces annexed, &c., is cited as astounding; "a sixteen gun sloop impounds a province; a regiment of volunteers annexes a quarter of a continent; and towns are taken by fifteen men and garrisoned by five and twenty, in the midst of numerous and exasperated population. The armies of the west and of the centre, of the conquest and of occupation, are all represented by detachments which would hardly, if concentrated, make up one effective division."

The various schemes suggested for closing the war are then rehearsed and ridiculed. The article closes thus:

"The point most perplexing to ordinary European minds is the object for which this much desired peace is sought. If the provinces and ports, the people and property, the taxes and customs of a nation can be seized and distributed ad libitum already, it is hard to conceive what further advantages are to be gained by the most amicable negotiations. What does President Polk want to buy with two millions of dollars, when he can get so much for nothing? Philip of Macedon's receipt for taking a fort was sensible enough; but who ever drove an ass laden with silver into an unprotected town? The Mexicans have clearly the vantage ground of their foes. Defeat and invasion may easily be put up with when they leave the conquerors beggars and the vanquished choosers. Santa Anna is flattered with compliments and beset with solicitation, and has the daily refusal of half a dozen overtures of the eternal amity of his enemies. He can hardly do better than strengthen himself by additional defeats and fresh repulses, and leave his adversaries to complete their humiliation and embarrassments by a protracted career of glory." [AMA]

NNR 72.064 March 27, 1847 Posture of the fleet and armies and Anxiety to ascertain the results of the combat between Santa Anna and Taylor


           What a week of intense anxiety to this whole country. How many throbbing hearts, at the moment we put this paper to press, are aching with suspense and yet dreading to her the intelligence that is expected every hour.

           General SCOTT, with the main body of our choicest troops, as at the last dates, on shipboard, on the eve of moving to the assault at Ver Cruz. The next arrival may tell of triumph or defeat--but of blood, and of loss of many lives, beyond doubt.

           General Taylor, when our last accounts left him, was on the very eve being attacked by Santa Anna, with the main body of the Mexican army. Numerous Mexican reports say that the battles took place, results variously stated. The most probable of them, that an attempt was made by Minon to surprise Taylor on the night of the 22nd February, at Agua Nueva, 18 miles beyond Saltillo, and that the Mexicans were severely repulsed, losing 400 men. The next morning Gen. Taylor it is believed to retire to Saltillo--where according some accounts another engagement took place--according to others Taylor fell back to Monterey without having any fight. All is uncertainty and anxiety.

           This painful suspense in heightened by the fact, that communications from Monterey to Matamoros line been cut off. It is a striking circumstance, that at Matamoros on the 11th of March, they had no intelligence from Gen. Taylor later than the 21st February--and that our latest advises from him, reach us through the city of Mexico! Whatever may have been the result of the collision of the two hostile armies, Gen. Taylor's position must be painful and precarious. If in Monterey, he may be there invested by a portion of Santa Anna's army, whilst with the remainder of his Mexicans that dexterous commander may unite with the forces under Urrea and Canalea, that have already cut off communications in the rear of Gen. Taylor, and together make a dash for Camargo, Matamoros, and the vast military stores that are known to there in depot, accounting it is said to six or seven million in value. The commander at Camargo was evidently startled by the responsibility of his situation, when he dispatched an officer to Washington with a requisition on the president for fifty thousand men.

           We have no further intelligence this week from Santa Fe, from which our last week's advices left in a state of great alarm, in consequence of the insurrection movement, and the murder of Governor Bent and his companion in that vicinity. Col. Doniphan's command was left in imminent peril--and fearful apprehensions are entertained for the late of every one of the detachments of the "army of the north".

           The arrival of the schooner Hume, at N. Orleans, furnishes Tampico dates to the 7th instant. The substance of the news by her is, that--

           General PATTERSON left Tampico on the 21st, the steamer Alabama, to take command of his division under General Scott--General Pillow sailed on the fifth--and General Quitman and Shields were to leave Tampico on the 8th, and 650 of their troops accompanied by General Jessup, and Surgeon Gen. Lawson. All the squadron from Lobos and Tampico were to rendezvous at Anton Lizardo, from which it is not likely that General Scott would proceed to land without being joined by the officers just named.

           At Tampico, every hour some new Mexicans version of the affairs between Santa Anna and General Taylor seems to have been received from the Mexicans--no one could tell what to rely on. The last postscript received was from Mr. Kendall to the Picayune, dated the 7th, says: "General Taylor has had no fight, but has fallen back on Saltillo and Monterey." [MLL]

NNR 72.064 March 27, 1847 Jose Mariano de Salas commences revolution in the capital


           By the way of Tampico we learn that on the night of the 26th February, a portion of the National Guard in the city of Mexico made its first essay as a pronunciamento. The regiments known as known as the "Independence" and "Hidalgo", the battalion of "Victoria" and a part of the bodies of "Mima" of "Zapadores" and of "Chalchicomula" under the orders of Gen. D. Martias Pena y Barragan, proclaimed a "plan." The government had at its disposition to oppose this revolutionary attempt 800 troops in the citadel, the 6thpermanent infantry, the squadron of Pajaca and those bodies of the National Guard not in favor of pronunciamento. Gen. Canalizo, as commander-in-chief, was preparing to attack the revolutionary forces with a column of 1,000 men.

           The New Orleans paper says, "We know not the issue of this revolutionary attempt, but inline to the opinion that it will be successful. Mr. Kendall writes that it has succeeded and the Gen. Salas is in power. He founds his statements on reports at Tampico." Our papers are not late enough to verify them. The administration of Farias has long been tottering and has in all probability succumbed. [MLL]

NNR 72.065 April 3, 1847 Letter on the demoralization of forces under Santa Anna


Monterey, March 3, 1847

I have no doubt of the dissolution of Santa Anna's army, morally and physically, and there will be no more fighting in the region, if there be anywhere.

Gen. Santa Anna is really to be pitied. His men are a wretched set. He had twice, during the battle, to enterprise his lancers to prevent desertion, and they shot down some fifty at each time before he could prevent the flight of the infantry. This information comes from prisoners who deserted as soon as exchanged, and came into Gen. Taylor's camp. They report that Santa Anna is destitute of all kinds of provinces, and that he cannot keep them together.

Santa Anna expected an easy victory. His army was told that the Americans had an abundance of provisions and lots of money, and that they must enter Saltillo the day of the battle and take their supper at our expense. This is the report of persons taken, officers as well as privates. [MLL]

NNR 72.065 April 3, 1847 Gen. Kearny reaches California, attacks Los Angeles


           Letters from Tampico, near San Blas, give accounts from California to the 18th of January. Gen. Kearny had arrived with 200 men near New Mexico. Uniting other forces with his own, he immediately attacked the town of Los Angeles, and retook it, after a stout resistance. Upper California is now is our undisputed possession. [MLL]


I have no doubt of the dissolution of Santa Anna's army, morally and physically, and there will be no more fighting in this region, if there be any anywhere.

Gen. Santa Anna is really to be pitied. His men are a wretched set. He had twice, during the battle, to interpose his lancers to prevent desertion, and they shot down some fifty at each time before he could prevent the flight of his infantry. The information comes from prisoners who deserted as soon as exchanged, and came into Gen. Taylor's camp. They report that Santa Anna is destitute of all kinds of provisions, and that he cannot keep them together.

Santa Anna expected an easy victory. His army was told that the Americans had an abundance of provisions and lots of money, and that they must enter Saltillo the day of the battle and take their supper at our expense. This is from reports of persons taken, officers as well as privates. [AMA]


Headquarters of the Army
Tampico, February 18, 1847

The General-in-chief announces to the army the staff officers who are attached to general headquarters in the field.

Department of Orders

First Lieut. H.L. Scott, 4thinfantry, aid-de-camp and acting assistant adjutant general.
First Lieut. T. Williams, 4thartillery, aid-de-camp.
First Lieut. E. P. Seammon, topographical engineer, acting aid-de-camp.
Second Lieut. G. W. Lay, 6thinfantry, military secretary.

General Staff Officers

Lieut. Col. E. A. Hitchcock, 3d infantry, acting inspector general.
Capt. James Monroe, 6thinfantry, acting assistant inspector general.
Col. J. G. Totten, chief of the corps of engineers.
Major W. Turnbull, acting chief of topographical engineers.
Capt. B. Huger, acting chief of ordinance.
Major S. McRee, acting chief of the quartermasters department.
Capt. J. B. Grayson, acting chief of subsistance department.
Major E. Kirby, acting chief of pay department.
Surgeon Gen. T. Lawson, chief of the medical department.

The senior field officer of artillery, Col. J. Bankhead, 2d artillery, will enter upon the duties of chief of artillery as soon as there shall be occasion for planting heavy batteries. All general staff officers will be mainly employed in their respective departments of duty, and any orders that any chief of department may give in relation to his peculiar duties in the name and by the authority of the general in-chief of the army, will be promptly obeyed.

By command of Major General Scott.
H.L. Scott, A.A.A.G.




Extracts from the act approved March 3, 1847, in reference to the acceptance of such of the volunteers now with the army in Mexico, as may, on the expiration of their present term, voluntarily engage to re-enter the service for the period of during the war.

Sec. 3. And it be further enacted, That the president be and he is hereby authorized to accept the services of such of the volunteers now in Mexico as, in his opinion, the state of the public service may require, and who may, at the termination of the present term, voluntarily engage to serve during the war with Mexico, and to organize the same into companies, battalions, and regiments, agreeably to existing laws, and to commission the officers for the same.

Sec 4. And it be further enacted, That in addition to pay and allowances provided for the volunteers now in the service of the United States, under existing laws, each volunteer who shall re-enter the service under the provisions of this act in Mexico, immediately after the close of his present term of service, shall be entitled to a bounty of twelve dollars, to be paid as soon as the company shall have been duly mustered and received by the mustering and inspecting officer.

Sec. 5. And be it further enacted, That the president be and he is hereby authorized to accept the service of individual volunteers to fill vacancies which may occur by death, discharge, or other causes in the volunteer regiments or corps mow in the service of the United States, or which may be received during the existing war with Mexico.

2. In conformity with the law, the president directs that the volunteers in Mexico be received into the service of the United Stated for "during the war," should they so desire, and the officers commanding divisions, brigades, or a less number of the forces in Mexico, are authorized to accept their services, designate proper officers to remuster them on the expiration of their present terms, and are directed to take all proper measure within the scope of their powers to carry out the provisions of the law.

3. The volunteers who may so render their services for a second term will be received by companies, consisting of one captain, one first lieutenant, two second lieutenants, and not less than sixty-four privates and then be organized into battalions and regiments. Although preferable, it is not deemed indispensable and commands should be made up of officers and men from state.

4. Single companies, as well as independent battalions to consist of four companies, to be commanded by majors, each with an acting adjutant, may be accepted; and may, if deemed expedient, be associated for camp and field service with the regular troops. If organized into brigades and divisions, the requirements of the act approvedJune 18, 1846, must be observed.

5. The Captain and subalterns will be chosen by the men of the several companies, and will be commissioned by the president accordingly; but in the mean time the company officers will at once enter upon their duties on the authority of the officer who may forward the evidence of their election. It is made the duty of the several Brigadier Generals of volunteers, or such officers as they designate for that purpose, to superintend and hold the elections of the company officers.

6. The field officers will be appointed by the president; and as it is highly essential to the public interest that none but active, efficient officers of every grade should receive commissions, the president invites the recommendations of the several general officers of volunteers serving in the field; and also an expression of the preference of the officers and men who may compose each battalion or regiment, on satisfactory recommendations forwarded from the army.

7. The further instructions of the President, if any be necessary, will be communicated direct to the General commanding in chief and to Major General Taylor.

8. Proper arrangements will be made by the Paymaster General to pay the bounty of twelve dollars in hand to each volunteer as soon as the company to which he may belong shall have duly mustered and received by the mustering and inspecting officer.

9. In the execution of the provisions of this order the public interest will not admit of any delay; and all officers on whom this duty may develop are required to forward their reports without loss of time, to enable the president to make appointments and to complete the re-organization of the volunteer forces according to law. By order, R. Jones, Adjt. General [MSM]



Glorious Example. We beg to direct the attention of our readers to an account of the loss of the American brig of war Somers, which abounds with traits of heroism--heroism, not in destroying, but in saving--which do honor to humanity. The brig was upset in a squall; before she foundered, one boat only could be got out; the men appointed to her implored others on board the sinking ship to take their places, and some actually returned on board to perish with their comrades. But this was not all. The officers and the crews of the French, Spanish, and English ships of war, who witnessed the disaster, exerted themselves with the most glorious bravery to save the lives of the poor fellow clinging to spars and wreckage. In this gallant endeavor, Frenchmen, Spaniards, and Englishmen were all on the sublime level of the highest courage and most exalted humanity. How poor are feats of arms compared with this display of the best virtues of the three nations in sight of each other--one good heart beating in common in all! To crown the glory, the saved were worthy of their preservers, as generous, as brae, as devoted.

The Somers, being employed in the blockade of Vera Cruz, was capsized in a sudden squall; and it was soon clear that she was a sinking state. The following account of what passed is by one of the American crew: "The small quarter boat was cleared away, and dropped carefully round to leeward and manned by her usual complement of five oarsmen. Midshipmen Clarke was ordered by Captain Semmes to take charge of the boat. Finding that there was no chance of saving the brig, and the she was fast sinking, Capt. Semmes ordered Mr. Clarke to shove off with Dr. Wright and seventeen men, besides Purser Steele, to pull for Green Island, about half a mile distant, and immediately to return, if possible, and save more lives. This order was at once executed, but not until some of those in the boat had solicited, by name, each of the officers left the wreck to come with them. These officers resolutely declared that they would wait and take their chances with the brig. Passed Midshipmen Hynson, who had been partially disabled by a bad burn received in the firing of the Creole, was particularly implored to go into the boat. A lad of the Name of Nutley jumped out of the boat and offered his place to Mr. Hynson, and a man of the name of Powers did the same thing. Mr. Hynson refusing both offers, these men then declared that others might have their places, and then they would abide on the wreck with Mr. Hynson. Captiain Semmes who was in impaired health, was also to go, but refused. Lieut. Parker answered similar solicitation by saying he would drown with the brig. Lieut. Claiborne and Act'g Master Clemson held the same language. It is a remarkable circumstance that three of the officers and all f the men who acted thus nobly saved. When the boat shoved off, the gale was blowing with great violence, and a heavy sea running, so that for some moments it was a matter of doubt whether the boat would live. The boat, however, reached the island in about twenty minutes. As soon as the men were landed, Mr. Clarke, disregarding the most strenuous entreaties, resolutely shoved off again with a volunteer crew, at the imminent hazard of their lives. In less then three minutes after the boat left the brig, Capt. Semmes, finding the vessel settling under them, gave an order for every man to save himself. All simultaneously plunged into the water, and grasped the posts, gratings, spars, coops, and other floating objects at hand. Many must have gone down from the want of any support whatever; others struggled on frail floats, to be finally drifted on the reefs and dashed in pieces. Some were driven to sea to be heard of no more, and others encountered the worst fate that could be apprehended, in being devoured by sharks. Through all this appalling scene the greatest composure was observed by men and officers. There was no appearance of panic--no exhibition of selfishness. Those could not swim were particularly enjoined to go in the boat. A large man of the name of Seymour, the ship's cook, had got into the boat. Lieut. Parker commanded him to come out, in order to make room for two smaller men, and he obeyed the order, but was afterwards directed to go in the boat when it was found he could not swim. Capt. Semmes and Lieut. Parker were picked up by Mr. Clarke from a grating, and Jacob Hazard, yeoman, was rescued swimming near them. Those who survived have told of many instances of heroic self-devotion. The acting master Henry A. Clemsen, was struggling on a small steering sail boom with five others, two of whom could not swim. He found that all could not be supported, and he left and struck out alone and unsupported. He was seen for the last time upon a skylight, and probably perished in the surf. The five men he left were saved, the two who could not swim being supported by their companions, Colson and Williamson. There were lying at Sacrificios, about two miles to the leeward of the wreck, her Britannic Majesty's ships Endymion and Alarm, and brig Daring, commanded respectively by Captains Lambert, Franklin, and Matson; the French brigs Pylade and Mercure, Captains Dubut and La Voyaire; and the Spanish corvette Luisa Fernanda, Capt. Puente. As soon as the accident was discovered, the boats of all these vessels were simultaneously called away. The crew of the Endymion, to the number of 200, came aft and volunteered. There was the most noble emulation as to which vessel should use the greatest expedition and persevere in the most strenuous exertions. The violence of the gale was such at that time none of the boats could pull against it, and it was with the greatest regret that Capt. Lambert and others in authority felt it to be their duty to make signals recalling their boats. An hour or two afterwards, when there was a slight abatement of the gale, they again put forth at the peril of their lives, and succeeded by a miracle in reaching safety, but where his situation was most critical. The most gallant ad well-directed efforts were made by the officers and crew in the boat of the Mercure. She rescued ten men at se to leeward, on a spar. On hardly knows which to admire most, the forethought or the daring of this noble adventure. The risk was incalculable. Five boats representing each of the foreign vessels, reached the island, and took off twenty-three persons to their respective vessels, where they were received with a degree of kindness and delicate consideration which I cannot adequately describe, but which none of us will ever forget. They gave us refreshments and supplied us with clothes. I regret that I do not know the names of all the generous and brave officers who were in charge of the boats of the different vessels. I cannot however forbear mentioning such as I have learned, Lieut. Wood and the gunner of the Endymion, and Midshipman Saliz, of the Pylade." [AMA, MSM]



The American peace society hereby offer a premium of $500 for the best review of the present war with Mexico, the essays to be presented in four months after the close of the war, and the premium, if any essays is denied worthy of it, to be awarded by the Hon. Simon Greenleaf LL.D., the Rev. Francis Wayland, D.D, and the Rev. Wm. Jenks, D.D./p>

The review should be written without reference to political parties, and present such a view of the subject as will command itself when the hour of sober and candid reflection shall come, to the good sense of fair minded men in every party and in all sections of the country.  The war, in its origin, its progress, and the whole sweep of its evils to all concerned, should be reviewed (the essay to be not less than one hundred and fifty, nor more that two hundred and fifty pages duodecimo,) on the principles of christianity, and an enlightened statesmanship, showing especially its waste of treasure and human life;-its consistency with the genius of our republican institutions, as well as with the precepts of our religion, and the spirit of the age;-its bearings, immediate and remote on free popular government here, and through the world;-how its evils might have been avoided with better results to both parties;--and what means may and should be adopted by nations to prevent similar evils in future.  Our sole aim is to promote the cause of permanent peace by turning this war into effectual warning against resorts tot he sword hereafter.

The manuscripts may be fowarded to the subcriber, at 21 Cornhill, Boston, or to M. W. Dodd’s careBrick Church Chapel, New York.

By order of the executive committee of the American Peace society

Geo. C. Beckwith, Cor. Sec.

U. S. Gazette


Headquarters Army of Occupation.
Camp on the field of battle, Buena Vista.
Meixico, February 24, 1847

SIR: I have the honor to report that, having become assured on the 20 th inst., that the enemy had assembled in very heavy force at Encarnacion, thirty miles in front of Agua Nueva, with the evident deign of attacking my position, I broke up my camp at the latter of Buena Vista seven miles south of Saltillo. A cavalry force left at Agua Nueava for the purpose of covering the removal of supplies was driven in during the night, and on the morning of the 22d the Mexican army appeared immediately in front of our position. At 11 o'clock, a.m., a flag was sent, bearing from General Santa Anna a summons of unconditional surrender. To which I immediately returned a negative reply. The summons and my reply are herewith enclosed. The action was commenced late in the afternoon between the light troops on the left flank, but was not seriously engaged until the morning of the 23d, when the enemy made an effort to force the left flank of our position. An obstinate and sanguinary conflict was maintained; with short intervals, throughout the day, the result being that the enemy was completely repulsed from our lines. An attack of cavalry upon the rancho of Buena Vista and a demonstration upon the city of Saltillo itself were likewise handsomely repelled. Early in the night the enemy withdrew from his camp and fell back upon Agua Nueva, a distance of twelve miles.

Our own force engaged at all points in this action fell somewhat short of 5,400 men, while that of the enemy, from the statement of General Santa Anna, may be estimated at 20,000. Our success against such odds is a sufficient enconium on the good conduct of our troops. In a more detailed official report, I shall have the satisfaction of bringing to the notice of the government the conspicuous gallantry of particular officers and corps. I may be permitted here, however to acknowledge my great obligation, to Brig. Gen. Wool, the second in command, to whom I fell particularly indebted for his valuable services on this occasion.

Our loss has been severe, and will not probably fall short of 700 men. The Mexican loss has been immense. I shall take the earliest opportunity of forward- a correct list of the casualties of the day.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

Maj. General U.S.A. commanding

The adjutant General of the Army, Washington, D.C.


You are summoned by twenty thousand men, and cannot, in any human probability, avoid suffering a rout, and being cut to pieces with your troops; but as you deserve consideration and particular esteem, I wish to save you from a catastrophe, and for that purpose give you this notice, in order that you may surrender at a discretion under the assurance that you will be treated with the consideration belonging to the Mexican character, to which end you will be granted an hour's time to make up your mind, to commence from the moment when my flag of truce arrives in your camp.

With this view, I assure you of my particular consideration.

God and Liberty.
Camp at Enanetada, February 22d, 1847.

To Gen. Z. Taylor commanding the forces of the United States.


THE ADJUDENT GENERAL OF THE ARMY, WASHINGTON, D.C. General Taylor's report of the killed, wounded, and missing, as far as ascertained on the 1stof March, accompanies the despatches. We shall publish it when it is completed. We could not have it in time for the present mail. The National Intelligencer of this morning says: "We are informed, on the authority of an officer who was present, and who left Saltillo in the beginning of last month, that the Kentucky cavalry lost in action sixty-one men, viz: 29 killed and 32 wounded-which would make our aggregate loss eight hundred and one, or nearly one-sixth of the whole force engaged." [MSM]

NNR 72.068-72.069 dispatch from Com. David Conner on the investment of Veracruz

Official Despatches From Com. Conner.

Investment of Vera Cruz -By the schooner Portia, Capt. Powrs, which reached New Orleans, on the 25th ult., the following important despatch was received:-

U.S Ship Raritan,

Of Sacrificios, March 10, 1847.

            Sir:-In my last despatch, dated on the 7th instant, I informed the department of he arrival of Major General Scott at Anton Lizardo.  Most of the transports, with the troops and the materiel of the army, having arrived, about the same time a speedy disembarkation was resolved upon, it being quite important that we should effect a landing before a norther should come on, as this would delay us two or three days.  After a joint reconnoissance, made by the general and myself in the steamer Petrita, the beach due west from Sacrificios, one of the points spoken of in my previous letters, was selected as the most suitable for the purpose.   The anchorage near this place being extremely contracted, it became necessary, I order to avoid crowding it with an undue number of vessels, to transfer most of he troops to the vessels of war for transportation to Sacrificios.-Accordingly, on the morning of the 9th, at day light, all necessary preparations-such as launching and numbering the boats, detailing officers, &c.-having been previously made, this transfer was commenced.   The frigates received on board between twenty-five and twenty-eight hundred men each, with their arms and accoutrements, and the sloops and smaller vessels numbers in proportion.

            This part of the movement was completed very successfully about 11 o'clock, a.m., and a few minutes thereafter the squadron under my command, accompanied by the commanding general, in the steamship Massachusetts, and such of the transports as had been selected for he purpose, got under way.  The weather was very fine-indeed we could not have been more favored in this particular than we were.   We had a fresh and yet gentle breeze from the southeast, and a perfectly smooth sea.  The passage to Sacrificios occupied us between two and three hours.  Each ship came in and anchored without the slightest disorder of confusion, in the small space allotted to her-the harbor being still very much crowded notwithstanding the number of transports we had left behind.  The disembarkation commenced on the instant.   Whilst we were transfering the troops fromt the ships to the serf-boats, (sixty five in number,) I directed the steamers Spitfire and Vixen, and the five gun boats, to form in a line parallel with and lose in to the beach, to cover the landing.

            This order was promptly executed, and these small vessels, from the lightness of their draught, were enabled to take positions within good grape-range of the shore.  As the boats severally received their complements of troops, they assembled, in a line abreast, between the fleet and the gun-boats; and when all were ready, they pulled in together, under the guidance of a number of the officers of the squadron, who had been detailed for this purpose.-General Worth commanded this, the first line of the army, and had the satisfaction of forming his command on the beach and neighboring heights just   before sunset.  Four thousand five hundred men were thus thrown on shore, almost simultaneously.   No enemy appeared to offer us the slightest opposition.   The first line being landed, the boats, in successive trips, relieved the men-of-war and transports of their remaining troops, by 10 o'clock, P. M.  The whole army (save a few straggling companies) consisting of upwar is of ten thousand men, were thus safely deposited on shore, without the slightest accident of any kind.   The officers and seamen under my command vied with each other on this occasion, in a zealous and energetic performance of their duty.   I cannot but express to the department the great satisfaction I have derived from witnessing their efforts to contribute all in their own power to the success of their more fortunate brethren of the army.

            The weather still continues fine to-day, we are engaged in landing the artillery, horses, provisions, and other material.   The steamer N Orleans, with the Louisiana regiment of volunteers, 800 strong, arrived most opportunely, at

Anton Lizardo, just as we had put ourselves in motion.   She joined us, and her troops were landed with the rest.   Another transport arrived at this anchorage to-day.   Her troops have also been landed.   Gen. Scott has now with him upwards of eleven thousand men.   At his request, I permitted the marines of the squadron, under Capt. Edson, to join him, as a part of the third regiment of artillery.   The general in chief landed, this morning, and the army put itself in motion at an early hour, to form its line around the city.   There has been some distant firing of shot and shells from the town and castle upon the troops, as they advanced, but without result.   I am still of the opinion, expressed in my previous communications, as to the inability of the enemy to hold out for any length of time.   The castle has, at most, but four or five weeks' provisions, and the town about enough to last for the same time.-

I am very respectfully, &c.
           D. CONNER
Commanding home squadron.

Hon. J. Y. Mason, Sec'y navy, Washington.

NNR 72.069 April 3, 1847 landing of the Army at Veracruz

The Picayune furnishes the following:

Memorandum furnished by Captain Powers, of he schooner Portia.

            Schooner Portia, Captain Powers, 8 days from Tampico anchorage, but was detained to the south and east of Vera Cruz by a heavy north gale until the 17th inst. The United States squadron and all the transports left Point Lizardo for Sacificios on the 9th inst., with 12,100 troops.  On the morning of the 10 th a landing of all the troops and marines was effected within three miles of Vera Cruz, without much opposition from the enemy, as the landing was well covered by a constant discharge of bomb shells and round shot from the U. S. steamers and gun boats anchored near the beach and in front of the landing.  Immediately after and organization of the American forces on the beach, they took up a line of march over the sand hills to the attack of the enemy's outposts and fortifications, situated from one to three miles from the castle and forts of the city.   They carried everyone by storm, not, however without losing seventeen men.

            On the 11th and 12th, the American forces were employed in throwing up breast works and digging entrenchments.   Occasional skirmishing took place with the enemy, who were throwing showers of bomb shells and round shot from the castle and city, but without much effect.  During this time the seamen were landing provisions and ammunitions from the transports.

            On the 12th, a strong north gale set in, which cut off still further communication.  We left during the norther, and as we were unable to make progress to the north, believe that it was impossible for our bombs and shells to have been landed until the 18th instant, so that the bombardment of the castle and Vera Cruz did not probably commence until the 20th.

            There were some feats of bravery displayed on the 11 th in which Col. Dickerson, of he Palmetto regiment, S. Carolina, was wounded in the breast by a musket ball from the enemy, and Captain Alburtis, of the 2 nd infantry, had his head shot off by an 52 pound ball.-This same ball broke a drumer's arm and took of a private's leg.

            But on the same day the American army had gained complete possession of all the fortifications of the enemy which were raised by them to stop our troops from approaching the city.   All the water-pipes leading to the city were cut off, and all the communication effectually stopped.  Gen. Scott landed in person on the 11th inst. A French bark ran the blockade and moored under the walls of the castle on the morning of the 13 th, and many of our transports were ready to leave for the U. States as soon as the norther was over.  The vessel brings despatches and letter bags from every vessel in the Gulf Squadron then at Sacrificios.  [ANP]


Dr. Turner, of the U.S. army, who arrived at Matamoros on the 9 th inst., from Monterey, brought the glorious intelligence of another brilliant victory over the Mexican army.

The scene of action was at Buena Vista, about six miles west of Saltillo. The fighting commenced on the 22d of February, and ended on the 23d.

Santa Anna retired to Agua Nueva, a distance of ten miles, leaving four thousand killed and wounded on the field. The loss on our part was but seven hundred killed and wounded.

Santa Anna's army amounted to about 15,000 men. That of Gen. Taylor amounted to about 5,000, nearly all volunteers. His army is composed of Washington's, Bragg's, and Thomas' batteries; one squadron of the 1 st and 2d dragoons; the Arkansas and Kentucky cavalry; the first Mississippi, and second Kentucky regiments, and one company of Texas volunteers.

Dr. T. brought a list of sixty-three officers killed and wounded.

The official despatches of General Taylor have been cut off.

Col. Morgan's regiment of Ohio volunteers having been reinforced by a command from Monterey, had reached that place in safety.

Colonel Curtis, of Ohio, with one company, Capt. Hunter's of the U.S. dragoons, his own regiment, and one of Indiana volunteers; the Virginia regiment, and I think, some Texian rangers, in all about 2000 men, was about leave Camargo to attack General Urrea, who is said to be about thirty miles south of that place, with an army of from four thousand to five thousand men, principally rancheros.

He is believed to have with him only 1500 regular troops. A great many, if not all of these rancheros, as soon as they hear of the discomfiture of Santa Anna'a army will disperse, and the gallant Colonel will no doubt obtain the victory.

Of the defences at the mouth of the river I know nothing, but have been told that they will make a strong resistance.

The fortifications at Brazos, with a force of artillery, and persons in the quarter master's employ, which can be raised as a garrison, are sufficient to drive back a comman of at least 2,500 or 3,000 Mexicans.

The works erected may be technically termed a continued line, enclosed for the quartermaster's and commissaries store in depot. The parapet is built of barrel of damaged commissaries stores, with sand bags at the front, thrown up against the barrels, which form the exterior slope.

The armament of the fort consists of four pieces of artillery, two twelve and two six pounders in barbette, which sweeps the foot of and crosses fires on the level plane over which the enemy would be compelled to advance. They have also about 300 muskets to line the parapot. This was thrown up when an attack was daily expected.

We annex Santa Anna's account of the battle of Buena Vista, as transmitted for the Tampico Sentinel:

Camp near Buena Vista, Feb. 23d, 1847

Excellent Sir: After two days of battle, in which the enemy, with a force of from 8,000 to 9,000 men and 26 pieces of artillery, and two flags.

I have determined to go back to Agua Nueva, to provide myself with provision, not having a single biscuit or a grain of rice left. Thanks to the position occupied by the enemy he had not been completely beaten, but he left on the field about 2,000 dead.

Both armies have been cut to pieces, but the trophies of war will give you an idea on which side has been the advantage.

We have struggled with hunger and thirst during forty hours, and if we can provide ourselves with provisions we will go again to charge the enemy.

The soldiers under my command have done their duty, and crowned the honor of the Mexican nation with glory.

The enemy has seen that neither his advantageous position, nor the nature of the ground, or the state of the season, for it has been raining during the action, could prevent the terrific charge of the bayonet; which left him terrified.



NNR 72.069-72.070 April 3, 1847 American officers killed and wounded at Buena Vista

American Officers Killed and Wounded at the Battle of Buena Vista.


            Killed-Captain Lincoln, Assistant Adjutant General.

            Wounded-Capt. E. Stein, 1st dragons, severely; Lieutenant S. G. French, 3d artillery, severely; Lieut. J.J.P. O'Brien, 4 th artillery, slightly.

Mississippi Rifles.

            Killed-Lieuts. R. S. Moore and F. McNulty.

            Wounded-Colonel J.P/ Davis, severely; Captain J. M. Sharpe, severely, Lieutenant A. B. Corwin, slightly; Lieuts. Posey and Stiockton, slightly.

First Kentucky Cavalry.

            Killed-Adjutant Vaughan.

            Wounded-One Captain and three Lieutenants, (no names given)

Arkansas Cavalary.

            Killed-Col. A. Yell and Capt. A Porter.

            Wounded-Lieut. S. A. Redder.

Second Kentucky Foot Rifles.

            Killed-Colonel Mckee and Lieutenant Colonel H. Clay Jr; Captain O. W. Morse and Capt. W. T. Willis.

            Wounded-Lieutenants E. S. Barbour, Withers, and Mosier.

Indiana Brigade.

            Wounded-General Lane.

Second Regiment.

            Killed-Captain Kinder, Capt. Walker, and Lieut. Parr.

            Wounded-Capts. Sanders and Osborn; and Lieutenants Cayen, Pennington, Morse, Lewis, Davis, and Epperson.

Third Regiment.

            Killed-Captain Faggat.

            Wounded-Major Gorman and Capt. Sleep.

Illinois Brigade-First Regiment.

            Killed-Col. J.J. Hardin, commanding; Captain Zabriskie and Lieut. Haughton.

            Wounded-Lieutenants J. L. McConnell and H. Adams.

Second Regiment.

            Killed-Captain Woodward; Lieutenants Brunton, Fletcher, Ferguson, Rollins, Bartheson, Athuson, and Price.

            Wounded-Captain Coffee and Captain Baker, Lieuts. Pickett, Engleson, Steel, and West, and Adj. Whiteside.

Texas Company.

            Killed-1st Lieutenant Campbell, and 2d Lieut. Leonard.

            Wounded-Capt. Conner.


            Killed-3 Colonels. 1 Lieut. Colonel, 9 Captains, 14 Lieutenants- total killed 27.

            Wounded-1 Brig. General, 1 Colonel, 1 Major, 9 Captains, 29 Lieutenants-total wounded 37.  [ANP]

NNR 72.070 April 3, 1847 details of the victory at Buena Vista

From the N. O. Delta March 23, 12 M.

Additional Particulars

            On the 22d, Santa Anna began the battle by various manoeuvres, attempting to out-flank and terrify old "Rough and Ready."   On that day the battle was confined to skirmishing and cannonading, without much effect on either side.

            In the mean time Santa Anna had sent a large force to Taylor's rear, but our artillery opened upon them with great effect, and they were soon compelled to withdraw.

            On the 23d the battle commenced in real earnest, and raged with great violence during the whole day.   The Americans did not wait the attack, but with the most daring impetuosity, with loud huzzas, rushed into the battle, their officers leading them gallantly.

            General Taylor was in the thickest of the fight and received a ball through his overcoat, but was not injured.

            Adjutant Bliss was slightly wounded at the side of Gen. Taylor.  Ddj. Lincoln also, of the medical staff and also of the General's staff, the intrepid young officer who so distinguished himself at Resaca de la Palma, was killed.

            The battle of the 23d continued from early in the morning until about 4 P.M., when Santa Anna withdrew from the field, and retired to Agua Nueva for reinforcements.

            It will be remembered that Santa Anna's reserve corps, commanded by Gen. Vasquez, had been delayed in its march, and has no doubt joined him a few days after the battle.

            In the meantime his army is starving and many of his men are deserting.

            Captain Hunter's strong artillery company was not in the action, but had left Monterey to join Gen. Taylor, with six cannon, two being 8 pounders.

            On the 7th of March, one of he Ohio regiments also left Monterey to join General Taylor.   If these and Capt. Prentiss's artillery arrive in time, the General's heavy loss will be fully repaired, and he will be ready to meet Santa Anna again.

            General Taylor, at the last accounts, was still maintaining his position undisturbed by the enemy.

            An exchange of prisoners had taken place, and old "Rough and Ready"'s promise to Col. Marshall, to get back Cassius M. Clay, and his party, by taking enough Mexican prisoners to exchange for them, has been redeemed.

            General Wool greatly distinguished himself in the battle, and fought like a hero.

            After the battle Gen. Taylor demanded of Santa Anna an unconditional surrender of his whole army, which the latter declined, but in return requested that Gen. Taylor should surrender immediately to him.   Immortal be the reply of old "Rough and Ready," as delivered by the gallant Lieut. Crittendem:-"General Taylor never surrenders."

            Santa Anna's adjutant general was captured by the Americans, but was afterwards exchanged.

            Gen. Taylor occupied his ground on the 24th and 25th without opposition.

            Col. Morgan, of the Ohio volunteers, with a small force, cut his way through large bodies of Mexicans and arrived at Marin.

            A detachment of three companies under command of Captain Geddings, was sent to his relief, and the whole party are said to have arrived in safety at Monterey.

            A train of 100 wagons, on their way to Monterey from Camargo, under an escort of thirty volunteers, was captured by a body of Mexican cavalry, a few miles beyond Marin.  Three of the men made good their escape- the rest were taken prisoners.

            A young lady, the daughter of an American citizen, living in Mexico, and returning home from New Orleans, where she has been going to school, was taken with this train, her father having been killed by the Mexicans.  She, however, had escaped, and arrived at Monterey in safety, where her misfortunes had excited the most lively sympathy. The lady's name is Miss Burns.

            Col. Curtis of the Ohio volunteers, had started on his explanation (indecipherable text) who was at Aldamas, a village on the Sad Juan river, about 40 miles from Camargo.

            The Colonel has a fine body of men, composed of he Ohio regiment, the Virginia vilunteers, and Capt. Hunter's company of U.S. dragoons.

            The Mexicans have possession of Seralvo, China, Mier, and all the towns between Camargo and Monterey.

            Major Coffee, paymaster, will carry Gen. Taylor's despatches for Monterey.  [ANP]

NNR 72.070, April 3, 1847 Col. George Washington Morgan attacked

    February 26.--An express reached here this morning from Col. Morgan, of the 2d regiment Ohio volunteers, (who are in the neighborhood of Marin,) stating that his command had been attacked--a detachment of three companies under Major Geddings, of the 1st regiment Ohio volunteers, were sent from this place immediately, to reinforce Col. M., and no doubt we shall hear a good report of them.  A young lady by the name of Miss Burns had just come in who was along with the train that had been captured.  Her report is as follows:  Says she was in the third wagon from the front; soon after they had left their encampment on the morning of the 22d, the attack was made.  She remained in the wagon until she saw her father shot, when she ran to his assistance, but on reaching him found that he was dead.  One of the attacking party fired at her, but to no purpose.  Seeing that her parent was no more, and also seeing that the men were seeking shelter in the chaparral, she at their request, endeavored to make her escape.  After running some few hundred yards the enemy captured her, and took her to a rancho, where every attention was paid to her by the women who were there.  She was sent in today.  Miss B. reports forty-two of our men killed.  Her father, as I learn, is a resident of Saltillo, and a man of some considerable property.  He was on his return from New Orleans, where he had been for the purpose of returning with his daughter, who was there at school.  At this time Miss B. is in Monterey. [WFF, MSM]

NNR 72.070-72.071 April 3, 1847 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's letter to governor of San Luis on the victory at Buena Vista

Further From Tampico and the Brazos.

From the Picayune Extra, of March 23.

            Through the courtesy of a gentleman who arrived on Monday evening from Tampico we were placed in possession of El Soldado de la Patria,  dated 27thFebruary at San Luis Potosi.   The paper opens with a sounding editorial headed as follows: "Viva la Republica!  Viva el Illustre General Santa Anna!"  The article is devoted to the praise of Gen. Santa Anna, and forms the introduction to the official despatch from him, and to several letters from officers of his army:  We have already given a translation of this despatch.  It was addressed to Ramon Adame, governor of the State of San Luis Potosi.-The editor then remarks that other letters have been received by private citizens of San Luis, written from Agua Nueva on the 24th February.   These letters say that two commissioners had arrived there from Gen. Taylor demanding their surrender; that Santa Anna exhibited to them the state of his army, showing them the enthusiasm and decision that prevailed among the troops, who had fallen back to that point only for the purpose of obtaining food; and, finally, gave them as his definite reply, that unless they surrendered at discretion he would renew the battle the following day and continue it until he had completed their destruction.

            Then follows an address of the Governor of San Luis to his countrymen, dated the 27th, recapitulating Santa Anna's despatch, and congratulating the people upon the victory, of which, in the most emphatic language, all the glory is attributed to Santa Anna.

            Next follows a private letter dated "the enemy's camp," 5 P.M., of the 23d, in which the writer claims that they have taken four positions, tow standards, and three pieces.   The "positions" he says were obstinately defended.   He thinks only four prisoners are in their possession; all the others taken are dead.  This letter was written before Santa Anna fell back to Agua Nueva.   It confesses that they (the Mexicans) have lost many officers, out of all proportion to the men.

            The letter goes on to say that the Mexican troops are perishing of hunger and thirst; that they have eaten nothing since leaving Incarnation, save a slice of roasted meat at La Vaca.   It expresses great fears lest the army should disband that night on account of their deprivations.

            The same letter says that Santa Anna had a horse killed by a grape-shot.

            A postscript to the letter says: "After closing my letter, the general-in-chief, convinced doubtless that the army would disband unless it obtained food and water, ordered it to move to Agua Nueva, where there are cattle and water-water before everything."

            The postscript adds that they have lost about a thousand men, many general officers killed and wounded, and among the latter Gen. Lombardini.

            A brief letter from Catorce is published, dated the 25 th ultimo, in which it is said that an action was fought at Encantada on the 24 th, in which General Minon, won a victory, taking six pieces of artillery, killing three hundred, and making some prisoners.

            Among the Mexicans killed on the 22d and 23d were Colonel Francisco Berra, the lieutenant colonel of he first light infantry; Colonel Pena, of the light cavalry; the lieutenant colonel of the eleventh infantry, "and who knows how many more have met the same fate," says one letter.   Another gives the following additional names of officers: Pepe Oronoz, Pepe Bonilla, the major of the regiment of Morelia, Asonos, and Luyando, major of hussars.

            Besides General Lombardini, D. Angel Guzman and D. Miguel Gonzalez are named among the wounded.  [ANP]


Monterey, Mexico, Feb. 6, 1847.

My dear father: Sitting in the deserted halls of the vanquished Mexicans, with the tail-board of our wagon for table, I shall attempt to give you a few ideas of Monterey and its vicinity. On the 24 th of January, myself and 24 others of our company left Camargo for Monterey via Pontaguda, Seralvo, and Marine, as an escort to train of pack mules, numbering over eight hundred, loaded with provisions for the army.

Our second day's march brought us to Mier, a beautiful little town about 25 or 30 miles northwest from Camargo. The next day brought us to Chiterona, or Canales' watering place, a rapid little stream, fresh from the mountains. There we were detained one day by the rain; and it is a day I shall never forget. While our Mexican mule drivers were out hunting up their mules, they discovered a dead body and came in and reported it as an American. Lieutenant Cully made a detail of eight men to bury the body. Guided by the Mexicans we started out, and after a little search we came to the place, and as we approached the body, a cloud of carrion birds arose from their unholy feast, filling the air with their discordant croaks and screams, in such a manner as to make my hair stand on end, and almost to chill my blood. But judge of my feelings when I discovered in the murdered man an acquaintance, Lieut. Miller, of the Mount Vernon company. He started out a few days previous, with one Winne, of the same company, (a brother of Winne who keeps, or did keep the Neil house). We immediately made search for Winne, but could not find him; we found where he had been murdered and dragged into the Chiterona, and there ended all trace of him. The wolves and vultures had eaten flesh from the body of Lieut. Miller; he had been shot in the right breast, and cut and beaten in the face, till he could hardly be recognized by those best acquainted with him. The robbers had stripped him of every article of clothing, except his shirt; and that was so torn and bloody in the affray it was not worth taking. With a hoe we delved his narrow grave.

"Slowly and sadly we laid him down

We spoke not a word of sorrow,

But steadfastly gazed on the face of the dead,

And bitterly thought of the morrow."

We heaped up the ground over him, then cut and dragged prickly pear, which grows 10 or 15 feet high, and covered his grave with an impenetrable barrier to wolves and the no less humane robber, for they would drag him from his humble grave for very spite. We marked the place and pursued our way sorrowing, little dreaming that a greater tragedy was soon to be enacted at the same place. But an express came up last night, bringing intelligence that eight more volunteers had been murdered there. Who they were I could not learn, but I fear they were a part of company F, of the Columbus Guards, for they were about leaving Pontaguida as we came through; but there is no certainty who they were. Captain Latham started for this place eight days before we did, on a new route, and has not arrived. He sent an express to Lieut. Colonel Irwin at Seralvo, a distance of some forty miles, for aid, stating that he was surrounded and asking for immediate succor. But there being not troops enough to send them relief and guard the place, no help was sent. But I have since heard that he made a safe escape. They had a part of their pack mules stolen, but he seized upon the justice of the peace, and made him fork over the requisite number of mules; and he is now on his "winding way" to this place.

    February 7, 1847

"The sun rose clear and bright this morning over the towering heights of Saddle mountain--the eastern boundary of the beautiful city of Monterey. The air is loaded with perfume, most delicious, from the thousand orange and lemon trees that fill the gardens and groves that surround the city. Birds of every hue and song, fill the air with noes of harmony; among which are mocking birds, and others numerous and to me nameless.

South of the city there runs another chain of mountains, divided by a pass only, a broken chain on the west nearly surrounding the city. And such a city! Guarded at every point by fortifications, both of nature and art, rendering it almost impregnable to an enemy; and how it could be taken by a force fighting against four to one, I cannot tell; but so it is, and had not the carnage been stopped, full one thousand more of the Mexicans would have fallen.

I have rambled over the city, visiting places of note, among which is the cathedral, an immense pile of stone, towering up in relief against the blue mountain side, carved work from base to dome, give it an ancient and romantic appearance, its chimes ringing the time each quarter, each half, and each hour, both night and day.

The next is the Bishop's castle, magnificent building, strongly fortified, but now a heap of ruins. It is situated about half a mile west of town, on a hill of perhaps some two hundred feet in height, guarded on the west by a still higher hill; on the east by a strong bastion of stone, with four port holes--thus commanding the city on the north, south, and east. After climbing for half an hour up the step ascent, over pointed rocks, I came within a few rods of the castle, and stopped to breathe a moment. While standing there, the most melancholy strains of music met my ear that I ever heard--that they came from the castle I was sure, and determined I was, to discover the author. I therefore preceded very cautiously, till I came into the court of the castle, and there, sitting with his back towards me, playing upon his guitar, was a young Mexican. The air he was playing was "Days of Absence," and others followed in strains equally plaintive, so soft and melancholy it caused me almost to shed tears. Soon however he changed to the lively air of "Come buy a Broom"--and suiting the action to the tune, he jumped up and commenced a series of waltzing--which would have done credit to a teacher of art--and then, for the first time, he discovered my presence. He ceased his capering and music, and saluted me with a warm good day, and desired me to "pli tundi" (play a tune) which I of course declined. (Of course you now why.) He accompanied me over the castle, showing and explaining to the best of his knowledge, the castle and its history. After climbing to the top and viewing the city to my heart's content, I started for the camp--and what I saw afterward, shall be the subject for another letter. I am well--never better--fat as good living can make me.

My best love to dear mother, and compliments to all friends, and I am, as ever, yours affectionately.  J.W.

NNR 72.072, April 3, 1847 THE BATTLE OF BRACITO

The following account of the battle of Bracito, (heretofore known as the battle of El Paso,) is from the army correspondence of the St. Louis Union:

Yesterday (Christmas Day) when we had just arrived in camp here, with about 600 men, had unsaddled our animals, and most of our men had engaged in carrying wood and water, the news was brought into camp of the enemy being in sight and advancing. It was about 2 o'clock, P.M., and the day was very pleasant. Out horses were grazing some distance from the camp at the time we formed a single line and determined to meet the enemy as infantry. Their attack being designed on the left flank, near which was our wagon train, our detachment was ordered from the extreme right to the left, where we soon took up our position. One piece of artillery, 490 regular lancers and cavalry, and 100 regular infantry, besides some 500 militia troops from El Paso, composed the enemy's force, according to the best information I can obtain from reports of prisoners and from papers found among the baggage on the battle field. The enemy ranged themselves on the east within a half a mile of our line, the mountains in the rear. In our rear was the river, with a little brushwood on its banks.

Previous to the encounter, a lieutenant from their ranks came forward, waving a black flag in his hand but halted when within 100 steps of our line. Tho's Caldwell--our interpreter--rode out to meet him. The messenger with the black flag of defiance demanded that the commander should come into their camp and speak to their general. The reply was, "If your general wants to see our commander let him come here." "We shall break your ranks then, and take him there," was the retort of the Mexican. "Come and take him," said our interpreter, unwittingly using the phrase of the Spartan at Thernoploe. "A curse on you prepare for a charge," cried the Mexican, "we give no quarter, and ask none," and waving his black flag gracefully over his head, gallopped back towards the enemy's line. Their charge was made by the dragoons from their right direct upon the left flank, bringing our detachment into the closest fire. Their infantry, with one howitzer with them, at the same time attacking our right flank.

Their charge was a handsome one, but was too well--too coolly met to break our line. After their fire had been spent, their front column being at about 100 steps from the front of our flank, out line poured a volley into them, which being a few times repeated, made such havoc in their columns, that their forces wheeled to the left, retreating from our fire, and in a flight made an attack on the provision train. Here they met a very warm reception, and were compelled to fly in all direction, and in the utmost confusion. Their infantry having been put to flight, the Howard company under the command of Lieut. Wright, taking advantage of the panic, charged upon them and took their cannon from them. This was soon manned by the artillery detachment, under Lieutenant Kribben, in Colonel Mitchell's escort. The enemy had by this time fled, leaving their arms, baggage, provisions, and other stores on the field of battle.

A small body of mounted men under the command of Capt. Reid, had by this time gathered together in a line and charged upon the enemy, pursuing them into the mountains where they sought refuge.

The number of the dead is said to be about 30; that of their wounded was slight as far as can be ascertained. Had we a single piece of cannon with us they would have lost more of their men; but having no artillery on our side, we had to act as infantry until we got possession of the howitzer so gallantly captured by the Howard company.

We lost not a single man, and had but seven slightly wounded. We took eight prisoners, six of whom died last night. Thus ended the battle of Bracito, the first battle of the army of the west, and as bravely fought by our men as ever men fought any engagement.

We have every reason to believe that there is more in store for us.

1 st Lieut. Mo. Light artillery,
Santa Fe, Jan. 1 st, 1847



THE FOREIGN WAR- Having just published the communication in which General Santa Anna announces that he was upon the point of hazarding a general action between the forces under his command and those of Gen'l Taylor, is it not possible, even in the midst of the painful circumstances by which we are surrounded, (on the eve go the revolutionary outbreak in the city of Mexico,) it is not possible to think of aught save the immense consequences of the battle which has in all probability already been fought. The conflict which we are engaged with the United States of the North cannot be worthily maintained unless the whole nation is profoundly convinced that its interest imperatively require that it should be prosecuted with insuperable energy-not to be shaken by a reverse, nor satisfied with a partial victory. Such is the true point of view of the question at this moment.

In the civilized world war is not the result of savage impulses of hatred and revenge; it is only a measure of national defense-destructive, to be sure, but legitimate. Nations do not wage war save to preserve and secure their rights; and hence it follows that when they have justice on their side, they should never lay down their arms until they have obtained these important ends. In our case, Mexico is defending the interests of her nationality, her territory, and her race; resisting the invasions with which the people of the United States threaten to occupy our country, to incorporate us with the American Union, and to extend themselves across the continent.  We therefore must regard, as our object in the war, the preservation of our territory and the establishment of relations which shall assure its future security.

Neither of the ends can be obtained without a prolonged war. To believe the contrary, to suppose that a single battle is to decide the great question, is to mistake the nature of it, and to cherish errors fatal to the republic. Among nations there are epochs in which their honor and their interest impose upon them great sacrifices, and it them becomes a duty to submit to them, whatever they may be.

Even should we to-day obtain a victory, if we examine well the situation of affairs, we cannot deceive ourselves with hope of an honorable peace. The territory of Texas having been incorporated with the American Union, the Union will not consent to its dismemberment unless it is forced to it by great reverses; and, anxious to acquire all the land in the north of our republic, we have seen it pretending to extend the boundaries of Texas in a manner shamefully iniquitous. Thus it has claimed the line of the Rio Bravo del Norte as the rightful boundary of Texas; and in its last propositions, according to some of the papers, it proposes to occupy all the territory comprehended by a line running from the mouth of the Bravo, and following that parallel of latitude to the shores of the Pacific; whereby we should lose one half of the republic and have aided our dangerous neighbors in acquiring a more pernicious preponderance. And in truth it is not to be expected that they will abate from these ignominious proposals so long as they do not feel the full advantages which they have gained, being masters of a long line of coast, of towns, cities, and states now in their occupation. Under these circumstances a victory which should destroy one division of their army, or should restore to us some of our cities, would not suffice to change the aspect of affairs. But, on the other hand, by prolonging the war, the American Union will be made to feel all the weight of the expenses which it has encountered, it will be constrained with difficulties of climate and a war which will pervade every part of our republic, Thus, then, the continuation of the war is necessary for us, whether we obtain a victory or whether Providence present to us a new reverse.

View it in another light. It is when a people are struggling for their independence that they display the virtues which they posses, and by their courage vindicate a just position in the estimation of the world. In this manner the Spaniards at this day rest their glory and their respectability upon the spirit with which, in their war of independence, they hold forth our struggle from emancipation as our title to the [ ] pect of other nations, because in that struggle Mexicans were neither intimidated by dangers nor disheartened by reverses.

But in the present campaign there has been nothing glorious for us. The battle of Resaca was lost by the pusillanimity of some regiments, Matamoros was abandoned through fear, and the capitulation of Monterey covered us with ignommy. A battle gained would not compensate us for these losses; it would not reinstate in public estimation our wounded honor; it would not thrust forth the Americans from the territory which they occupy. Peace would ever be disadvantageous and the remote frontiers of out unfortunate country would not fail of being ultimately lost to us again, because the North Americans would be emboldened to attack them with the confidence of not encountering resistance. Finally, under such circumstances a foreign combination would become less difficult than ever for carrying out the project of a monarchy, masmuch as all the enemies of Mexico would take advantage of our weakness and discredit.

But, on the other hand, a protracted and vigorous war will be more grievous to our enemies than to ourselves, and when the day of peace shall at last arrive, Mexico will have re-established her honor and her frontier be made secure. If we adopt any other conclusion we can see nothing before us but disgrace and ruin, and therefore do we demand that whatever may be the issue of the battle, which probably had already been fought, all Mexicans should agree that the first of our necessities and the first of duties is war. [MSM]

NNR 72.072 April 3, 1847 further details about the victory at Buena Vista

From the N.O. Picayune of the 24th of March

            Dr. Turner, bearer of despatches from Col. Curtis arrived here this mornign at 3 o'clock.  He embarked at the Brazos in the sch. St Paul, on the 14th inst. which vessel he left fifty miles below the city last evening, and took passage in the towboat De Soto.  We learn from him verbally that it is understood at Camargo that Santa Anna has retired from Agua Neueva, in the direction of Parras, where it is supposed he would make a halt.  General Taylor still maintained his position at Buena Vista.

            Dr. Turner informs us that the news heretofore published of the battles of the 22nd and 23rd may be relied upon; that it was brought from General Taylor's camp to Monterey by Paymaster Coffee, who was the bearer of despatches from Gen. Taylor, but who could not get farther than that place with them.

            The despatches were sent thence by a Mexican, who had not got through by the last accounts.  The news received at Camargo was the substance of these despatches, and were brought by an express rider, who was nine days in making the trip through (indecipherable text) make a circuit of five hundred iles, to escape the Mexican forces and rancheros that swarmed in the valley.

            Nothing has been heard of Col'l. Curtis since he left Camargo.  It was thought that Gen'l. Urrea would fly before him as soon as he ascertained the overwhelming defeat of Santa Anna.

            Private letters had been received at Saltillo as late as to the 5th of March, at which time Gen. Taylor was at Buena Vista.  The following letter was received at Matamoros by a Mexican merchant of that place, from a Mexican of Saltillo.  It was dated on the 6th March, nd gives the only account of the manner in which the battle was fought that has yet been received.

            "At 3 o'clock on the 22nd ult. the battle commenced at Buena Vista, five miles from Saltillo.   The fight opened with artillery, and destructive cannonade was kept open until sunset.  No decided advantage was obtained by either side-the loss on both being very great.

            "On the 23rd at 10 o'clock, the battle was again renewed and kept up without intermission, until half past three in the afternoon.  Both armies were closely engaged during the whole time.  Gen. Wool advanced with a strong detachment against the Mexican army, but was driven back with immense loss.  The Mexican cavalry charged upon him with immense loss.   The Mexican cavalry charged upon him withdrawn swords and did great execution.  As wool fell back Gen. Taylor advanced with fresh troops and repelled the Mexicans with great slaughter.

            This charge decided the battle, which was not again renewed.   The number killed and wounded was very great on both sides.   I can only estimate the number by the cart loads of wounded that have entered this city from both battle fields.

            "On the 24th both armies hung off without coming to a general engagement-each occupied in carrying off the wounded and burying their dead.

            "After the 24th there was no more fighting-the Mexican troops famishing with hunger became convinced that they could not triumph or drive General Taylor from his position, and retired.

            "As yet Santa Anna has only retired a short distance, but I do not entertain the belief that he will venture another engagement.

            "Mexico has not the means to bear the burden of the war-it is opposing poverty of abundance-weakness to strength.   In my opinion it would be best for the two governments to enter into negotiations.  With the power the United States possess, it would be dishonorable in her to force us into treaties advantageous alone to herself, as it would be for us to make concessions from necessity.

            "It is reported that a train carrying provisions to the American army was attacked and captured at marina, by Don Jose Urrea, and is yet in his possession, with a quantity of private merchandise, taken at the same time," &c.

            Through the politeness of Mr. Arnold, who came with Dr. Turner, we have received the Matamoros Flag of the 13th, also letters from an esteemed correspondent.  Our letters confirm the list of killed published in another column, and also the amount of loss on both sides heretofore reported.   The Matamoros Flag publishes the letter from which the above extracts were made.

            Under the head of "Latest Intelligence," the Flag states that Gen. Taylor was expected at Monterey on the 8th, with the Kentucky cavalry, for the purpose of opening the communication between that place and Camargo.

            "So it seems" adds the Flag, "that old Rough and Ready" not only has to whip their big general in the mountains, but has to come down to scare their little ones away from the highways, so as to relieve the lower country from Lieut. Gen. Stampede."   In case he undertook the chastisement of Urrea, he would leave the main body of his army at Buena Vista.

            A Mexican physician residing in Camargo, says the Flag, has received a letter from a surgeon at Saltillo, dated two days after the battle, which states that Gen. Taylor permitted Santa Anna to have all his wounded conveyed into Saltillo and tendered him surgical aid from his own army.

            It is reported in Matamoros that General Urrea has retreated toward the Tula Pass, as soon as he understood that Colonel Curtis was marching against him.

            It was also said that Santa Anna was falling back upon San Luis Potosi; but as we before said, Dr. Turner thinks he has only retreated to Parras.  [ANP]

NNR 72.072 April 3, 1847 Mexican preparations to oppose the American attack at Veracruz

            A correspondent of the Mobile Herald and Tribune, gives the following interesting account of he adventures of Colonel Alphonse Dupera, of Louisiana:

            Under the instructions from Gen'l. Scott, Colonel Dupera set out from New Orleans to visit Vera Cruz and the surrounding country, as a spy, and to cover his intentions, proceeded first to Havana, and obtained a passport to Vera Cruz as a Frenchman-(he is of French descent, and speaks the tongue like a Parisian.)  After arriving there, he penetrated as far as Jalapa, ascertained the probable number of men that could be thrown into the Castle of San Juan de Ulloa, the length of time for which it is provisioned, &c., and the general tout ensemble, the materiel , &c. that would oppose General Scott's contemplated attack.   During his stay, he narrowly escaped detection, being suspected and subjected to several close examinations.   Being informed that the authorities intended committing him to the Castle as a spy, he had barely time to escape on board a French merchant barque lying at Sacrificios, from which he was taken and brought down by the steamer Petrita.  His escape was singularly providencial.  The men of the boat supposed him one of the passengers of the boat, and carried him off under mistake.-They were waiting for one of the passengers, and being ordered authoritatively in French "to shove off," obeyed unhesitatingly.   Again, the arrival of the Petrita at Sacrificios was purely accidental, nor should I omit to state that the French barque had been brought into Anton Lizardo as a prize a few days before, and had just been let go."

            An officer for service of this kind, deserves double credit, as an ignominious death surely awaits him in case of capture.   [ANP]

NNR 72.072 April 3, 1847 Gen. Zachary Taylor expected to open communications from Monterey to Camargo

            Mexico-The editors of the New Orleans Delta have received files of Mexican papers by way of Havana.   All sorts of preparations to oppose the attack of the Americans were going on at Vera Cruz, where 2,000 men from Puebla were daily expected to arrive. General Morales, commander in-chief of the troops at Vera Cruz, is represented as very anxious that the Americans should commence their attack on the city, as he was confident that with the forces under his command and the reinforcements expected, he would be able to give them a hard fight.-The Mexicans were fearfully watching all the movements of the American squadron, and nothing indicated the approaching of the attack, but they had reliable information that the troops and several vessels intended to operate in it, were at Lobos Island, where they awaited the result of Don Alejandro Atocha's mission, in order to begin the attack if the proposals tendered by him on the part of the United States government were refused.

            It was reported in Vera Cruz that a most fatal sickness had made its appearance among the crews of the American vessels, in which we believe there is no truth.

            The papers from the capital seem to confirm the belief, that the mission of Senor Antocha was to propose an arrangement by which the line of the 26thparallel should be the boundary between Mexico and the United States, for which $200,000,000 would be paid toe Mexico and moreover the united States would take upon themselves to satisfy the claims of their citizens amounting to about $11,000,000.   The Monitor says that, however advantageous this offer may appear at first sight, it is not so in reality, for the line of the 26th degree would cut off the states of Chihuahua, Durango, Coahuila, New Mexico, New Leon, Tamaulipas, Texas, and both the Californias.   [ANP]


DR. TURNER, bearer of dispatches from Col. Curtis arrived here this morning at 3 o'clock. He embarked at the Brazos in the sch. St paul, on 14th inst. Which vessel he left fifty miles below the city last evening, and took passage in the towboat De Soto. We learn from him verbally that it is understood at Camargo that Santa Anna has retired from Agua Nueva, in the direction of Parras, where it is supposed he would make a halt.

General Taylor still maintained his position at Buena Vista. Dr. Turner informs us that the news heretofore published of the battles of the 22nd and 23rdmay be relied upon; that it was brought from General Taylor's camp to Monterey by Paymaster Coffee, who was the bearer of dispatches from Gen. Taylor, but who could not get farther that the place with them. The dispatches were sent thence by a Mexican, who had not got through by the last accounts. The news received at Camargo was the substance of the dispatches, and were brought by an express rider, who was nine days and making the trip through [sentence] a circuit of five hundred miles, to escape the Mexican forces and rancheros that swarmed in the valley.

Nothing has been hear of Co. Curtis since he left Camargo. It was thought that Gen. Urrea would fly before him as soon as he ascertained the overwhelming defeat of Santa Anna. Private Letters and been received at Saltillo as late as the 5thof March, at which Gen. Taylor was at Buena Vista.  The following letter was received at Matamoros by a Mexican merchant of that place, from a Mexican of Saltillo. It was dated on the 6thMarch, and gives the only account of the manner of which the battle was fought that had yet been received.

At 3 o'clock on the 22nd ult the battle commenced at Buena Vista, five miles from Saltillo. The fight opened with artillery, and a destructive cannonade was kept open until sunset. No decided advantage was obtained by either side-the loss on both being very great.

"On the 23rd at 10 o'clock, the battle was again renewed and kept up without intermission, until half past three in the afternoon. Both armies were closely engaged during the whole time. Gen. Wool advanced with a strong detachment against the Mexican army, but was driven back with immense loss. The Mexican cavalry charged upon him with drawn swords and did great execution. As Wool fell back Gen. Taylor advanced with fresh troops and repelled the Mexicans with great slaughter.

"This charge decided the battle, which was not again renewed. The number killed and wounded was very great on both sides.  I can only estimate the number by the cart loads of wounded that have entered this city from both battle fields.

"On the 24th both armies hung off without coming to a general engagement-each occupied in carrying off the wounded and burying their dead.

"After the 24th there was no more fighting-the Mexican troops famishing with hunger became convinced that they could not triumph or drive General Taylor from his position, and retired.

"As yet Santa Anna has only retired a short distance, but I do not entertain the belief that he will venture another engagement.

"Mexico has not the means to bear the burden of the war-it is opposing poverty to abundance-weakness to strength. In my opinion it would be best for the two governments to enter into negotiations. With the power the United States posses, it would be dishonorable in her to force us into treaties advantageous alone to herself, as it would be for us to make concessions from necessity.

"It is reported that a train carrying provisions to the American army was attacked and captured at the Marina, by Don Jose Urrea, and is yet his possession, with a quantity of private merchandise; taken at the same time." &c. Through the politeness of Mr. Arnold, who came with Dr. Turner, we have received the Matamoros Flag of the 13th, also letters from an esteemed correspondent. Our letters confirm the list of liked published in another column, and also the amount of loss on both sides heretofore reported. The Matamoros Flag publishes the letter from which the above extracts were made.

Under the head of "Latest Intelligence," the flag states that Gen. Taylor was expected at Monterey on the 8th, with the Kentucky cavalry, for the purpose of opening the communication between that place and Camargo.

"So it seem," adds the Flag, "that old Rough and Ready," not only has to whip their general in the mountains, but has to come down to scare their little ones away from the highways, so as to relieve the lower country from Lieut. Gen. Stampede." In case he undertook the chastisement of Urrea, he would leave the main body if his army at Buena Vista.

A Mexican physician residing in Camargo, says the Flag, had received a letter from a surgeon at Saltillo, dated two days after the battle, which states that Gen. Taylor permitted Santa Anna to have all his wounded conveyed into Saltillo and tendered him surgical and from his own army.

It is reported in Matamoros that General Urreah had retreated toward the Tula Pass, as soon as he understood that Colonel Curtis was marching against him. It was also said that Santa Anna was falling back upon San Luis Potosi, but as we before said, Dr. Turner thinks he has only retreated to Parras. [MSM]


A CORRESPONDENT, of the Mobile Herald and Tribune, gives the following interesting account of the adventures of Colonel Alphonse Dupera, of Louisiana. Under the instructions from Gen'l Scott, Colonel Dupera set out from New Orleans to visit Vera Cruz and the surrounding county, as a spy, and to cover his intentions, proceeded first to Havana, and obtained a passport to Vera Cruz, as a Frenchman-(he is of French descent, and speaks the tongue like a Parisian.) After arriving there, he penetrated as far as Jalapa, ascertained the probable number of men that could be thrown into the castle of San Juan de Ulloa, the length of time for which it is provisioned, &c., and the general tout ensemble, the materiel, &c., that would oppose General Scott's contemplated attack. During his stay, he narrowly escaped detection, being suspected and subjected to several close examinations. Being informed that the authorities intended oommitting him to the Castle as a spy, he had barley time to escape on board a French merchant barque lying at Sacrificios, from which he was taken and brought down by the steamer Petrita. His escape was singularly providential. The men of the boat supposed him one of the passengers of the boat, and carried him off under mistake. They were waiting for one of the passengers, and being ordered authoritatively in French "to shove off;" obeyed unhesitatingly. Again, the arrival of the Petrita at Sacrificios was purely accidental, nor should I omit to state that the French barque had been brought into Anton Lizardo as a prize a few days before, and had just been let go. An officer for service of this kind, deserves double credit, as an ignominious death surely awaits him in case of capture. [MSM]


The NEW ERA of last evening contains a letter from fort Bent, dated on the 1st February, which corroborates, in all essential particulars, the news heretofore received of an insurrection in Taos and the murder of Governor Bent and many others.- This letter puts an end to the hope entertained here that the report might have been exaggerated or unfounded. We have already published an account of the suppression of an insurrection at Santa Fe; the sures made by the prisoners. But this-latter heads us to suppose that there was another popular out break, and that it extended all over New Mexico. The writer says that a "general insurrection," happening about a month after the discovery of the first abortive one, had taken place, and that all the Americans who could be found were massacred and their property plundered. These representations make us exceedingly anxious to hear from that quarter: We cannot believe that the Mexicans have been able to make much head against our troops in Santa Fe, but they may (id assisted, as this letter states, by the Pueblo Indians) have been able to destroy a vast amount of property and to sacrifice many lives in their assaults upon weaker points. An express from Santa Fe, which may soon be expected, we suppose, out to give us full particular in regard to this insurrection. [MSM]

NNR 72.080 April 3, 1847 editorial remarks on the victory of Buena Vista

Battle of Buena Vista.

To fully appreciate Gen. Taylor on the occasion of the battle just fought, it must be recollected that he took upon himself the delicate responsibility, contrary to the advice , which under the circumstances of the case, in fact amounted to an order of his commanding officer, Gen. Scott, probably in accordance with a plan of campaign arranged at Washington befoe the latter left that city-we allude to Gen. Taylor advancing beyond Saltillo to meet and fight the enemy , instead of evacuating that post to the enemy and retiring to Monterey, as he was advised, if not ordered to do, when withdrawing Gen. Worth's command and so many of the regulars.   Gen. Taylor differed in opinion, distinguished what was the best course, staked every thing upon the issue, and marched up to it at every hazard.  His volunteers were all AMERICAN SOLDIERS.  The result is, a TRIUMPH!

The despatches from Gen. Taylor to the department of war were brought by Mr. CRITTENDEN, a volunteer aid-de-camp of Gen. Taylor during the battle.   Mr Crittenden left Gen. Taylor, with his army, at Agua Nueva on the 2d March, and brought the despatches along the usual route from Monterey to Camargo, under the escort of about 250 troops, commanded by Major Geddings, having a long train of some 130 empty wagons.   As they approached Cerralvo, a small party was sent in to provide forage, &c., when the enemy under Urrea were discovered, about 1,500 strong.  Out troops were immediately placed on the defensive, and received the assault of the superior numbers with the resolution of men determined to cut their way through.   They were repulsed with the loss of about 30 men, while we lost about half the number.  A part of our baggage train was destroyed, (40 or 50 of the wagons,) when the gallant Urrea made his retreat in the direction of he Tula pass.   The teamsters were unwilling to proceed without a stronger escort, and Mr. Crittenden was detained five or six days at Cerralvo, when Col. Curtis arrived from Camargo with a large body of troops.   He was too late to overtake Urrea, who had probably commenced his retreat as soon as he heard of Santa Anna's discomfiture.   Colonel Curtis proceeded to Monterey, the enemy having fled as rapidly as possible, and this may be the last that we shall hear of them on this side of Tula and San Luis for some time.  [ANP]


Republican Liberating Army.

General in Chief--Excellent sir: During a moment of leisure--it being now 7 o'clock in the morning--I have to inform your excellency, in order that you may communicate the same to the sr. vice president of the Republic, that the army under my command, after a painful and long march over the desert between the Cedral and this place, has had to encounter a battle that lasted two days, with the United States Army under General Taylor, composed of 8 to 9000 men, with 26 pieces of artillery. Both armies have fought a bloody and desperate fight. This morning the action commenced at six o'clock, and continued until sunset. The field of battle is covered with the dead. Blood has flowed in torrents. Two standards, which I have the honor to send your excellency, were taken by us, together with three pieces of artillery, the calibre of 6 and 4 pounders, with their horses. Although the battle was not decisive I can assure you Excellency that the field, however stoutly disputed, finally remained in our possession, as is manifested by the trophies I have mentioned. Upwards of 2000 of the enemy's dead lie strewed upon the field of battle, and we have taken some prisoners, the exact number of whom has not been made known to me.

On our part I regret to say that with generals, officers and troops, we have lost in killed and wounded about 1000--readily accounted for by the obstinate encounter we have had--lasting through two successive days. During one of the charges today my horse was killed by a grape-shot. The strong position of the enemy was all that saved him from complete route.

A few hours before I reached this point the enemy, having notice of our advance, retired from his position at Agua Nueva, where he was first posted, and fell back to his defile, which may be even compared to the pass of Thermopyloe. But he must have been taught by the experience of these two days, that neither the rugged steep of the mountain nor his fortified position, nor any other of his advantages, could restrain the Mexican soldier from battling in defence of his country and her rights.

Our soldiers are indeed worthy of all commendation, and I glory in the consciousness of being at the head of an army of heroes, who not only know how to fight bravely but to suffer patiently both hunger and thirst for forty-eight hours, a sacrifice required of them by the nation, and of which I have myself been a witness.

The only painful reflection I have at this moment is that not a biscuit nor a particle of rice can be had here for our sick and wounded. We have subsisted, for many days on meat alone. Thus is verified the complaints I have heretofore made of the neglect this army has suffered, from having depend for supplies on its own resources during the last two months. I will now ad that it is not possible to carry on the campaign successfully unless the army is provided with all the supplies required in war. I therefore think of moving back my camp tomorrow morning to Agua Nueva, three leagues distant, to provide myself with some necessaries that must have arrived at the hacienda of Encarnacion; and if I succeed in obtaining those necessaries, and relieve myself of the incumbrance of the wound, I will return to the charge--in spite of my own wound, which was reopened in the consequence of being continually on horseback twelve hours a each day.

In the detailed account of the obstinate combat, which I shall soon present, due notice will be given of the generals, chiefs, officers and others who have bravely fought, and poured out their blood in defence of the country. I have not been willing to detain this report for such details, supposing the supreme government would wish to have the earliest account of these successes. Tomorrow or the day after I will cause to be transmitted to your Excellency the said detailed account, together with a notice of subsequent occurrences.

Accept, I pray your excellency, with this explanation, the consideration of my particular esteem, God and Liberty. Field of Angostura, near Buena Vista, February 23, 1847.


His Excellency, the MINISTER OF WAR.

NNR 72.081 April 10, 1847 bombardment and surrender of Veracruz and of the castle, officers killed and wounded

            Bombardment, Surrender, and Occupation of Vera Cruz and the Castle of San Juan D'Ulloa.

            After our paper was made up and preparing for press the gratifying intelligence arrived of another signal triumph of American arms.   We hasten to relieve many an anxious heart by spreading the tidings far and wide.  In order to embrace the first mail, the account has to be brief-sufficient however, it is full of all that has been hoped for.

            To the Baltimore Sun we are indebted for the intelligence:

            The Pensacola Gazette of the 3d inst. announces the arrival there that morning of the U.S. Steamer Princeton, bearing the broad pendant of Commodore Connner.   She left Vera Cruz on the 29th ult., where the flag of the United States was triumphantly waiving over the city of Vera Cruz and the castle of San Juan D'Ulloa.

            An officer of the Princeton furnishes the Gazette the following summary:

            March 9th.-Disembarkation of troops commenced.

            14th-Investment of the city complete.

            18th-Trenches opened at night.

            22nd-City summoned to surrender-on refusal, seven mortars opened a tire of bombs.

            25th-Navy battery, three long 30 pounders and three 68 pounders-Paizhan guns-opened a fire in the morning, distance 70 yards.

            25th-Another battery of four 24-pounders and 3 mortars opened.  This day the navy battery opened on a breach in the wall of the city- the fire was very destructive to the town.

            26th-Early in the morning the enemy proposed for a surrender.  Commissioners on the American side-Generals Worth and Pillow and Col. Totten.

            29th-Negotiations completed-city and castle surrendered-Mexican troops marched out and laid down their arms.   The American troops occupied the city and batteries of the town and castle-at noon of that day the American ensign was hoisted over both, and saluted by our vessels.

            The garrison of about 4,000 men, laying down their arms as prisoners of war, and being sent to their homes on parole.   Five Generals, 60 superior officers, and 270 company officers amongst the prisoners.

            The total loss of the American army, from the day of landing, (March 9,) is 65 persons killed and wounded.

            Officers Killed -John R. Vinton, 2d artillery; Captain Albartis, 2nd infantry; Midshipman T. B. Shubrick, navy.

            Officers wounded-Lieut. Colonel Dickenson, South Carolina volunteers, severely; Lieut. A.S.Baldwin, navy, slightly; Lieut. Delozier Davidson. 2ndinfantry, very slightly; Lieut. Lewis Neill, 2d dragoons, severely.-All the wounded are doing well.

            Of the Mexicans, the slaughter is said to have been immense.   The commanding general was stationed in the cry, while his second in command held the castle.  Their regular force was 3,000, and they had about the same number of irregulars.   Outside the city was Gen. La Veja with a force of from 6,000 to 10,000 cavalry. Col. Harney, with between 2 and 300 U.S. dragoons charged on and repuled this immense force with terrible carnage, scattering them in all directions.  They had barricaded a bridge to protect themselves, and our artillery soon knocked away this obstacle and gave Harney's command a chance at them.

            In the attack on the town and castle only our smaller vessels, drawing not over nine feet were available.-But few shots and shells were thrown upon the castle-the attack being mainly upon the town.   None of the enemy's missiles struck our vessels; and Midshipman Shubrick who was killed, was serving a battery on shore.   With the city the hopes of the enemy fell, as they had not provisions in the castle to sustain a protracted siege.

            The Princeton is commanded by Capt. Engle; as she sailed from Vera Cruz, Com. Conner's flag was saluted from the Castle of San Juan de Ulloa.  The Commodore is a passenger on board, having been relieved by Com. Perry before the commencement of these operations.  [ANP]


SANTA FE-EL PASSO- An extra of the Independence (Mo.) Expositor, of the 25th March says-

"Thos. Caldwell, esq. Has just got in from the plains, and confirms the sad intelligence if the massacre at Taos. Gov. Charles Bent and twenty five Americans are the victims of a cold-blooded assassination. Among the deal is L.L Wuldo, a citizen of our county, and brother to Captain David Waldo, of Colonel Doniphan's regiment.

Mr. Caldwell left El Paso on the 12th January- and Santa Fe on the 3d of February. He left Colonel Doniphan in possession of El Passo, waiting for the artillery to arrive, when he intended to move for Chihuahua. Nothing was known in New Mexico of the change on Gen. Wool's position.

The insurrectionists consisted of about 2,000 men and started for Santa Fe. Col. Price sent out about 300 men to quell for them; they met about twenty five miles from Santa Fe, when an engagement took place. The Mexicans drew up 2,000 strong, but at the first fire from the Missouri boys thirty six men fell dead, and the balance fled. Capt. Morm of Platte who was in command, pursued them through the Moro valley, and burnt to ashes every house town, and rancho in his path. The inhabitants fled to the mountains, where they are bound to starve, as Morm leaves them nothing whatever to subsist on-a just retribution for their assassination of innocent people.

As Mr. Caldwell was passing out he heard at a distance the sound of artillery, and learned from rumor in the edge of the settlement's that the American army had whipped them worse than ever. Captain Hendley, of Ray county volunteers, was the only one killed on our side, and some seven slightly wounded."

A letter from Independence dated March 21, says "no doubt the city of Taos is now in ashes, as our Missouri boys had caused the smoke from their burning houses to ascend from a thousand hills: the inhabitants in the Moro valley, men, women, and children had fled to the mountians. Mr. Caldwell left Col. Doniphan at El Paso on the 12th of January waiting for artillery companies to arrive. When he intended to march for Chihuahua. He thinks that Doniphan, ere this has taken Chihuhua or has been taken himself. We may await with trembling anxiety a long time. I fear, for the result of this hazardous expedition. Capt. Sublette had not arrived at Santa Fe, when Mr. Caldwell left- February 3d; fears are entertained that he may have fallen into the hands of the Mexicans on entering Taos Valley.

Mr. Caldwell learned from a reliable source, that McGoffin, Connelly, and other prisoners were at large in the streets of Chihuahua, but not allowed to leave the city." [MSN]


CALIFORNIA-LIEUT. TALBOT-A letter published in the Boston Traveler, dated at San Francisco on the 15thof November, relates the following daring feat of one of our young officers who was severing in that distant country:

"At Santa Barbara, one hundred and fifty mounted and well armed Californians attacked Lieut. Talbot, one of Fremonts' young officers, who was left in charge there with ten men. They were quartered in Robins house; the house was surrounded, and they ordered to surrender unconditionally; Talbot refused to surrender on any conditions. Cooley packing up their provisions, &C., they marched out of the house to sell their lives at a dear rate; but, those surrounded by the immense odds, they were not attacked. Talbot drew his men off the hills just back of the mission, followed all the way by the cowardly miscreants, who were threatening to devour him is he did not lay down his arms, but none of them were willing to take the first taste. Halting on a hill, where the Americans had the advantage, the brave barbariansset fire to the grass in a circle round the little party. Perhaps preferring to devour them after being cooked, but they would not stay to be cooked and the brave little Talbot marched his men through the fire in crossing the mountains into the Tulares, lead them safely to Monterey where Mr. Larkin writes they arrived safe a few days since." [MSM]


THE CASTLE OF SAN JUAN D'ULLOA, is unquestionably the most celebrated of all American Fortresses. Its construction was commenced in the year 1582, upon a bar or bank in front of the town of Vera Cruz, at the distance of 1,062 Castillian varas, or yards, and it is entirely surrounded by water. The centre of the area occupied by this fortress is a small island, upon which Juan de Grijalva landed a year previous to the arrival of Cortez upon our continent, and at that period it accidentally received the name which it retains to this present day. It seems that there was a shrine or temple erected upon it, in which human victims were sacrificed to the Indian gods; and as the Spaniards were informed, these offerings were made in accordance with the commands of the kings of Acholhua, (one of the provinces of the empire) they confounded or abbreviated this name in to the word Ulloa, which they affixed to that island.

Sixty-one years after the conquest the work was undertaken, and although it seems to have been designed not only to defend Vera Cruz, but to attack it in case of necessity, that city was, nevertheless, sacked by the pirates under the renowned freebooter, Lorencillo, in the year 1683.

The cost of the castle has been estimated by various writers to have amounted to the sum of forty millions of dollars, and it may not be regarded as an exaggeration, if we consider the difficulty of obtaining some of the materials of which it is composed, and the fact that a large portion of it is built on foundations laid in the sea, whose waves it has resisted for more than two centuries.

According to a report made on the 17th of January, 1775 it was the opinion of a council of war, composed of distinguished officers, that this fortress, after all of its defenses were completed, would require a garrison, for effective service, composed of 1700 infantry soldiers, 300 artillery do., 228 sailors, and 100 supernumeraries.

The exterior polygon, which faces Vera Cruz, extends 300 yards in length, while that which defends the north channel is at least 200 yards long. Besides this there is a low battery, situated in the bastion of Santiago, which doubles the fire on that channel. The southern channel is commanded, also, by the battery of San Miguel.

The whole fort is constructed of Madrepora astrea, a species of soft coral which abounds in the neighboring islands; and its walls are from four to five yards in thickness, their exterior being faced with a harder stone. It is well supplied with water, having seven eisterns within the castle, viz: one containing 24,948 cubic feet of water; one containing 17,884; one containing 19,000; one containing 6,000; one containing 16,685; one containing 4,500; and one containing 4,752. Total 93,767. [MSM]


MILITARY MOVEMENTS-Our city is again becoming quite lively with soldiers belonging to the army arriving here for transportation to New Orleans on route to Mexico. The government having found this to be the best point in the Union to concentrate the new companies, and for furnishing the best facilities for accelerating their progress to the seat of war, has ordered a number of them (how many is not yet known,) to rendezvous here. [MSM]


It is note worthy to remark, that now as formerly Pennsylvania is first in the field. Nine out of the ten companies composing the regiment are from this state, and one other from Maryland. A volunteer company from Virginia had enlisted, and been ordered here- Pittsburg Gazette [MSM]

NNR 72.082 April 10, 1847 SICKNESS AT LOBOS

SICKNESS IN THE ARMY. Col. Roberts of Va., writing from Lobos, says:-"our men are, nearly all, in fine health and spirits, and we have lost but 3 men since we left home-2 from mania-potu, and one by an injury from a fall into the hold of a ship. But seven are on the sick list at present, and none of them dangerous, which is not many out of 840 men. There was a Mississippi regiment came to New Orleans at the same time we arrived there, which has lost 180 men and left 100 sick, they buried from 6 to 12 per day while we lay there, and sic out of each of the two ships which arrived , and four since arriving here which is something very strange, as it is their own climate-while the two regiments from Pennsylvania have lost but 6 men out of 1700; but there was one great cause-they dissipated more than out men, and were not so well clad, out men all wearing flannel while they mostly wore light cotton clothing." [MSM]


Under this caption the Richmond Enquirer of the 30thof March, adduces the statement from the 'Union,' of forces under Gen. Taylor's command, [see p.90] as corroborating what had previously been asserted in the Enquirer,-that if Gen. Taylor had been overwhelmed by the Mexican army under Santa Anna, the responsibility for the disaster was all his own, The Enquirer in the same articles adduces as further proof on this point the following remarks of the Washington correspondent of the Baltimore Sun.

 "You will perceive from the last official despatches forwarded by Gen. Taylor tot he Adjutant General here in Washington, that the position he assumed at Agua Nueva was entirely on his own responsibility and that Gen. Scott had advised him to fall back on Monterey, and act, for a while, on the defensive-And it will also be seen, from the correspondence between the war from pressing him forward, rather expresses a wish that he might confine himself to Monterey, and there await the enemy. If Gen. Talyor has acted against the advice given him from these quarters, he must have had good reason to do so, and I, therefore, trust that he will be able to give a good account of himself, notwithstanding the fatal rumors of disasters which have reached us from the Rio Grande." [MSM]

NNR 72.082 April 10, 1847 WAR WITH MEXICO

General Taylor's General Orders-After the Battle of Buena Vista.

Orders No. 2.
Headquarters Army of Occupation,
Buena Vista, Feb. 26, 1847.

1. The commanding general has the grateful task of congratulating the troops upon the brilliant success which attended their arms in the conflicts of the 22d and 23d.Confident in the immense superiority of numbers, and stimulated by their presence of a distinguished leader, the Mexican troops were yet repulsed in every effort to force our lines, and finally withdrew with immense loss from the field.

2. The general would express his obligations to the officers and men engaged for the cordial support which they rendered throughout the action.It will be his highest pride to bring to the notice of the government the conspicuous gallantry of particular officers and corps, whose unwavering steadiness more than once saved the fortunes of the day.-He would also express his high satisfaction with the conduct of the small command left to hold Saltillo.Though not so seriously engaged as their comrades, their services were very important and efficiently rendered. While bestowing this just tribute to the good conduct of the troops, the general deeply regrets to say that there were not a few exceptions.-He trusts that those who fled ingloriously to Buena Vista, and even to Saltillo, will seek an opportunity to retrieve their reputation and to emulate the bravery of their comrades, who bore the brunt of the battle, and sustained against fearful odds the honor of the flag.

The exultation of success is checked by the heavy sacrifice of life which it has cost, embracing many officers of high rank and rare merit.While the sympathies of a grateful country will be given tot he bereaved families and friends of those who nobly fell their illustrious example will remain for the benefit and admiration of the army.

By order of Major General Taylor;
W.W.S. BLISS, Ass't Adj't Gen.


NNR 72.083 April 10, 1847 compliment of the Washington "Union" to Gen. Zachary Taylor's general orders after Buena Vista

            The Washington Union commenting on the above general orders, says:

            "It is written in fine taste.   It alludes in the most modest terms which he could employ, to the brilliant victory which our troops have won over the immense superiority of he Mexicans, headed by their most distinguished military leader.   It pays due honors to the brave officers and troops who live to receive the gratitude of their country.  It pays a brief but affecting tribute to those gallant spirits who have gloriously fallen in the battle, but whose "illustrious example will remain for the benefit and admiration of the army," and as a monument of the glory of our republic in the eyes of Europe.   It treats as delicately as possible all those inexperienced soldiers who ingloriously fled, to whom he administers the warning lesson of seeking to retrieve their reputation by future exertions on another field.  It is impossible to read the various descriptions of this remarkable battle, where the skill of the commanding general in seizing his ground and maneuvering his troops vied with the chivalry of his men, without the deepest emotions."  [ANP]

NNR 72.083 April 10, 1847 coolness and bravery of the Mississippi and Illinois volunteers at Buena Vista, faltering of the Indiana regiment

            The New Orleans Delta has the following items derived from a gentleman who was present at the battle of Buena Vista:

            The coolness and bravery of the Mississippi and Illinois volunteers were, he says, beyond all praise.   While firing in line, the front rank knelt on one knee, taking deliberate aim, and doing deadly execution.

            Col. Bowles, of he 2d Indiana regiment, finding that his men faltered early in the action of the 23d, withdrew from them in disgust, and taking a rifle joined the Mississippi regiment in the thickest of the fight.  It is due to the Indiana regiment, however, to say, that they subsequently rallied, appealed to as they were by Capt. Lincoln and others, and fought bravely.

            Col. Jefferson Davis, of Mississippi, is idolized by his regiment.  Believing that on the 24 th there would be a fight, and being unable to walk on account of the wound in his foot, he ordered that he be carried out to head in a wagon.

            Col. Yell, as we have already told our readers, was lanced to death.  His horse became restive, his bridle broke, and he carried him into the midst of the enemy, where a lance pierced him through the head.

            Col. Hardin, before being killed, captured a flag from the enemy, which, with his horse, he requested should be sent home as a last memento to his wife.

            Among the prisoners taken were two who were deserters from our own ranks.  They were brought before Gen. Taylor who ordered the wretches to be drummed out beyond the lines.  Such rascals, he said, might do for Santa Anna-they would not suit him-and it would be wasting powder and shot to shoot them.  They were therefore drummed out to the tune of the Rogue's March.

            After the battle of Buena Vista was won, General Wool, who was distinguished for his gallantry and skill, met General Taylor and threw his arms around his neck, and congratulated him on the brilliant victory, in warm terms.  The old hero replied, "we can't be beaten General, when we all pull together."   The whole country will attest the justice of the simple reply.

            A Washington letter published in the New York Commercial, says-

            There is a very interesting letter in the city from Gen. Wool.  He speaks in the most exalted terms of General Taylor's conduct of the battle of Buena Vista.   It was written, too, without the knowledge that General Taylor had so highly spoken of him.  It is pleasing to see these officers so devoid of all jealousy toward each other.   Gen. Wool seems to harbor no envy at the fortune which has reversed the relations of rank between him and General Taylor.

            General Wool, I learn, speaks freely in this letter of the cowardice displayed by some of the Indiana and Arkansas troops, and gives a graphic picture of the struggle and the brilliant movements that decided the victory in our favor.  [ANP]


-Extract of a letter from an officer on board the United States ship Albany:

As from the deck, with my glass, I swept over the city of Vera Cruz, its environs, and the stronghold which covers it, said to be impregnable to the combined fleets of the earth, it was with rather a serious feeling that my eyes rested upon this grim, grizly pile, barbed and bristling with its hundreds of cannon.The question at once arises, can it be taken?Shall we ever see our fleet moving up over the expanse before me to attack it?I doubt it very much.Certainly not with any force we have or have had here.Let the people prate as much at home as they please about it.If it ever is done it will be by a tremendous array of cannon and a most awful loss of life.The castle of Vera Cruz is no more what it was when France carried it than you are now to what you were when a nursling in your mother's arm.Then there were no guns above the caliber of 24 pounds, and but a few of them, most miserably served.The magazines, unarched, were not bombproof.The powder was of such an inferior character that not a shot penetrated the side of a French ship, but at the close of the engagement were stuck about the sides of the shipping like so many balls of mud; and in addition to all this, the commanding officer having been instructed not to fire the first gun, permitted the French squadron to come up and take its position as quietly as though mooring to pass the winter season.

Now let us see what a change time and a severe lesson have effected in this same castle.There are at present mounted within its periphery nearly 300 cannon, and these all 32's, 42's, and & 8 and 10 inch Paixhan, there being a very large number of the latter; and wherever it has been possible to train a gun upon the channel of approach, they are planted - en barbette, - ; so that a fleet moving up to the attack must be exposed to the concentrated fire of seventy cannon over a distance of two miles before it can get into position to return a single shit.The castle of San Juan is from the city at a distance of about three-eighths of a mile, and is supported by a water battery at the northwest angle of the town of fifty 32 and 42-pound guns, all of which would bear upon a squadron passing up, bows on, from the moment it arrived within the range of the shot until its anchors were down, with springs upon the cables, within the reach of musket shot.Judge, then, what a force would be required for any promise of success, and at what an immense sacrifice it would be accomplished, if at all.The garrison at this time is composed of 2,000 men.In the event of an attack they would, with the most perfect safety, retire within the casemates (which are as impervious to shot as the sides of Mount Orizaba) until the ammunition of the assailing force was expended, when they would return to their guns and sweep the waters before them with the most terrific, destructive effect.The officer commanding the castle lately sent the official word - that if the commodore would bring his fleet up, he might fire until there was not a shot left in the locker, and he would promise him not to return a gun until he was done.
[N.Y. Tribune [ANP]


-A number of letters and documents were written by the Mexicans during, and immediately after the battle, and deapatchee to the interior and there published with flourish of trumpets as for a great victory.We subjoin in addition to what was inserted in our last, the following:

The Enemy's Camp,
February 23, 1847.

DEAR FRIEND: The general-in-chief is upon the point of despatching a courier-now 5 o'clock, P.M.We have taken the fortifications of the enemy, and four of his positions, which he defended with obstinacy, and every height and every ravine of which they furiously disputed.We have lost many field and other officers, out of proportion to the number of soldiers, and we have taken from the enemy two flags and three pieces of artillery.There are very few prisoners-four, I believe the rest are dead.

Our troops are perishing from hunger and thirst.-They have not drank water in two days, and have eaten nothing since the day they were at Incarnation and a slice of roasted meat at La Vaca.

I am much afraid least this cause should disperse us to-night, since the soldiers are already scattering, and we have seen bodies of them fighting and charging upon the enemy wherever they thought there was water, caring for nothing; and we have seen them disputing among themselves, totally indifferent to the fire of the enemy, for a piece of ham found upon the dead Yankees.This night is a fearful one for the republic, since I dread lest we should become disbanded.In conclusion, dear friend, there now remains but little to be done, because we have been pursuing the enemy all day long with the bayonet, and to morrow they will be finished.They killed the horse of the general-in-chief with a grape shot.

Addition, or Postscript, 24th -Since closing my letter, the general-in-chief, convinced without doubt, that the army, will disband unless it can obtain food, and procure water, has ordered its march to Agua Nueva where there are some cattle and water-water, which is before everything else.

It is very cruel, dear L., that which we have suffered. We have lost about a thousand men and many officers killed and wounded, and our Lombardini among the rest.

It is the first action which the republic has fought on a large scale and obstinately.It begun at five minutes past 2 o'clock in the afternoon of the 22 nd . They attacked us on our right and were repulsed at 6 o'clock.On the 23 rdthey returned to the charge, at the same point, before 6 o'clock in the morning, and were driven back a league and a quarter to Buena Vista, the different conflicts which we had with them being concluded at 6 in the evening.

From a letter, dated Feb. 24 th .-We have gained a bloody battle, and taken from the enemy standards and artillery. They have become to demand a peace, and they have been answered by the general-in-chief, that until the whole republic is evacuated by them he will not listen to them. (Here follow the names of some of the officers killed.)

General Juagni writes me, and says that the following officers have been killed.The brave Colonel Francisco Berra, the lieutenant colonel of the 1 st regiment; Col. Pepe, of the 2d light cavalry; the lieutenant colonel of the 11 th infantry, and who knows how many have met the same fate.The following are wounded; Gen. Lombardini, the Colonel of he 3d cavalry and the Lieut. Col. of he 5 th cavalry.

Extract from a private letter, dated Feb. 23.-At the moment of writing (12 o'clock of the day) we are returning from Angostura, where we beat Taylor all day yesterday, taking from them many points among the heights almost inaccessible, and doing so repeatedly, until our troops remained at night established in the position from which we had driven them by main force.We took from them three guns, killed many of their troops.Our soldiers engaging them again and again.

I would not desire to speak to you of those killed of whom we have lost many and among them Pepe Oronoz, Pepe Bonilla, the Major of Morlia Berra, Asonos, Lugando, major of huzzars.There area wounded, Gen. Lombardini, D. Angel Guzman, D. Miguel Gonzales, and others.

Today a flag of truce has come in from Taylor, asking peace.D. Antonio commanded the eyes of the officer to be unbandaged that they might see our camp, and that if we had countermarched it was for want of supplies and not for want of courage. [ANP]


General orders of he army-23d Feb'ry., 7 o'clock at night-on the positions of he enemy-camp of Angostura.

His excellency, the general in-chief of he army directs me to announce to the generals, field and company officers, and the soldiers which compose it that he has witnessed with satisfaction the gallant bearing of each one of them during the day of combat which we have had with the invading forces of North America.Such bearing is worthy of the soldiers of a people who desire to be free; and the ground which we now occupy, on which the enemy was just now posted, the places of artillery and the colors we have taken, and the thousand corpses of the enemy which are scattered around us, will always be evidence of he valor of the soldiers of Mexico.

His excellency also directs me to say, that in testimony of the brave deeds of his subordinates, he will present them to the nation and to the supreme government with his commendation; and taking into consideration the fatigues of these days, and the scarcity of provisions which the troops are suffering, that he will direct them to be so disposed that they may recover themselves so as to conclude with glory the enterprise so brilliantly commenced.He directs that this order shall be communicated to the army in a general order extraordinary.By command of his excellency; M. Micheltorena. [ANP]

NNR 72.084-72.086 April 10, 1847 various accounts of the Battle of Buena Vista

Battle of Buena Vista

            A much more minute and satisfactory account of the incidents "incidents" of a battle is often derived from unofficial than from official reports.  Fuller accounts-better written particulars of a war never were so generally, speedily, and accurately spread abroad since wars began, than have been of the existing one between Mexico and the United States.

            The New Orleans Delta of he 27th ult., contains some particulars of the battle of Buena Vista, derived from Major Coffee, one of Gen. Taylor's aids.   We annex a few of them:

            "On the 21st the enemy were descried, approaching over the distant hills.  At their appearance the volunteers raised a great shout, and gave three tremendous cheers.  Their engineers and officers were seen flying over the field, and dragging their cannon about to get them into position; but the nature of the ground did not favor the undertaking, and it was late in the day before the big guns began to open.

            The enemy had with them thirty two cannon, mostly of large calibre.  Their fire though kept up very briskly, and apparently well manned, did so little execution in our ranks that it was not considered necessary to return their fire.   Our cannon were therefore silent the whole of the 21 st .  Eight or ten killed and wounded were the extent of he casualties sustained by our army on the 21st .  During the day an officer approached our lines with a flag of truce, and requested to be shown to General Taylor.

-The brave old man was sitting quietly on his old white charger, with his leg over the pommel of the saddle, watching the movements of the enemy, when the Mexican officer was presented.

            In a very courteous and graceful manner the officer stated that "he had been sent by his excellency Gen. Santa Anna, to his excellency Gen. Taylor, to inquire, in the most respectful manner, what he [Gen. Taylor] was waiting for."  From the silence of Gen. Taylor's batteries, and the quiet manner in which he received Santa Anna's terrific cannonading, the Mexicans supposed he was asking a very pertinent question, to which, however, old Rough and Ready gave the very pertinent reply that "he was only waiting for General Santa Anna to surrender."

            The Mexican returned hastily to his lines.

            This message proved to be a ruse to ascertain which Gen. Taylor's position was, for after the return of the Mexican officer to his own ranks the whole Mexican battery seemed to open upon Gen. Taylor's position, and the balls flew over and about him like hail.  Utterly indifferent to the perils of his situation, there sat the old chief, on his conspicuous white horse, peering through his spy glass at the long lines of Mexican troops that could be seen at a great distance on the march.

            The Persuasion of his aids could not induce him to abandon his favorable point for observation, nor to give up his white horse.   To the suggestion of his staff that old Whitey was rather too conspicuous a charge, for the commander, he replied that "the old fellow had missed the fun at Monterey, on account of a sore foot, and he was determined he should have his share this time."

            Speaking of the engagement on the 22d, the Delta says-

            The broken nature of he ground divided the forces, so that instead of one general engagement, the regiments were compelled in a great measure to fight on their own hook.   Our officers were always in the advance, leading their troops, hence the great mortality among them.  In this general melee, one of our small regiments, of 400 men, would be attacked by a whole Mexican brigade of several thousand.-Thus the Kentucky infantry was attacked at the foot of a hill, in a deep ravine, by an immense force of the enemy.

            A large number of the officers were killed here-among them was Col. Mckee, who fell badly wounded, and was immediately despatched by the enemy, who pierced him with their bayonets as he lay on the ground.   Lieut. Col. Clay was shot through the thigh, and being unable to walk, was taken up and carried some distance by some of his men, but owing to the steepness of the hill, the men finding it very difficult to carry him, and the enemy in great numbers pressing upon them, the gallant lieut. Colonel begged them to leave him on the field; the last that was seen of this noble officer he was lying on his back, fighting with his sword the enemy who were stabbing him with their bayonets.

            The veteran Capt. William S. Willis of the same regiment, at the head of his company, with three stalwart sons who fought at his side, was badly wounded, but still continued the fight, until he was overcome with the loss of blood.  In the meantime the Indiana brigade, who were drawn out and ordered to charge the enemy, were seized with a panic, and displaying some hesitation, Assistant Adj't Gen Lincoln rushed to their front, and whilst upbraiding them for their cowardice, was shot, several balls passing through his body.   In justice to this brigade is should be stated, that they subsequently rallied, and fully redeemed their reputation by the most gallant and effective fighting.

            Colonel Hardin led the Illinoians in very handsome style, and the sturdy "suckers" fought like lions.-Their intrepid colonel fell wounded, and experienced the fate of Colonels McKee and Clay, and was killed by the enemy-not, however, before he had killed one of the cowardly miscreants with a pistol, which he fired whilst lying on the ground.

            Col. Yell led, the foremost man, a charge of his mounted volunteers against a large body of lancers, and was killed by a lance, which entered his mouth and tore off one side of his face.

            The Mississippians, the heroes of Monterey, after doing hard duty as skirmishers, were ordered into line to receive a charge of cavalry, which they did with their rifles delivering at the same time a most destructive fire among the crowded columns of cavalry.   The enemy were completely repulsed.   The distinguished commander of this gallant regiment, Colonel Jefferson Davis, was badly wounded, an escopette ball having entered his foot and passed out of his leg.  He was, however, doing well when last heard from.  The chivalrous Lieut. Col. M'Clung was prevented from doing his share of the brave deeds of this brilliant fight, by the grievous wound received at the battle of Monterey, which still confines him to his bed, and from which it is much feared by his best friends he will never recover.

            Col. Humphrey Marshall's splendid regiment of Kentucky cavalry were impatient for an opportunity of showing their mettle, and avenging the capture of their brethren, then in the hands of the enemy.-They were soon favored with the desired opportunity, by the approach of a force of more than 2,000 lancers and hassars, who gallantly charged them.-The Kentuckyans stood their ground with immovable steadiness, and receiving the enemy with a fire from their carbines, charged in the most gallant style through the column on the right, and wheeling, fell on their left, dispersing and killing many of them.-A like charge was made by Col. May, at the head of a squadron of dragoons, and one of Arkansas cavalry, against a large body of the enemy's cavalry, with like results.

            As to the flags Santa Anna boasts of having taken, they are, very probably, mere company markers, which were dropped on the field and picked up by the valiant Mexicans.  His excellency, of the war department, to whom Santa Anna has sent these trophies, will no doubt be sorely disappointed in the size, texture, and beauty of these standards.  Mexican pride is easily satisfied when such feeble mementos of their prowess and valor as these console them for so inglorious a defeat.

            All the officers on our side, in this hard-fought battle distinguished themselves.  The details of the battle were confided to Gen. Wool, who nobly justified the confidence of his commander and brother veteran, by the most active, zealous, efficient and gallant conduct.  Throughout the whole action he was constantly engaged in the disposition of our forces, and in rallying them to the onset. It was a miracle that he escaped the thick flying balls which thinned the ranks he was marshalling.   There was but one complaint made against him and that was, that he exposed himself too much.  Brig. Gen. Lane, also, showed himself to be a brave and capable officer.   Although wounded early in the action, he kept his horse until it closed, and never for a moment left his post.

The Washington Union of the 3d says:

            "A note, addressed by Ass't Adjutant Bliss, from General Taylor's army, mentions the fact that the general received two balls during the battle; one passed through the cuff of his coat, the other through the front."

The Following account of the battle is extracted from the New Orleans Tropic, of the 30th March.   It partakes far too much of the figurative, for either a military report or a historical account, but gives a graphic description of the field of operation, and details more full the chain of incidents than any of the other accounts yet received.   The Picayune states that it was written "by an accomplished gentleman who shared in the honors and perils of the fight."   We should suspect from the general tenor of the article, that it was penned by one that is or has been in the regular army, attached probably to the artillery, and who full of the espirit du corps had difficulty in preserving a due impartiality to parcelling out the honors won, or consideration for errors committed in the field of action.  His reference to the Indiana and Arkansas volunteer corps we hope may turn out to be chargeable to these prejudices.

            Camp at Buena Vista, February 24, 1847.

On the morning of the 22d, intelligence reached Gen. Taylor at his camp, on the hill overlooking Saltillo from the south, that Santa Anna, whose presence in our vicinity had been reported for several days, was advancing upon our main body, stationed near Rancho San Juan de Buena Vista, about seven miles from Saltillo.  The general immediately moved forward with May's squadron of Dragoons, Sherman's and Bragg's batteries of artillery, and the Mississippi regiment of rifleman under Col. Davis, and arrived at the position which he had selected for awaiting the attack of the enemy, about 11 o'clock.  The time and the place, the hour and the man seemed to promise a glorious celebration of the day.  It was the 22d of February, the anniversary of that day on which the God of battles gave to freedom its noblest champion, to patriotism its purest model, to America a preserver, and to the world the nearest realization of human perfection; for panegyric sinks before the name of WASHINGTON.

            The morning was bright and beautiful.   Not a cloud floated athwart the firmament or dimmed the azure of the sky, and the flood of golden radiance which gilded the mountain tops and poured over the valleys, wrought light and shade into a thousand fantastic forms.  A soft breeze swept down from the mountains, rolling into graceful undulations the banner of the republic, which was proudly streaming from the flag staff of the fort and from the towers and battlements of Saltillo.  The omens were all in our favor.

In the choice of his position Gen. Taylor exhibited the same comprehensive sagacity and masterly coup d'aeil which characterized his dispositions at Resaca de la Palma, and which crowned triumphantly all his operations amid the blazing lines of Monterey-The mountains rise on either side of an irregular and broken valley, about three miles in width, dotted over with hills and ridges, and scarred with broad and winding ravines.  The main road lies along the course of an arroyo, the bed of which is now so deep as to form an almost impassable barrier, while the other side is bounded by precipitous elevatious, elevations, stretching perpendicularly towards the mountains, and separated by broad gullies, until they mingle into one at the base of the principle range.  One ht right of the narrowest point of the roadway a battalion of the first Illinois regiment, under Lieut. Col. Weatherford, was stationed in a small trench, extending to the natural ravine, while on the opposite height, the main body of the regiment under Col. Hardin was posted, with a  single piece of artillery from Capt. Washington's battery.   The post of honor on the extreme was assigned to Bragg's artillery, his supported by the second regiment of Kentucky foot under Col. McKee, the left flank of which rested upon the arroyo.   Washington's battery occupied a position immediately in front of the narrow point of the roadway, in rear of which, and somewhat to the left, on another height, the second Illinois regiment, under Col. Bissell, was posted.-Next on the left, the Indiana brigade, under Gen. Lane deployed, while on the extreme left the Kentucky cavalry under Col. Marshall, occupied a position directly under the frowning summits of the mountains.   The two squadrons of the first and second dragoons, nd the Arkansas cavalry under Col. Yell, were posted in rear, ready for any service which the exigencies of the day might require.

            These dispositions had been made for some time, when the enemy was seen advancing in the distance, and he clouds of dust which rolled up before him  gave satisfactory evidence that his numbers were not unworthy the trial of strength upon which we were about to enter.  He arrived upon his position in immense masses, and with forces sufficiently numerous to have commenced the attack at once, had he been as confident of success as it subsequently appeared he was solicitous for our safety.   The first evidence directly afforded us of he presence of Santa Anna was a white flag, which was dimly seen fluttering in the breeze, and anon Surgeon Gen. Lindenberg, of the Mexican army, arrived, bearing a beautiful emblem of benevolent bravado and Christian charity.   It was a missive from Santa Anna, suggested by considerations for our personal comfort, which has placed us under lasting obligations, proposing to Gen. Taylor terms of unconditional surrender; promising good treatment; assuring us hat his force amounted to upwards of 20,000 men; that our defeat was inevitable, and that, to spare the effusion of blood, his proposition should be complied with.  Strange to say, the American general showed the greatest ingratitude; evinced no appreciation whatever of Santa Anna's kindness, and informed him that whether his force amounted to 20,000 or 50,000, it was equally a matter of indifference: the terms of adjustment must be arranged by gunpowder.

            The messenger returned to his employer, and we waited in silence to hear the war of his artillery.-hours rolled by without any movement on his part, and it appeared that the Mexican commander, grieved at our stubbornness, was almost disposed to retrace his steps, as if determined to have no further intercourse with such ungrateful audacity.   At length he mustered resolution of open a fire from a mortar, throwing several shells into our camp without execution.   While this was going on Capt. Steen, of the first dragoons, with a single man, started towards a hill on which the Mexican general appeared to be stationed with his staff; but before he completed the ascent the party vanished and when he reached the top he discovered that two regiments had thrown themselves into squares to resist his charge.   The captain's gravity was overcome by this opposition, and he returned.

Just before dark a number of Santa Anna's infantry had succeeded in getting a position high up the mountains on our left, from which they could make a noise without exposing themselves to much danger, and at a distance of three hundred yards opened a most tremendous fire upon Col. Marhsall's regiment.   This was returned by two of his companies, which were dismounted and detached for the purpose as soon as they could arrive within a neighborly range.  The skirmishing continued   until after dark, with no result to us save the wounding of three men very slightly.

During the night a Mexican prisoner was taken, who reported Santa Anna's force as consisting of fifteen pieces of artillery, including some 24 pounders, six thousand cavalry, and fifteen thousand infantry, thus confirming the statement of his superior.

The firing on our extreme left, which soon ceased after sunset on the 221, was renewed on the morning of the 22d at an early hour.   This was accompanied by quick discharges of artillery from the same quarter, the Mexicans having established during the night a 12 pounder on a point at the base of the mountain, which commanded any position which could be taken by us.  To counteract the effect of this piece, Lieut. O'Brien, 4th artillery, was detached with three pieces of Washington's battery, having with him Lieutenant Bryan of the Topographical Engineers, who having planted a few shells in the midst of the enemy's gunners, for the time effectually silenced his fire.

            From the movements soon perceptible along the left of our line, it became evident that the enemy was attempting to turn that flank, and for this purpose had concentrated a large body of cavalry and infantry on his right.  The base of the mountain around which these troops were winding their way, seemed girdled with a   belt of steel, as their glittering sabres and polished lances flashed back the beams of the morning sun.  Sherman's and Bragg's batteries were immediately ordered to the left; Col. Bissell's regiment occupied a position between them, while Col. McKee's Kentuckians were transferred from the right of our line, so as to hold a position near the centre.  The second Indiana regiment, under Col. Bowles, was placed on our extreme left, nearly perpendicular to the direction of our line, so as to oppose, by a direct fire, the flank movement of he enemy.  These dispositions having been promptly effected, the artillery of both armies opened its fires, and simultaneously the Mexican infantry commenced a rapid and extended discharge upon our line, from the left, to McKee's regiment.   Our artillery belched forth its thunders with tremendous effect, while the Kentuckians returned the fire of he Mexican infantry with great steadiness and success;-their field officers, McKee, Clay ad Fry, passing along their line, animating, and encouraging the men, by precept and example.   The second Illinois regiment, also received the enemy's fire with great firmness, and returned an ample equivalent.   While this fierce conflict was going on, the main body of Col Hardin's regiment, moved tot he right of the Kentuckians, and the representatives of each state, seemed to vie with each other in the honorable ambition of doing the best service for their country.   Both regiments gallantly sustained their positions, and won unfading laurels.  The veterans of Austerlitz, could not have exhibited more courage, coolness and devotion.

In the meantime, the enemy's cavalry had been stealthily pursuing its way along the mountain, and though our artillery had wrought great havoc among its numbers, the leading squadrons had passed the extreme points of danger, and were almost in position to attack us in the rear.   At this critical moment, the Indiana regiment turned upon its proper front, and commenced a inglorious flight.   The efforts of Col. Bowles to bring it into position were vain, and over hills and ravines they pursued their shameful career to the great delight of he enemy, who rent the air with shouts of triumph.   Several officers of General Taylor's staff, immediately dashed of, to arrest, if possible, the retreating regiment and restore it again to reputation and to duty.  Major Dix, of the pay department, formerly of the 7th infantry, was the first to reach the deserters, and seizing the colors of the regiment, appealed to the men, to know whether they had determined to desert them.   He was answered by three cheers, showing that though the men had little disposition to become heroes themselves, they were not unmindful of an act of distinguished gallantry on the part of another.   A portion of the regiments immediately rallied around him, and was reformed by the officers.  Dix, in person, then led them towards the enemy until one of the men volunteered to take the flag.  The party returned to the field, and though not in time to repair the disaster which their flight had created, to retrieve in a slight degree, the character of the state.   While this day, however, by this disgraceful panic, was fast going against us, the artillery was advanced, its front extended, and different sections and pieces under Sherman, Bragg, O'Brien, Thomas Reynolds, Kilburn, French, and Bryan, were working such carnage in the ranks of the enemy, as to make his columns roll to and from, like ships upon the billows.   His triumph, at the Indiana retreat, was but for a moment, and his shouts of joy, were soon followed by groans of anguish, and the shrieks of expiring hundreds.

Washington's battery on the right, had now opened its fire, and driven back a large party of lancers, advancing in that direction.   Along the entire line, the battle raged with great fury.   Twenty-one-thousand of the victims of Mexican oppression and the myrmidons of Mexican despotism, were arrayed against five thousand Americans, sent forth to conquer a peace.  The discharges of the infantry followed each other more rapidly than the sounds of the Swiss bell ringers in the fierce fervor of a finale, and the volleys of artillery reverberated through the mountains like the thunders of an Alpine storm.

The myriads of Mexican cavalry still pressed forwards on our left, and threatened a charge upon the Mississippi rifles, under Col. Davis, who had been ordered to support the Indiana regiment, and had succeeded in preserving a fragment of it in position.-Col Davis, immediately threw his command into the form of a V, the opening towards the enemy, and awaited his advance.   On he came dashing with al the speed of Mexican horses, but when he arrived at that point from which could be seen the whites of his eyes, both lines poured forth a sheet of lead that scattered him like chaff, felling many a gallant steed to the earth, and sending scores of riders to the sleep that knows no waking.

            While the dispersed Mexican cavalry were rallying, the 3d Indiana regiment, under Col. Lane, was ordered to join Col. Davis, supported by a considerable body of horse.  About this time, from some unknown reason, our wagon train displayed its length along the Saltillo road, and offered a conspicuous prize for the Mexican lancers, which they seemed not unwilling to appropriate.   Fortunately, Lieut. Rucker, with a squadron of the 1st dragoons, Capt. Steen having been previously wounded and Capt. Eustis (confined to his bed by illness) was present, and by order of Gen. Taylor, dashed among them in a most brilliant style, dispersing them by his charge, as effectually as the previous fire of the Mississippi rifleman.

May's dragoons, with a squadron of Arkansas cavalry under Capt. Pike, and supported by a single piece of artillery, under Lieut. Reynolds, now claimed their share in the discussion and when the Mexicans had again assembled, they had to encounter another shock from the two squadrons, besides a fierce fire of grape from Reynold's 6 pounder.  The lancers once more rallied and directing their course towards the Saltillo road, were met by the remainder of Col. Yell's regiment and Marshall's Kentuckians, who drove them towards the mountains on the opposite side of the valley, where, from their appearance when last visible, it may be presumed, they are still running.  In this precipitate movement, they were compelled to pass through a rancho, in which many of our valiant comrades had previously taken refuge, who, from this secure retreat, opened quite an effective fire upon them.

It is reported, moreover, that hundreds of the Arkansas cavalry were so well satisfied with the result of this single effort, that they deemed in unnecessary to make another, and accordingly kept on their way to town, and there reported Gen. Taylor in full retreat.

At this time the Mexican force was much divided, and the fortunes of the day were with us.  Santa Anna saw the crisis, and by craft and cunning sought to avert it.   He sent a white flag to General Taylor, desiring to know "what he wanted."  This was at once believed to be a mere ruse to gain time and recollect his men; but the American General thought fit to notice it, and General Wool was deputed to meet the representative of Santa Anna, and to say to him that we "wanted" peace.   Before the interview could be had, the Mexicans themselves re-opened their fires-thus adding treachery of the highest order to the other barbarian practices which distinguish their mode of warfare.   The flag, however, had accomplished the ends which its wiley originator designed; for though our troops could have effectually prevented the remainder of his cavalry from joining the main body, it could only have been done by a fire, which, while the parley lasted, would have been an undoubted breach of faith.  Although a portion of he lancers during this interim had regained their original position, a formidable number still remained behind.  Upon these the infantry opened a brisk fire, while Reynold's artillery beautifully served, hailed the grape and canister upon them with terrible effect.

The craft of Santa Anna had restored his courage, and with his reinforcement of cavalry he determined to charge our line.   Under cover of their artillery, horse and foot advanced upon our batteries.  These, from the smallness of our infantry force, were but feebly supported, yet by the most brilliant and daring efforts nobly maintained their positions.   Such was the rapidity of their transitions that officers and pieces seemed empowered by ubiquity, and upon cavalry and infantry alike, wherever they appeared, they poured so destructive a fire as to silence the enemy's artillery, compel his whole line to fall back, and soon to assume a sort ofsauve qui peut movement, indicating anything but victory.  Again, our spirits rose.  The Mexicans appeared thoroughly routed; and while their regiments and divisions were flying before us, nearly all our light troops were ordered forward, and followed them with a most deadly fire, mingled with shouts which rose above the roar of artillery.   In this charge the first Illinois regiment and McKee's Kentuckians were foremost.  The pursuit was too hot, and, as it evinced too clearly our deficiency in numbers, the Mexicans, with a suddenness which was almost magical, rallied and returned upon us.   They came in myriads, and for a while the carnage was dreadful on both sides.  We were but a handful to oppose the frightful masses which were hurled upon us, and could have as easily resisted an avalanche of thunderbolts.   We were driven back, and the day seemed lost beyond redemption.   Victory, which a moment before appeared within our grasp, was suddenly torn from our standard.  There was but one hope, but that proved an anchor sure and steadfast.

While our men were driven through the ravines, at the extremities of which a body of Mexican lancers were stationed to pounce upon them like tigers, Brent and Whiting of Washington's battery, gae them such a torrent of grape as to put them to flight, and thus saved the remnants of those brave regiments which had long borne the hottest portion of the fight.   On the other flank, while the Mexicans came rushing on like legions of fiends, the artillery was left unsupported, and capture by the enemy seemed inevitable; but Bragg and Thomas rose with the crisis, and eclipsed even the fame they won at Monterey, while Sherman, O'Brien and Brian proved themselves worthy of the alliance.  Every horse with O'Brien's battery was killed, and the enemy had advanced to within range of grape, sweeping all before him.  But here is progress was arrested, and before the showers of iron hail which assailed him, squadrons and battalions fell like leaves in the blasts of autumn.  The Mexicans were once more driven back with great loss, though taking with them the three pieces of artillery which were without horses.

Thus thrice during the day, when all seemed lost but honor, did the artillery, but the ability with which it was maneuvered, roll back the tide of success from the enemy, and give such overwhelming destructiveness to its effect, that the army was saved, and the glory of the American arms maintained.   At this moment, however, let it never be forgotten that while every effective man was wanted on the field, hundreds, some say thousands, of volunteers had collected in the rancho with the wagon train, whom no efforts or entreaties could induce to join their brethren, neighbors and friends, then in the last struggle for death or victory.

The battle had now raged with variable success for nearly ten hours, and, by a sort of mutual consent, after the last carnage wrought among the Mexicans by the artillery, both parties seemed willing to pause upon the result.   Night fell, and the American General, with his troops, slept upon the battle ground, prepared, if necessary, to resume operations on the morrow.   But here the sun rose again upon the scene the Mexicans had disappeared, leaving behind them only the hundreds of their dead and dying, whose bones are to whiten their native hills, and whose moans of anguish were to excite in their enemies that compassion which can have no existence in the bosoms of their friends.

Throughout the action, Gen'l. Taylor was where the shots fell hottest and thickest, two of which passed through his clothes.   He constantly evinced the greatest quickness of conception, fertility of resource, and a cool unerring judgment not to be baffled.   Gen. Wool was wherever his presence was required, stimulating the troops to activity and exertion.  The operations of General Lane were confined to his own brigade, and his efforts were worthy of better material for their application.   Major Bliss bore himself with his usual gallantry, having his horse, as at Palo Alto, shot in the head.  Mr. Crittenden, a son of the Senator from Kentucky, as conspicuous in the field as volunteer aid to General Taylor; and the Medical Director's assistant surgeon, Hitchcock, could sometimes seen where the balls fell fastest, binding up a wound or dressing a broken leg, with true professional zeal; and anon galloping with th ardor of an amateur knight, conveying orders to different commanders.

In this, as in every case of arbitrament by the sword, the laurel is closely entwined with the cypress, and the lustre of a brilliant victory is darkened by the blood at which it has been purchased.   I am unable to state our loss, but it has been very severe, and proves the battle of Buena Vista to have been by far the most terrible conflict in which our troops have been engaged.  Captain Lincoln, Assistant Adjutant General to Gen. Wool, fell early in the action, while proudly distinguished by his efforts of bring the flying regiment back to their position, and with his last breath bore testimony against Indiana cowardice.  Col. Yell was pierced by a lance while gallantly leading his regiment against the Mexican cavalry.   The noble Hardin met his death gloriously while conducting the last terrible charge.  Colonel KcKee, after having gallantly sustained the honor of Kentucky throughout the action, fell in the foremost rank, and Lieut. Col. Clay was cut down at almost the same moment with Hardin and McKee, while giving his men the most brilliant example of noble daring and lofty chivalry.

Others have fallen, but their names are not known to me, nor is it for me to pronounce the eulogy of those whose names I have recorded.   Other and abler pens will do justice to the character and memorey of the illustrious dead, whose devotion to the Republic they have written with their blood and sealed with their lives.   Lincoln was a gallant officer and accomplished gentleman, of pure heart and generous impulses, and worthy of his revolutionary lineage.   Yell was a warm friend and gallant man, quick to see the right and ready to pursue it.  Hardin was one of natures noblest spirits, a soldier tried and true, a rare union of the best qualities of the head and heart.-McKee was wise in council and brave in the field, with a heart moved by the tenderest sympathies and most noble impulses.  And what shall I say of Clay -the young, the brave, the chivalrous-foremost in the fight-the should of every lofty sentiment?-devoted to his friends and genius to his enemies? He fell (indecipherable text) and has left no worthier name behind him.   If he was not the "noblest Roman them all," few will deny that in him-

"Were the elements so mixed, that nature might stand up and say to all the world-THIS WAS A MAN."

But I cannot go on.


NNR 72.086-72.089 April 10, 1847 GUERRILLA WARFARE ON OUR PART

Everyone will wish an opportunity of learning particulars relative to the regions at, and round about the spot made famous by the last victory of General Taylor over the Mexicans.  We avail of the letters of the Correspondent of the Missouri Republican, as affording the best written and most graphic description.  The letters which follow, it will be observed, are dated at he place, and but a few days before the battle.  Would for our country's character, for the sake of humanity we could have been spared the task of recording the horrid massacre which is detailed in the last of the three letters.   It is indeed a tale that an American must blush at the worse than savage enaction of.  What a deplorable guerrilla war is this about to degenerate into? [ANP, MSM]

Letters from a correspondent of the Missouri Republican

[Written before the battle]
Five miles south of Saltillo, Mexico Jan. 20.
Mexican Campaigning.

            This thing of writing letters for publication, in camp, is neither so pleasant nor so easy as might be imagined.   Draw the picture of a man of common size sitting crossed legged on a blanket spread on the ground, with his portfolio on his knee, and an old broken lantern holding a piece of candle, propped up on a well worn leather trunk, and an earthenware inkstand on the ground close by, covered, by the by, with a small tent, in which old boots, old cloths, old guns, swords, pistols, are strewed around in the back ground, all striving to withdraw themselves from notice-and you will have an accurate daguerreotype of the writer and his ranch.  And then there is no such thing as withdrawing from the noise of the camp, the wont of book makers, whose business is to digest the thoughts of others; but all is written in the midst of the perplexing interruptions.   He has commenced a letter, and is endeavoring to recollect an event, or perhaps to philosophize on some new facts presented to his notice, when in walks the quartermaster: "Colonel, one of my wagoners is sick, and I must have another man detailed to drive his wagon.   Very sorry, sir, to have to make the request known-the captains are all mad about taking their men for wagoners-but think, sir, the ammunition will have to be left behind, if we don't get a driver."

            The quartermaster is scarcely despatched, when in pops he head of an orderly sergeant: "Colonel, the butcher has sent up to our company a quarter of beef that is so blue it looks like it was dyed with indigo, and it is stringy enough to make halters.-Just come and see it."   A board of seventy' has to be summoned to condemn the mean beef of the rascally butcher, who is getting seven cents a pound for beef, when   he is only giving two or three cents for it.

            Five minutes more, and another sentence is half finished, when in comes the sergant major to inquire whether he shall make a detail to go for wood tomorrow.  "Yes," shouts the angry writer, "detail half the regiment, and order the other half to let me alone until I finish this letter."

            Ninety miles from the Presidio we encamped on the banks of the Almos.  On the evening of our arrival I did not go down to the stream; and was told by a staff officer that it was about seventy feet wide, and we soon crossed it in the morning.   By the way, these staff officers seem to consider it a part of their duty to shorten distances and diminish obstructions, whenever they are inquired of on these subjects.-At an early hour next morning, the whole command was on the banks of the Almos, ready to cross.   But the first view of the river dissipated all hopes of crossing it easily.  It was seventy yards wide, and four feet deep, and swept downward with amusing velocity, foaming, roaring, and tearing along as though it were determined to prohibit any invasion of its light and transparent waters.  Men could not wade it-their feet were swept from under them in three feet water, before they had reached the centre of the current; neither mules nor horses could pull their wagons across.  It became necessary to take the horses and mules from the wagons and attach long ropes to the wagons, which reached across the stream, and men on the opposite side pulled them across.  By elevating the leading wagons, as had been done at the Rio Grande, they were safely taken over with their contents.   The men crossed on the wagons or by holding to them.

            The current of the river was as rapid as the Ohio at the falls near Louisville, or the Mississippi at the rapids.   An examination of it for several miles showed no decrease in its velocity.  The volunteers took hold of he ropes with alacrity, and fairly worked themselves into favor by their good conduct during the day.

            Leaving a portion of the troops to assist the provision train across the stream, the principal part of the army, with the baggage and ammunition wagons, marched on to cross the Sabinas, five miles distant, before camping.  This was found not to be so wide, but, if possible, more rapid than the Almos, with quicksands on either bank.  The men were fatigued with the labor of the morning when they reached it; but here was an obstacle still to be overcome and with redoubled energy they set to work to master it.  The same course had to be pursued in crossing the wagons as at the Almos. Men and ropes wore found far more serviceable than horses and mules.  There were not wagons sufficient to cross the men on, and a bridge of empty wagons was made across the main part of the stream by fastening the wagons together; still the men had to wade to their waists to get on and off the wagons.

            This was bad enough, but the hardships of the day were aggravated by another circumstance.  It took so much time to cross over the artillery and staff wagons, (who were given preference over the volunteers,) that more than half the company wagons of the regiment of volunteers had to be left on the opposite side of the river from the troops.  The consequence was, that after tugging all day at the ropes, pulling wagons over, and going without any dinner, the majority of the men had to lie down at night in their wet clothes without tents, blankets or food.

            Many were the accidents and narrow escapes of the day.   Several men were washed away from the wagons, and were only saved by extraordinary exertions.  One of the artillerists was washed off the gun carriage, and both wheels passed over his legs, yet they were not broken, as the swiftness of the current doubtless prevented the whole weight of the cannon from coming upon him.   Several mules were drowned.  A quartermaster's wagon was upset in the Sabinas, and his papers and stores floated down the in admirable confusion.

            Neither was there any want of commanders; for both the generals, with all the colonels, the whole staff, and all the wagon masters, were giving orders at the top of their lungs, and with the most violent gesticulations.

            In the midst of this babel of orders and counter orders, mingled as it was with the roaring of the mountain torrent, the shouting of officers, and the imprecations of the wagoners, Maj. Warren quietly slipped off to one side amongst the bushes to take the matter more easily.   Under some brush by the side of the river, he discovered an Arkansas volunteer sitting down, from whose clothes the water was still dripping. His head was between his knees, and he was deeply soliloquizing.

            "Well," said he, "if this is war, I ain't in no more."

            "What is the matter?"  inquired the major.

            "Why," answered the Rackensacker, "I was standing on the bank up there with my hands in my pockets, thinking I might as well take it easy, as I didn't own any of them wagons, when along comes the general, and shouted out, 'what are you doing there on the bank, you lazy fellow?   Why don't you jump in and help that wagoner?'   without taking time to take a chaw of tobacco, I pitched in like a frog and seized hold of the wagon and worked as hard as if I had been at a gander pulling. And was still at it, a giving of orders equal to the best of them, when here comes a general's aidercong and screaming out 'What the d--l are you doing in the way?'  With that I leaped out of the river like a water dog.   Now you see stranger, I came here to fight them Mexicans, and not to make a mule of myself to haul wagons, and I say again, if this is war I ain't in no more." [ANP]


The Hacienda Hermanus is situated in a mountain valley from thence to Monclova our route ran through valleys; with horizon bordered on all sides by mountains.  Since that time our route has led us four hundred miles in Mexico, and never has the sun reached his evening bed, one single evening, without his rays being intercepted by a mountain peak

We passed several ranches, and a samll mud village, and before reaching Monclova, found ourselves beyond the confines of grass.  Prickly-pear and thorn bushes covered hill and valley.

On the 30th October we encamped near Monclova.  We continued encamped in its vicinity for several weeks, during which time we had an opportunity of seeing the town and studying the manners and habits of its people.

Monclova is situated at the foot of one of the mountains of the Bolson de Mapimis, and its houses border a beautiful, noisy rivulet, whose waters are distributed through the town.  It contains about six thousand inhabitants, and is the centre of a considerable trade.  There are thirty of forty stores in the place, some of which have good stokes of goods.  The merchants replenish their stock from different places.  Most of their goods are brought from Matamoros-some from San Luis-others are brought across the continent, from Mazatlan.  Silks and Canton crapes are not more costly that in the United States; but woolen and cotton goods usually sell for twice the price they will command in the villages in the United states.  Broadcloths are an exception, and bring about the same price as in the United States.  T

The houses are built of adobes, one story high.  The streets are narrow, and intersect each other at right angles.  This town. Like most others, has many deserted houses, which are going to destruction.  The washings of a few rainy seasons make them a mass of rubbish, and often fill the adjacent street a foot or two in depth.  A slight hill separates the town from Pueblo, in which there is a handsome alemeda or promenade, three hundred yards in length, set around with fine cotton wood trees, and bordered with a rivulet of water; stone seats, neatly plastered, furnish opportunities for repose.  This is the favorite resort of the inhabitants in the afternoons and evenings, during the warm months.  In a country here trees are so rare, such a retreat is peculiarly pleasant.

There is another smaller alameda  in the main town similarly ornamented.  There also several pluzas, which are to be found in all Mexican towns.

Every Mexican town, of many inhabitants, in addition to its Alcalde, has a perfect, or governor.  Most of them have also a custom house officer.  It matters little what the theory of the government may be; it is certain, practically, that heir power over the inhabitants of the town is wholly unlimited.

A day or two after leaving Santa Rosa, Genral Wool received a protest from the prefect of Monclova, in which he informed the general that his advance was a violation of the armistice then existing between the governments of their respective countries, requesting him not to proceed to Monclova; and further advising him, that if he persisted in doing so, his march would be resisted.  All this was considered Mexican rhodomontade, and out march continued.

The evening we arrived in the vicinity of Monclova soon after out tents were pitched, a cavaleade, of a dozen richly caparisoned cavalleros approached our camp, and were conducted to head quarters.  They were the pretect, and other officers of the town, win thinking “discretion the better part of valor,” wisely determined to welcome the arrival of the general and hi army as friends instead of shooting at them as enemies.  They formally informed the general that no resistance would be made, invited him to march into town, and offered to furnish him with quarters.

Like many others, I was struck with the dress and equipage of the party, that with their message.

They were dressed, some in cloth, others in velvet, but most in buckskin pants, with seven dozen buttons on each pair of pants, studded on the outer seams of the legs.  A sash tied tightly round the waist, upheld the pants.  Calico or cambric shirts, with the bosoms of those worn by the dandies, richly worked, covered the upper man.  Over this was a broadcloth roundabout, richly covered with silk braid.  A sombrero of fur, covered with back shiling oil cloth, was stuck jauntily on the head, and only sufficient to cover a portion of it, as it is not fashionable to wear one large enough for the head.  The bootees, and when mounted they were completely methered in their large wooden stirrups and leather blousings.  A plaited whip of raw ox hide, with a handle eight inches long and fastened around the wrist with a fanciful string, was held in the hand.  A huge pair of iron spurs with the burrs three inches across, and ornamented with little bells which tiniled as the horse moved, were fastened on his feet with leather straps, broidered with silk.  To complete the cavallero’s costume-around his shoulders as thrown, with graceful negligence, the indispensable sarape, or blanket, of the finest work and gayest pattern.  No Mexican ever leaves his home without this gar covering.  It is as indispensable to then as a gun to the sportsman , a sabre to a dragoon or moustache to an aid-de-campe.  In warm weather, it is worn around the waist like a sash, and a horse back rests on the saddle, with  the ends falling gracefully down.  When the weather is the least maid he envelops himself in its ample folds, growing one end tastefully over the left shoulder.  When it rains, he inserts his head through a hole worked in the center, and with his oil cloth sombrero bids defiance to the weather.  A night, it forms his bed and covering.  It is not only an article of use, but of the greatest pride to the wearer.  Every man purchases as fine a one as he is able-the price of fine ones usually worn by the Spaniards varying from thirty to eighty dollars, though some times ranging as high as four hundred dollars.  Gay colors usually predominate in their formation-red, orange, green, blue, &c., being most in a vogue.  Patterns are as various as the figures in a kaleide scope, and most of the fine ones are very beautiful.

The trapping of the horse, however, took the crowd more than the raiders.  The pommels of the saddles, the cantels, and holes in the cantels sufficient to admit the hand, and the different fastenings of the saddle, were plated with solid silver.  A heavy housing of worsted work, or more frequently of horse hair, was fastened behind the saddle, and covered the lions of the horse.  a large piece of stamped leather covered the stirrups, and protected the feet of the rider from the bushes, and hung down like an over grown set if ears of fox hounds.  The saddle tree was covered with leather stamped into various figures, and of infinite work.  The bridle buckles were of silver; the ends of all the pieces of leather in the headstall, the brow-brand, and various ornaments in the headstall, conceal nearly all the leather of the headstall, were of solid silver.  The reins were of different material; some of hair, some of worsted, some of plaited leather, and some of plated silver wire-but all perfectly round, and of the size of a bed cord.  The bit which was of curiously worked iron, with an iron ring curb, hair laryat, with the strands of different colors, was fastened around the horse’s neck, and hung in a coil from the pommel of the saddle.

               These massive trappings were on their best Mexican ponies, for a well grown horse is not to be found in Mexico, fourteen bands being the measure of a tall Mexican pony.  They showed the marks of good keeping and thorough breaking, and would curvet for half an hour under the shade of a tall cotton wood.  This rolling, frollicking; cavorting gait, for a Mexican never rides in a trot, and rarely in a walk.  The canter is his passion.

A fine Mexican saddle costs from fifty to five hundred dollars, the head stall of a bridle from twenty five to fifty dollars, and silver reins from thirty five to one hundred dollars.  A Mexican pony costs from ten to thirty dollars.  A few will bring more, but they are rare.  When all this costly rigging is put upon a diminutive pony, which the owner would sell for twenty dollars, it does look very like “running the thing into the ground.” 

Those civil dignitaries were accompanied (as is the universal custom with those who can afford it) by pacons, to hold their horses.  These were dressed differently, in some respects, from their masters,  The sombrero was of coarser material, usually of wool, with a fancy hat brand, worked like a fancy bead purses, others were of silk or leather, with large silver ornaments on them.  The neither garments were of seer skin, fastened at the outer sides for six inches below the waist, and open from there down.  White cotton drawers half a yard in width, projected their ample folds through the open sides of pants.  [These open overalls are the peculiar distinction of the pavons.  For, either by custom or law, they never wear their pants closed at the sides.] 

A white cotton shirt covered the shoulders, and the better dressed wore a jacket of deer skin, adorned with stripes of stamped leather.  Shoes of red leather, with large spurs, were on their feet; and a heavy blanket, of drivers colors, enveloped their waists.

Their horse furniture was much less costly than their masters, yet was in such abundance as to conceal the whole body of their ponies.

These pacons followed their masters like shadows, watched their movements without a word; and at the waving of a hand, darled off at full speed to execute an order.  They are the express riders of the country, and will ride incredible distances in one or two days, to carry a despatch.

The Mexicans are most accomplished riders.  Their stirrup leathers are fastened to the saddle much further back than is usual in the United States.  The seats of the saddle are also smaller.  When a person mounts one, and gets his feet inserted into their broad wooden stirrups, he finds himself standing right across the horse.  To a person unaccustomed to it, this is a very uncomfortable position, yet it gives the rider better command of his horse, and whichever way he may dodge the rifer is still safe in the saddle.

Their bridle bits are vary severe, giving the rider perfect control of the horse.  One of their principal amusements is to put a horse at full speed, and suddenly bring him up standing on his haunches.  Owing to the severity of the bit, and their position in their position in the saddle, they bear no weight on the bridle, and do not depend upon it to steady them in riding.  With a well trained horse, their arms are consequently free, and this gives them the opportunity of throwing the lasso with so much freedom and certainty.

Notwithstanding the excellency of the horsemanship of the Mexicans, such is their inferiority in stature to the Americans, as well as that of their horses that their cavalry never can be formidable to disciplined American troops.

By the time the perfect and his associate dignitaries had gotten through surrendering the government of the town to the general, the outsiders had completed the inspection of the rigging of the party.  Both parties were therefore ready for a mutual separation.

The Mexicans mounting their mettlesome horses, moved back to Monclova in the greatest possible canter.  And the soldiers dispersed, after expressing a partly unanimous wish, that they might meet a lot of such fellows in battle, so that they could supply themselves with silver mounted saddles and fine.  [MSM]


Under this caption the Washington Union of the 29th ult had the following leading editorial. “We have been permitted to examine a statement prepared at the office of the adjutant general of the army, showing, as nearly as can be ascertained, the amount of force left under the orders of General Taylor after the with-drawl of a part of the army of occupation for service under Gen. Scott.  The statement embraces the regular troops left under the command of General Taylor together with the regiment of volunteers called out in November, 1846, on the Rio Grande.  There can be little, if any doubt, indeed, that they all reached Matamoros before the 23d instant.

According to this statement, the aggregate of force, both regular and volunteer, under the orders of General Taylor, as shown upon the muster rolls, is 13,910.  Of 9,374 men, exclusive of the new volunteers regiments.  But it is supposed that of these 9,374, not more than 8,000 certainly should be counted as effective.  It is probable, indeed, that of these troops in the field, the effective force may not exceed 7,500.  To this number, however, must be added the new regiments of volunteer called out in November, 1846, amounting to 4,536.  Of these not more than 4,000 can probably be reckoned as effective.  The whole actual effective force, therefore, under the command of Gen. Taylor, is not far from 12,000.

The same statement exhibits also, so far as is known, the distribution of the troops (exclusive of the new regiments) along the line of the Rio Grande from the Brazos to Camargo, and thence along the line of operations to Monterey and Agua Nueva.  From this part of the statement, it appears that there are at the posts on the Rio Granse, including Brazos island, Point Isabel, Fort Brown, Matamoros, Camargo, and Mier, a total number of 1,434 troops.  Of these, 543 are at Camargo; 598 are at Matamoros and Fort Brown in the other side of the river.  But the new regiments must have already reinforced troops now at Camargo is probably not less than 1, 500.  The garrison at Monterey numbers 1,327 troops, with 40 pieces of artillery.  Between the posts on the Rio Grande and Monterey, at Lenedo, Punta Aguada, Cerralvo, and Marin, there are about 7600 troops; and the remainder of the force, as above stated, is supposed to be at Agua nueva, (the headquarters of General Taylor, when last heard from officially), at Saltillo, and the Pass of the Rinconada.

On the 30th the “Union” in another says- “We understand at the war office that the force at and in the position near Saltillo was about five thousand nine hundred, of which a little upwards of five thousand may be counted as effective; and this is the whole amount which could have been brought into the field to oppose General Santa Anna at any point between Monterey and Agua Nueva, unless a conflict tool place near Monterey; in which case part of the troops there stationed, (some twelve or thirteen hundred) woould no doubt be made available.

“We may add, of the force at Saltillo, there are four companies pf United States artillery, well equipped, with eighteen guns, and four companies of dragoons; making in all about six hundred and fifty regulars, who, for prowess and skill in battle, we believe, would be unsurpassed in any service in the world.

“Should Col. Morgan have succeeded in making his way from Seralvo to Monterey, (which we sincerely trust may be the case), he would carry into Gen. Taylor’s camp a reinforcement of from 400 to 500 volunteers.  [MSM]


TO THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURER, SIR: The government of Mexico having repeatedly rejected the friendly overtures of the U. States to open negotiations with a view to the restoration of oeace, sound policy and a just regard to the interests of our own country require that the enemy should be made as far as practicable, to bear the expenses of a war which they are the authurs, and which they obstinately persist in protracting.

It is the right of the conqueror to levy contributions upon the enemy in their seaports, towns, or provinces, which may be in his military possession by conquest, and to apply the same to defray the expenses of the war.  The conqueror possesses the right also to establish a temporary military government to prescribe the conditions and restrictions upon which commerce with such places may be permitted.  He may, in his discretion, exclude all trade, or admit, without limitation of restriction; or impose terms the observance of which will be the condition of carrying it on.  One of these conditions may be the payment of a prescribed rate of duties on tonnage and imports.

In the exercise of these unquestioned rights of war, I have, n full consideration, determined to order that all the ports or places in Mexico which now are, or hereafter may be, in the actual possession of our land and naval forces by conquest, shall be opened, while out military occupation may continue, to the commerce of all neutral nations, as well as our own, in articles not contraband of war, upon the payment of prescribed rates of duties, which will be made known and enforced by our military and naval commanders.

While the adoption of this policy will be to impose a burden on the enemy, and at the same time to deprive them of the revenue  to be derived from trade at such ports or places, as well as to secure it to ourselves, whereby the expenses of the war may be diminished, a just regard to the general interests of commerce, and the obvious advantages of uniformity in the exercise of these belligerent rights, requires that well considered regulations and restrictions should be prepared for the guidance of those who may be charged with carrying it into effect.

You are therefore instructed to examine the existing Mexican tariff of duties and to report me a schedule of articles of trade, to be admitted at such ports or places as may at any time be in our military possession, with such rates of duties in them, and also on tonnage, as will be likely to produce the greatest amount of revenue.  You will also communicate the considerations which may recommend the scale of duties which you may deem advisable, in order to enforce their collection.

As the levy of the contribution proposed is a military right derived from the laws of nations, the collection and disbursement of the duties will be made under the orders of the secretary of war and the secretary of the navy, by the military and naval commanders at the ports or places in Mexico which may be in possession of our arms.  The report required is therefore necessary in order to enable me to give the proper directions to the war and navy departments.

SIR:  Your instructions of the 23d instant have been received be this department, and in conformity thereto I present you herewith, for your considerations, a scale of duties proposed to be collected as a military contribution during the war, in the ports of Mexico, in possession of our army or navy by conquest, with regulations for the ascertainment and collection of such duties, together with the reasons which appear to me to recommend their adoption.

It is clear that we must either adopt our own tariff or that of Mexico, or establish a new system of duties.  Our own tariff could not be adopted, because the Mexican exports and imports are so different rates of duties are indispensable in order to collect the largest revenue.  Thus, upon many articles produced in great abundance here, duties must be imposed at the lowest rate in order to collect any revenue; whereas many of the same articles are not produced in Mexico, or to a very inconsiderable extent, and would therefor bear there a much higher duty for revenue.  A great change is also rendered unecessary by the proposed exaction of duties on all imports to any Mexican port in our possession from any other Mexican port occupied by us in the same manner.  This measure would largely increase the revenue which we might collect.  It is recommended, however, for reasons of obvious safety, that this Mexican coastwise trade should be confined to our own vessels, as well as the interior trade above any port of entry in our possessions, but that in all other respects the ports of Mexico held by us should be freely opened at the rate of duties herein recommended to the vessels and commerce of all the world.  The ad valorem system of duties adopted by us, although by far the most just and equitable, yet requires an appraisement to ascertain the actual value of every article.  This demands great mercantile skill, knowledge, and experience, and therefore, for the want of skillful appraisement-a class of officers wholly unknown in Mexico-could not at once be put into successful operation there.

 If, also, as proposed, these duties are to be ascertained and collected as a military contribution through the officers of our army and navy, those brave men could more easily perform almost any other duty that that of estimating the value of every description of goods, wares, and merchandise.  The system of specific duties already prevails in Mexico, and may be put by us into immediate operation; and if, as is conceded, specific duties should be more burdensome upon the people of Mexico, the more onerous the operation of these duties upon them, the sooner it is likely that they will force their military rulers rulers to agree to a peace.  It is certain that a mild and forebearing system of warfare, collecting no duties in their ports in our possession on the Gulf, and levying no contributions, whilst our armies purchase supplies from them at high prices, by rendering the war a benefit to the people of Mexico rather than an injury, has not hastened the conclusion of a peace.  It may be, however, that specific duties, onerous as they are, and heavy contributions, accompanied by a vigorous prosecution of the war, may more speedily ensure that peace which we have failed to obtain from magnanimous forbearance, from brilliant victories, or from proffered negotiation.  The duties, however, whilst they may be specific, and therefore more onerous than ad valorem duties, should not be so high as to defeat revenue.  It is impossible to adopt as a basis the tariff of Mexico, because the duties are extravagantly high, defeating importation, commerce, and revenue, and producing innumerable frauds and smuggling.  There are also sixty articles the importation of which into Mexico is strictly prohibited by their tariff, embracing most if the necessaries of life, and far the greater portion of out products and fabrics.

Among the sixty prohibited article are sugar, rice, cotton, boots and halt boot, coffee, nails of all kinds, leather pf most kinds, flour cotton yearn and thread, soap of all kinds, common earthenware, lard, molasses, timber of all kinds, saddles of all kinds, coarse woollen cloth, cloths for cloaks, ready made clothing of all kins, salt, tobacco of all kinds, cotton goods or textures, chiefly such as are made by ourselves, pork, fresh or slated, smoked or corned woollen or cotton blankets or counterpanes, shoes and slippers, wheat and grain of all kinds.  Such is a list of but a part of the articles whose importation is prohibited by the Mexican tariff.  These prohibitions should not be permitted to continue, because they exclude most of our products and fabrics, and prevent the collection of revenue.  We turn from the prohibitions to the actual duties imposed by Mexico.  The duties are specific throughout, and almost universally by weight, irrespective of value, are generally protective or exorbitant, and without any discrimination for revenue.  The duties proposed to be substituted are moderate when compared with those imposed by Mexico, behalf generally reduced to a standard more than one half below the Mexican duties.

The duties are also based upon a discrimination throughout, for revenue, and keeping in view the customs and habits of the people of Mexico, so different from our own, are fixed in each case at the rate which, it is believed, will produce in the Mexican ports the largest amount of revenue.  In order to realize from this system the largest amount of revenue, it would be necessary that our army and navy should seize every important port and place upon the Gulf of Mexico, or California, or  the Pacific, and open the way through the interior for the free transit of imports and exports, and especially that the interior passage through the Mexican isthmus should be secured from ocean to ocean for the benefit of our commerce and that of all the world.  In the mean time the Mexican government monopoly in tobacco, from which a considerable revenue is realized by Mexico, together with the culture there which yields that revenue, should be abolished, so as to diminish the resources of that government, and augment our own, by collecting the duty upon all the imported tobacco.  The Mexican interior transit duties should also be abolished, and their internal government on coin and bullion,  The prohibition of exports and duties upon exports should be annulled, and especially the heavy export duty on coin and bullion, so as to cheapen and facilitate the purchase of imports, and permit the precious metals untaxed to flow out freely from Mexico onto general circulation.

Quicksilver and machinery for working the mines of precious metals in Mexico, for the same reasons, should also be admitted duty free; which, with the measures above indicated, would largely increase the production and circulation of the precious metals, improve our own commerce and industry and that of all neutral powers.  In thus opening the ports of Mexico to the commerce of the world, you would present to all nations with who, we are at peace the best evidence of your desire to maintain with them our friendly relations, to render the war to them productive of as little injury as possible, and even to advance their interests so far as it safely can be done, by affording to them in common with ourselves the advantages of a liberal commerce with Mexico.  To extend this commerce, you will have unsealed the ports of Mexico, repealed their interior transit duties which obstruct the passage of merchandise to and from the coast; you will have annulled the government duty on coin and bullion and abolished the heavy export duty on the precious metals, so as to permit them to flow out freely for the benefit of mankind; you will have expunged the long list of their prohibited articles, and reduced more than one half their duties on imports whilst the freest scope would be left for the mining of the precious metals.

These are great advantages which would be secured to friendly nations, especially when compared with the exclusion of their commerce by rigorous blockades.  It is true, the duties collected from these imports would be for the benefit of our own government; but it is equally true that the expense of its war which Mexico insists upon prosecuting are borne exclusively by ourselves, and not by foreign nations.  It cannot be doubted but that all neutral nations will see in the adoption of such  a course by you, a manifestation of your good will towards them, and a strong desire to advance those just and humane principles which make it the duty of belligerents, as we have always contended to render the war in which they are engaged as little injurious [ ] practicable to neutral powers.  These duties would not be imposed upon any imports into out own country nut only upon imports into Mexico, and the tax would fall upon the people of Mexico in the enhancement to them of the prices of these imports.  Nearly all out own products are excluded by the Mexican tariff, even in time of peace; they are excluded by the Mexican tariff, even in time if peace; they are excluded al o during the war, so far as we continue the system of blockading any of the ports of Mexico, and they are also excluded even from the ports not blockaded in possession of Mexico; whereas the new system would soon open to our commerce all the ports of Mexico, as they shall fall into out military possession.  Neither our own nor foreign merchants are required to send any goods to Mexico, and, if they do so voluntarily, it will be because they can make a profit upon the importation there, and therefore they will have no right to complain of the duties levied in the ports of Mexico, upon the consumers of those goods the people if Mexico.

The whole money collected would inure to the benefit of our own government and people, to sustain the war, and to prevent to that extent, new loans and increased taxation.  Indeed, in view of the fact that the government [ ] thrown upon the ordinary revenues for peace, with no other additional  resources but loans to carry on the war, the income to be derived from the new system, which, it is believed will be large, if these suggestions are adopted, would be highly important to sustain the credit of the government, to prevent the embarrassment of the treasury, and to save the country from such ruinous sacrifices as occurred during the last year, including the inevitable legacy to posterity of a large debt and onerous taxation.  The new system would not only arrest the expensive transfer and ruinous drain of specie to Mexico but would cause it in duties, and in return for our exports, to reflow into our own country try to an am un perhaps, soon exceeding the nine millions of [ ] which it had reached in 2835, even under the rest trictive laws of Mexico, thus relieving our own people from a grivious tax, and imposing it when it should fall, upon our enemies, the people of Mexico, as a contribution levied upon them to conquer peace, as well as to defray the  expenses of the war whereas, by admitting our exports freely without entry in to the Mexican ports, which affording those goods, including the necessarios of life, at least less than one-half the prices which they had heretofore paid for them, the war might in time become a benefit, instead of a burden, to the people of Mexico, and they would therefore be unwilling to terminate the contest.  I

It is hoped also that Mexico, after a peace, will never renew her present prohibitory and protective system, so nearly resembling that of ancient China or Japan, but that, liberalized, enlightened, and regenerated by the contact and intercourse with our people, and the far more moderate system of duties resembling that prescribed by these regulations.  In the mean time, it is not just that Mexico, by her obstinate persistance in this contest, should compel us to overthrow our own financial policy, and arrest this great nation in her high and prosperous career.

To reimpose high duties would be alike injurious to ourselves and to all neutral powers, and. Unless demanded by a stern necessity, ungenerous to those enlightened nation which have adopted, contemporaneously with us, s more liberal commercial policy.  The system you now purpose, of imposing the burden as far as practicable  upon our enemies the people of Mexico, and not upon ourselves or upon friendly nations, appears to be most just in itself, and is further recommended as the only policy which is likely to hasten the conclusion of a just and honorable peace.

A tonnage duty on all vessels, whether our own or neutral powers, of one dollas per ton, which is greatly less than that imposed by Mexico, is recommended in lieu of all port duties and charges.  Appended to these regulations are tables of the rates at which a certificate of value is required to be attached to the invoice.  There is also annexed a table of foreign weights and measures reduced to the standard of the United States, together with blank forms, to facilitate the transaction of business.  It is recommended that the duties herein suggested shall be collected exclusively in gold of silver coin.  These duties can only be collected as a military contribution through the agency of our brave officers of the army and navy, who will, no doubt, cheerfully and faithfully collect and keep those moneys, and account for them, not to the treasury, but to the secretaries of war or of the navy respectively.  It is recommended that these duties be performed by the commandant of the post, whether naval or military ,aided by the paymaster or parser, or other officer the accounts of each being counter signed by the other as a check upon mistakes or error, in the same manner as is now the several principal ports, which had introduced so much order and accuracy into our systems.

It is suggested that, as in some cases the attention of the commandant of the post might be necessary for the performance of other duties, he be permitted to sub-titute some other officer, making known the fact to the secretaries of the war or of the navy, and subject to their direction.  I have the honor to be, with great respect, your obedient servant, R.J. WALKER, Secretary of the Treasury.  [MSM]


Intelligence from the army and squadron near Vera Cruz to the 19th March, received at New Orleans by the ship Oswego, and the barque Montezuma, both of which left Anton, Lizardo on the 20th, we find in the New Orleans papers of the 31st.

The U.S. steamer Mississippi, was seen on the 20th, about six miles from Vera Cruz, bound in with Commodore Perry on board.

One the 17th Commodore Conner fired a salute in honor of general Taylor’s victory at Buena Vista.

There seems to have been a fatality attending the transport if horses for Gen. Scott’s army.  The ship Yazoo, which brought Capt. Ker’s squadron of 122 horses, struck a reef near Anton Lizardo, and has been completely wrecked.  Capt. K. had by hard work preserved all the horses but two or three, up to the moment the ship ran upon the reef, but the water filled the hold and drowned all the noble animals but eight or ten.  He succeeded in saving his men, with their saddles and arms.  Capt. K. feels deeply distressed about it, but it could not have been helped.

Capt. Thornton lost forty horses from his squadron on the long and boisterous trip from the Brazos.  “Capt. Kearney has not yet landed and I have not yet heard what kind of luck he had with his horses.”  Col. Duncan, lost a number of horses during the gale.  These losses are deeply felt.

The ship Diadem, which sailed from New Orleans with 230 horses on board, lost all but 27 of them before reaching Vera Cruz.  The ship Louisville, which sailed with over 100 horses, landed barely fifty of them at Vera Cruz.  Other vessels with horses on board, lost more or less.  Col. Duncan lost several of his horses during the gale.

Three men from the store ship Relief were drowned in endeavoring to rescue the dragons.

Col. Harney landed on the 17th.  The correspondent of the Picayune says-“He will be able to mount 300 men-enough to drive off all the Mexican cavalry that are now prowling about out rear, ready to attack us there when the attack is made upon the city.  I should not be surprised to learn that the gallant colonel had a beautiful fight, for it is said there are 1,000 collected a few [ ] back of us.

P.S.- The steamer New Orleans arrived from Tampico last evening, with some 200 horses, which will in some degree make up for the loss of dragoons and battery horses.  Gen. Jesup is on board the Mew Orleans.

Gen. Scott had landed ten mortars, but had not opened his fire.  The ship Charles with forty mortars on board, had not arrived on the 19th instant, but was very anxiously expected by Gen. Scott.  [MSM]

NNR 72.096 April 10, 1847  Gen. Winfield Scott's official report of landing and investing Veracruz

OFFICIAL-The following dispatches were received at the war department on the 4 th inst:

Headquarters of the army, Camp Washington, before Vera Cruz. March 12 th , 1847.

SIR-The colors of the United States were triumphantly planted ashore, in full view of this city and its castle, and under the distant fire of both, in the afternoon of the 9 th instant.Brevet Brigadier General Worth's brigade of regulars led the descent, quickly followed by the division of United States volunteers under Major General Patterson, and Brigadier General Twigg'ss reserve brigade of regulars.The three lines successively landed in sixty seven surf boats, each boat conducted by a naval officer, and rowed by sailors from Commodore Conner's squadron-whose lighter vessels flanked the boats so as to be ready to protect the operation by their cross fire.-The whole army reached the shore in fine style, and without direct opposition, (on the beach) accident, or loss, driving the enemy from the ground to be occupied.

The line of investment, according to General Orders,

No. 47, was partially taken up the same night; but has only been completed today-owning to the most extraordinary difficulties.1. The environs of the city, outside of the fire of its guns and those of the castle, are broken into innumerable hills of loose sand, from twenty to two hundred and fifty feet in height, with almost impassable forests of chaparral between; and 2.Of all our means of land transportation-wagons, carts, pack saddles, horses and mules, expected to join us from Tampico and the Brazos, weeks ago-but fifteen carts and about one hundred draught horses, have yet arrived.Three hundred pack-mules are greatly needed to relieve the troops in taking subsistence, alone, along the line of investment of more than five miles, as at present , our only depot is south of the city.On the cessation of the present raging norther, which almost stifles the troops with sand-sweeping away hills and creating new, I hope to establish a second depot north of the city, which will partially relieve the left wing of the army.

In extending the line of investment around the city, the troops, for three days, have performed the heaviest labors in getting over the hills and cutting through the intervening forests-all under the distant fire of the city and castle-and in the midst of many sharp skirmishes with the enemy.In these operations we have lost in killed and wounded several valuable officers and men.Among the killed, I have to report Brevet Capt. Alburtis, of the U.S. 2d infantry, much distinguished in the Florida war, and a most excellent officer.He fell on the 11th inst.; and Lieut. Col. Dickenson, of the South Carolina regiment, was badly wounded, in a skirmish the day before.Two privates have been killed in these operations, and four or five wounded.As yet, I have not been able to obtain their names.

As soon as the subsistence of the troops can be assured, and their positions are well established, I shall, by and organised movement, cause each brigade of regulars and volunteers to send detachments, with supports, to clear its front, including sub-bourgs, of the enemy's parties, so as to oblige them to confine themselves within the walls of the city.

I have heretofore reported that but two-sevenths of the siege train and ammunition had reached me.The remainder is yet unheard of.We shall commence landing the heavy metal as soon as the storm subsides, and hope that the five-sevenths may be up in time.

The city being invested, would, no doubt, early surrender, but for the tear that if occupied by us, it would immediately be fired upon by the castle.I am not altogether without hope of finding the means of coming to some compromise with the city on this subject.

So far, the principal skirmishing has fallen to the lot of Brigadier Generals Pillow's and Quitman's brigades.Both old and new volunteer regiments have conducted themselves admirably.Indeed the whole army is full of zeal and cannot fail to acquire distinction in the impending operations.

To commodore Conner, the officers and sailors of his squadron, the army is indebted for great and unceasing assistance, promptly and cheerfully rendered.Their co-operation is the constant theme of our gratitude and admiration.A handsome detachment of marines, under Captain Edson, of that corps, landed with the first line, and is doing duty with the army.

March 13-The enemy, at intervals, continues the fire of heavy ordnance, from the city and castle, upon our line of investment, both day and night, but with little or no effect.

The norther has ceased, which has renewed our communication with the storeships at anchor under Sacrificios.We shall immediately commence landing the few pieces of heavy ordance, with ordnance stores, at hand, and hope soon to have the necessary draught mules to take them to their positions.Any further delay in the arrival of those means of transportation will be severely felt in our operations.

I have the honor to remain, sir, with high respect, your most obedient servant,

Hon. Wm L. Marcy, secretary of war.


CASTLE OF VERA CRUZ-A correspondent of the New Orleans Delta furnishes the following historical reminiscences respecting this fortress: In front the city of Vera Cruz, the Spaniards erected, at an expense of $40.000,000 the famous castle of San Juan d'Ulloa, as a ramparf against foreign invasion as well as foreign curiosity. It was captured for the first time by surprise on the 14thSeptember, 1568, by he pirate Juan Aquinas Acle, who was, however, shortly expelled by Don Francisco de Lujan, with the aid of a fleet composed of twently-three vessels. This happened when Don Martin Henriques was viceroy of Mexico. The second captured, was also made by a pirate named Lorencillo. Occurred in the night between the 17th and 18th of May, 1693, and was far more disastrous in its consequences. Lorencillo, after he had mastered the citadel, sacked the city of Vera Cruz, and after having remained in peaceful possession of both for the space of nearly two weeks, departed with his plunder. The third capture was effected by admiral Baudin, and is too well known to require further mention. [MSM]

NNR 72.098-099 April 17, 1847 NOTICE OF TROOP MOVEMENTS

MOVEMENT OF TROOPS- A letter from an officer of the Massachusetts regiments, dated Biasos Santiago, March 17, says:- "We (companies A and D, under command of Captain Edward Webster) arrived here night before last, after a very pleasant and quick passage of nineteen days, and wee are lucky enough to have no sick men . We march this morning ofr the mouth of the river, and thence we take steamboats for Camargo, there to await orders from General Taylor. A part of the Carolina regiment left yesterday, and the last three companies of the Virginia regiment arrived last evening. We are all in good spirits, and hope to have something to do. The N. Orleans Picayune, March 17, says:- The U.S. steamboat Teiegraph, Capt. Auld-which has been thoroughly repaired at a cost of $17,000-got off last evening for Tampico, via Brazos Sanitago-Thomas B. Eastland, quartermaster, and his son; Col. Hamtramek and Adjutant August, of the Virginia volunteers; Capt. Erkine, of the commissary department; Capt. Hill, of 1st regiment Pennsylvania volunteers; Dr. F. W. Miller, of the medical department, Lieut. Gowan, of 2d regiment Kentucky volunteers; Lieut. Wilt, of Baltimore battalion; Mesars. Jaohn F. Calarke and N. Ashbrooks, committee to the Alabama regiment; Mr. J. B. Cozzens, sutler at Malamorors, Mr. Reney, engineer in the quartermaster departments, Captain Fulton of the 1st Tennessee regiment; Lieut. moore, of 1st Pennsylvania regiments; Lieut. Moore. Of 1st Pennsylavania regiment; Messrs. J. H. Kerrison and M. Whiting, committee to bring the remains of the Lieut. Botts. Mr. J.E. Durivage and a number of cabin passengers, together with 150 teamsters in the quartermaster's department. The Telegraph carries also a large amount of freight." [MSM]

NNR 72.099-100   April 17, 1847  Mansfield's account of the Battle of Buena Vista


Through the kindness of a friend, we have been furnished with the following extracts from a private letter written by Lieutenant Colonel Mansfield, of the corps of engineers to a brother officer in this city, giving a brief and hastily written description of the 22d and 23d of February.

Eighteen miles south of Saltillo, at camp U.S. army, Agua Nueva, March 1, 1847.

Dear Captain-We are just recovering from the fatigues of a tremendous battle, fought by this little army on the 22d and 23d at Buena Vista, a place about eleven miles in our rear and seven miles this side of Saltillo.

We had previously been on this very ground from the 6 th to the 20 th February, reconnoitring the positions, roads, and &c. and ascertaining where the enemy was, and his numbers.We found Santa Anna was at Encarnacion, thirty miles in our advance, with twenty thousand troops of infantry and artillery, and that on our left was General Minon, at Ediorda, say twenty five miles off, with three thousand cavalry and lancers.

On the 21 st , at noon, we broke up our camp, and fell back to a good position at Buena Vista, to await the enemy.On the 22d he came in sight-his advance a heavy body of lancers and cavalry, followed by large bodies of infantry, and about eighteen pieces of artillery.A skirmish took place in the afternoon and the enemy gained the mountain side on our left.On our right of the road commenced steep ascents to the tops of the spurs of the mountain, which united and formed a beautiful table land for a battle ground, say one mile east and west by half a mile north and south.There were other spurs on the same side, stretching along the road north and south of us, with deep gullies between, many of them impassable, but none of hem forming a table land like this.

A ditch and parapet were immediately thrown across the road, and Washington's artillery placed there, supported by two companies of volunteers behind another parapet.

On the morning of the 23d the enemy made a rush with his infantry and lancers to possess the table land, the key to the whole position; and at the same time a column of infantry and cavalry advanced on the road towards Washington's battery.A terrible fight ensued.Our left was forced back off the table land, and rallied under the bank; but our centre charged with a tremendous fire of horses artillery, (eight pieces) and volunteers, and hurled them back against the mountain and broke their centre, so that large bodies of infantry saved themselves by moving into the ravines and on the spurs of the mountains to the rear of our left where we sent regiments and artillery to fight them and drive them back across the same ground on our extreme left over which they had been forced.If we had had but one single full regiment of regulars in reserve we could have charged their battery on our extreme left and taken four or five thousand prisoners.As it was, we could only hold our own against such odds.

At the close of the day, they made another charge and rush, in great force, to possess the table land and were again repulsed with great slaughter, and with much loss on our part.Night put an end to the scene, and under the cover of darkness the enemy retreated t this place, (Agua Nueva), where our light troops followed them the next morning.

It was a beautiful battle-not a mistake made the whole day; but every man perfectly exhausted at night.Our loss about 264 killed and 450 wounded. The enemy's loss about 2,500 killed and wounded, and 3,000 missing.

It is said that Santa Anna is in full retreat to Matahuila and Lan Luis, with his army dispirited and disorganized.He is said to have lost many officers of high rank.You will in due time get correct accounts.

Nothing could exceed the gallant bearing of our horse artillery and dragoons, nor the bravery and good conduct of the volunteers as a body.Not a regular infantry soldier was in this fight.

We have lost most valuable officers.Capt. Lincoln was killed in the first charge.Col. McKee and Lieut. Colonel Clay, of the Kentucky regiment, and Col. Hardin were killed, besides others, in the second charge of he enemy.We lost three pieces of cannon, which we had not the men to recover.Our men actually sunk to the ground from excessive exhaustion.

It has ever been the misfortune of our brave old General to be obliged to fight the enemy with inferior numbers.This, his last battle, has done him more credit than any of his previous ones.His case was not so desperate at Palo Alto, for there he had the best of regular infantry.

I had almost forgotten to speak of our corps.We endeavored to do our duty.Lieut. Benham behaved well, and was slightly wounded.As for myself, I was more fortunate than at Monterey, and escaped unhurt.The old General, however, was made ragged by the balls passing through his clothes.

Yours &c.


NNR 72.100 April 17, 1847 the siege of Veracruz, operations after surrender, forces employed in the siege

            Of the siege of Vera Cruz.

            A correspondent of the New Orleans Delta says: "The Mexicans variously estimate their loss at from 500 to 1,000 killed and wounded, but all agree that the loss among the soldiery is comparatively small and destruction among the women and children is very great.   Among their killed is General Felix Valdez, an officer of some celebrity.

            At the time of the surrender the Mexicans had but two days' ammunition and three days subsistence, which accounts for their generally withholding their fire during the night.

            During the bombardment of our army have thrown the following number and size of shot:

            Army Battery.

3,000 ten-inch shells                  90 lbs. Each.

55 round shot                            25         "

200 eight-inch howitzer shells     68         "

Navy Battery

1,000 Paixhan shot                    68         "

800 round shot                           32         "

Musquito Fleet.

1,200 shot and shell, averaging   62         "

Making in all 6,700 shot and shell, weighing 463,600 lbs.

The destruction in the city is most awful-one-half of it is destroyed.   Houses are blown to pieces and furniture scattered in every direction-the streets torn up, and the strongest building seriously damaged.   [ANP]


EL REPUBICANO, of the 15th March announces that the American arms have triumphed in Chihuahua, that they city of Chihuahua, the capital of the state has fallen. The small forces whcihc defend it, says the Republican, were routed. The same number of that paper, and the number of the 17th, complains that the government does not publish the details of the fighting, declaring that Mexican courage is not to be daunted by such reverses. [MSM]


The northerner which commenced at sun down yesterday still continues, completely cutting off all communication with the vessels lying off or under Sacrificios.  Shells are occasionally sent towards General Worth’s lines from the castle, but in the main they have fallen short.  Captain Vinton continues at his position near the lime kiln.  At this time, half past 3 o’clock, thay are throwing 13 inch shells from the castle of San Juan de Ullus, and one of them was just bursted a short distance from where I am writing, yet without doing any harm.

P.S.-Captains Lee and Scott, who went out with the white flag with notes to the foreign consuls, have returned.  As was supposed, they were not allowed to enter the city, but were detained some three or four hundred yards outside the walls.  Three officers came afterwards brought a receipt that they had been delivered.  Many of the inhabitants-ladies among them-were seen upon the walls and adjoining houses.  The line of investment is now complete and all communication with the city landward cut off.  Two French vessels have succeeded in eluding the blockade, favored by the wind, and have doubtless taken in “aid and comfort” to the enemy.  The firing from the castle, and also from the batteries, continues. Another night has passed off quietly, no alarm of consequences disturbing the lines.  The enemy is occasionally throwing round shot and shell, yet with little effect.  One of the latter, and of the heaviest size, struck directly in the midst of the 8th infantry last nigh, but did not injure a man.  There is a prospect of some little close fighting today, as out posts are to be thrown in nearer the city walls.  Some of our riflemen and sharpshooters are already in motion, and if the Mexicans will allow them to come near enough hey will render a good account of themselves.  [MSM]

NNR 72.100 April 17, 1847 MOVEMENTS AT CAMARGO

We started from this place this morning a train of about 60 wagons, for Camargo, with 120 extra mules, being two to each wagon, escorted by Major Stokes and two companies of North Carolinians, which has taken all the troops from this place. With the exception of two companies of the Massachusetts regiment, under Captain Webster, (David's Company), one of which is stationed in the Plaze, and the other in Fort Paredes, with Captain Merchant's company of artillery at Fort Brown, is the whole of the force at this point. I understand the balance of those regiments, (North Carolinas and Massachusetts) are off the Brazos, but they have not bee able to land, quit a heavy northern which came up in the afternoon. N rain yet. [MSM]


Our news from the city of Mexico, received in a roundabout way, would prove that a most sanguinat[ ] revolution-or rather a series of revolutions-is raging in that city, the different parties being all by the ears, and fighting each other with unwanted [ ]. It is said that the British monster, Mr. []ankhead, at last dates, hardly dared venture into the streets, for fear of being shot by some on of the different contending factions. Gomez Farias has his last party, the priests have their party, those in favor of peace have a party, and then there are the war men, the Santa Anna men, the Alonte men, and what not. All was "confusion worse confounded," and I can make neither head or trait of the different rumors. The Mexicans have been fierce since noon today, [ ] from most of their batteries, and the roar of round shot and shells has been constantly dimming the ears of our men. Strange that they do not effect more. They must think they are destroying the "Yankees," as they now term us, by dozens, else they would not keep up such an incessant firing. The weather continues fine for landing and munitions and supplies are rapidly accumulating at the spots. The officers of the navy continue to use their best efforts. By the next day tomorrow, I am in hopes if being able to send you off an account of some of general Scott's doings. Your, &c. G. W. K. [MSM]


The Republicano of the 17thof March reports that certain Indians of New Mexico, [Los Chimayos] to the number of 3,000, have risen against the Americans, and joined the pueblos previously in insurrection. [MSM]


The entrance of Santa Anna into San Luis Potosi on the 8th ult. was triumphal one. All classes went out to meet him two or three miles on the road. At night he was serenaded and the town illuminated. [MSM]

NNR 72.100-101  April 17, 1847  Gen. Winfield Scott's orders on occupying Vera Cruz

Among the orders issued by Gen. Scott, after the capitulation of Vera Cruz, was the following:

Headquarters of the Army, Camp Washington,
Before Vera Cruz, March 28 th , 1847.

As soon as the city of Vera Cruz shall be garrisoned by his brigade, Brigadier Gen. Worth will become the temporary governor of the same.

Without disturbing the ordinary functions of the civil magistracy, as between Mexicans and Mexicans, he will establish strict police regulations for securing good order and good morals in the said city.

He will establish a temporary and moderate tariff of duties, subject to the approval of the general in chief and commodore Perry commanding United States home squadron, on all articles imported by sea from the countries other than the United States, the proceeds of said tariff to be applied to the benefit of the sick and wounded of the army, the squadron, and the indigent inhabitants of Vera Cruz.

The tariff so to be established will be continued until the instructions of he government at home shall be made known in the case.

By command of Major General Scott.



NNR 72.101-102   April 17, 1847  Col. Stephen Ormsby's offical report of the Battle of Monterey


Citadel Fort, Monterey, Mexico, February 26, 1847.

In tendering my heartfelt congratulations on your brilliant success at Saltillo, I deem it proper for your information to apprise you of our position and the operations at this point.On the 20 th instant in consequence of the departure of Brigadier General Marshall to join your forces, the command devolved on me.With the exception of a few officers of the General Staff of the army on duty here, and a few wounded and sick from the general hospital, the force as you are aware, is entirely volunteers.-My regiment, 1 st Kentucky foot volunteers, was encamped at the Citadel and the 1 st . regiment Ohio volunteers, under command of Maj. Giddings, occupied the city.

The defences of he city, under the most energetic and skilful engineer, Capt. Fraser, were far from being in a state of completion, and his utmost exertions were called into requisition to place the works in condition to resist such force as was probable could be brought against it, as was momentarily expected.On the morning of the 24 th instant, deeming it prudent to concentrate my forces, I ordered Major Giddings to join me with his command in the Citadel.All the government stores having been previously removed and stored here by the exertions of the officers in charge of them, and under the active and willing co-operation of my command, I soon found myself equal in all respects to sustain the honor of our flag if assailed.

Through my reconnoitring, and other sources of information, it was ascertained that large forces of the enemy were surrounding me, though none made their appearance here; and this was confirmed on the morning on the 24 th instant by a despatch from Lieut. Col. Irwin, of the 2d Ohio regiment, that his command of 130 men was in Marin, surrounded by a large body of the enemy under command of Gen. Urrea.Subsequently I received such information as excited the apprehension that a train of the wagons, escorted by Lieut. W. F. Barbour, with 30 men from the 1 st regiment of Kentucky volunteers, would be cut off below Marin.

I despatched Maj. J.B. Shepherd, 1 st . regiment Kentucky volunteers, with five companies of infantry, thirty mounted men, and two 4-pounders, to relieve Lieut. Col. Irwin, with discretionary orders to proceed beyond Marin, with a view to secure the train and escort, and I have the gratification to announce that Major Shepherd, who volunteered for the service, performed it in the most prompt and gallant manner possible, and without loss.He did not proceed beyond Marin, having ascertained there that the wagons, train and escort, had been captured near Ramos.About forty-five persons, nearly all teamsters, were killed, a number taken prisoners, and the wagons and probably most of the stores destroyed.A few of the teamsters and one of the escort escaped and have come into this place.

This morning it was ascertained that the enemy was in force at Aqua Frio, (12 miles distant,) and has surrounded and attacked Col. Morgan, commanding 21 Ohio volunteers, with about two hundred of his command, who was marching to this place.On the receipt of a despatch from Col. Morgan, Lieut. Col. Irwin, with is command and the troops which had been despatched to his relief, encamped at Walnut Springs, promptly proceeded to the point and arrived in time to render essential service in aiding Col. Morgan to disperse the enemy.I despatched Maj. Giddings, of the 1 st Ohio regiment volunteers, with three companies of his command to unite the Lieut. Irwin in reaching Col. Morgan, but he did not reach the place of attack until the forces in advance had dispersed the enemy.Though it is due to Major Giddings to say that he displayed great promptness and activity in marching on the duty to which he was ordered.

I have the satisfaction to announce the return of the several detachments above refered to, but regret to state that one man of this command was killed in the affair at Aqua Frio.Col. Morgan has arrived here with the larger part of his command, and I have the honor to enclose his report.

In concluding this report, which I have endeavored to make as brief as possible, I deem it my duty as well as pleasure, to recommend to your especial notice, Capt. D.G. Ramsey, ordnance commander, whose promptness and efficiency in the discharge of the many duties of his department, are worthy of the highest commendation; and, in addition to these, he rendered me essential service in aiding, in arranging, and drilling a portion of my command in artillery tactics.It is my duty and pleasure also to commend the very prompt and faithful manner in which Captain A. Montgomery, assistant quartermaster, has discharged his duties, rendered unusually numerous by the necessary removal of all the stores, &c. from the city to the fort.

Lieut. Stewart, of the 3d. artillery, A.C.S. was assiduous in the discharge of his duties, and, in addition volunteered his valuable aid in drilling men at the guns.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, &c.

Colonel commanding.

To Major General Taylor.
Com. Army Occupation, Saltillo.


There followed from these letters which were published on the 13th or 14th, a suspension of hostilities, though each party accused the other of violating the truce. Santa Anna had not arrives on the 17th, but would encounter no difficulty in assuming power. All parties were waiting for him impatiently, and each claiming that he will side with them. Representations had been made to him in abundance, and large delegations of influential men had gone towards San Luis to meet and propitiate him. The report sent us by Mr. Kendall that he was in the capital by the 19th, and in full possession of power, we have no doubt was true. [MSM]


EXCELLENT SIR- unable to remain indifferent to the evils which the heroic capital is suffering-the victim of civil war and all the calamities consequent upon it- and to the transcendent evils which are thence extended to all the republic, I have determined, listening to the voice of my conscience and the exigencies for the nation, to submit to the sacrifice of proceeding to the capital to assume the reins of the government, with which I have been entrusted by my fellow citizens.

I communicate this for your intelligence, praying you that until I present myself in the capital, which will be very soon-for I shall proceed thither by forced journeys -you will give direction to suspend hostilities of every kind, in obedience to the voice of reason and humanity, which is impiously outraged by the shedding of Mexican blood, which ought only to flow on fields of battle in driving back our unjust invaders.

To Gen. Matias de la Pena y Barragan, Chief of the Pronunciados, I have made the same recommendation, and I trust that the chiefs of both the belligerent forces will observe the truce indicated, in consideration of the noble views which impel me to solicit it. I transmit this for your intelligence and that it may receive compliance from you out of respect to the patriotic enus I have proposed to myself. God and Liberty. [MSM]

NNR 72.102 April 17, 1847 Col. William Selby Harney's fight near Veracruz

            Colonel Harney's dragoon fight, near Vera Cruz.-Colonel Harney's gallant exploits in his expedition against Medelin, have added another feather to the cap of the 2d dragoons, as well as to that of the other troops engaged in it.  As I am able to give you a correct account of the affair I will do somewhat in detail.

            Col. Harney started on the morning of the 25 th , with Captain Thorton's squadron, under the immediate command of major Sumner, and fifty dismounted dragoons under Capt. Ker, towards Medelin river, where it was reported that a strong force of Mexican cavalry had placed themselves.   When he reached the stone bridge over the Morena, about six miles from here, he began to reconnoitre, as he had received information that the bridge was fortified and guarded by the two thousand men and two pieces of artillery.  Shall parties of lancers were seen among the thickets as the dragoons approached and, when within about sixty yards of the bridge, Capt. Ker's command received a heavy fire from the breastworks, which killed one corporal and severely wounded two men.  Seeing that the bridge was fortified and defended by a strong force, the Colonel fell back and sent a request for two pieces of artillery.  Capt. Hardee, who was engaged on the beach getting his horses ashore, hearing of the fight, collected as many of his men as had reached the beach, and in passing through the camp took all he could find there, and marched them (between forty and fifty in number) on foot to the Colonel's assistance.   Col. Haskell, of the 2d Tennessee regiment, with a part of four companies, and Capt. Cheatham, of the 1st Tennessee regiment, also joined the dragoons, and shortly after Lieut. Judd, of the 3d artillery, with his subaltern (Lieut. H. Brown) appeared with two pieces of cannon.   Captain Ker was now placed upon the right of the road leading to the bridge, the Tennesseans on the left of it.   Capt. Hardee and Lieut. Hill were ordered to support the guns and be read to charge into the work; and Major Sumner, with the wounded men, was held in reserve.  Lieutenant Judd now advanced cautiously towards the bridge, and as soon as he was seen he received the concentrated fire of the Mexicans, about fifty yards distant.   The parties on the right and left were now ordered to extend and commence firing, to direct the enemy's attention from Judd's guns.   Lieut. Judd fearlessly opened upon the bridge, and, after six or eight well directed rounds, drove the enemy under the cover.   Haskell, and Cheatham, and Hardee with their men, now rushed intrepidly into the fortification, leaping over the barricade.   The enemy fell back and formed beyond the bridge.   Col. Harney ordered the obstacles to be cleared away, and Maj. Summer's mounted men galloped up and charged across the bridge.   The Mexican foot fled into the chaparral, but the cavalry were met and routed.  A party of thirty lancers turned off into a by-road, were pursued by Lieuts. Lowry and Oakes and three men, and all but five were either dismounted or sabred.   Major Sumner and Capt. Subley had a number of personal encounters with the enemy, who were in every instance either killed or dismounted.   The pursuit was continued  to the village of Medelin, six miles beyond the bridge, wher another party of lancers were seen retreating, and Lieut. Neill, the adjutant of the 2d dragoons, pursued them with three men.  A supporting party was sent after him, but his horse being fleeter than the others he first caught up with the pursued, two of whom closed upon him.   He fought gallantly with them, but received two lance wounds in the arm and breast, and fell from his horse.   He pursuit was continued two miles further, but night coming on the party returned to Medelin, rested three hours and returned to camp, which they reached at three o'clock in the morning.   Major General Patterson, with Colonel Campbell's regiment, arrived at the bridge soon after Col. Harney had made his dispositions for the attack, but in a very gentlemanly manner declined taking command, but assisted in the attack and assault, behaving very gallantly, as did likewise Col. Campbell.

            The cool judgment of Col. Harney in preparing for the attack, and his gallant conduct during the charge and pursuit, filled the command with admiration.  Any person who has ever seen him can imagine what an imposing figure he must have presented dashing through among the Mexican horsemen, and hurling them to the earth with his powerful arm and keen blade.  In his turn he speaks in the most complimentary terms of the bravery and energy of the officers and men who acted under him-of Majors Sumner and Beall, of Capt. Hardee, (who mounted in the pursuit and joined the Colonel as one of his staff,) of Capt. Ker, Lieut. Judd, Lieut. Brown, Dr. Barnes, Lieuts. Lowry and Neill, (the wounds of Lieut. N. are doing well,) of Col. Hasell, Capt. Cheatham, and the other officers and men, both regulars and volunteers.   Col. Haskell was the first to leap the parapet of the bridge.   Col Harney lost two killed and nine wounded, one of the latter being Thomas Young, of Texas, who acted as guide and behaved bravely.   The exact number of Mexicans killed is not known, but it is known that over fifty fell in the attack and pursuit, most of them falling under the sabre.  I do not know how many men the volunteers Lieut. Judd lost.  [ANP]

NNR 72.0107-72.0110 April 17, 1847 official report of the capitulation and surrender of Veracruz and the Castle of San Juan de Ulloa

            From our Army at Vera Cruz.

Headquarters of the Army,

Camp Washington, before Vera Cruz. March 23, 1847.

            Sir: Yesterday, seven of our ten 10-inch mortars, being in battery, and the labors for planting the remainder of our heavy metal being in progress, I addressed at two o'clock, P.M., a summons to the governor of Vera Cruz, and within the two hours limited by the bearer of the flag, received the governor's answer.  Copies of the two papers, (marked respectively, A and B,) are herewith enclosed.

            It will be perceived that the governor, who, it turns out, is the commander of both places, chose, against the plain terms of the summons, to suppose me to have demanded the surrender of the castle and of the city-when, in fact, from the non-arrival of our heavy metal-principally mortars-I was in no condition to threaten the former.

            On the return of the flag, with that reply, I at once ordered the seven mortars, in battery, to open upon the city.   In a short time the smaller vessels of Commodore Perry's squadron-two steamers and five schooners-according to previous arrangement with him, approached the city within about a mile and an eighth, whence being partially covered from the castle-an essential condition to their safety-they also opened a brisk fire upon the city.  This has been continued uninterruptedly, by mortars, and only with a few intermissions, by the vessels, up to nine o'clock this morning, when the commodore very properly, called them off from a position too daringly assumed.

            Our three remaining mortars are now (12 o'clock, M.) in battery; and the whole ten in activity.  Tomorrow, early, if the city should continue obstinate, batteries Nos. 4 and 5 will be ready to add their fire; No. 4, consisting of four 24 pounders and two 8 inch Paixhan guns, and No. 5 (naval battery) of three 32 pounders, and three 8 inch Paixhans-the guns, officers, and sailors landed from the squadron-our friends of the navy being unremitting in their zealous co-operation, in every mode and form.

            So far, we know that our fire upon the city has been highly effective-particularly from the batteries of 11 inch mortars, planted at about 800 yards from the city.  Including the preparation and defence of the batteries, from the beginning-now many days-and notwithstanding the heavy fire of the enemy, from the enemy, from the city and castle-we have only had four or five men wounded, and one officer and one man kiled, in or near the trenches.   That officer was Captain John R. Vinton, of the United States 3d artillery, one of the most talented, accomplished, and effective members of the army, and who was highly distinguished in the brilliant operations at Monterey.  He fell, last evening, in the trenches, where he was on duty as field and commanding officer, universally regretted.  I have just attended his honored remains to a soldier'' grave-in full view of the enemy and within reach of his guns.

            Thirteen of the long needed mortars-leaving 27, besides heavy guns, behind-have arrived and two of them landed.   A heavy norther then set in (at meridian) that stopped that operation, and also the landing of shells.  Hence the fire of our mortar batteries has been slackened, since 2'o'clock, to-day, and cannot be reinvigorated until we shall again have a smooth sea.   In meantime I shall leave this report open for journalizing events that may occur up to the departure of the steam ship-of-war, the Princeton, with Com. Conner, who, I learn, expects to leave the anchorage at Sacrificios, for the United States, the 25th   inst.

            March 24.-The storm having subsided in the night we commenced this forenoon, as soon as the sea became a little smooth, to land shot, shells, and mortars.

            The naval battery, No, 5, was opened with great activity, under Captain Aulick, the second in rank of the squadron, at about 10 A.M.   His fire was continued to 2 o'clock P.M., a little before he was relieved by Capt. Mayo, who landed with a fresh supply of ammunition-Capt. A. having exhausted the supply he had brought with him.   He lost four sailors dilled, and had one officer, Lieut. Baldwin, slightly hurt.

            The mortar batteries Nos. 1,2, and 3, have fired but languidly during the day for want of shells, which are now going out from the beach.

            The two reports from Col. Bankhead, chief of artillery, both of this date, copies of which I enclose, give the incidents of those three batteries.

            Battery No. 4, which mounts four 24 pounders, and two 8 inch Paixhans' guns, has been much delayed in the hands of the indefatigable engineers by the norther that filled up the work with sand nearly as fast as it could be opened by the half blinded laborers.   It will, however, doubtless be in full activity early to-morrow morning.

            March 25-The Princeton being about to start for Philadelphia, I have but a moment to continue this report.

            All the batteries, Nos. 1,2,3,4, and 5, are in awful activity this morning.  The effect is, no doubt, very great, and I think the city cannot hold out beyond to-day.   To-morrow morning many of the new mortars will be in a position to add their fire, when, or after the delay of some twelve hours, if no proposition to surrender should be received, I shall organize parties for carrying the city by assault.  So far the defence has been spirited and obstinate.

            I enclose a copy of a memorial received last night, signed by the consuls of Great Britain, France, Spain, and Prussia, within Vera Cruz, asking me to grant a truce to enable the neutrals, together with Mexican women and children, to withdraw from the scene of havoc about them.   I shall reply, the moment an opportunity may be taken, to say-1.   That a truce can only be granted on the application of Governor Moralez, with a view to a surrender-2.  That in sending safeguards to the different consuls, beginning as far back as the 13 inst., I distinctly admonished them-particularly the French and Spanish consuls-and of course, through the two, the other consul-of the dangers that have followed-3. That although at that date, I already refused to allow any person whatsoever to pass the line of investment either way, yet the blockade had been left open to the consuls and other neutrals, to pass out to their respective ships of war up to the 22d inst.; and 4th.   I shall enclose to the memorialists a copy of my summons to the governor, to show that I had fully considered the impending hardships and distresses of the place, including those of women and children, before one gun had been fired in that direction.  The intercourse between the neutral ships of war and the city was stopped at the last mentioned date by Com. Perry, with my concurrence, which I placed on the ground that that intercourse could not fail to give to the enemy moral aid and comfort.

            It will be seen from the memorial, that our batteries have already had a terrible effect on the city, (also know through other sources,) and hence the inference that a surrender must soon be proposed.

            In haste, I have the honor to remain, sir, with high respect, your most obedient servant,

Winfield Scott.

Hon. Wm. L. Marcy, Secretary of war.


Headquarters of the Army
Of the United States of America,
Camp Washington, before Vera Cruz March, 22, 1847.

The undersigned, Major General Scott, general-in-chief of the armies   of the United States of America, in addition to the close of the blockade of the coast and port of Vera Cruz, previously established by the squadron under Commodore Conner, of the navy of the said states, having now fully invested the said city with an overwhelming army, so as to render it impossible that its garrison should receive from without succor or reinforcement of any kind; and having caused to be established batteries, competent to the speedy reduction of the said city, he, the undersigned, deems it due to the courtesies of war in like cases, as well as the rights of humanity, to summon his excellency,  the governor and commander-in-chief of the city of Vera Cruz to surrender the same to the arms of the United States of America, present before the place.

            The undersigned, anxious to spare the beautiful city of Vera Cruz from the imminent hazard of demolition-its gallant defenders from a useless effusion of blood, and its peaceful inhabitants-women and children, inclusive-from the inevitable horrors of triumphant assault, addresses this summons to the intelligence, the gallantry, and patriotism, no less than to the humanity of his excellency the governor and commander-in-chief of Vera Cruz.

            The undersigned is not accurately informed whether both the city of Vera Cruz and the castle of San Juan d'Ulloa be under the command of his excellency, or whether each place has its own independent commander; but the undersigned, moved by the considerations or walls, upon the castle, unless the castle should previously fire upon the city.

The undersigned has the honor to tender to this distinguished opponent, his excellency the governor and commander-in-chief of Vera Cruz, the assurance of the high respect and consideration of the undersigned.

Winfield Scott.


            The undersigned, commanding general of the free and sovereign state of Vera Cruz, has informed himself of the contents of the note which Major General Scott, general in-chief of the forces of the United States, has addressed to him under date of today, demanding the surrender of this place, and the castle of Ulloa; and, in answer, has to say, that the above named fortress, as well as this place depend on his authority; and it being his principal duty, in order to prove worthy of the confidence place in him by the government of the nation, to defend both points at all cost, to effect which he counts upon the necessary elements, and will make it good to the last; therefore his excellency can commence his operations of war in the manner which he may consider most advantageous.

            The undersigned has the honor to return to the general in chief of the forces of the United States the demonstrations of esteem he may be pleased to honor him with.  God and liberty!

Vera Cruz, March 22, 1847.
Juan Morales.

To Major General Scott, general in chief of the forces of the United States, situated in sight of this place.

Artillery Headquarters,
Camp Washington, March 24, 1847.

            Sir: I have the honor to report for the information of the general in chief, that in the 22d instant and as soon as the chief engineers had reported that the batteries were sufficiently advanced to receive seven mortars, I place that number in battery.  By 2o'clock on that day I was prepared to open the fire on the city of Vera Cruz.  At quarter past 4 I received the order of the general in chief to commence firing on the city, and the batteries Nos. 1,2, and 3 were opened with great animation and apparent effect.

            From the moment the batteries opened on the afternoon of the 22d instant, the fire has been incessant day and night.

            On the 22d and during the night, battery No. 1 was under the command of Capt. Brooks, of the 2d artillery; battery No 2, under the charge of Lieut. Shackelford, of the 2d artillery, and battery No. 3, under the charge of Capt. Vinton, of the 3d artillery, and until the hour of his death, about 4 o'clock, P.M., when the command devolved upon Lieut. Vanvliet, 3d artillery.

            The severe loss to the army by the death of Capt. Vinton, was the only loss we sustained on the first day.   Several of the men were slightly wounded.

            The fire from the city and from the castle on our batteries, with shot, shells, and rockets, has been intermitted, but with very brief periods, since we opened our batteries; and we must ascribe our safety, under such a heavy and constant fire, to the skill and conscience of the officers of engineers in the construction of our batteries.

            From the morning of the 23d to this morning, the batteries have been under the charge of Captain McKinzie, of the 3d artillery.

            Yesterday about 12 o'clock m., I was able to place three more mortars in battery, but owing to the highness of the wind, the shells could not be landed from the storeship, and our fire to this time has been very moderate, not exceeding one fore in every five minutes.

            Last night I succeeded in moving three 24 pounder guns to battery No. 4, with the necessary ammunition and implements which have been placed in battery.

            One more 24 pounder and two 8 inch howitzers will be moved out to-night, and to-morrow morning, (as we shall doubtless obtain a supply of shells today, the storm having abated sufficiently to land them) I shall be able to open the four batteries, with ten mortars, four 24 pounders, and two 8 inch howitzers, with increased effect and renewed vigor.

            I can bear testimony, from personal observation, to the skill and gallantry of all the officers detailed on artillery service under my direction, and of the cheerfulness and steadiness of the men in the performance of their laborious duties.

I have the honor to be respectfully, your ob't serv't,
Jas Bankhead,
3d artillery, chief of artillery.

Lieut. Scott, acting Ad'j Gen, Army Headquarters.

Artillery Headquarters,
Camp Washington, March 24, 1847-5 P.M.

Sir: since my report this date of operations in the batteries up to 4 o'clock, A.M., the hour when the troops are relieved, I have to state for the information of the general in chief that the enemy opened a brisk fire on our batteries soon after sunrise this morning, without any effect; but about 10 o'clock, most of their batteries were again opened on us, and one man of company "B," 2d artillery, was killed at battery No. 1, and three men were severely wounded.

            A shell fell into battery No. 3, where four men of company "F." 2d artillery, were wounded.  The shell fell one of the mortars, breaking the mortar bed and throwing the mortar thirty feet from the platform-another mortar bed can be obtained from the ordnance depot, and the mortar will be remounted.

            We have been restrained from the want of shells from throwing more than one every five minutes during the day.   A full supply will be in place tonight, and as soon as it is dark enough to send them to the batteries without being observed by the enemy.


I am, very respectfully, your ob't serv't,
Second Artillery, Chief of Artillery.

To Lieut. Scott, Acting Ad'j Gen., Army Headquarters.


Vera Cruz, March 24, 1847.

            The undersigned, consuls of different foreign powers near the republic of Mexico, moved by the feeling of humanity excited in their hearts by the frightful results of the bombardment of the city of Vera Cruz during yesterday and the day before, have the honor of addressing, collectively, General Scott, commander in chief of the army of the United States of the North, to pray him to suspend his hostilities, and to grant a reasonable truce, sufficient to enable their respective compatriots to leave the place with their women and children, as well as the Mexican women and children.

            The request of the undersigned appears to them to comfortable to the existing ideas of civilization, and they have too high an opinion of the principles and the sentiments of General Scott, not to be full of confidence in the success of this request.   They pray him to have the goodness to send back his answer to the parlementaire, who is the bearer of this, an to accept the assurances of their respectful consideration

T. Gifford,
Consul de sa Majeste Britannique.

A. Gloux,
Le consul de sa Majeste le Roi des Francais.

El consul de Espana.

Consul de S.M. le Roi de Prusse.

A true translation of the original paper, for the secretary of war.

(Indecipherable Paragraph)

            I promptly answer in the affirmative, considering that both places are now blockaded by our squadron under your command, and the city not only invested by the army, but actually under the fire of our land batteries.

            The intercourse-the subject of your note cannot, it seems to me, however neutral in its intended character on the part of the foreign ships of war present, fail to give the places inuestion, under our fire, much moral aid and comfort.

            With high respect, &c. &c.,

            Winfield Scott.

Commodore M. C. Perry, US.N., commanding home squadron, &c.
United States Steamer Mississippi,
Off Sacrificios Island, March 22, 1847.

            Sir: The city and castle of Vera Cruz being now closely besieged and blockaded by the military and naval forces of the United States, it has become necessary to prevent all communication from outside, unless under the sanction of a flag of truce.

            I am, therefore, constrained to inform you that all intercourse between the vessels and boats under your command and that part of the American coast encompassed by the United States forces, must for the present cease.

            With great respect, I have the honor to be your most ob't serv't,

M.C. Perry,L
Commanding home squadron.

Commander H. S. Matson, H. B. M. sloop Daring.
Capt. Manuel de la Puente, commanding H.C.M. Naval forces, Gulf of Mexico.
Capt. G. Dubut, commanding French naval forces, Gulf of Mexico.

Headquarters of the Army,
Vera Cruz, March 29, 1847.

            Sir: The flag of the United States of America floats triumphantly over the walls of this city, and the castle of San Juan Ulloa.

            Our troops have garrisoned both since 10 o'clock. It is now noon. Brigadier General Worth is in command of the two places.

            Articles of capitulation were signed and exchanged, at a late hour, night before the last.  I enclosed a copy of the document.

            I have heretofore reported the principal incidents of he siege up to the 25th instant.   Nothing of striking interest occurred till early in the morning of the next day, when I received overtures from General Landero, on whom General Morales had devolved the principal command.   A terrible storm of wind made it difficult to communicate with the city, and impossible to refer to Commodore Perry.   I was obliged to entertain the proposition alone, or to continue the fire upon a place that had thrown as disposition to surrender; for the loss of a day, perhaps several, could bot be permitted.   The accompanying papers will show the proceedings and results.

            Yesterday, after the norther had abated, and the commissioners appointed by me early the morning before, had again met those appointed by General Landero, Commodore Perry sent ashore his second in command, Captain Aulick, as a commissioners in the part of the navy.   Although not included in by specific arrangement made with the Mexican commander, I did not hesitate, with proper courtesy, to desire that Captain Aulick might be duly introduced and allowed to participate in the discussion and acts of the commissioners who had been reciprocally accredited.   Hence the preamble to this signature.   The original American commissioners were Brevet Brigadier General Worth, Brigadier General Pillow, and Colonel Totten.   Four more able or judicious officers could not have been desired.

            I have time to add but little more.   The remaining details of the siege; the able co-operation of the United States squadron, successively under the command of Commodores Conner and Perry; the admirable conduct of the whole army- regulars and volunteers-I should be happy to dwell upon as they deserve; but the steamer Princeton, with Commodore Conner, on board, is under way, and I have commenced organizing an advance into the interior.  This may be delayed a few days, waiting the arrival of additional means of transportation.   In the meantime, a join operation, by land and water, will be (indecipherable text)… that has just terminated most successfully, and the importance of his presence, at Washington, as the head of the engineer bureau, I intrust this despatch to his personal care, and beg to commend him to the very favorable consideration of the department.

            I have the honor to remain, sir, with high respect, your most obedient servant,

Winfield Scott

Hon. W.L.Marcy, Secretary of war.

            Proposition for the appointment of commissioners.

            I have the honor of transmitting to your excellency the exposition which has this moment been made to me by the Senores consuls of England, France, Spain, and Prussia, in which they solicit tat hostilities may be suspended while the innocent families in this place who are suffering the ravages of war, be enabled to leave the city which solicitude claims my support; and considering it in accordance with the rights of afflicted humanity, I have not hesitated to invite your excellency to enter into an honorable accommodation with the garrison, in which cases you will please name three commissioners who may meet at some intermediate point, to treat with those of this place upon the terms of the accommodation.

            With this motive I renew to your excellency my attentive consideration.

            God guard your excellency, &c.

            On account of the sickness of the commanding general.

Jose Juan De Landero

Major General Scott.

Copy for the Hon. Secretary of war.
E. P. Scammon, A. A. D. C.

Credentials of commissioners on the part of the United States.

            In consideration of the proposition the undersigned has received from Senor General Landero, the actual commander of he city of Vera Cruz, and its dependencies, that three commissioners be appointed on the part of each belligerent to treat of the surrender of the said city, with its dependencies, to the besieging army before the same-the undersigned, Major General Scott, general in chief of the armies of the Untied States of America, has appointed; and does hereby appoint, Generals W.   J. Worth and G.J. Pillow, with Colonel J. G. Totten, chief of engineers-all of the army of the said states, commissioners on the part of the undersigned to meet an equal number of commissioners who may be duly appointed on the part of Senor General Landero, to treat of the surrender of the city of Vera Cruz and its dependencies to the arms of the said states.

            Done at camp Washington, the headquarters of the army of the United States of America, this 26th day of March, in the year of our lord, 1847.

Winfield Scott.

Gen. Landero's letter notifying the appointment of Mexican commissioners.

            In virtue of your excellency's having accepted the proposition of accommodation which I proposed to you in my despatch of to-day, and in accordance with the reply I have just received, I have ht honor to inform you that I have named, on my part, the Senores Colonels D. Jose Gutierrez Villanueva, D. Pedro Miguel Herrera, and Lieut. Col. of Engineers D. Manuel Robles, to whom I had entrusted the competent power to celebrate the accommodation, having the honor to enclose you a copy of the expressed power.

            I reiterate to your excellency the assurances of my high consideration.

            God and liberty.

Jose Juan de Landero.

Vera Cruz, March 26, 1847.

Headquarters of the Army, Camp Washington, before Vera Cruz, March 26, 1847.

            Outlines of instructions to the commissioners appointed on the part of the United States, and commissioned by the undersigned to treat with such persons as may be duly authorized on the part of the city of Vera Cruz, and its dependencies, on the subject of the surrender of the same.

2.        The garrisons to be permitted to march out with the honors of war, and to ground arms to such forces as may be appointed by the undersigned, and at a point to be agreed upon by the commissioners.

3.        The surrendered places to be immediately garrisoned by American troops.

4.        Mexican officers to preserve their side arms and private effects, including horses and horse furniture, and to be allowed, (regular and irregular officers) at the end of     days, to retire to their respective homes on the usual parole with he exception of such officers as the two parties may deem necessary to accompany the rank and file to the Unite States.

5.        The rank and file of regular regiments, corps or companies, to remain as prisoners of war, subject to be sent to the United States, (with such Mexican officers as may be needed with the men,) and to be clothed and subsisted by the United States, at the ultimate cost of the belligerent that may be agreed upon by a definite treaty of peace.

6.        The rank and file of the irregular portion of the prisoners to be detained days, and subsisted (if necessary) for the time by the United States, when they may be permitted to retire to their respective homes, their officers giving the usual parole that the said rank and file shall not serve again until duly exchanged.

7.        All the material of war and all public property of every description found in the city and its dependencies, to belong to the United states; but he armament of the same, not injured or destroyed in the further prosecution of the actual war, maybe considered as liable to the restored to Mexico by a definitive treaty of peace.

8.        If the Mexican commissioners decline, from the want of power or authority, to treat of the surrender of the Castle of San Juan de Ulloa, the American commissioners will urge the former to ask for such powers, and grant any necessary delay to that end; but if such power be not asked for, or be not, on application obtained, the American commissioners may, hesitatingly, consent to refer the subject back to the undersigned for further instructions to meet that state of things.

Winfield Scott.

Note.-Article 8 was not, of course, given to the Mexican commissioners.

A true copy from the original paper.
E. P. Scammon, A. A. D. Camp.

Six propositions from the Mexican Commissioners to the general in chief .

1 st. The garrison will evacuate the place within a time to be agreed upon  between the belligerent parties, retiring to the city of Orizaba or Jalpa, by regular day marches, according to the custom of armies on a march.

2d. The aforesaid garrison shall march out with all the honors of war, colors displayed, drums beating, stores belonging to the corps of which it is composed, the allowance of field pieces corresponding to its force, baggage and munitions of war.

3d. The Mexican flag will remain displayed on the bastion of Santiago until the retiring Mexican garrison shall be saluted with twenty one guns fired from the same bastion, until which time the forces of the United States shall not enter the place.

4 th. The inhabitants of Vera Cruz shall continue in the free possession of their moveable and immovable property, in the enjoyment of which they shall never be disturbed, as well as in the exercise of their religious faith.

5 th. The national guards of Vera Cruz, if they find it convenient to retire peaceably to their homes, not to be molested on account of their conduct in bearing arms in defence of the lace.

6 th. The undersigned desire to know, in case the Senor General Scott should have to know, in case the Senor General Scott should have to continue hostilities on account of not admitting these propositions, if he will permit the neutrals to go out of the place, as well as the women and children belonging to the Mexican families.

Pedro M. Herrera.

José Gutiérrez de Villanueva.

Manuel Robles.

Translated from the original paper for the Hon. Secretary of War.

Headquarters of he Army, of the United States of America.

Camp Washington, before Vera Cruz. March 27, 1847.

The undersigned, Major General Scott, general in chief of the armies of he United States of America, has received the report of the commissioners appointed by him yesterday, to meet the commissioners appointed by his excellency, General Landero, the commander in chief of Vera Cruz and the Castle of San Juan de Ulloa.

In making that report the undersigned received, informally, from his commissioners, the project of an arrangement presented to them by the Mexican commissioner, consisting of six articles.  Without re-introducing those articles, in extense , the undersigned will simply refer to them by their respective numbers:

Article 1. is wholly inadmissible.  The garrisons the places, in question, can only be allowed to march out or to evacuate them as prisoners of war; but the undersigned is willing that each garrison, without distinction between regular troops and national guards or militia, may retire, in the delay of many days, to their respective homes-the officers giving for themselves and their respective men, the usual parole of honor not again to serve against the United States of American in the present war, until duly exchanged.

Art. 2. The garrisons may be allowed all the honors of war usually granted to gallant troops; but to surrender their arms of every sort, save the side arms of the officers.

Art. 3. As far as practicable by the commissioners of the two armies, this may be arranged to satisfy the just pride of the gallant defenders of the places in question.

Art. 4. Is readily agreed to, and may be solemnly promised.

Art. 5. This is substantially me tint he above remark under article 1.

Art. 6. Not admissible in any case.

Taking the foregoing remarks and the instructions of the undersigned to this commissioners-which instructions were substantially communicated to the Mexican commissioners-as a basis of an honorable capitulation, the undersigned, to spare the effusion of blood, is willing to refer back the whole subject to te same commissioners met again today at 10 o'clock, a.m., at the same place as yesterday, and proceed without delay to definite conclusion of the whole subject.

The undersigned will wait the answer of his excellency, Gen. Landero, up to 9 o'clock, this day, and in the meantime, renews the assurances of his high respect and consideration.

Winfield Scott.

Copy of the original paper for Hon. Secretary of War.
E. P. Scammon, A. A. D. C.

Articles of the capitulation of he city of Vera Cruz and the castle of San Juan d'Ulloa.

Puente De Hornos,
Without the walls of Vera Cruz
Saturday , March 27, 1847

            Terms of capitulation agreed upon by the commissioners viz:

            Generals W. J. Worth and G. J. Pillow, and Col. J. G. Totten, chief engineer, on the part of Major General Scott, general in chief of the armies of the nueva Lieutenant Colonel of Engineers Manuel Robles, and Colonel Pedro de Herrera, commissioners appointed by General of Brigade Don Jose Juan Landero, commanding in chief, Vera Cruz, the castle of San Juan de Ulloa and their dependencies-for the surrender to the arms of the United States of the said forts, with their armaments, munitions of war, garrisons, and arms.

1.        The whole garrison, or garrisons to be surrendered to the arms of he United States, as prisoners of war, the 29th instant, at 10 o'clock, a.m., the garrisons to be permitted to march out with all the honors of war, and to lay down their arms to such officers as may be appointed by the general in chief of he United States armies, and at a point to be agreed upon by the commissioners.

2.        Mexican officers shall preserve their arms and private effects, including horses and horse furniture, and to be allowed, regular and irregular officers, as also the rank and file, five days to retire to their respective homes, on parole, as hereinafter prescribed.

3.        Coincident with the surrender, as stipulated in article 1, the Mexican flags of the various forts and stations shall be struck saluted by their own batteries; and immediately thereafter, Forts Santiago and Conception and the Castle of San Juan de Ulloa, occupied by the forces of the United States.

4.        The rank and file of the regular portion of he prisoners to be disposed of, after surrender and parole, as their general in chief may desire, and the irregulars to be permitted to return to their homes.   The officers, in respect to all arms and descriptions of force, giving the usual parole, that the said rank and file as well as themselves, shall not serve again until duly exchanged.

5.        All of the materiel of war, and all public property of every description found in the city, the castle of San Juan de Ulloa, and their dependencies, to belong to the United States; but the armament of the same (not injured or destroyed in the further prosecution of the actual war,) maybe considered as liable to be restored to Mexico by a definitive treaty of peace.

6.        The sick and wounded Mexicans to be allowed to remain in the city, with such modical officers and attendants and officers of the army as may be necessary to their care and treatment.

7.        Absolute protection is solemnly guarantied to persons in the city, and property, and it is clearly understood that no private building or property is to be taken or used by the forces of the United States, without previous arrangement with the owners and for a fair equivalent.

8.        Absolute freedom of religious worship and ceremonies is solemnly guarantied.

(Signed in duplicate.)

W. J. Worht, Brigadier General,
Gid. J. Pillow, Brigadier General,
Jos. G. Totten, Col. and Ch'f Eng'r.,
Jose Gutierrez de Villavueva,
Pedro Manuel Herrera,
Manuel Robles.

            Captain Aulick-appointed a commissioner by Com. Perry, on behalf of the navy, (the general in chief not being able, in consequence of the roughness of he sea, to communicate with the navy until after commissions had been exchanged)-and being present by Gen. Scott's invitation, and concurring in the result and approving thereof-thereto affixes his name and signature.

            J. H. Aulick, Capt. U.S. N.

Headquarters of he army of the United States of America.   Camp Washington , before Vera Cruz, March 27, 1847.

Approvedo and accepted: Winfield Scott.

M. C. Perry.
Commnder in chief U. S. N. forces Gulf of Mexico.
Vera Cruz, Marzo 27, 1847.

Approbad y acceptado:

Jose Juan de Landero.

A true copy of the original articles of capitulation.
E. P. Scammon,

1st Lieut. Topo. Eng's, act'g aide de camp.

NNR 72.110-72.111 April 17, 1847 orders and correspondence relating to naval operations off Veracruz

            From our Navy before Vera Cruz

U.S. Steamer Mississippi.
At Anchor near Vera Cruz, March 21, 1847.

            Sir: I have the honor to inform the department of my arrival yesterday, at this anchorage, and of the transfer of the command of the home squadron to me by Commodore Conner, this mornig at 8 o'clock.

M. C. Perry
Commanding home squadron.
The Hon. John Y. Mason, Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C.

            Flagship Mississippi.
Off Vera Cruz, March 25, 1847.

            Sir: The sailing of the Princeton this day for the united States offers me opportunity of informing the department that Gen. Scott had, on the 22d inst. the day after I assumed command of the squadron, so far completed the erection of his batteries in the rear of Vera Cruz as to authorize the summoning of the city, and on the refusal of the governor to surrender, of opening his fire at three o'clock of that day.

            In conformity with arrangements made in the morning with Gen. Scott, I directed the flotilla of small steamers and gun beats of the squadron, led by Commander J. Tatnall, in the spitfire, to take a position and commence a simultaneous fire upon the city.  The order was promptly and gallantly executed, and the fire was kept up with great animation until late evening.

            On visiting them at their position, I found that the two steamers had nearly exhausted their ammunition, but having received a fresh supply during the night from the ship, they at sunrise moved to a more favorable and advanced point, and resumed and continued their fire until recalled by signal.

            At the earnest desire of myself and officers, Gen. Scott generously assigned a position in the trenches, to be mounted with guns from the squadron, and three long 32 pounders, (all that were required,)were consequently landed, and after immense labor in transporting them through the sand, in which parties from the divisions of General Patterson, Worth and Pillow, respectively detached by those officers, cheerfully participated, the pieces were place in position and opened upon the city about 10 o'clock yesterday, immediately drawing upon them a sharp fire from the enemy, which in a short time killed and wounded ten of the detachment from the squadron.

            In order to give all a chance to serve in the trenches, for the honor of which there is a great though generous strife, I have arranged that detachments from each ship in charge respectively of lieutenants, and the  whole commanded by a captain or commander shall be relieved every twenty four hours.   Captain Aulick, assisted by Commander Mackenzie, and several lieutenants, had the direction of mounting the guns and opening the fire, and well and bravely was the duty performed.  Captain Mayo is now in charge and will be relieved in turn.

            The Ohio arrived on the 22d inst., but in consequence of a norther, did not reach her proper anchorage until yesterday afternoon.   Detachments of boats from all the vessels are employed night and day I landing from the transports the stores and munitions of the army.

            Enclosed is a list of the killed and wounded ascertained up to this hour, (12 meridian,) with the report of Captain Aulick; also a list of the small vessels comprising the flotilla of the squadron, all of which were engaged on the 22d inst.

I have the honor to be your most obedient servant,
M. C. Perry,
Commanding home squadron.

Hon. John Y. Mason, Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C.

Friday, March 26, 1847.

            Sir: The detention of the Princeton enables me to inform the department of events up to this hour, (10 a.m.)

            Captain Mayo and his party have returned, having been relieved in the batteries by a detachment under Capt. Breese.   I hardly need to assure the department that the party under Capt. Mayo sustained with unabated courage and spirit, the admirable fire of the naval battery.  The bombardment from the trenches was continued through the night.   A heavy norther now blowing,  (the third I five days,) has prevented communication with the shore since last evening.  Several merchant vessels have been thrown, this morning, ashore by the gale.

            The report of Capt. Mayo is enclosed, as also an additional list of killed and wounded.  Among the names of the killed, will be found that of Midshipman T. B. Shubrick, a most amiable and promising young officer.

I have the honor to be, your very obedient servant,
M. C. Perry,
Commanding Home Squadron,.

To the Hon. John Y. Mason, Secretary of the Navy,
Washington city, D. C.

Sunday, March 28, 1847.

            Sir: I am happy to inform you that the city and castle of Vera Cruz, surrendered yesterday to the combined force of the army and navy of the United States, on terms highly favorable to us.

            With high respect, your obedient servant,
M. C. Perry,
Commanding Home Squadron

To the Hon. J. Y. Mason, Secretary of the Navy.

Enclosed is an informal copy of the terms of stipulation.

M. C. P.

List of killed and wounded of the detachments at the naval batteries on the 24thand 25th March, 1847.

            Killed on the 24 th-Wm. Marcus, seaman; Jno. Williams, quarter gunner; John Harrington, boatswain's mate; Daniel MCGinnis, landsman; John Tookey, seaman.

            Killed on the 25 th Thomas B. Shubrick, midshipman: John Williamson, seamen.

            Wounded on the 25 th-A. S. Baldwin, lieutenant, slightly; Edward Black, seaman, slightly: Mathias Nice, seaman, slightly; William Hamblin, seaman, slightly; Deforest Carey, seaman, slightly.

            Wounded on the 25 th-The seamen, slightly, names not ascertained.

Respectfully, your obedient servant.
M. C. Perry,
Commanding Home Squadron.

To Hon. John Y. Mason, Secretary of the Navy.

United States Ship Potomac,
Off Sacrificios, March 25, 1847.

            Sir-In compliance with your letter this moment received, calling for a report of my proceedings in command of the detachment on shore yesterday, I have the honor to state that the battery of three-8-inch Paixhan guns and three long 32-pounders landed from the squadron was turned over to me, at 10 a.m., by the accomplished engineer officer who constructed it, (Captain R. E. Lee,) who, as well as Lieuts. Smith, of the engineers, and Williams, aid of Gen. Scott, remained in the battery throughout the fire; the enemy having but a few minutes before discovered our position, commenced the attack upon us. I immediately ordered the guns to be unmasked, and the firing commenced on the enemies batteries, which was steadily and deliberately continued until about half-past two p.m., when our last charge of ammunition, of which we had only about fifty founds to each gun, was expended.   By this time our sand bag breast works and traverses were much dilapidated by the shot of the enemy and the concussion of our own heavy pieces.   I now directed the embrasures to be filled up with sand-bags, (for the suggestion of which I must thank Captain Lee,) and everybody to seek the best shelter from shot that the work afforded, until the ammunition we expected should arrive.

            At 4 o'clock, Capt. Mayo, with a fresh supply of ammunition and a relief party of officers and men, arrived; I then relinquished the command to him agreeably to your order, and returned to my ship..-Our loss was four men killed, and one officer and five men wounded, one of the latter mortally (since dead) the others slightly.   When it is considered that we had the concentrated and very active fire of five of the enemies batteries upon us at a distance of less than 800 yards, besides occasional shells from the castle of San Juan de Ulloa, it is a matter of surprise that our loss is so small.

            It affords me great satisfaction to add that every officer and man in the battery behaved with the utmost coolness, activity and cheerfulness.

            Commander A. S. Mackenzie, who had superintended the duty of placing the guns in battery, promptly tendered his services to me and took charge of one of my 32 pounders, which he managed with great skill, and, I doubt not, with great effect upon the enemy's works.   In the course of the firing the flag on one of the enemy's forts was brought down by a gun fired by Lieut. Baldwin.   It was, however, quickly displayed from the same flag staff.   It is due to Midshipman Allen McLane that on a call for volunteers to cut away some brush wood which obstructed the view to a battery on which we wished to direct our fire, he sprung through an embrasure, followed by two men, Wm. Cavenaugh, seaman-the name of the other I have not been able to ascertain,)  and amidst a showing of balls quickly removed the obstruction, for which gallantry I complimented them on the spot.-I am, however, sure that any officer present would have been happy of an opportunity to have done the same.   As you desire to forward this report to the department by the Princeton, leaving at 12 m. to-day, it is necessarily a very hasty and brief one.

            I annex a list of the killed and wounded, and also the officers of the detachment.

I am, respectfully your ob't servant,
J. H. Aulick. Captain.

To Com. M. C. Perry,
Commanding Home Squadron, off Sacrificios.

[Son of Hon. Louis McLane, of this city.]

List of Officers of the detachment.

            Commander, A. S. Mackenzie; Lieutenants, Chas. Kennedy, Sidney Smith Lee, Harry Ingersoll, O. H. Perry, and A. S. Baldwin; Assistant Surgeons, O. F. Baxter, and john Hastings; Passed Midshipmen; C. Fauntleroy, and Charles Dyer; Midshipmen, Wm. H. Parker, Allen McLane, John P. Jones, R. B. Storer, (indecipherable text). J. Smith, W. K. Mayo, W. V. Gills, and. Maury; Captains's Clerk, S. F. Emmons-(Potomac.)

J. H. Aulick, Captain.

List of killed.

            Wm. Marcus, seaman, Mississippi; John Williams, arter gunner, Raritan; John Harrington, boats bin's mate, St. Mary's; Daniel McGinnis, landan, St. Mary's; and John Tookey seaman, Potomac.

List of wounded.

            Lieutenant A. S. Baldwin, Potomac; Edward ack, seaman Potomac; Mathias Nice, seaman, Potomac; W. Hamblin, seaman, Potomac; and Defor Carey, landsman, Potomac.

J. H. Aulick, Captain.

United States Steamer Mississippi,

Of Vera Cruz, march 26, 1847.

            Sir: In obedience to your order, I proceeded on the afternoon of the 24 th inst. to the naval battery opposite Vera Cruz, with detachments from his ship, Potomack Raritan, Albany, and St. Mary's, under officers named in the accompanying list, and rered Captain Aulick and the officers and men under Command.

            The breastworks having been much broken down the cannonade of the day, the night was passed in miring them by Lieutenant Tower, United States ineers, and his party, from whom   I received great assistance. Shortly before sunrise of he 25 th , the enemy having opened his fore upon us from four of batteries, an active cannonade was returned by and continued without interruption until half past two, p.m. , when they were silenced.   Two batteries on their left subsequently turned their fire towards us; but on our briskly returning it, they also ceased firing, and about half-past three p.m., our ammunition being expended, the cannonade ceased on our part.

            I cannot too highly commend the zeal, courage, and activity displayed by every officer and man under my command; and I regret that the efficient service which they rendered should have been attended with the loss of one officer, Midshipman T. B. Shubrick, and one seaman, J. Williamson, killed, and three slightly wounded.  The admirable conduct of Midshipman Shubrick, down to the moment of his fall, whilst pointing a gun on the enemy, occasioned me the more to lament his loss.  He was a young officer of great merit and promise, and had he lived, must have become an ornament to his profession and country.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
J. Mayo, Captain.

To Commodore M. C. Perry, commanding Home Squadron.

List of officers engaged at the naval battery on the 25 th March, 1847,

            Lieutenants, Simon B. Bissell, Raphael Semmes, John De Camp, Charles Stedman, Jas. M. Frailey, and James S. Riddle; Lieutenant of Marines, Wm C. Shuttleworth; Assistant Surgeon, James Hamilton; Acting Master, T. M. Crossan; Passed Midshipmen, R. M. Cuyler, William Nelson, and Peter Wager; Midshipmen, T. B. Shubrick, Joseph B. Smith, C. T. Andrews, A. H. Waring, J. H. Upshur, and S. McGaw.

J. Mayo, Captain Comd'g.

To Commodore M. C. Perry, commanding Home Squadron.

List of vessels comprising the flotilla of the Gulf Squadron, March 22, 1847.

            United States steamer Spitfire, Commander J. R. Sands.
            United States gun-boat Bonita, Lieutenant Commanding F. G. Benham.
            United States gun-boat Reefer, Lieutenant Commanding J. S. Sterett.
            United States gun-boat Petrel, Lieutenant Commanding T. D. Shaw.
            United States gun-boat Falcon, Lieutenant Commanding J. J. Glasson.
            United States gun-boat Tampico, Lieut. Commanding Wm. P. Griffin.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
M. C. Perry,
Commanding Home Squadron.

To the Hon. Jno. Y. Mason, Secretary of the Navy.

United States Steamer Mississippi,
Off Sacrificios Island, March 23, 1847.

            Sir: I regret to announce the loss of the steamer hunter, the particulars of which disaster are detailed in the accompanying report of Lieutenant McLaughlin.

            I had arrived a few hours before, and fortunately, from the admirable qualities of this ship, was enabled to go to the assistance of the three vessels ashore, the moment at early dawn I discovered their distress, though it was blowing, at the time, a gale.

            The boats of this vessel under the special charge of Captain Mayo, who volunteered his service, and commanded respectively by Lieuts. Decamp, Alden, and Blunt, and Passed Mid. Fauntleroy, happily rescued every one, more than sixty in number, from the wrecks.

I have the honor to be, your most obedient servant,
M. C. Perry,
Commanding Home Squadron.

To the Hon. John Y. Mason,
Secretary of the Navy, Washington city, D. C.

United States Steamer Mississippi,
Anchorage near Vera Cruz, March 26, 1847.

            Sir: I am writing in the midst of one of he heaviest northers I ever experienced.  Twenty-three merchant vessels have already gone ashore since morning, many of them with army stores and munitions.

            The vessels of the squadron have so far held on.-The loss of life I fear will be great.  This is the third norther we have had since I took command, five days since, and we have had thirty wrecks.

            I write this in anticipation of the early sailing of the Princeton, fearing I should not have time in the morning.   Both the Raritan and Potomac have had vessels across their hawsers.   I am ignorant of the extent to damage done to these vessels, but notice that the Raritan has her fore and spiritsail yard carried away.

            We have parted one of our chains, and have not yet recovered our anchor.

            It would seem to me very necessary that we should have spare chain and anchor for each class of vessels.   They can easily be put upon one of the islands.   Several boats have been lost in the gale, one actually blown from the davits of the ship; not less than ten small boats are absolutely necessary to our wants; the common iron fastened whale boat, such as are made in New London or New Bedford, costing from $50 to $60, will answer very well, and they can always be purchased ready made.

            Spars of assorted kinds are also wanted.   It is hoped hat the frame for the hospital, to be erected, and one or more sheds will soon arrive.  We may soon anticipate much sickness, and the rainy season is fast approaching.   The steamers are not in so much danger, as they all work their wheels and propellers.

I am, sir, respectfully, your obedient servant,
M. C. Perry,
Commanding Home Squadron.

P. S. We are already in want of Manilla hawsers; those received at Norfolk being tarred; four hawsers were in use to-day in this ship.   One merchant vessel is partly riding by us.

United States flag ship Mississippi
At anchor near Vera Cruz, March, 29, 1847.

            Sir: It is with infinite satisfaction I announce to you that the city of Vera Cruz and the castle of San juan de Ulloa were this day occupied by garrisons of United States troops.   Detachments from the army and navy, with the flotilla, were in motion early in the mrning, and the American colors were hoisted on the forts of the city and castle at 12 o'clock, under a simultaneaus salute from all the large vessels of the squadron.

            Enclosed is a copy of he articles of capitulation.

I have the honor to be, most respectfully, your obedient servant,

M. C. Perry,
Commanding Home Squadron.

Hon. John Y. Mason, Secretary of the Navy Washington, D. C.

NNR 72.111 April 17, 1847 vessels lost near Veracruz in two northers

            Vessels Lost Near Vera Cruz.

            We place by themselves the list of the vessels lost near Vera Cruz, by the two northers which wrought such destruction.

            Editorial Correspondence of the Picayune.

            Camp Before Vera Cruz, March 27, 1847.

            I send you, enclosed, a list of the vessels ashore the most correct I can obtain at present.  What number of vessels will be totally lost it is impossible to say, but many of them will doubtless be got off.  The gale has entirely abated but the surf still runs high.   Here is the list:

Camp Washington, March 28.

            List of Vessels Ashore Under Sacrificios.

Brig Caroline, Capt. Sutton
Gov'nt. Stores
Brig Mary Ann

Schr. Sear
Sutler's stores
total loss
Schr. Phebe Eliza, Capt. Howard
Gov'nt. Stores
right badsituation
Schr. Louisa, Capt. Smith
Gov'nt. Stores
total loss
Schr. Eleanor, Capt. Drew
Schr. Sea Nymph
Schr. monitor, Capt. Hurd
Schr. Blanch E. Sayre
Schr. Hariet Smith, Capt. Williamson
Schr. Corinne
Barque Mopang, Capt. Bookear
Schr. Ella, Capt. Smith
Brig Will, Capt. Decker
Schr. Oscar Jones
Gov't. Stores
off in a few days.
Schr. H. Walker
total loss
Schr. A j. Horton
Schr. Teconic
Brig Orion,Capt. Randall
Schr. Mary Priam, Capt. Joline
Gov't. stores
Schr. Pacific, Capt. Micks
Schr. Volesco
Her, brig Ellen & Clara
Brig Othello
total loss
Ship Diadem
Schr. Enterprise
Schr. Caroline
total loss.


NNR 72.112 April 17, 1847 PROSPECTS OF PEACE

We have been permitted to peruse several privates letters, of a very late date, from the city of Mexico, written by persons of the highest respectability, and whose sources of information are ample. They state as a matter of positive certainty, that negotiations for peace between the United States and Mexico are under advisement, and that the return of Santa Anna, who was hourly expected, would be the signal for the commencement of overtures. These advices are similar to those received at the north, and to which several of the journals in that quarter have given publicity. The outgiving of the northern press on this subject were, however, little more than conjecture. Our opinions are based upon more reliable information. [MSM]


After an ineffectual pursuit of Gen.Urrea, with a force of about 1000 men of which 150 were cavalry, General Taylor returned to Saltillo. He was close upon Urrea at Marin, but he escaped.

The impression at the mouth of the Rio Grande was that Gen. Taylor would push on to San Luis. This is inferred from his ordering so much transportation to be sent forward. Col. Hamtramack was at Camargo at the last accounts. Every thing was quiet there, and on the river at the Brazos. [MSM]


"A Frenchman has just arrived from the city of Mexico who reports that there are not one thousand armed men, all told, on the road from this to the capital. He says there were nine guns in position at Puente Naciona, but only sixty men to serve them." [MSM]


General Quitman's brigade left Vera Cruz on the 31st March, for Alverado. He has with him the S. Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama regiments. He also has an artillery force with him, Capt. Steptoe's battery, I am informed. One object of the expedition is to open a read from whence mules, horses and supplies for the army may be procured. [MSM]


General Twiggs, with his division was to march for Puente Nacional on the 31st March. General Worth, who was acting as governor of Vera Cruz, would follow with another division in four of five days. [MSM]

NNR 72.112 April 17, 1847 Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna arrives at Mexico City, assumes executive duties, his cabinet, orders troops to Veracruz

            Latest from the Army and From Mexico.

            The ship and the steamer Alabama, both at New Orleans on the 9 th bring Vera Cruz dates to the 1 st.-Tampico to the 3d, Brazos tot he 4 th inst., and files of city of Mexico papers to the 25 th, except those from the 18 th to the 23d-which are wanting.

            Santa Anna arrived at the capital from San Luis Potosi, on the 22d, and was probably received with open arms by all parties.   The particulars were published in the papers not received.   Those of the 24 th contain an account of his induction into the presidential chair, to which the congress had sometime since elected him, and his inaugural speech upon the occasion.   On taking the oath of office, Santa Anna said-

            "I am all for my country, and shall ever serve it, without thinking what it may cost me to do that which the nation desires I should do.  I have entered upon the supreme magistracy because I have seen that it was the sole legal means of terminating the disturbances of this capital, and because I believe I shall thus be able to facilitate the prosecution of the war, and to save the independence and honor of Mexico, which I wish to present unsullied and brilliant to the world which is beholding us."

            Gomez Farias of course retired from the executive chair to his station as vice president.  General Pena y Barragan remains at the head of the military affairs at the capital.  The report of Salas having been shot, it seems was got up by some of he Farias faction.   They all appear to rally under Santa Anna.   The church party is said to have joined him, the Archbishop agreeing to advance him, $5,000,000 to enable him to "drive the barbarians" out of he country.

            Mr. Kendall writes to the Picayune on the 2d from Vera Cruz that "Santa Anna" is said to have allied himself with the party of Farias, and to be determined to support the war at the expense of the Church.

            The cabinet of Santa Anna is composed of D. Mariano Otero, minister of foreign affairs; D. Juan Rondero, of the treasury, D. Francisco Suarray Triarty, of Justice, and D. Jose Ignacio Gutierrez, of war.

            The latest dates received at the capital from Vera Cruz were to the evening of the 24th, at which time the Vera Cruzanos seemed to claim a victory over the Yankees, and were in hopes of being successful throughout the whole affair.  Santa Anna had ordered several detachments of troops to march immediately to Vera Cruz, in order to assist the besieged.  [ANP]

NNR 72.113 April 24, 1847 HAVE WE CONQUERED A PEACE

It will be seen by the details inserted in this number of the Register, that he whole circumference of the Mexican Republic is in possession of the United States forces. The "insurrections" hear Santa Fe, and in the California, are suppressed. Chihuahua is occupied by the forces under Col. Doniphan. The army assembled by Santa Anna had been nearly demolished be Gen. Taylor. The valley of the Rio Grande is in quiet possession of the latter, and he is preparing to march upon San Louis Potosi. Vera Cruz is nearly demolished also, and the United States' flag waves over the battlements of San Juan de Ulloa. Alvarado, Tampico, nearly every Mexican port upon the Gulf and upon the Pacific, is in our possession, and a U. States tariff fixes the duties of Mexican trade. Gen. Scott with a selected army of from thirteen to twenty thousand men well provided is on the march for "the halls of Montezuma." Meantime the center of that empire is the scene of one political volcanic eruption after another, which scarcely leaves any party or faction one day in power. Inevitable destruction seems to await the nation. [MSM]


And yet we have no distinct indications from thence, of a submission. The impression, however, has gained rapidly upon public opinion in this country within the last three weeks, that a peace cannot be far distant. The strongest proof we have of this, is the avidity with which the U. States loan of eighteen millions had been sought for by capitalists, a race of men who invariably contrive to ferret out the utmost that is to be known or depended upon, whenever they are about to adventure heavy speculations. They unquestionably believed, when they made proposals they did for the loan, that a peace was near at hand.

There are all kinds of opinion, and all kinds of rumors too afloat, in regard to questions at issue. On one hand, the loan is no sooner negotiated, than the announcement is made that government have called upon the states for six thousand volunteers, to proceed to Mexico. We see it mentioned in various directions that governors have received requisitions accordingly. [MSM]

NNR 72.114 April 24, 1847 regiment of Massachusetts volunteers at Matamoros

            Excerpts from the Flag of the 3d inst.

The Massachusetts regiment.   This fine body of troops, save two companies, are now in Matamoros.   They, with the scholar colonel, are looked for every day.   These boys from the land of pumpkins are a "great people."   [ANP]


Sir: I have the honor to inform the department that immediately after the surrender of Vera Cruz, Gen. Scott and myself concerted measures for taking possession of Alvarado.

Although it was not expected that any defense would be made, it was though advisable that strong detachments, both of the army and navy, should be employed, in view of making an imposing demonstration in that direction

The southern brigade under Gen. Quitman, was detached of this duty, and the naval movements were directed personally by myself.

Gen. Quitman took up his line of march this morning, on his return to Vera Cruz, and I left for this anchorage to arrange and expedition to the north; Captain Mayo, with a small naval detachment, being placed in command of Alvarado and its dependencies, in which may be embraced the populous town of Tiacotalpam, situated about twenty miles up the river.  The southern brigade under Gen. Quitman, was detached for this duty, and the naval movements were directed personally by myself.  Gen. Quitman took up hid line of march this morning, on his return to Vera Cruz, and I left for this anchorage to arrange an expedition to the north; Captain Mayo, with a small naval detachement, being placed in command of Alvarado and its dependencies, in which may be embraced the populous town of Tiacotalpam, situated about twenty miles up the river.

In this expedition I have had  the good fortune to become acquainted with Gen. Quitman and many of the officers of his command, and have gratified to observe a most cordial desire, as well with them as with the officers of the navy, to foster a courteous and efficient co-operation.  The enemy, before evacuating the place, burnt all the public vessels, and spiked or buried most of the guns; but, those that were concealed have been discovered, and I have directed the whole number about sixty-either to be destroyed or shipped, with the shot, on board the gun boats, as they may be found of sufficeint value to be removed.

With great respect, I have the honor to be your most obedient servant, M.C Perry.


Lieut. Gray, U.S. Navy, reached Baltimore on the 22nd from Jamaica, having come overland from the Pacific to Chagres, and from thence to Jamaica.  He proceeded immediately to Washington, with despatches from Com. Stockton.

Lieut, Gray furnishes the following memorandum of occurrences: “On the 8th of January last Com. Stockton with 400 seamen and Marines, 60 dismounted dragoons, and the same number of riflemen, under Col. Kearny, (who volunteered to go with Com. S) met the enemy with 700 artillery and dragoons, on the banks of the “San Gabriel.”  The commodore pushed his force forward, and crossed the river in the face of a plunging fire from the Mexican battery.  The seamen dragging six pieces of artillery through the water, (their pieces having been transported by the seamen 140 miles from the ships) under Lieut. Tilghman, of Baltimore, charged up the heights, dislodging and taking the Mexican battery.

“On the 9th, Gen. Flores again made a stand on the plains of “Mesa,” and another severe action took place.  The American arms were again triumphant.  The Mexical cavalry charged repeatedly on the seamen, who met them in squads, armed with the ship’s “boarding pikes”-the dismounted riflemen in the center-dealing out destruction with their underring weapons.  The American loss was 16 killed and wounded.  Lieut. S. C. Rowan was the only officer wounded, and that slightly.  None killed. The Mexican loss is about 90 killed.

“It is believed that if Col. Fremont had been able to have joined Com. S. in season, with his mounted riflemen, Flores, with his whole force, would have been captured.  Com. S. refused to negotiate with Flores, but sent him word that if he were taken he would be shot as a rebel.  Flores soon after surrendered to Col. Fremont-who was not aware of Com. S. having declined to negotiate with him.  Flores has promised to become a lawful subject of the U. States, and to assist in quelling the rebellion.”  [MSM]


Sir: I had the honor to submit the detailed report of the operations of the forces under my command, which resulted in the engagement of Buena Vista , the repulse of the Mexican Army and the reoccupation of this position.

The information which reached me of the advance and concentration of a heavy Mexican force in my front, had assumed a probable form, as to induce a special examination far beyond the reach of our pickets to ascertain it’s correctness.  A small party of Texan spies, under Maj.  McCullugh, detached to the hacienda of Encararcion, 30 miles from this, on the route to San. Luis Potosi,had reported a cavalry force of unknown strength at that place.  On the 20th of February a strong reconnaissance under Lieut. Col. May was dispatch to the hacienda of Hacienda, while Maj. McCullough made another examination of Encararnacion.  The result of these expeditions left no doubt that the enemy was in large force at Encarnacion under the orders of Gen Santa Anna, and that he meditated a forward movement and attack on our forward position.

As the camp of Aqua Nueva could be turned on the other flank, and as the enemy forces was greatly superior to our own, particularly in the arm of each cavalry, I determined, after much consideration, to take up a position about 11 miles in rear and await the attack.  The army broke up its camp and marched at noon on the 21st, in camping at the new position a little in front of the Hacienda of Buena Vista.  With a small force I preceded to Saltillo to make some necessary arrangements for the defense of the town, leaving Brig. Gen. Wool in the immediate command of the troops.

Before those arrangements were completed on the morning of the 22nd I was advised that the enemy was in sight, advancing.  Upon reaching the ground it was found that his cavalry advance was in our front, having marched from Encarnacion, as we have since learned, at 11 o’clock on the day previous, a driving amounting force left at Aqua Neuva to cover the removal of public stores.  Our troops were in position, occupying a line of remarkable strength.  The road at this point becomes a narrow defile, the valley on it’s right being rendered quite impractable by artillery by a system of deep and impassible gullies, while on the left a succession of rugged ridges and precipitous revenes extends far back towards the mountain which bounds the valley.  The features of the ground were such as nearly to paralyze the artillery and cavalry of the army, while his infantry could not derive all the advantage of its numerical superiority.  In this position we prepared to receive him.  Capt. Washington’s battery (4th artillery) was posted to command the road while the 1st and 2nd Illinois regiments under Hardin and Bissell, each 8 companies, (to the latter of which was attached Capt. Connors company of Texas volunteers,) and the second Kentucky under Col. Mckee, occupied the crest of the ridges on the left and end rear.  The Arkansas and Kentucky regiments of cavalry commanded by Col.’s Yell and H. Marshall, occupied the extreme left near the base of the mountain, while the Indian brigade, under Brig. Gen. Lane, (composed of the 2nd and 3rd regiments under Col.’s Bull and Lane,) the Mississippi riflemen under Col. Davis, the squadrons of the 1st and 2nd dragoons under Capt. Steem and Lieut. Col. May and the light batteries of Capt.’s Sherman and Bragg, 3rd artillery, were held in reserve.  At 11 o’clock I received from Gen. Santa Anna a summons to surrender at discretion; which with a copy of my reply, I had already transmitted.  The enemy still forbore his attack, evidently waiting for the arrival of his rear columns, which could be distinctly seen by our lookouts as they approached the field.   A demonstration made on his left caused me to detach the 2nd Kentucky regiment and section of the artillery to the right in which position they bivouacked for the night.

In the mean time the Mexican light troops had engaged ours on the extreme left, (composed of parts of a Kentucky and Arkansas cavalry dismounted, and a rifle battalion from the Indiana brigade under Maj. Goreman, the whole command by Col. Marshall,) and kept up a sharp fire, climbing the mountainside and endeavoring to gain our flank.  Three pieces of Capt. Washington’s cavalry had been detached to the left and supported by the 2nd Indiana regiment.  An occasional shell was thrown by the enemy into this part of our line, but without effect.  The scrimmaging of the light troops was kept up with trifling loss on our part till dark, when I became convinced that no serious attack would be made before the morning, and returned with the Mississippi regiment and squadron of 2nd dragoons Saltillo.  The troops bivouacked without fires and laid upon their arms.  A body of cavalry, some 1500 strong, had been visible all day in rear of the town, having entered the valley through a narrow pass east of the city.  This cavalry, commanded by Gen. Minion, had evidently been thrown in our rear to break up and harass our retreat, and perhaps make some attempt against the town if practicable.  The city was occupied by four excellent companies of Illinois volunteers under Maj. Warren of the first regiment.  A field work, which command most of the approaches was garrisoned by Capt. Webster’s company, 1st artillery, and armed with two 24 pound howitzers, while the train and headquarter camp was guarded by two companies Mississippi riflemen under Capt. Rogers, and a field piece command by Capt. Shover, 3rd artillery.  Having made these dispositions for the protection of the rear, I could proceeded on the morning of the 23rd to Buena Vista, ordering forward all the other available troops.  The action had commenced before my arrival on the field.

During the evening of the 22nd the enemy had thrown a  body of light troops on a mountainside with the purpose of out flanking our left; and it was here that the action of the 23rd commenced at an early hour.  Our rifleman under Col. Marshall, who had been reinforced by three companies under Maj. Trail, 2nd Illinois volunteers, maintained there ground handsomely against a greatly superior force, holding themselves under cover, and using their weapons with deadly effect.  About 8 o’clock a strong demonstration was made against the center of our position, a heavy column moving along the road .  this force was soon dispersed by a few rapid and well-directed shots from Capt. Washington’s battery.   In the mean time the enemy was concentrating a large force of infantry and cavalry under cover of the ridges with the obvious intention of forcing our left, which was posted on a extensive plateau.

The 2nd Indiana and 2nd Illinois regiments formed this part of our line, the former covering three pieces of light artillery under the orders of Capt. O’Brien- Brig. Gen. Lane being in the immediate command.   In order to bring his men within effective range, Gen. Lane ordered the 2nd Indiana regiment forward.  The artillery advanced within musket range of a heavy body of Mexican infantry, and was served against it with great effect, but without being able to check its advance.  The infantry ordered to its support had fallen back in disorder, being exposed, as well as the battery, not only to a sever fire of small arms from the front, but also to a murderous cross fire of grape and canister from a Mexican battery on the left.  Capt. O’Brien found it impossible to retain his position without support, but was only able to withdraw two of his pieces, all the horses and cannoneers of the third piece being killed or disabled.  The 2nd Indiana regiment, which had fallen back as stated, could not be rallied, and took no further part in the action , except a handful of men, who, under its gallant Col. Bowles, joined the Mississippi regiment, and did good service, and those fugitives who, at a later period in the day, assisted in defending the train and depot at Buena Vista.  This portion of our line having given way, and the enemy appearing in overwhelming force against our left flank, the light troops which had rendered such good service on the mountain, were compelled to withdraw, which they did, for the most party in good order.  Many, however were not rallied until they reached the depot at Buena Vista, to the defense of which they afterwards contributed.

Col. Bissell’s regiment, (2nd Illinois,) which had been joined by a section of Capt. Sherman’s battery, had become completely outflanked, and was compelled to fall back, being entirely unsupported.  The enemy was now pouring masses of infantry and cavalry along the base of the mountain on our left, and was gaining our rear in great force.  At this moment, I arrived upon the field.  The Mississippi regiment had been directed to the left before reaching the position, and immediately came into action against the Mexican infantry which had turned our flank.  The 2nd Kentucky regiment and a section of artillery under Capt. Bragg, had previously been ordered from the right to reinforce our left , and arrived at a most opportune moment.  That regiment, and a portion of the 1st Illinois, under Colonel Hardin, gallantly drove the enemy, and recovered a portion of the ground we had lost.  The batteries of Capts. Sherman and Bragg were in position on the plateau and did much execution, not only in front , but particularly  upon the masses which had gained our rear.  Discovering that the enemy was heavily pressing upon the Mississippi regiment, the 3rd Indiana regiment, under Col. Lane, was dispatched to strengthen that part of our line, which formed a crotchet perpendicular to the first line of battle.  At the same time Lieut. Kilburn, with a piece of Capt. Bragg’s battery, was directed to support the infantry they’re engaged. The action was for a long time warmly sustained at the point-the enemy making several efforts both with infantry and cavalry against our line, and being always repulsed with heavy loss.  I had placed all the regular cavalry and Capt. Pike’s squadron of Arkansas horse under the orders of Brt. Lieut. Col. May, with directions to hold in check the enemy’s column, still advancing to the rear along the base of the mountain, which was done in conjunction with the Kentucky and Arkansas cavalry under Cols. Marshall and Yell.  In the meantime our left which was still strongly threatened by a superior force, was further strengthened by the detachment of Capt. Bragg’s, and a portion of Capt. Sherman’s batteries, to that quarter.  The concentration of artillery fire upon the masses of the enemy along the base of the mountain, and the determined resistance offered by the two regiments opposed to them, had created confusion in their rank, and some of the corps attempted to effect a retreat upon their main line of battle.  The squadron of the 1st dragoons under Lieut. Rucker, was now ordered up the deep ravine which these retreating corps were endeavoring to cross in order to charge and disperse them.  The squadron proceeded to the point indicated, but could not accomplish the object, being exposed to a heavy fire from a battery established to cover the retreat of those corps.  While the squadron was detached on this service, a large body of the enemy was observed to concentrate on our extreme left, apparently with the view of making a descent upon the hacienda of Buena Vista, which our train and baggage were deposited.  Lieut. Col. May was ordered to the support of that point, with two pieces of Capt. Sherman’s battery under Lieut. Reynolds.  In the meantime the scattered forces near the hacienda, composed in part of Majors Trail and Gorman’s command, had been to some extent organized under the advice of Major Munroe, chief of artillery, with the assistance of Major Morrison, volunteer staff, and were posted to defend the position.  Before our cavalry had reached the hacienda, that of the enemy had made its attack, having been handsomely met by the Kentucky and Arkansas cavalry under Cols. Marshall and Yell.  The Mexican column immediately divided one portion sweeping by the depot, where it received a destructive fire from the force which had collected there, and then gaining the mountain opposite, under a fire from Lieut. Reynolds’s section, the remaining portion regaining the base of the mountain on our left.  In the charge at Buena Vista, Col. Yell fell gallantly at the head of his regiment; we also lost Adj’t Vaughan, of the Kentucky cavalry-a young officer of much promise.  Lieut. Col. May, who had been rejoined by the squadron of the 1st dragoons and by portions of the Arkansas and Indiana troops under Lieut. Col. Roane and Maj. Gorman, now approached the base of the mountain, holding in check the right flank of the enemy, upon whose masses, crowded in the narrow gorges and ravines, our artillery was doing fearful execution.

The position of that portion of the Mexican army which had gained our rear was now very critical, and it seemed doubtful whether it could regain the main body.  At this moment I received from Gen. Santa Anna a message by a staff officer, desiring to know what I wanted.  I immediately dispatched Brig. Gen. Wool to the Mexican general in chief, and sent orders to cease firing.  Upon reaching the Mexican lines, Gen. Wool could not cause the enemy to cease their fire, and accordingly returned without having an interview.  The extreme right of the enemy continued its retreat along the base of the mountain, and finally, in spite of all our efforts, affected a unction with the remainder of the army.

During the day the cavalry of Gen. Minion had ascended the elevated plain above Saltillo, and occupied the road from the city to the field of battle, where they intercepted several of our men.  Approaching the tow, they were fired upon by Capt. Webster from the redouble occupied by his company, and then moved off towards the eastern side of the valley, and obliquely towards Buena Vista.  At this time, Capt. Shover moved rapidly forward with his piece, supported by a miscellaneous command of mounted volunteers, and fired several shots at the cavalry with great effect.  They were driven into the ravines which lead to the lower valley, closely pursued by Capt. Shover, who was further supported by a piece of Captain Webster’s battery, under Lieut. Donaldson, which had advanced from the redoubt, supported by Captain Wheeler’s company of Illinois volunteers.  The enemy made one or two efforts to charge the artillery, but was finally driven back in a confused mass, and did not again appear upon the plain.

In the meantime, the firing had partially ceased upon the principal field.  The enemy seemed to confine his efforts to the protection of his artillery, and I had left the plateau for a moment, when I was recalled thither by a very heavy musketry fire.  On regaining that position, I discovered that our infantry (Illinois and 2nd Kentucky) had engaged a greatly superior force of the enemy-evidently his reserves-and that they had been overwhelmed by numbers.  The moment was most critical.  Capt. O’Brien, with two pieces, had sustained this heavy charge to the last, and was finally obliged to leave his guns on the field-his infantry support being entirely routed-Capt. Bragg, who had just arrived from the left, was ordered at once into battery.  Without any infantry to support him, and at the imminent risk of losing his guns, this officer came rapidly into action, the Mexican line being but a few yards from the muzzle of his pieces.  The first discharge of canister caused the enemy to hesitate, the second and third drove him back in disorder, and saved the day.  The 2nd Kentucky regiment which had advanced beyond supporting distance in this affair, was driven back and closely pressed by the enemy’s cavalry.  Taking a ravine which led in the direction of Capt. Washington’s battery, their pursuers become exposed to his fire, which soon checked and drove them back with loss.  In the men time the rest of our artillery had taken position on the plateau, covered by the Mississippi and 3rd Indiana regiments, the former of which had reached the ground in time to pour a fire into the right flank of the enemy, and thus contribute to his repulse.  In this last conflict we had the misfortune to sustain a very heavy loss.  Colonel Hardin, 1st  Illinois, and colonel Mckee, and lieut. Col. Clay , 2nd Kentucky regiments, fell at this time, while gallantly heading their commands.

No further attempt was made by the enemy to force our position, and the approach of night gave an opportunity to pay proper attention to the wounded, and also to refresh the soldiers, who had been exhausted by incessant watchfulness and combat.-compelled for the most part to bivouac without fires, , expecting that morning would renew the conflict.  During the night the wounded were removed to Saltillo, and every preparation made to receive the enemy should he again attack our position.  Seven fresh companies were drawn from the town, and march from the Rinconada, with a reinforcement of Kentucky cavalry and four heavy guns, under Capt. Prentiss, 1st artillery, was near at hand, when it was discovered that the enemy had abandoned his position during the night.  Our scouts soon ascertained that the disparity of numbers, and the exhaustion of our troops, rendered it inexpedient and hazardous to attempt pursuit. A staff officer was dispatched to General Santa Anna to negotiate an exchange of prisoners, which was satisfactorily completed on the following day.  Our own dead were collected and buried, and the Mexican wounded, of which a large number had been left upon the field, were removed to Saltillo, and rendered as comfortable as circumstances would permit.

On the evening of the 26th, a close reconnaissance was made of the enemy’s position, which was found to be occupied only by a small body of cavalry, the infantry and artillery having retreated in the direction of San Luis Potosi.  On the 27th, our troops resumed their former camp at Agua Nueva, the enemy’s rear guard evacuating the place as we approached, leaving a considerable number of wounded.  It was my purpose to beat up his quarters in Encarnacion early the next morning, but upon examination, the week condition of the cavalry horses rendered it unavailable to attempt so long a march without water.  A command was finally dispatched to Encarnacion, on the 1st of March, Under Colonel Belknap.  Some two hundred wounded, and about sixty Mexican soldiers were found there, the army having passed on in the direction of Matehuala, with greatly reduced numbers, and suffering much from hunger.  The dead and dying were strewed upon the road and crowded the buildings of the hacienda.

The American force engaged in the action of Buena Vista, is shown, by the accompanying field report, to have been 334 officers, and 4, 425 men, exclusive of the small command left in and near Saltillo.  Of this number, two squadrons of cavalry, and three batteries of light artillery, making nor more than 453 men, composed of the only force of regular troops.-The strength of the Mexican army is stated by Gen. Santa Anna, in his summons, to be 20,000, and that estimate is confirmed by all the information since obtained.  Our loss is 267 killed, 456 sounded, and 23 missing.  Of the numerous wounded, may did not required removal to the hospital, and it is hoped that a comparatively small number will be permanently disabled.  The Mexican loss in killed an wounded may be fairly estimated at 1,500, and will probably reach 2,000.  At least 500 of their killed were left upon the field of battle.  We have no means of ascertaining the number of deserters and dispersed men from the ranks, but it is known to be very great.

 Our loss has been especially severe in officers, 28 having been killed upon the field.  We have to lament the death of Captain George Lincoln, assistant adjutant general, serving on the staff of General Wool-a young officer of high bearing and approved gallantry, who fell early in the action.-No loss falls more heavily upon the army in the field than that of Cols. Hardin and McKee and L. Col. Clay.  Possessing in a remarkable degree the confidence of their commands, and the last two having enjoyed the advantage of a military education, I had looked particularly to them for support in case we met the enemy.  I need not say that their zeal in engaging the enemy, and the cool and steadfast courage with which they maintained their positions during the day, fully realized my hopes, and caused me to feel yet more sensibly their untimely loss.

I perform a grateful duty in bringing to the notice of the government the general good conduct of the troops.  Exposed for successive nights without fires, to the severity of the weather, they were ever prompt and cheerful in the discharge of every duty, and finally displayed conspicuous steadiness and gallantry in repulsing, at great odds, a disciplined foe.  While the brilliant success achieved by their arms, releases me from the painful necessity of specifying many cases of bad conduct before the enemy, I feel an increased obligation to mention particular corps and officers, whose skills, coolness, and gallantry in trying situations, and under a continued and heavy fire, seem to merit particular notice.

To Brigadier General Wool my obligations are especially due.  The high state of discipline and instruction of several of the volunteer regiments was attained under his command; and to his vigilance and arduous services before the action, and his gallantry and activity on the field, a large share of our success may justly be attributed.  During most of the engagement, he was in immediate command of the troops thrown back on our left flank.  I beg leave to recommend him to the favorable notice of the government.  Brigadier General Lane (slightly wounded) was active and zealous throughout the day, and displayed great coolness and gallantry before the enemy.

The services of the light artillery, always conspicuous, were more than usually distinguished.  Moving rapidly over the roughest ground, it was always in action at the right place and the right time, and its well directed fire dealt destruction in the masses of the enemy.  While I recommend to particular favor the gallant conduct and valuable services of Maj. Munroe, chief of artillery, and Captains Washington, 4th artillery, and Sherman and Bragg, 3rd artillery, commanding batteries, I deem it no more than just to mention all subaltern officers.  They were nearly all detached at different times, and in very situation exhibited conspicuous skill and gallantry.  Captain O’Brien, Lieutenants Brent, Whiting and Couch, 4th artillery, and Bryan, topographical engineers, (slightly wounded,) were attached to Capt. Washington’s battery.  Lieuts.  Thomas, Reynolds, and French, 3rd artillery, (severely wounded,) to that of Captain Sherman; and Captain Shover and Lieutenant Kilburn, 3rd artillery, to that of Captain Bragg.  Captain Shover, in conjunction with Lieut. Donaldson, 1st artillery, tendered gallant and important service in repulsing the cavalry of Gen. Minion.  The regular cavalry, under Lieut. Col. May, with which was associated Captain Pike’s squadron of Arkansas horse, rendered useful service in holding several points. Captain Steen, 1st dragoons, was severely wounded early in the day while gallantly endeavoring, with my authority, to rally the troops, which were falling to the rear.

The Mississippi riflemen, under Col. Davis, were highly conspicuous for their gallantry and steadiness, and sustained throughout the engagement the reputation of veteran troops.  Brought into action against an immense superior force, they maintained themselves for a long time unsupported and with heavy loss, and held an important part of the field until reinforced.  Col. Davis, though severely wounded, remained in the saddle until the close of the action.-His distinguished coolness and gallantly at the head of his regiment on this day entitle him to the particular notice of the government. The 3d Indiana regiment, under Col. Lane, and a fragment of the 2nd, under Col. Bowles, were associated with the Mississippi regiment during the greater portion of the day, and acquitted themselves creditably in repulsing the attempts of the enemy to break that portion of our line.  The Kentucky cavalry, under Col. Marshall, rendered good service dismounted, acting as light troops on our left, and afterwards, with a portion of Arkansas regiment, in meeting and dispersing the column of cavalry at Buena Vista.  The 1st and 2nd Illinois, and the 2nd Kentucky regiments, served immediately under my eye, and I hear a willing testimony to their excellent conduct throughout the day.  The spirit and gallantry with which the 1st Illinois and 2nd Kentucky engaged the enemy in the morning, restored confidence to that part of the field, while the list of casualties will show how much these three regiments suffered in sustaining the heavy charge of the enemy in the afternoon.  Capt.  Conner’s company of Texas volunteers, attached to the 2nd Illinois regiment, fought bravely, its captain being wounded and two subalterns killed.  Col. Bissell, the only surviving colonel of these regiments, merits notice for his coolness and bravery on this occasion.  After the fact of the field officers of the 1st Illinois and 2nd Kentucky regiments, the command of the former devolved upon Lieut. Col. Weatherford; that of the later upon Major Fry.

 Regimental commanders and others who have rendered reports, speak in general terms of the good conduct of their officers and men, and have specified many names, but the limits of this report forbid a recapitulation of them here.  I may, however, mention Lieuts. Rucker, and Campbell, of the dragoons, and Captain Pike, Arkansas cavalry, commanding [illegible]

Major Bradford, Captain Sharpe, (severely wounded), and Adjutant Griffith, Mississippi regiment; Lieut. Col. Robinson, A. D. C. to General Lane; Lieut. Colonel Weatherford, 1st Illinois regiment, Lieut. Colonel Morrison, Major Trail, and Adjutant Whiteside, (severely wounded), 2nd regiment and Major Fry, 2nd Kentucky regiment, as being favorably noticed for gallantry and good conduct.  Major McCulloch, quartermaster in volunteer service, rendered.  [MSM]


               Gen. Kearney had scarcely left New Mexico for California, when rumors of a revolution began to be spoken among the Mexican inhabitants.

On the 14th of January, Governor Bent left this place to attend to private business at Taos. On the 20th, information was brought to Colonel Price, by an Indian, living six miles from town, that Governor Bent, and several other Americans, had been murdered at Taos –that an insurrection was in progress—  that the people of Taos and the Pueblo Indians near, were coming in great numbers towards Santa Fe, compelling all on the road to join them, if they would not do so willingly, and that the object was to posses themselves of all the property, public and private, in Santa Fe, and destroy the Americans who had been represented as few in number.

As soon as Colonel Price received report of the murders at Taos, he issued an order for Major Edmonson, of the volunteers, and Captain Burgwin, of the United States dragoons, both stationed near Albuquerque, to repair with their respective commands to Santa Fe; he directed Captain Burgwin to follow him with one company of dragoons on the road to Taos, and at 11 A.M., on the 23d, the colonel, with three hundred volunteers and four 12 pound howitzers, with twenty men from Captain Fischer’s company, under Lieutenant Dyer, (ordnance,) and Lieut. Hassendueble, marched in the direction of that place, with a view to meet the enemy as near the mountain as possible, to prevent the inhabitants in the valley of the Del Norte from forming a junction with them.

January 24—Started early, and after marching twelve miles met the enemy, from fifteen hundred to two thousand strong, on the bottom of the Del Norte, near the mouth of a creek which was nearly surrounded by high, sharp hills, from one to two hundred feet high; they were crests, having no level ground on the top, but falling directly back with a steep declivity. Beyond this to a snowy mountain, distant one mile, was a very rough country, broken into conical hills and deep ravines. The enemy, on our approach fled to the top of the hills, and commenced firing on us at 3 P.M. As soon as the howitzers could be brought into line on the plain, the colonel ordered Lieut. Dyer, assisted by Lieut. Hassendueble , of Captain Fischer’s company, to open his fire of shells upon the enemy, which order was promptly obeyed, but not with the success we could have wished, for when the guns were elevated sufficiently to reach the top of these crests, the shells would pass within a few feet of the enemy and fly many hundred yards beyond them into the opposite valley, the enemy dropping flat at every flash, behind the sharp points of the hills. At this time it was discovered that they were outflanking us on each side, and that the wagon train, one mile in the rear, was in great danger, indeed, it was evident that this was their object, as well as to prevent us from running away, supposing, from their great superiority in numbers, we could not escape them. At this period of the battle, Col. Price ordered Capt. St. Vrain with his 60 mounted volunteers, citizens of Santa Fe and mounted men to go back and bring up the train. This he did as speedily as possible, under a sharp fire from the enemy from the sand hills and some houses. As Capt. St. Vrain approached the creek on his return, he discovered a number of the enemy outflanking us on the right; he charged upon them and killed the two; after which he returned to the main body of the army.

The Mexicans and Indians, emboldened by their same position, came down the hill on our left, and occupied a house and orchard on the edge of the plain, firing with great accuracy at the artillery men. The colonel then ordered Lieut. Dyer to move his battery within one hundred and ninety yards of the house and adobe wall, behind which the enemy were posted, and to drive them from their position. This was done by firing about twenty shells through the wall and house; but not until six artillery men were severely wounded. The enemy then joined their companions on the hills. There was another house near the foot of the hill, three hundred yards to the right of the one just mentioned, which was supposed to contain enemies. Captain Angney, A company of infantry volunteers, was ordered to charge it. He did so promptly, and had one man mortally wounded from the hill; but no one was in the house. He cut openings through the walls, left a detachment of his company, and returned with the remainder to the main body. Finding that the enemy could not be subdued at the distance we were fighting, Col. P. ordered a charge, leaving a reserve on the plain, to fire on the enemy as long as they could do so with safety to our own troops. Capt. Angney, supported by K company, Lieut. White, with two companies of infantry volunteers, charged most gallantly up the steepest part of the hill in front; Capt St. Vrain, with his mounted Santa Fe volunteers on his right, up a more gentle slope; and the artillery was ordered to occupy the hill on the left, where the ascent was more easy. All these positions were occupied in a few minutes, and the enemy put flight. They ran in every direction over the broken ground spoken of before; but the troops where so much exhausted by the charge that pursuit was impossible: but they were fired on continually from the smaller arms and howitzers, and considerable execution was done. Lieutenant Irwin, A company infantry volunteers, was severely wounded through the leg, and one private killed, and two of the enemy were bayoneted on the hill. It was now near night, and the colonel ordered the troops to take possession of the town, Canada, which was done without any resistance, the men being with the enemy, except the priest – the women having fled.

It is impossible to say how many were killed in this fight; the battle ground was more than one mile in extent, and few saw the whole number, some make it twenty six, others twenty – the latter number probably correct. Among the slain was their general, Tyrphoya. Colonel Price was struck by a ball in the early part of the action: but his sword belt probably saved his life, and his wound was only a severe contusion.

January 28 – As we were about to march, heard of the battle of Moro town, in which Capt. Henly, of the volunteers, was killed; and the previous murder of Prewit, Waldo, Culver and several other Americans at that place – in all seven. Marched to Securo, and encamped. Captain Burgwin, with his company, having marched all night, joined us with the 6 pounder. At this point, Captain Burgwin, with his company of dragoons, and Capt. St. Vrain’s company of volunteers, and company K volunteers, were sent forward to El Emboda, on the near route to Taos, to attack a small party of the enemy, said to be about 60, with orders to join the main body at Tampus the next night; the colonel having determined to accompany the wagons and cannon which were compelled to take a more circuitous route on account of difficulties in the mountain. Captain Burgwin had proceed only about four miles when he met the enemy in great force, instead of sixty as had been represented. A severe battle ensued; the firing was distinctly heard by us, and Colonel Price sent forward Captain Slack’s company to reinforce Capt. B.

30th – Pursued our march through the mountain, which was covered with snow. The labor of getting the wagons and cannon along this day was very severe on men and mules as the road was rough and precipitous. Encamped in the mountain – weather very cold. 31st – Continued our march, and fatigued reached Tampus at 12 M., where we met Captain Burgwin’s command. They killed 20 of the enemy the previous day, and drove them towards Taos. – Captain B had one man killed and one severely wounded. Marched three miles further and encamped at Chamaral.

February 1 – Marched 8 miles through deep snow, and encamped on the top of a high mountain; weather very cold, snowed on us all night. 2d – Continued our march; many of the men’s feet were badly frozen; reached the first town in the valley of Taos at night. The town had been abandoned, and we fared well enough, as there was an abundance of pigs, poultry, corn & c.

Feb. 4 – Marched four miles to Fernando, where Governor Bunt and other Americans had been murdered, and thence to Pueblo de Taos, distant two miles. On our approach the Indians and Mexicans shouted so loud that we heard them at a mile distant, and as we came near the town, they used all sorts of abusive epithets towards us, thinking themselves safe in their strong place. The troops were soon brought into line, and a heavy cannonading was opened upon them, with discharges of small arms. – this was continued till all the ammunition for the cannon was exhausted, the ammunition wagon having been left miles in the rear. Night was now close upon us, and the colonel ordered the troops to return to Fernando, to prepare for a renewal of the attack the next morning.

Feb 5 – We were again before the town soon after sunrise. The six pounder in charge of Lieut. Welser, 1st dragoon, and two howitzers, all under Lieut. Dyer, Ordnance, with a portion of the volunteers, were placed in position on the side of the town, and the two other howitzers, in charge of Lieut. Hassendeubel, with Captain Burgwin’s company of dragoons, and one company of volunteers, took position on another side, so as to make a crossfire. The action now commenced at three hundred yards distance, and continued cannonading was kept up with shells and grape shot from the howitzers, and solid shot from the six pounders, till 11 A.M., with occasional tires from our sharp-shooters, as chances offered – by which means the enemy were driven from the streets and plaza and had ceased their yelling.

At this time the colonel ordered a charge from each side. This charge was made promptly and vigorously, but unfortunately, Captain Burgwin’s company of dragoons, with Capatain McMillen’s company of mounted volunteers, reached the church door before the other party came up; the consequence was, that the intended diversion was not effected, and Captain Burgwin’s command received the full shock of the enemy’s fire, for a time. Captain B had five dragoons killed, and nineteen severely wounded, several of whom soon died – among them, Captain Burgwin. Captain McMillen had six severely wounded. So destructive was the cross firing on these two companies, that they were compelled to retire behind the adobe wall which surrounds the town, and which ran a few feet from the church. The whole soon came up, and breaking down the wall , placed themselves close under the walls of the church, and commenced cutting an opening into it with an axe. Still they were being shot from the top of the church, from its interior, through loop holes, and from other buildings which commanded it. As we had only axes to work with, our progress was slow; but while it was progressing, a temporary ladder was put up, and the top of the church was soon cleared. Howitzer shells were lighted and thrown into the opening which the Indians had made – these exploded beautifully, and no doubt did good execution; but still they would shoot a man if he presented himself at the holes. Fire was communicated to the roof, but being flat and covered with earth, it burned slowly. The wall had been cut only about one foot deep, and as it now appeared that the town must be taken house by house, and for that purpose it was all important to get possession of the church that night, which was close on us, Colonel Price ordered Lieutenant Dyer ( he ought to be a Captain) to bring up the six pounder within a few yards of the building, and with solid shot to make a break, where the men had been cutting with axes. This was a hazardous duty, as he and his men were dead marks for the enemy, but the other was promptly obeyed – the breach was made, and after throwing in a charge of canister and lighted shell, the troops rushed in. the Indians who had not been killed, fled; the front door was broken open from the inside, and we had possession of the church but it was so full of smoke that it could not be occupied. The colonel had taken precaution to place Captain St. Vrain’s company of Santa Fe mounted men, and Captain Slack’s company of mounted volunteers, in rear of town, and between it and the mountain, supposing that when the charge was made many would attempt to escape. Such proved to be the case; the Mexicans all fled, and left the Indians to fight it out. These two companies killed fifty-five. We soon gained possession of two or three houses near the church, but beyond them, one hundred yards distant, stood two immense buildings, seven stories high, each story receding; and the only opening to the room was from the roof down – Lieutenant Hassendeuble, of the artillery, has promised me a plan of them, which I will send you, if I can get it in time, for without this you can scarcely form an idea of their great size and strength. – Into these Indians all fled, and the colonel being convinced that they could not be taken without a heavier gun, sent an express to Santa Fe for one of the 24 pounders howitzers, and a supply of ammunition. We slept soundly that night, but were awoke early by the discharge of fire arms, which proved to be a sentinel firing on an Indian who was endeavoring to make his escape. He killed him after two discharges.

Early in the morning, (February 5th) the women came in crowds to the colonel, on their knees, with white flags, crosses, &c., begging for mercy; and very soon the men followed them. The colonel, thinking that the slaughter had been sufficiently great, listened to their supplications, and granted them peace on condition that they would bring him Tomas, one of the leaders that had fled. This was subsequently done. Much of the property stolen from the American citizens at Fernando, who had been murdered by them, was brought forward and restored to the relatives of the owners, and after solemn promises of good conduct in the future, and sundry hugs and leave taking we returned to Fernando. February 6th – Montoya, the ringleader has been delivered to Col. Price, by some friendly Mexicans, residing a few miles off. He was tried by court martial to-day, and condemned to be hung. 7th – Montoya was executed at 1 P.M. He acknowledged  his crimes, and asked pardon of the “Mexicans, the Americans, and God.” 9th – Commenced our homeward march, and arrived in Santa Fe on the 11th. The campaign of nineteen days was made without tents, and two of the nights were spent in a high mountain, covered with snow from one to two feet deep, and all without one word of complaint. Missouri may well be proud of her sons, for every man did his duty. As for the Unites States dragoons, under Capt. Burgwin, their killed and wounded will show where they were in fight. Col. Price displayed the finest qualities of a soldier, and all seemed to court danger where duty called them. Killed of the enemy, from two to three hundred. The Indians acknowledged 175 at the Pueblo – no wounded seen. Capt. Burgwin died of his wound on the 8th, and his remains, with those of Governor Bent, and Mr. Leal, district attorney, where brought to this place and interred with appropriate honors, on the 13th instant. I think that all will now be convinced that New Mexico cannot be held without a strong military force; and for the sake of the Americans residing in this territory, and of its interest generally, I hope the government will not be slow to furnish soldiers to replace those whose term of service will soon expire. Colonel Price received a letter from Lieutenant Colonel Mitchell last night dated at “El Passo,”

Feb 1. He with Colonel Domphan’s regiment and Major Clark’s artillery, were about to start for Chihuahua. No news at that time of General Wool’s having arrived at that place, and rumor said the Mexicans had five thousand soldiers to defend the place. Battle at Moro Town – As soon as Colonel Price received the first intimation of the murder at Taos of Governor Bent and others, and of the disaffection at St. Miguel, he sent an order to Captain Hently, who had been stationed in that neighborhood, as well to take charge of grazing parties as to protect Captain Murphy, who was expected soon to be there with money from St. Louis – to collect all his forces, and to put down any attempt at a revolution, and give convoy to Capt. Murphy. Hearing of the murders at Moro town, he repaired immediately to that place – a battle ended in which he killed several of the enemy and took fifteen prisoners, who are now in the calaboose, at this place, and was himself slain in storming a fort. As soon as Colonel Willock, who commanded at Santa Fe – Colonel Price being absent – heard of Captain Henly, he sent Captain Morin, of Platte county to command at Moro town; he destroyed it entirely, and I am sorry to add, a large quantity of grain, which was very much needed here. He made the inhabitants feel the horrors of war, but unfortunately, we must come in for a share of it, by the destruction of the wheat and corn.   [MSM]


               Since I have the honor to submit you a short account of the recent revolution in this territory, and a detailed report of the operations of the forces under my command, consequent upon the rebellion.

About the 15th of December last I received information of an attempt to excite the people of this territory against the American government. This rebellion was headed by Thomas Ortiz and Diego Archuleta. An officer, formerly in the Mexican service, was seized, and on his person was found a list of all the disbanded Mexican soldiers in the vicinity of Santa Fe. Many other persons, supposed to be implicated, were arrested, and a full investigation proved that many of the most influential persons in the northern part of this territory were engaged in the rebellion. All attempts to arrest Ortiz and Archuleta proved unsuccessful, and these rebels have, without doubt, escaped in the direction of Chihuahua.

After the arrest above mentioned and the flight of Ortiz and Archuleta, the rebellion appeared to be suppressed, but this appearance was deceptive.

On the 14th of January, Governor Bent left the city for Taos. On the 19th of the same month, this valuable officer, together with five other persons, were seized at Don Fernando de Taos by the Pueblos and Mexicans, and murdered in the most inhuman manner the savages could devise. On the same day, seven Americans were murdered at the Arroya Honda, and two others on the Rio Colorado. The names of the unfortunate persons thus brutally butchered are as follows:

At Don Fernando de Taos – Charles Bent, governor; Stephen Lee, sheriff; James W. Leal, circuit attorney; Cornelio Vigil, (a Mexican) prefect; Narcisus Beaubien, (son of the circuit judge;) Parbleau Harvimeah, (a Mexican).

At the Arroya Hondo – Simeon Turley, Albert Turbush, William Hatfield, Louis Tolque, Peter Robert, Joseph Marshall, William Austin.

At the Rio Colorado – Mark Head, William Harwood.

It appeared to be the object of the insurrectionists to put to death every American and every Mexican who had accepted office under the American government.

News of these events reached me on the 20th of January; and letters from the rebels, calling upon the habitants of the Rio Abajo for aid, were intercepted. It was now ascertained that the enemy was approaching this city, and that their force was continually being increased by the inhabitants of the towns along their line of match.

In order to prevent the enemy from receiving any further reinforcements in that manner, I determined to meet them as soon as possible. Supposing that the detachment of the necessary troops would weaken the garrison of Santa Fe too much, I immediately ordered up from Albuquerque Major Edmonson’s 2d regiment Missouri mounted volunteers, and Captain Burgwin to leave one company of dragoons at this post, and to join me with the other. Major Edmonson was directed to remain in Santa Fe.

Captain Giddings, company 2d regiment Missouri mounted volunteers, was also ordered to join me with his company, upon the arrival of Captain Burgwin.

Leaving Lieut. Col. Willock in command of this post, on the 23d of January I marched from this place at the head of companies D, Captain McMillin, K, Captain Williams, L, Captain Slack, M, Captain halley, and N, Captain Barber, of the 2d regiment Missouri mounted volunteers, Captain Angney’s battalion of infantry and a company of Santa Fe volunteers, commanded by Captain St. Vrain. I also took with me four mounted howitzers, which I placed under the command of Lieutenant A B. Dyer, of the ordnance. My whole force compose three hundred and fifty three rank and file, and, with the exception of Captain St. Vrain’s company, were all dismounted. On the march Captain Williams was taken sick, and the command of company K devolved upon Lieutenant B. F. White. On the 24th of January, at half past I, P. M., our advance (Captain St. Vrain’s company) discovered the enemy in considerable forces near the town of Canada, their position at that time being in the valley bordering the Rio del Norte. Preparations were immediately made by me to attack them; and it became necessary for the troops to march more rapidly than the ammunition and provision wagons could travel, in order to prevent the escape of the enemy or to frustrate them in any attempt they might make to occupy commanding positions. As I entered the valley, I discovered them beyond the creek on which the town is situated, and in full possession of the heights commanding the road to Canada, and of three strong houses at the base of the hills. My line of battle was immediately formed – the artillery, consisting of four 12 pounder mountain howitzers, being thrown forward on the left flank and beyond the creek, the dismounted men occupying a position where they would be, in some degree, protected by the high bluff bank of the stream from the fire of the enemy, until the wagon train could be brought up. The artillery opened the houses occupied by the enemy, and on the more distant height, on which alone the guns could be brought to bear. The enemy discovering the wagons to be more than a mile in the rear, sent a large party to cut them off; and it became necessary to detach Captain St. Vrain’s company for their protection. This service was rendered in the most satisfactory manner. So soon as the wagon train had been brought up, I ordered Captain Angney to charge with his battalion of infantry, and dislodge the enemy from the house opposite the right flank, and from which a warm fire was being poured on us. This was done in the most gallant manner. A charge was then ordered to be made upon all the points occupied by the enemy in any force. Captain Angney, with his command, supported by Lieutenant White’s company, charged up one hill, while Captain St. Vrain’s company turned the same, in order to cut off the enemy, when in retreat. The artillery, supported by Captains McMillen, Barber and Slack, with their respective companies, at the same time took possession of some houses (enclosed by a strong corral densely wooded with fruit trees, from which a brisk fire was kept up by the enemy) and of the heights beyond them. – Captain Halley’s company was ordered to support Captain Angney. In a few minutes my troops had dislodged the enemy at all points, and they were flying in every direction. The nature of the ground rendered pursuit hopeless; and it being near night, I ordered the troops to take up quarters in the town. The number of the enemy was about fifteen hundred. Lieutenant Irvine was wounded. In the charge my loss was two killed and six wounded. – Of the killed, one was a teamster, who volunteered in Captain Angney’s company. The loss of the enemy was thirty six killed; wounded not ascertained. The next morning the enemy showed themselves in some force (I think no less than four hundred) on the distant heights. Leaving a strong guard in the town, I marched in pursuit of them; but they were so shy, and retreated so rapidly, that, finding it impossible to get near them, I returned to town.

While at Canada, a number of the horses belonging to Captain Slack’s company were brought in by Lieut. Holcomb.

On the 27th, I advanced up the Rio del Norte as far as Luceros, where, early on the 28th, I was joined by Captain Burgwin, commanding company G, 1st dragoons, and company A 2nd regiment . --   Missouri mounted volunteers, commanded by Lieut. Boone. – Captain Burgwin’s command was dismounted, and great credit is due to him and his officers and men for the rapidity with which a march so long and so arduous was performed. At the same time Lieut. Wilsom, 1st dragoons, who had volunteered his services, came up with a G pounder, which had been sent for from Canada.

My whole forces now comprised 479, rank and file. On the 29th I marched to La Joya, where I learned that a party of sixty or eighty of the enemy had posted themselves on the steep slopes of the mountains which rise on each side of the cannon, or gorge, which leads to Embudo. Finding the road by Embudo impracticable for artillery or wagons, I detached Captain Burgwin in that direction, with his own company of dragoons and the companies commanded by Captain St. Vrain and Lieut. White. This detachment comprised 180 rank and file.

By my permission, Adjutant R. Walker, 2d regiment Missouri mounted volunteers, accompanied Capt. Burgwin. Lieut. Wilson, 1st dragoons, also volunteered his services as a private in Captain St. Vrain’s company.

Captain Burgwin, pushing forward, discovered the enemy, to the number of between six and seven hundred posted on the side of the mountains, just where the gorge becomes so contracted as scarcely to admit of the passage of three men marching abreast.

The rapid slopes of the mountains rendered the enemy’s position very strong, and its strength was increased by the dense masses of cedar and large fragments of rock which everywhere offered shelter. The action was commenced by Capt. St. Vrain, who, dismounting his men, ascended the mountain on the left doing much execution. Flanking parties were thrown out on either side, commanded respectively by Lieut. White, 2d regiment Missouri mounted volunteers, and by Lieutenants Mellvaine and Taylor, 1st dragoons. These parties ascended the hill rapidly, an the enemy soon began to retire in the direction of Embudo, bounding along the steep and rugged sides of the mountains with a speed that defied pursuit. The firing at the pass of Embudo had been heard at La Joya, and Captain Slack, with twenty – five mounted men had been immediately dispatched thither. He now arrived, and rendered excellent service by relieving Lieutenant White whose men were much fatigued. Lieutenants Mellvaine and Taylor were also recalled; and Lieutenant Ingalls was directed to lead a flanking party on the right slope, while Captain Slack performed the same duty on the left. The enemy having by this time retreated beyond our reach, Captain Burgwin marched through the defile and debouched into the open valley in which Embudo is situated, recalled the flanking parties, and entered that town without opposition, several persons meeting him with a white flag.

Our loss in this action was one man killed, and one severely wounded, both belonging to Captain St. Vrain’s company. The loss of the enemy was about twenty killed and sixty wounded.

Thus ended the battle of the pass of Embudo. On the 30th, Captain Burgwin marched to Trampas, where he was directed to await the arrival of the main body, which, on account of the artillery and wagons, was forced to pursue a more southern route. On the 31st I reached Trampas; and being joined by Captain Burgwin, marched on Chamisal with the whole command. On the 1st of February we reached the summit of the Taos mountain, which was covered with snow to the depth of two feet; and on the 2d, quartered at a small village called Rio Chioito, in the entrance of the valley of Taos. The march of the 1st and 2d were through deep snow. – Many of the men were frost bitten, and all were very much jaded with the exertions necessary to travel over unbeaten roads, being marched in front of the artillery and wagons in order to break a road through the snow.  The constancy and patience with which the troops bore these hardships, deserve all commendation, and cannot be excelled by the most veteran soldiers. On the 3d, I marched through Don Fernando de Taos, and finding that the enemy had fortified themselves in the Pueblo de Taos, proceeded to that place. I found it a place of great strength, being surrounded by adobe walls and strong pickets. – Within the enclosure, and nears the northern and southern walls, arose two large buildings of irregular pyramidal form, to the height of seven or eight stories. Each of these buildings was capable of sheltering five or six hundred men. Besides these, there were many smaller buildings, and the large church of the town was situated in the northwestern angle, a small passage being left between it and the outer wall. The exterior wall and all the enclosed buildings were pierced for rifles. The town was admirably calculated for defense, every point of the exterior walls and pickets being flanked by some projecting building, as will be seen from the enclosed drawing.

After having reconnoitred the town, I selected the western flank of the church as the point of attack; and about 2 o’clock P. M. Lieutenant Dyer was ordered to open his battery at the distance of about 250 yards. A fire was kept up by the 6 pounder and the howitzers for about two hours and a half, when, as the ammunition wagon had not yet come up, an the troops were suffering from cold and fatigue, I returned to Don Fernando. Early on the morning of the 4th I again advanced upon Pueblo. Posting the dragoons under Captain Burgwin about 260 yards from the western flank of the church, I ordered the mounted men under Captains St. Vrain and Slack might attempt to escape towards the mountains, or in the direction of Don Fernando. – Te residue of the troops took ground about 300 yards from the northern wall. Here, too, Lieut. Dyer established himself with the six pounder and two howitzers, while Lieutenant Hassandaubel, of Major Clarke’s battalion light artillery, remained with Captain Burgwin, in command of two howitzers. By this arrangement a cross fire was obtained, sweeping the front and eastern flank of the church.

All these arrangements having been made, the batteries opened upon the town at 9 o’clock, A.M. At 11 o’clock, finding it impossible to breach the walls of the church with the six pounder and howitzers I determined to storm that building, at a signal Captain Burgwin, (1st regiment United States dragoons) at the head of his own company, and that of Captain McMillin, (of the volunteers) charged the western flank of the church, while Captain Angney, infantry battalion, and Captain barber, and Lieutenant Boon, 2d regiment Missouri mounted volunteers, charged the northern wall. As soon as the troops above mentioned had established themselves under the western wall of the church, axes were used in the attempt to breach it; and a temporary ladder having been made, the roof was fired. – About this time Captain Burgwin, at the head of a small party, left the cover afforded by the flank of the church, and penetrating into the corral in front of that building, endeavored to force the door. In this exposed situation, Captain Burgwin received a severe wound which deprived me of his valuable services, and of which he died on the 7th instant. – Lieutenants McIlvaine, 1st United States dragoons, and Royall and Lackland, 2d regiment mounted volunteers, accompanied Captain Burgwin into the corral; but the attempt on the church door prove fruitless, and they were compelled to retire behind the wall. In the mean time small hole had been cut into the western wall, and shells were thrown in by hand, doing good execution. The six pounder was now brought around by Lieutenant Wilson, who at the distance of two hundred yards poured a heavy fire of grape into the town. The enemy during all this time kept up a destructive fire upon our troops.

About half past three o’clock the six pounder was run up within sixty yards of the church, and after ten rounds, one of the holes which had been cut with the axes was widened into a practicable breach. The gun was now run up within ten yards of the wall, a shell was thrown in, and three rounds of grape were poured into the breach. The storming party – among whom were Lieutenant Dyer, of the ordnance, and Lieutenants Wilson and Taylor 1st dragoons—entered and took possession of the church without opposition. The interior was filled with dense smoke, but for which circumstance our storming party would have suffered great loss.  A few of the enemy were seen in the gallery, where an open door admitted the air, but they retired without firing a gun. The troops left to support the battery on the north were now ordered to change on that side: --The enemy abandoned the western part of the town. Many took refuge in the large houses of the east, while others endeavored to escape towards the mountains. These latter were pursued by the mounted men under Captains Slack and St. Vrain, who killed fifty one of them, only two or three men escaping. It was now night, and our troops were quietly quartered in the houses which the enemy had abandoned. On the next morning the enemy sued for peace, and thinking the severe loss the have sustained would prove a salutary lesson, I granted their supplication on the condition that they should deliver up to me Thomas, one of their principal men who had instigated and been actively engaged in the murder of Governor Bent and others. The number of the enemy at the battle of Pueblo de Taos was between six and seven hundred. Of these about one hundred and fifty were killed – wounded not known. Our own loss was seven killed and forty five wounded. Many of the wounded have since died.

The principal leaders in this insurrection were Tafoya, Pablo Chavis, Pablo Montoya, Cortz , and Tomas, a Pueblo Indian. Of these, Tafoya was killed at Canada, Chavis was killed at Pueblo, Montoya was hanged at Don Fernando on the 7th instant, and Tomas was shot by a private while in the guard room at the latter town. Cortez is still at large. – This person was at the head of the rebels in the valley of the Mora. For the operation in that quarter, I refer to the sub adjoined letters from Captains Henley, separate battalion Missouri mounted volunteers, and Murphy, of the infantry, and Lieut. McKamey, 2d regiment Missouri mounted volunteers. In the battles of Canada, Embudo, and Pueblo de Taos, the officers and men behaved admirably. – Where a;; conducted themselves gallantly I consider it improper to distinguish individuals, as such discrimination might operate prejudicially against the just claims of others.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your ob’t serv’t,
Colonel commanding the army in New Mexico

The Adjutant General of the Army, Washington.

NNR 72.122-72.123 April 24, 1847 diary of the siege of Veracruz

Incidents of the Attack on Vera Cruz.

From the correspondence of he N. Orleans Delta.

March 22.-At 10 o'clock to-day a white flat was sent into the city.  The bearer of it conveyed a message from Major General Scott, addressed to Gov. Morales, commander of the Mexican forces.  The message was a formal summons to surrender the city of Vera Cruz without further defence, as the general-in-chief of the American forces desired to avoid any further bloodshed.  Gov. Morales replied in a very dignified tone and style of language, in substance, that he was sorry to be the cause of unnecessary bloodshed and loss of life, but that he had a high and important duty to perform, involving the honor of his army and the interest of his country, and that he would not surrender until he had exhausted every means of defence.

The Mexicans, during the forenoon, set fire to several buildings, and cleared away the masks to some batteries they had not hitherto exposed, notwithstanding they have kept up a constant fire on our entrenchments during the process of preparation from the Castle, For Santiago, and a bastion front in the rear of the city.

                The conferences between the belligerent forces having concluded at 2 o['clock, at 4 the American battery, consisting of only seven mortars, commenced the bombardment of the city.  The shells fell into the place after the first fires, and exploded with as much precision as could have been desired.  The city, from one end to the other, soon became enveloped in a cloud of smoke-the vivid and lurid flashes of the artillery, from their city batteries, breaking through it at brief intervals, and report after report followed each in quick succession, until after the dusk of evening had passed, when they comparatively ceased.  The round shot and shell tell heavy and fast as the entrenchments behind which our batteries were planted.

As soon as Com. Perry perceived the land forces engaged, her ordered Capt. Tatnall, with what is called the "Mosquito Fleet," consisting of the steamers Spitfire and Vixen, and five gunboats, viz: Reefer, Bonita, Tampico, Falcon, nd Petrel, to attack. Capt. Tatnall inquired at what point he should engage.  Com. Perry every emphatically replied, "Wherever you can do the most execution, sir."  Accordingly the little fleet took position under a point of land known as the "Linmekiln," about a mile from the city, where they were protected from a point blank shot of he castle.  As soon as they got their position in line they opened a fire of round shot and shell at a rapid rate, and threw them "handsomely" into the town and Fort Santiago.

The castle soon paid its respects to Capt. Tatnall, and the powerful engines of havoc and destruction were now in full blast from every quarter, hurling their dreadful and deadly missiles into each other's ranks in rapid succession, which they kept up until about dark, when the Mexican batteries comparatively ceased, and the "Mosquito Fleet" also held off for the night.

At eight o'clock the party that were in the trenches were relieved by another detail.  The troops who returned from the entrenchments were literally covered with smoke and dust, and so much disfigured that they could not be recognized except by their voices.  Shell after shell exploded in their midst, and shot after shot threw barrels of earth from the embankments over their heads as they lay in the trenches.  Their escape seems to have been miraculous indeed, and every person is surprised that at least one half of their number were not slain.

March 23-A norther sprung up this morning, which has been blowing tortuously all day, filling the air and covering every body with sand.  The Mexican batteries have been quiet, with the exception of a few shots about midnight, when they opened a sharp fire for a short time.  Our mortars have not ceased during the night, but continued to pour into the city a constant stream of fire.  At one time I saw as many as six shells in the air, the whole of which exploded in the city about the same time with a terricec and deadly effect.

Just as daylight was approaching, Captain Tatnall's Mosquito Fleet weighed anchor, and, under cover of a moon somewhat clouded, approached within 600 yards of the castle.  As soon as they had got their respective positions, they opened a broadside from the fleet, which was answered by the castle with great spirit, both by round shot and shells.  Capt. T. continued the engagement for about half an hour, although the signal from the commodore's ship, calling him off had been hoisted for some time, but I suppose was not seen on account of a cloud of smoke which hung around the shipping.

                This attack of Capt. T. on the castle is considered one of the most daring fears that has been attempted since the commencement of the hostilities.

                During the whole of to-day Gen. Patterson, in conjunction with the navy, has been making the most extraordinary exertions to finish an entrenchment to plant a marine battery, consisting of three 68's and two long 32's, when have been landed during the course of the day from on board different vessels of war.

                The officers and sailors have heretofore borne the brunt of all the labor in landing the arms and munitions of war belonging to the army, and have applied themselves to it with an energy that certainly entitles them to great credit; but now that they had an opportunity of participating in that part of the expedition where honors are to be won and laurels gathered they exerted themselves with an almost superhuman effort.  About two hundred volunteers and sailors were attached to each piece of ordinance, which was by them conveyed over sand-hills and hollows hold knee deep in sand, and through a lagoon about two feet deep and seventy yards wide, with a soft bottom.  They were all placed in protection, about three miles from where they landed, during the night.  The sailors and the volunteers worked admirable together.

                During the early part of last evening the town was lighted up by a building on fire, which was ignited by the bomb-shells.  It was impossible to tell what building it was, but it was supposed by the engineers to be the barracks.  As soon as the fire was discovered from our mortar battery, I was very much gratified to observe the cessation of our fire; for, notwithstanding we were endeavoring to destroy their town, or compel them to surrender it, with their other strongholds and fortifications, still humanity would seem to require that a temporary cessation of hostilities should take place under such circumstances.  Was is terrible in its most modified form; but the besieging of a city like Vera Cruz when we know that we are battering down the houses over some fellow creatures' heads, but cannot tell whether we are destroying the soldiers-our real antagonists--or the women and children.***  And then to witness the burning houses lighting up the church spires and domes of the prominent buildings with the families moving about on the tops of the houses it e utmost consternation and apparent despair, cannot do otherwise than excite a feeling of commiseration.

                March 24.-Aftor the fire in town last night, our batteries again opened and continued until morning.-During the day the army guns have worked very slow, on account of a short supply of ammunition, being prevented from landing any yesterday by the norther.

                Early in the day Gen. Patterson let the town hear from him.  The entrenchments and guns were entirely undiscovered by the Mexicans until the "sailor lads" commenced unmasking.  They soon commenced pouring into the city a severe and effective fire, until bout 4 o'clock-their position being only seven hundred yards from the wall of the town, and with such a man as to enable them to flank most of the fortifications and works from whence the enemy was firing.

                The following is the size and weight of the guns, with their officer, as far as I could learn them:

Potomac-Two 32 pounders, 63 cwt, Captain Aulick and Lieut. Baldwin.
Raritan-One 32-pounder, 63 cwt., Lieut. Ingersoll.
Mississippi-One 8 inch gun, 63 cwt., Lieut. Lee.
Albany-One 8-inch gun, 63 cwt., Lieut. Perry.
St. Mary's-One 8-inch gun, 63 cwt., Lieut. Kennedy.

               The navy battery set the town on fire again to-day.

                The Mexicans did not fail to return Gen. Patteson's fire with great energy nd rapidity, and I am sorry to say with some effect-killing 4 and woundign 6-among the latter was Lieut. Baldwin, of he Potomac.

                At 4 o'clock the officers and crews from the navy were relieved by the following: Captain Mayo, Lieuts. Semems, Decamp, Franey, and Studman; Passed Midshipmen Nelson, Cazler, and Wager; Midshipmen Shubrick, Joe Smith, Magaw, and Upshur.

                March 25- To day the combatants appear to be more eager on both sides, and the firing more rapid the army battery mounts eleven 10-inch mortars, four long 24's, and four Cohorns. During the morning the Mexicans concentrated their fire as much as possible upon Gen. Patterson and the navy, but the return fire through the day silenced two of their batteries, and the navy breached the walls in different places.  Midshipman Shubrick the three sailors were killed and on mortally wounded.

                The naval officers at Gen. Patterson's battery were relieved to-day by Capt. Breese, Lieuts. Knox, Wemford, Alder, Taylor, Purser Harris, Midshipmen Bennett, Mayo, Morris, and some others whose names I could not learn.  Drs. Baxter, Nuna, and Hambleton.

                To-day a white flag was sent in asking, on behalf of the people to allow them to leave the city, with their families and persons who were making no resistance.-I could not learn what was the precise nature of he reply, but they did not get what they desired-they had waited a little too long.  Gen. Scott was not the person to be caught by a ruse of this kind.

                March 26- Last night Gov. Morales was strongly importuned by the inhabitants , who are said to be suffering severely, to surrender the town; but he was obstinate, and would not listen to their appeals.  He declared he would not surrender the garrisoned works until every man was buried underneath their ruins, and not one stone left on top of another.  Thereupon a meeting of the National Guard was held, an Gov. Morales was deposed, and Gen. Landero placed in command.

                Our batteries worked last night, and up to 9o'clock this morning, with apparent increased vigor, when a flag of truce was received by Gen. Scot, with a proffer on the part of the Mexicans to treat for a surrender.  Accordingly, a commission on our part was appointed, consisting of Gens. Worth and Pillow, Col. Tonten. And Capt. Aulick, of the navy, who met the Mexican commission at the time kiln, on the right of our mortar battery, another one mile distant, and they continued in session during the day.

                Early this morning a norther sprung up very suddenly, and blew most gloriously all day.  Rude Boreas piped his shrillest whistle, and old Neptune seemed to do his best, in the general commotion by land and sea; the rifted clouds flew like sable winged messengers of death through the air; while the furious lashed ocean piled her crested waves far upon the beach.  The clouds of sand swept like hail across the strand, from hill-top to the valley's depth, and almost like the famed sirocco fo Egypt, with maelstrom-force, or the sweeping blast over Zahara's desert, filled the air with darkness, and man and beast with feelings of dismay.  The mariner was tempest-tossed by the quick surges of the angry deep, and fear might well blanch the cheek of the boldest.-The soldier cowered low, to escape the drifting sand that, in almost impalpable particles, penetrated even the smallest apertures; tents were lifted from their positions , and in many instances torn literally into ribands, and clothing and camp equipage were strewn in confusion for miles around.

                During the prevalence of this violent gale, the steam ship Alabama went ashore, but was got off with assistance of the boat's crew of the Princeton, under Midshipman Bassett.  The brig Porpoise, about ten miles at sea, was thrown on her beam ends, and compelled to throw overboard her lee guns.  About thirty vessels were driven ashore opposite Sacrificios, of which the Eliza S. Lepper was got off by the boats of the Princeton.

                During the whole day, amidst the prevalence of the storm, the commissioners were endeavoring to settle the terms of treaty.  They adjourned at night, and gave the Mexicans until 6 o'clock of the 27 th , to accept or reject.  The enemy was evidently in a bad position and trying to get the best terms possible.  But Gen. Scott, I think I may safely say, representing the interests of our country, and holding, as it were, the honor of our arms in his grasp, will accede to no proposition but such a one, in general terms, as he may advance.  He would prefer whipping terms out of them, inch by inch, if necessary, than to yield the interest of the nation, or honor of our flag.  Our banner must be planted upon the walls of the city and castle of San Juan d' Ulloa, in honor and respect by the world at large.

                March 27.-This morning the Mexicans did not accede to the terms of the commissioner, and orders were given to fire again at 9 o'clock.  However, about that hour the enemy solicited another meeting of the commissioners.

                Gen. Patterson's battery was relieved to-day by the following officers from the navy: Capt. Forrest; Lieuts. Case, Blunt, Eld, Humphrey, Almy, Rogers, and Clairborne; Midshipmen Hunter, Renshaw, Cilley, Smith, Genet, Barbour, Carter, Jones, and Lodge.

                A general impression pervades the camp to-day that the Mexicans are treating only for the purpose of repairing breaches and fixing up their destroyed fortifications; but our engineers and ordnance officers have not been behind them in this respect.  During the day we have been placing our guns in better position, supplying the magazine with ammunition, and providing the army with scaling ladders and their appurtenances, ready to scale the walls and pass the breaches, if necessary to take the city by storm.

                The terms, however, were agreed upon and submitted for ratification.

                March 28.-Com. Perry was preparing to land another battery of ten guns from the Ohio, but the necessity was obviated by the ratification by both parties of the stipulations agreed upon by the commissioners.

                The Mexicans surrendered the city of Vera Cruz and castle of San Juan d'Ulua, and the armament and munitions of war, together with their small arms.  The officers retained their side-arms, and the whole surrendered as prisoners of war, and are allowed to retire into the country on their parole.

                The following was issued from headquarters, which directs the manner and force to take possession of the surrendered works:

Army Headquarters,
Camp Washington, before Vera Cruz, March 28.

1.        By articles of capitulation signed and exchanged, the city of Vera Cruz and the Castle of San Juan d'Ulua, with their dependencies, are to be garrisoned by the forces of the United States to-morrow at 10 o'clock A.M.

2.        In the mean time no officer or man of said forces will approach either of those places nearer than our batteries Nos. 1,2,3,4,5, respectively, except by special order of permission on some matter of public duty.

3.        Pending the ceremony of surrender, the whole army sill stand by its arms, each corps near its present ground, ready to advance and attack if necessary.

4.        The first brigade of regulars and a volunteer brigade to be designated by Major Gen. Patterson, together with any detachment from the United States squadron under Com. Perry that he may be pleased to designate, will be present at the ceremonies of evacuating and surrendering.  These forces will occupy such positions at the ceremonies as may be assigned by Brig. General Worth, detachments of whose brigade will garrison the surrendered works.

5.        Until these garrisons, with their necessary guards, sentinels, and patrols, are duly established, no other person whatsoever will be allowed, except on special duty, to enter either of the surrendered places.

6.        The inhabitants of Vera Cruz and their property, are placed under the safeguard of every American's honor; and any miscreant who shall do injury to any persons of property shall be promptly brought before a military commission, under general orders No. 20.

By command of Major Gen. Scott:

H.L. Scott, Asst. Adj. Gen.

                March 29.-The camp of the first brigade has been very active in making preparations to receive the compliments of the Mexican army and their arms, and to occupy the position which they are about to yield to the superiority of our arms and courage of our troops.  The following order (No. 16) will show you the disposition of our troops in the garrison and the order of taking possession:

Headquarters First Brigade,
Camp Washington, near Vera Cruz, March 28.

                1st . The brigade (except the guard of all descriptions) will be under arms at 8 A.M. tomorrow morning, canteens filled and haversacks supplied as prescribed.

2d. Lieut. Col. Duncan's light battery will take the head of the column, and be prepared to fire a salute of twenty-eight guns.

3d. One company of 2d artillery and one company of 8 th infantry, under Major Wright, will occupy Fort Conception; one company of 3d artillery and one company of infantry, under Major Scott, will occupy Fort St. Jago; one company of artillery, and one company of 4 th infantry, one company of 6 th infantry, and one company of 8 thinfantry, under Lieut. Col. Belton, will occupy the Castle of San Juan d'Ulua; the remainder of the brigade, not on duty, will be marched to the Plaza.

4 th . At 2 o'clock P.M. the flag of the United States will be hoisted on the several named works, and a salute of twenty-eight guns fired from each, beginning at Fort St. Jago, next Fort Conception, next San Juan d'Ulua, and, finally, from the light battery of the Plaza.

5 th . Not an officer or soldier will be allowed to leave their ranks or station until further orders.

6 th . During the ceremony of the surrendering of the Mexican troops not he slightest noise or cheering will be permitted.  When our flags are hoisted, in addition to the batteries, they may be saluted with cheers by soldiers not under arms.

By order of Brigadier General Worth.

W.W. Mackall, Ass. Adj. Gen.


NNR 72.128 April 24, 1847 Gen. Zachary Taylor's letter to Gen. E.G. W. Butler of Gen. William Orlando Butler, the presidency, Buena Vista, &c

                General Taylor-Another confidential letter from the old warrior, certainly not designed for publication, has found its way into public journals, too late for our space this week.  It was communicated to the N. Orleans Picayune, by Gen. E. G. W. Butler, of Iberville, Louisiana, to whom it was addressed.  W extract for the publication so much of it as has relation to the subject in hand-the presidential topic.  After a very friendly introductory, and assigning reasons for not sooner answering his friendly letter, the publication says:

                "[The general then alludes to the misrepresentations which have been made in regard to Major Gen. Butler at Monterey.  Those misrepresentations had been the subject of conversation between them, and left no feeling lie distrust or unkindness towards each other in heir breasts."  The letter then goes on:]

                I was aware of the report as well as statements in a few of the public journals, that it was intended by certain individuals to bring Gen. Butler forward as the successor of Mr. Polk, which gave me no concern, and would not , even, had it been the case, which I did not credit and which had been forgotten.  I doubt if the subject would have again crossed my mind, had it not been brought to my notice by you or someone else.  I have never heard him or any of his friends allude to this matter.  He (the general,) in consequence of his wound not hearing, which gave him so much pain as to render him unfit for duty, left short time since, by advice of his medical attendant, for New Orleans, where I hope he has arrived in safety, and where I truly hope he will very soon recover, so as to be able to take the field once more.

                I may observe that I have been also named as a candidate for that high office by a few newspaper editors and other, which has been done without my knowledge, wishes or consent. This I have assured all who have written me on the subject; assuring them I had no aspirations for that or any civil office; that my whole energies, mental and physical, were and been absorbed I such a way as I thought best calculated to bring this war to a speedy and honorable close, believing it was for the interest of both countries the sooner it was done the better-at any rate so far as ours was concerned; and that president-making should be lost sight of until this was accomplished."  [ANP]


The recent victories over the Mexicans are being celebrated in numerous cities over the Union. Apalachicola, Florida, was illuminated on the evening of the 9th inst.; Nashville, Tenn,. On the 10th; Augusta, Ga., on the 12th; the city of Washington on the 19th; Philadelphia, by proclamation of the mayor, Mr. Swift, on the same evening; Baltimore, by Mayor Davie's proclamation, on the evening of the 21st. These are but a few of the many we have the details of. Several of them have been splendid affairs, the brief details of which, fill columns of the journals of the respective places. Coleman's Hotel, Washington, had 1,400 lights exhibited. Bonfires, artillery firing, fuex de joies, [ ] lights, bands of music, transparencies, and all the usual accompaniments of such exhibitions, were of course.

We have not seen a single item indicating any disrespect to those citizens who, whether from not approving of this war, or from any other motive, have thought proper not to join in those celebrations. [MSM]


Killed and wounded at La Canada.-Killed-Private Graham, infantry; G. Messersmith, teamster.-Wounded-1 st Lieut. Irving; private John Pace of the infantry; 1 stSergeant Caspers; private Aulman, (severely,) Murphy and Mexer, of artillery detachment.

At El Emboda.-Private Papin, of Capt. St. Vrain's company, killed; Dick, (a black servant of Gov. Bent) was severely wounded.

At Puebla de Taos.-Of Col. Price's regiment-Wounded, 1 st sergeant A.L. Caldwell, of company K, commanded by Lieut. B.F. White, (mortally, since dead;) private James Austin, mortally; 3d corporal J. W. Jones, severely.Of company A, commanded by Lieut. Boone-private R. C. Bower, severely wounded.Of company M, commanded by Capt. Halley-private Saml. Lewis, slightly wounded.Of company N, commanded by Capt. Barber-Wounded, 1 st Lieut. S.G. West, slightly; privates J. W. Callaway, slightly; John Nagel, John J. Sights.Of company D, commanded by Capt. McMillian, slightly; privates Henry Fender and George W. Johnson, dangerously; Robt. Heurt, George W. Howser, William Ducoing, all slightly.Of company S, commanded by Captain Slack-Lieut. Ja. Mansfield, slightly; privates Jacob Moon, severely; Wm. Gibbins, slightly.

Company G, U.S. dragoons, commanded by Capt. Burgwin-Killed, 1 st Sergt. Ross; privates Brooks, Beebee, Levicy, Huntsecker.Wounded, Captain Burgwin, mortally, since dead; Sergeant Vanroe, Corporal Ingleman, privates Linneman, Blodget, Craine, Deets, Lickenbergh, Truax, (Since dead.) Hagenbach, Anderson, all severely; Beach, Hutton, Hillerman, Walker, 1 st , Scheider, Shay, Near, Bremen, (of company J, 1 st dragoons,) all slightly.

Detachment of artillery-Wounded, privates Beilfeldt, Jod, both severely; Kahn, slightly.

Battallion of infantry, under Captain Angney-Killed, Sergeant Hart. Wounded, Lieut. Van Valkenberg, mortally, since dead; Sergts. Ferguson and Aull, severely.

Of Capt. St. Vrains company-Wounded, privates Gold, severely; Mitchell, slightly. [ANP]


Yesterday’s National Intelligencer contains a letter from a gentleman who was attached to General kearny’s command, giving an interesting account of their operations, too long for the space we have left in this number, but too long for the space we have left in this number, but too interesting to be left unnoticed.  It is dated San Diego, Upper California, Jan. 19th, 1847.  From this letter we learn that,

On reaching the Rio Gila, Gen. K. met the first intelligence of a counter revolution in California, brought by peaceable families that were flying into Sonora, to escape the troubles.

After passing the desert of Homada, which had neither water nor grass for their mules, the detachment on the 2d December reached Warner’s [  ] in a most pitiable condition.  Most of the men had to walk the last 500 miles; few of the mules survived, and the mad had to carry their packs.  At this place they learned that Andros Pico was at the head.  A 120 superbly mounted and disciplined Mexicans , at short distance ahead.  As an encounter was inevitable, Gen. K. determined to attack him.  The action took place on the 6th.  After a desperate hand to hand fight, with repeated rallyings, the Mexicans were finally driven from the field.  Our loss was severe; three officers and 16 men were killed, and Gen. Kearny, 7 officers, and 14 men were wounded, but for the gallant interposition of Lieut.  Enory, Gen. Kearny would have been killed.

The march was resumed the next day after burying the dead.  They had now their wounded to carry, and were obliged to be very cautious.  Only nine miles were made, before the enemy made a charge on their rear.  Finding they would be duly received, they suddenly wheeled off and attempted to clamber and occupy commanding hills on the right.

It became necessary to dislodge them.  An exhibited skill in bush fighting.  Few were hurt on either side.  The Mexicans were driven off.  It became evident that Pico intended to harras the detachment at every defile.  Gen. K. [  ] to occupy a strong position, and send on a trustful Indian to Com. Stockton for aid.  He remained here four days, so closely surrounded by the enemy, and mustering 200 men, that his men had to survive entirely on mule flesh.

Com. Stockton despatched to his relief 75 Marines and 100 seamen under Capt. Zeilm, from the ship Congress and [   ].  This enabled him to reach San Diego in two days, a distance at 30 miles.  He arrived there on the 12th December.  [MSM]

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