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NILES' NATIONAL REGISTER
Vol. 71, August-October 1846


July 1844-April 1846 May-July 1846 August-October 1846 November-December 1846 January-February 1847 March-April 1847
May-June 1847 July-August 1847 September-October 1847 November-December 1847 January-March & July December 1848



Index

NNR 70.337 Gen. Mariano Paredes y Arillaga requests permission, which is granted, to place himself in command of the Army in the north, arrangements with regard to other Mexican commanders

NNR 70.337-70.338 consideration by the Mexican Congress of a declaration of war against the United States

NNR 70.341-70.342 letter from "The Corporal"with the Army of Occupation at Matamoros

NNR 70.342 visit of British naval officers to Gen. Zachary Taylor

NNR 70.343 drowning of two members of the Georgia volunteers
NNR 70.343 refusal of two Louisiana regiments for service in Mexico
NNR 70.343 legal decision on deserters from the Alabama volunteers
NNR 70.343 death of C. J. McNulty of the Ohio volunteers
NNR 70.343 secretary of war declines calling the South Carolina regiment into service
NNR 70.343 Chihuahua expedition by US dragoons
NNR 70.343 dispute between Col. Stephen Watts Kearny and Col. Sterling Price on infantry to be raised for the Santa Fe expedition

NNR 70.343 arrival of the first, second, and third regiments of Ohio volunteers at New Orleans

NNR 70.343 arrival of five companies of Indiana volunteers at New Orleans

NNR 70.343 full complement of New York volunteers for service in Mexico obtained

NNR 70.343 account of traders, emigrants, and soldiers setting out for Santa Fe, Oregon, and California

NNR 70.344 mustering of the New York regiment destined for California, complaints of favoritism to Col. John D. Stevenson

NNR 70.352 Princeton, steamer, detached for Pensacola

NNR 70.352 Gen. Zachary Taylor still detained for want of transports, roads impassable
NNR 70.352 report of the scout of Capt. Samuel Hamilton Walker's Rangers towards Monterey
NNR 70.352 Mexican cotton annihilated, corn to be saved
NNR 70.352 business of supplying the forces in Mexico

NNR 70.352 mounted riflemen and Mormon infantry for California

NNR 70.368 Nashville "Union's"correspondence on the campaign, move toward Monterey anticipated

NNR 70.368 Camargo taken

NNR 70.368 wagons purchased and contracted for in Atlantic states

NNR 70.368 expenses of the war

NNR 70.368 account of actions of Capt. Robert Christie Buchanan in the Battle of Resaca de la Palma

NNR 70.368 the mortally wounded in the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma

NNR 70.371 volunteers return to New Orleans

NNR 70.371 various items

NNR 70.372 general order discharging volunteers from Louisiana, Saint Louis, and Alabama
NNR 70.372 remarks of New Orleans papers on discharge of volunteers
NNR 70.372 notice of Marylanders at Palo Alto
NNR 70.372 incident of the boxing Irishman
NNR 70.372 death of a veteran of Napoleon's wars
NNR 70.372-70.373 Mexican perfidy
NNR 70.373 presents for valiant subalterns

NNR 70.373 notice of the departure of Maj. E. Kirby for the war

NNR 70.373 account of the heroine of Fort Brown

NNR 70.384 the Mormon infantry at Fort Leavenworth

NNR 70.385 rumor of Mexican request that Great Britain and France mediate the end of the war with the United States

NNR 70.385 comments on the offer to negotiate for peace

NNR 70.386 promotions and appointments for distinguished services in the campaign

NNR 70.386 Gen. Gains's court of inquiry; Capt. Thornton acquitted

NNR 70.386 Capt. Seth Barton Thornton's defense in the court-martial on charges preferred against him for loss of his squadron of dragoons

NNR 70.386 account of the Kentucky mounted regiment

NNR 70.386 distrust of the members of the California expedition of the government's promises

NNR 70.387 baggage wagons being made for the Army

NNR 70.400 dissatisfactions of disbanded Alabama and Louisiana volunteers
NNR 70.400 embarrassment of Gen. Zachary Taylor and of the secretary of war over volunteers, troops reach the Rio Grande
NNR 70.400 supplies urged forward to enable advance, wagons, rations en route
NNR 70.400 mules at last contracted for in Mexico
NNR 70.400 Texas Rangers from San Antonio de Bexar cross the Rio Grande, pass through Mier and reach Camargo
NNR 70.400 contracts for mules being obtained, notwithstanding the inadequacy of the wagon train, Gen. Zachary Taylor orders his forces on to Camargo

NNR 70.400 Yellow fever on board American squadron in Vera Cruz

NNR 70.400 additional regiment of volunteers for Santa Fe organized, artillery expected

NNR 70.400 Mormon volunteers reach Fort Leavenworth

NNR 70.401 decree relative to the powers of the extraordinary Congress in Mexico

NNR 70.401 Indian threat to Chihuahua, approach of the vanguard of the American Army

NNR 70.401 movements of Mexican troops for San Luis Potosi

NNR 70.401 Mexican arrangements to use the interior resources of Mexico to sustain the war with the United States

NNR 70.401 departure of Mexican troops from the capital

NNR 70.401 assassinations by the insurgents of Guadalajara, dismay over the deplorable state of Mexico

NNR 70.401 American troops reported leaving Camargo for Monterey

NNR 70.401 Gen. Nicolas Bravo assumes the presidency of Mexico, resignation of the ministers

NNR 70.401 Mexican Army assembles at San Luis Potosi

NNR 70.401 "pronunciamento"in favor of Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna at Veracruz, he embarks from Cuba

NNR 70.401 steamer Princeton dispatched express for Pensacola

NNR 70.401 progress of the messenger bearing President James Knox Polk's overtures to Mexico

NNR 70.401 John Slidell's mission to Cuba

NNR 70.401 Mexican decree authorizes privateers

NNR 70.401-70.402 description of Camargo

NNR 70.402 description of Monterey and Caiderete

NNR 70.402 difficulty over supplying Gen. Steven Watts Kearny's expedition to Santa Fe, reports of alarm in New Mexico

NNR 70.402 engineer corps at West Point being readied for Mexico

NNR 70.402 disorder among the New York troops gathered for the California expedition

NNR 70.402-70.403 letter from A. Moses of the Ohio regiment

NNR 70.403 account of mosquitoes on the Rio Grande

NNR 70.403 Gen. John Ellis Wool's force, supplies, wagons

NNR 70.403 Col. Churchill departs New Orleans for Texas

NNR 70.403 complaint about the manner of buying and treating wagons for the Army

NNR 70.406-70.408 proceedings and decision of the court of inquiry on Gen. Edmund Pendleton Gaines' efforts to raise volunteers

NNR 70.416 Gen. Stephen Watts Kearny arrives at Santa Fe, friendly reception

NNR 70.416 unsuccessful attack on Alvarado

NNR 70.416 chartering of ships for the California expedition, charges of malfeasance by Thomas Jefferson Sutherland against Col. John D. Stevenson in connection with outfitting the California expedition

NNR 70.416 Gen. Zachary Taylor leaves Matamoros for Camargo

NNR 70.416 order barring spirituous liquors from Matamoros

NNR 70.416 probability of reaching Monterey in September

NNR 70.416 health of the Army

NNR 70.416 Col. Archibald Yell's letter about the lack of equipment for Arkansas volunteers


NNR 71.001 indications of government aiding to restore Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna to power, contradiction of the "Union"notwithstanding, he is allowed to pass the blockade, enters Veracruz, assumes command and the revolution progresses, Mariano Paredes y Arillaga overthrown and imprisoned by Gen. Jose Mariano de Salas, who aids Santa Anna to power

NNR 71.001 rumor of annexation of California

NNR 71.001-71.002 Capt. John Rogers Vinton takes Mier

NNR 71.002 attempt on Alvarado

NNR 71.002 effect of Gen. Zachary Taylor's temperance orders at Matamoros

NNR 71. 002 expedition of the Rangers to the interior

NNR 71.002 China occupied

NNR 71.002 Gen. Zachary Taylor proceeds to Camargo, grand review

NNR 71.002 Gen. William Jenkins Worth's division prepares to move on Monterey
NNR 71. 002 position and movement of the several corps

NNR 71.016 complaints from volunteers at Matamoros about high prices for provisions

NNR 71.016 junta at Santa Barbara declares independence of Mexico, Gen. Castro declares martial law

NNR 71.016 Sonoma occupied by Col. John Charles Fremont

NNR 71.016 Com. John Drake Sloat takes Monterey
NNR 71.016 Capt. John Berrien Montgomery in the Portsmouth takes Yerba Buena

NNR 71.016 transport wagons contracted for the Army

NNR 71.017 dispatches for Mexico

NNR 71.020 difficulties attending the California expedition preparing at New York

NNR 71.020 reasons why the "peace with Mexico"now anticipated may prove delusive

NNR 71.020 Gen. Zachary Taylor delayed for want of means of transport, large bodies of volunteers join him

NNR 71.020 progress of expedition against Santa Fe
NNR 71.020 Col. William Selby Harney's expedition against Monclova

NNR 71.020 operations in the Pacific

NNR 71.021 Lt. James Duncan's report on the battles of 8th and 9th May

NNR 71.021-71.022 the affair of the Baltimore battalion "and their Ohio commander"

NNR 71.022 letters detailing march from Matamoros to Camargo, difficulties encountered, progress impeded, incidents, movements, and position, advance under Gen. William Jenkins Worth proceeds to Cerralvo

NNR 71.022 hot weather, Army concentrated at Camargo, advances made towards Monterey, want of wagons

NNR 71.022 confusion over disbanding of the six months' volunteers

NNR 71.022 letter from young Stettinius of the Baltimore volunteers about their position in Mexico

NNR 71.022 letter about the concentration of the Army at Camargo preparatory to a movement upon Monterey

NNR 71.022 measles among the volunteers from the west [disease]

NNR 71.022 rowdyism among the volunteers from Baltimore and the District

NNR 71.022-71.023 letter from Point Isabel about various activities and movements

NNR 71.023 sickness, inactivity for want of wagons

NNR 71.023 discharges from the Baltimore battalion for illness, remainder ordered to join Gen. Zachary Taylor at Camargo

NNR 71.023 mosquitoes and ants at Camargo

NNR 71.023 flare up of insubordination among the Illinois volunteers

NNR 71.023 letter from an Ohio volunteer near Burita

NNR 71.024 complaint of a Pennsylvania volunteer about poor arrangements for supplies

NNR 71.025-71.027 account of the bombardment of Fort Brown

NNR 71.034 account of the Alvarado affair

NNR 71.035 the Cumberland frigate on a reef

NNR 71.035 the brig Truxton lost

NNR 71.036 letter describing the Alvarado affair

NNR 71.038 Gen. Zachary Taylor, having been detained from 10th May to 1st Sept. for want of material of transport, at length succeeds in purchasing 1,500 mules from Mexicans, loads with provisions and munitions, reviews his forces, advances towards Monterey

NNR 71.038 disposition of forces

NNR 71.038 management of mules

NNR 71.038 march of Ohio volunteers from Matamoros to Camargo

NNR 71.038 Col. William Selby Harney's expedition

NNR 71.038 Presidio occupied by "adventurers"

NNR 71.038 Mexican forces at Monterey, Gen. William Jenkins Worth reaches Saltillo

NNR 71.038 fatal explosion aboard the steamboat Enterprise, list of killed and wounded in the explosion

NNR 71.039 advance of Gen. John Ellis Wool's division

NNR 71.039 Col. William Selby Harney's expedition

NNR 71.039 Gen. Stephen Watts Kearny's division leaves Fort Leavenworth for Santa Fe, his force, account of parties on the route

NNR 71.039 difficulties obstruct New York California expedition

NNR 71.039-71.040 comments of the Mobile "Register and Journal"on the disbanded volunteers

NNR 71.040 article on payment of the disbanded Louisiana volunteers

NNR 71.040 riot among Georgia volunteers near Burita

NNR 71.040 poor health among volunteers on the Rio Grande

NNR 71.040 illness among the Illinois volunteers

NNR 71.048 difficulties with supplies for the Army of the West, arrangement of forces, depredations of Indians

NNR 71.048 progress of President James Knox Polk's "dispatches"proposing negotiations

NNR 71.049 mediation between the United States and Mexico proposed by Great Britain

NNR 71.049 incident of Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's passing the blockade, his reception at Veracruz

NNR 71.049 doubts of reception by the Mexicans of an American minister unless forces are withdrawn, remarks of the "Union"

NNR 71.049 French journals

71.049 prospect of continuance of the war

71.049 "Union"impatient at Gen. Zachary Taylor's delay

NNR 71.050 debates in British Parliament, mediation explicitly offered

NNR 71.051 letter on the capture of John Pine Bankhead and the Truxton

NNR 71.051-71.052 loss of the Truxton on the breakers off Tuxpan

NNR 71.052 Monterey (Pacific) surrenders

NNR 71.053 Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's passport

NNR 71.054 "Union"repeats that the country is impatient for Gen. Zachary Taylor to "act,"that he has mules now to enable him to advance, "the plan of the campaign has been concocted in a decisive spirit, we ought not to doubt,"&c. , announces advance of the Army and that Monterey is probably taken

NNR 71.055 letter from officer at Camargo as to future prosecution of the war

NNR 71.055 a night in Matamoros, a false alarm, dead bodies, pleasures of soldiering, want of wagons and munitions, letter describing state of affairs, Gen. William Jenkins Worth at Cerralvo, riot on the Rio Grande

NNR 71.055 Riot on the Rio Grande

NNR 71.056 the march from Matamoros to Camargo, letter from "the sergeant"

NNR 71.056 operation of the Army of the Center, preparations to advance on Chihuahua, San Antonio de Bexar occupied

NNR 71.056-71.057 Army of the West, additional regiments mustered into service, paid, and discharged
NNR 71.057 departure of Maj. A. D. Stuart to pay the troops at Fort Leavenworth

NNR 71.057 dismissal of the regiment of infantry called for by the requisition of the governor of Missouri

NNR 71.057 letter from a volunteer at Bent's Fort, difficulties with provisions

NNR 71.057 disappointment to a volunteer of courage, consistency, and indomitable perseverance

NNR 71.057 New York California expedition delayed

NNR 71.057 Col. Jonathan D. Stevenson's effects seized, difficulties later resolved

NNR 71.057-71.058 letter from an officer at Matamoros

NNR 71.058 comment on Gens. Pedro Ampudia and Mariano Arista

NNR 71.058-71.060 Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's proclamation from Veracruz on a plan for regeneration of the republic

NNR 71.065 arrest and execution of Mexican spies at Camargo, attack on Americans between Camargo and Matamoros

NNR 71.065 suspension of building of wagons for the Army

NNR 71.065 Mexican show of resistance
71.065 Gen. William Jenkins Worth's division approaches Cerralvo
71.065 Gen. Zachary Taylor's forced march to join Gen. William Jenkins Worth
71.065 Mexican proclamation interdicting trading with or supplying the invaders under penalty of treason
71.065 Gen. Zachary Taylor's orders respecting trade and individuals locating at Camargo
71.065 Col. Clark shot, Mexicans disarmed at Matamoros
71.065 sickness on the Rio Grande

NNR 71.066 curiosity respecting reply received by government from Mexican government, speculation thereon, hopes of a peace diminished, the "Union"for going to war in earnest, another campaign required

NNR 71.066 Gen. Stephen Watts Kearny marching for Santa Fe

NNR 71.066 condition of the Mormon infantry

NNR 71.066 prizes taken by Mexican privateer

NNR 71.066 Infantry assembled at Ft. Leavenworth

NNR 71.067 intelligence from John Charles Fremont, &c.

NNR 71.067 Gen. John Ellis Wool nearly ready to advance on Chihuahua
71.067 Col. William Selby Harney returns from his excursion, is arrested

NNR 71.067 arrival at New Orleans of sick and discharged volunteers from the Rio Grande

NNR 71.067 Gen. Zachary Taylor concentrating at Cerralvo

NNR 71.067 Col. Hay's marching

NNR 71.067 hospitals crowded at Camargo and Matamoros

NNR 71.067 Gen. Robert Patterson in command from Camargo to the mouth of the Rio Grande

NNR 71.067 many deaths

NNR 71.067 Gen. Pedro Ampudia reinforces Monterey

NNR 71.067 doubts expressed by the "Union"as to the account of "desertions"

NNR 71.067 notice by Col. Samuel Hamilton Walker about desertions

NNR 71.067-71.068 letter relative to the campaigns, munitions, supplies, &c.

NNR 71.068 departure of the New York California expedition

NNR 71.080 Santa Fe taken by Gen. Stephen Watts Kearney

NNR 71.081 advance on Monterey

NNR 71.081 letter anticipates battle at Monterey

NNR 71.081 Kentucky regiment encamped at Lavaca

NNR 71.082 settling accounts with volunteer officers: Capt. G. H. Tobin's correspondence with Jonathan M. McCalla

NNR 71.083 Gen. Stephen Watts Kearny's proclamation at Santa Fe to the inhabitants of New Mexico

NNR 71.086-71.087 proclamation issued by Gen. Zachary Taylor on crossing the Rio Grande, announcing the course to be pursued toward Mexicans [incomplete]

NNR 71.087 announcement of the "Union"that the effort to negotiate a peace is to be abandoned and more coercive measures pursued, comments of the "Intelligencer"thereon

NNR 71.087 departure of Gen. Thomas Sidney Jesup to take personal command of the quartermaster's department

71.087-71.088 proclamation issued by Com. John Drake Sloat on taking ports on the Pacific

71.088 particulars of the tragic affair of the Georgia volunteers at Camp Belknap

NNR 71.088-71.089 condition of the volunteers on the Rio Grande

71.089 operations of Gen. John Ellis Wool's division

NNR 71.090-71.092 diary of an officer of the Army of the West to Santa Fe

NNR 71.096 rumor of design to call out volunteers to assail Veracruz, amount of forces now in field operating against Mexico

NNR 71.100 review of the progress of the campaign

NNR 71.100-71.101 Monterey attacked, defended for three days, surrenders to Gen. Zachary Taylor, armistice concluded, incidents

NNR 71.101 official dispatches announced by the "Union"on the battle of the 22d of Sept.

NNR 71.102 report on the battles of the 23rd Sept. and 25th Sept. , correspondence and articles of capitulation of Monterey INCOMPLETE

NNR 71.103-71.104 letters from the Army detailing approach to Monterey, storming of Bishop's Palace

NNR 71.105 adjustments in territory of the United States and other North American powers as a result of the conquest of California and New Mexico, and the Oregon treaty

NNR 71.112 Juan Nepomuceno Almonte appointed president of Mexico ad interim, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna assumes control of armies

NNR 71.112 Gen. Stephen Watts Kearny operating from Santa Fe

NNR 71.112 prize brig Naiad at New Orleans

NNR 71.113 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna assumes the military and declines civil supremacy, Gen. Jose Mariano Salas defers determining whether to receive a minister from United States until Congress, which alone has power in the premises, shall assemble

NNR 71.114 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's reply to the tender of supreme executive authority, his arrival and reception at the capital, levy of men for the Mexican Army, articles relative to funds for the war

NNR 71.114-71.115 notice of groups of recruits for the war in Mexico

NNR 71.115 force of the several divisions of the Army employed against Mexico

NNR 71.115 opinions stated relative to Gen. Zachary Taylor's movements, "plan of prosecuting the war,"government said to be dissatisfied with Taylor for delaying so long at Matamoros and to have ordered him on to San Luis Potosi, &c. , letters detailing the operations against and surrender of Monterey

NNR 71.116 details of deaths

NNR 71.117 notice of the corps of sappers and miners on their way to Mexico

NNR 71.117 design on Veracruz contemplated

NNR 71.117 deaths in hospital at Matamoras, rumors

NNR 71.117 "progress of the war,""plan of invasion to be changed,"rumors at Washington that Gen. Zachary Taylor is to be superseded in command, inquiries as to Gen. Winfield Scott

NNR 71.117 letter detailing the negotiations for surrender of Monterey

NNR 71.118 order of Gen. Stephen Watts Kearny for an expedition from Santa Fe, speculations on operations in New Mexico and California

NNR 71.118 report of affairs at Forth Leavenworth

NNR 71.118-71.119 march and route of Illinois volunteers through Texas
71.119 notice of volunteers preparing to leave Fort Leavenworth for the west

NNR 71.119-71.120 accounts of disease among the Tennessee volunteers

NNR 71.120 sick Tennessee volunteers retiring

NNR 71.120 Col. Samuel Ryan Curtis' letter about the health of troops at Matamoros

NNR 71.120-71.121 notices of officers and men

NNR 71.121 account of a Delaware hero

NNR 71.122 sundry additional incidents in the battles on the Rio Grande
NNR 71.122-3 Col. Humphrey Marshall's Kentucky regiment of volunteers; lack of supplies and pay for the Kentucky volunteers, extensive illness

NNR 71.123 troops embark for Mexico

NNR 71.123 sickness of Illinois volunteers, troops dispatched from Norfolk for Point Isabel and Tampico, word of the position of Col. John Charles Fremont

NNR 71.123 speculations about forces gathered to oppose the Army of the West

NNR 71.123 French brig captured while trying to force the blockade at Tampico

NNR 71.128 requisition for additional regiments of volunteers, "mum"as to future operations, "mental food for the Army"

NNR 71.128 comments on the inability of Secretary of the Treasury Robert John Walker to negotiate a loan with the banks, speculation on his future course

NNR 71.129 Gen. John Ellis Wool's division marching for Chihuahua

NNR 71.129 incidents and results of the recent battles

NNR 71.129 Gen. Zachary Taylor orders up additional forces to Monterey: Kentucky and Tennessee mounted regiments marching for Chihuahua

NNR 71.129 Gen. Zachary Taylor's general order No. 6, issued 29th Sept. at Camargo, respecting Mexican outlaws, provocations inducing the measure

NNR 71.129 Tennessee and Kentucky regiments in Army of the Center under Gen. Wool marching to Chihuahua

NNR 71.129 infantry marching for Camargo

NNR 71.129-130 George Wilkins Kendall's letter giving interesting details

NNR 71.130 Gen. Zachary Taylor's general order No. 115 directing the march from Cerralvo to Monterey

NNR 71.130-71.131 "march of the second division of the select six thousand"

NNR 71.131 Gen. Pedro Ampudia's address to his "companions in arms"prior to attack on Monterey

NNR 71.132 description of the castle of San Juan de Ulloa

NNR 71.133 Sir George Francis Seymour, in the Collingwood, arrives in California

NNR 71.133 California ports taken by Com. John Drake Sloat

NNR 71.133 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna inspires new vigor amongst the Mexicans, assembles a formidable force at San Luis Potosi, orders Monterey and Saltillo to be evacuated before the attack, but not in time to reach before the former was besieged

NNR 71.133 operations of the squadron in the Pacific

NNR 71.133 loss of schooner Bonita

NNR 71.133-134 capture of the Mexican brig of war Malek Adhel in the port of Mazatlan;
Monterey and San Francisco and "Alto California"taken by Com. John Drake Sloat [see also: 71.186, 71.226]

NNR 71.134 Com. Robert Field Stockton arrives in the Congress and Sir George Francis Seymour in the Collingwood, eighty-gun ship, civilities; Com. John Drake Sloat organizes a corps of dragoons and sails for Mazatlan, leaving Com. Robert Field Stockton in command, who issues a proclamation of blockade, operations of squadron

NNR 71.134 Commodore Sloat arrives at Havana

NNR 71.134 Gen. Jose Castro employed to revolutionize California

NNR 71.138-140, 157-159, 174-175 Lt. William Helmsley Emory's journal of Gen. Stephen Watts Kearny's march to Santa Fe

NNR 71.140 Gen. Stephen Watts Kearny's proclamation organizing territorial government in New Mexico

NNR 71.144 Gen. Pedro Ampudia's evacuation of Monterey, occupation by American forces

NNR 71.144 troops to leave Fort Moultrie for Mexico

NNR 71.144 Gen. Stephen Watts Kearny's excursion south and return to Santa Fe

NNR 71.144 Col. Canales reported at San Fernando

NNR 71.144 troops embark at New York for Mexico


70.337 Aug 1, 1846 Gen. Mariano Paredes y Arillaga requests permission, which is granted, to place himself in command of the Army in the North, arrangements with regard to other Mexican commanders

Paredes Elected President.  Shortly after the meeting of the Mexican congress, that body proceeded to organize the executive power, by a decree that it should be deposited provisionally in a magistrate elected by a plurality of the votes of congress, and that a vice president should be elected at the same time to act in the absence of the president.  This decree was passed on the 10th of June, and on the 12th the election was help.  Gen. Paredes was elected president, receiving 58 out of 83 votes.  Ben. Bravo received 13 votes, and Gen. Herrera 7 votes.  Gen. Bravo was then elected vice president, receiving 48 out of 82 votes.  The highest opposing candidate was D. Luis G. Cuevas, who received 17 votes.

Gen. Paredes took the oaths of office on the 13th as provisional president, and at the same time pronounced another discourse, in the most notable passage of which he expresses his confidence that congress will grant all the supplies and make every effort necessary to defend the national cause.  He reviews at length the wrongs which Mexico has endured at the hands of the United States, and concludes with desiring permission to assume of Senor Bustamente, who was ill, Dr. D. Louis Gonzaga Gordoa presided over congress.  He replied to the president in substance, that every question of domestic policy shrunk into insignificance compared with the invasion of the country on the Rio Bravo; that the Mexican who should think of aught else than the injustice and treachery with which their soild was trampled, and the necessity of avenging their outraged honor, had no right to claim a share in their patriotic devotion.

On the 18th permission was granted to Paredes to place himself at the head of troops, and proceed to join the army of the North.  Gonzalez Arevalo was to leave the capital on the 19th in command of the advance of the forces of Paredes.  Gen. Mejia was in the actual command of the army of the North, Arista having been ordered to Mexico, and Ampudia to remain at San Luis Potosi. [A paper of the 27th ult. says that Gen. Arevalo, instead of proceeding to the frontier, had marched for Guadalajara to put down the insurrection.]

Gen. Bravo left Vera Cruz for the city of Mexico on the 24th, to discharge the functions of president in the absence of Paredes.
[RCG]


70.337-338 Aug 1, 1846 consideration by the Mexican Congress of a declaration of war against the United States

Declaration of War Proposed.  The committee of congress upon foreign relations and upon war made a joint report upon the 16th upon that part of the message of Paredes relating to the United States.  The reports recommends the passage of a bill declaring Mexico to be in a state of war with the United States.  We do not find that the bill had actually been passed.  Bocanegra and Valencia were among the members of this committee.  After a short report upon the circumstances of the case, the committee proposed the following:

Project DE LA Loi.  The extraordinary national congress of the Mexican republic considering:

That the republic of the United States of America, with notorious violation of all right, has instigated and protected openly and perseveringly the insurrection of the colonists of Texas against the nation which had admitted them upon its territory and generously shielded them with the protection of its laws:

That is has incorporated the same territory of Texas into in union by an act of its congress, notwithstanding it has always belonged by undisputed right to the Mexican nation, has been recognized as such by the United States themselves, as appears by the boundary treaties of 1832 and 1835:

That is has not maintained the solemn assurances and reservations in regard to the rights of the Mexican republic, which by means of its agents it had made conformity with whose treaties:

That is has also invaded the department of Tamaulipas, introducing an army upon the left bank of the Rio Bravo, giving occasion and origin to the battles of the 8th and 9th of May of the present year:

That in time of profound peace, and during established relations of amity, between the two countries, it has invaded by land and sea that territories of the Cali:

That it has blockaded the ports of Matamoros, Vera Cruz, and Tampico of Tamaulipas, opening its fire upon the defenses of the latter:

That it has authorized a levy of troops against Mexico:

That it has declared war against the republic under the pretext that the said states had been invaded, when in fact they made the invasion:

And lastly, considering that the nationality of the Mexicans is seriously compromised by the power and the spirit of usurpation, flagrantly manifested by the neighboring nation of the United States.
[RCG]


70.341-342 Aug 1, 1846 letter from "The Corporal"with the Army of Occupation at Matamoros

"THE CORPORAL,"whose exceedingly lively and well written articles, communicated to the New Orleans Bee, keep the public well posted up as to the affairs on the Rio Grande, writes from

    Matamoros, July 4th, 1846

I was in conversation with Mr. De Grey, who has returned here from Chihuahua, near two hours this morning.  He says that he left San Antonio with others about two months ago with good on a trading expedition to Chihuahua, and proceeded on the route unmolested until he had reached Santa Clova, where they were stopped by the guard stationed on the river and their goods taken from them, in the name of the revenue laws of Mexico.  Mr. De G. then left his party and traveled down the east bank of the Rio Grande, for a few days, when he crossed over and went to Saltillo, where he was advised of the bloody battle of the 9th, by its citizens, who stated to him that they would never go against the Americans again, and that it was a generally expressed thing at every place they had heard of.  He says he was stopped by Arista, who was at his rancho, near Monterey, for two days, and although the general had quit the Mexican army forever, he still though it his duty to detain and would likely have kept him had he not managed to escape and get into Monterey.  This place he found dull and "heavy"and not one Mexican soldier in it--the people damning Paredes and the government, saying the soldiers had eat them out of every thing and then left them for the Americans to prey upon, whom they were looking for with much anxiety.  They told him at this place that there was much eagerness displayed by the inhabitants of Caohuila and the upper part of Tamaulipas before the news of the fight reached them, but all operations in military affairs ceased after it, and patriotism was sunk.  The remnant of the army--not 500--have gone to Lenares, and were in a pitiful condition, and lessening the number daily by desertion.  They had recruited a little whilst there, and fortified several points, but the citizens said it was labor thrown away.  He heard that 600 men volunteered at Monclova, and were "eager for the fray;"but the startling news from the Rio Grande gave them a lick back; they mutinied, and 500 of them left sans ceremony.  They had been made to believe that our pockets were lined with gold.  (How they would have been so sucked had they got into the pockets of some folks I wot of.)  He saw General Cannales near Reynosa, who told him that he commanded but 125 men at the time.  Carabajal, his cher ami, gave De Grey, a passport to protect him from the band. 

I am happy to inform you that the present swell in the river has had the good effect of clearing a channel at the mouth, by washing away the sand, and leaving it open for vessels of 5 or 6 feet water.  The vessels at the mouth have gone out and several steamers have come in laden with military stores.

Several rows have occurred in this place during the last few days, which have compelled General Taylor to resume strict measures again.  Several Mexicans have been killed and others wounded.  Those of our men who engage in these broils are bad men--who come to town and remain here about during the day, in connection with some rangers of similar character, but I am proud to say, for the honor of the service, they are few in number.

There are, and have been for ten days, a set of mountebanks here performing on the tight rope and cutting "fantastic tricks before high heaven.  About half an hour before the commencement of their performances they mount each a mustang, and proceeded by a base drum and charionets, parade through the principle streets--dressed in their performing costumes, and followed by all the juveniles of the town.  They are natives, and style themselves, "Compania del Norte.  I have not had the courage to visit them.
[RCG]


70.342 Aug 1, 1846 visit of British naval officers to Gen. Zachary Taylor

"Curiosity runs high"to know the object of a visit of two British naval officers to General Taylor, who arrived here in a vessel of war from Tampico.  Communication being cut off, they sent their dispatches by mail to their consul at Matamoros, to be laid by him before the consul general. Nous verrons.

Appearances indicate a move of the army into the interior as soon as the waters subside.

Report says Gen. Paredes has sent a proclamation to the people of Matamoros, calling upon them to treat our regulars with every kindness and consideration, because of the unparalleled kindness and attention to the wounded, as well as prisoners and citizens.  He takes occasion to score the Texans, &c.  If this be true, it argues more favorable than otherwise.
[RCG]


70.343 August 1, 1846, Court of Inquiry, charges against General Gaines, Library for the Army of Occupation, Volunteers

The Court of Inquiry ordered to assemble at Fortress Monroe, (Old Point), for the investigation of the charges against General Gaines, met on the 21st, and organized for the transaction of business. - The Court sat with closed doors of course.  All the members had not arrived.  Gen. Gaines was, upon his arrival at Fortress Monroe, received by Col. Walbach, commandant, and saluted with 13 guns, together with the honors due to his high rank.

A LIBRARY FOR THE ARMY OF OCCUPATION. - Presuming, probably, that the army would have leisure for study, the following publishers in New York have contributed a very excellent library for the army on the Rio Grande: - Harper & Brothers; Burgess, Stringer & Co.; Wiley & Putnam; Saxton & Miles; Mark H. Newman; W. Taylor & Co.; J. & G.A. Langley; Baker & Seribner; M.W. Dodd; Darius Mead; J.S. Redfield; Fowler & Wells; C.S. Francis & Co.; Wood & Son, and Stanford & Swords.  The idea was suggested by the Rev. Mr. Marshall, of Vicksburgh, Miss., at present in New York on a visit.

The government is buying mules in Tennessee, at $100 apiece.

Lieut. DEAS, who, it was reported at the time, had been attracted by some Mexican damsel, on the banks of the Rio Grande, opposite Fort Brown, but who in reality had swam the river in search of the lamented Col. Cross, and was captured by the enemy, has been restored to his company.

DESERTERS. - The two Sergeants who deserted from Capt. Deas's company of Alabama volunteers on the Rio Grande, were arrested in Mobile, and were about to be sent back to be tried by a military court, when a writ of habeas corpus was taken out for their detention, and the examination of their case before a civil court.  After hearing the case, the judge decided that they should be returned to the camp for trial by court martial.  From this decision an appeal was taken to the court of appeals, where the matter now lies

DEATH OF C. J. McNULTY. - Capt. Hicks, of the New Era, arrived yesterday from New Orleans, reports the death of C. J. McNulty, on his way to the seat of war. He died just below Memphis.  He was a private in the Knox county volunteers, and formerly well known as the clerk of the house of representatives.

GEORGIA VOLUNTEERS. - Two men were drowned - Farrar and McNier - in the Alabama river, while on their way to Mobile.  They jumped overboard from the steamer in a fright.

The Mobile papers gives the particulars of an affair, on the wharf in that city, connected with a corps of volunteers from Georgia.  Some of the men undertook to torment some negroes fishing at the wharf. Two were knocked into the river and one of them drowned.  Excitement followed, and the troops were for hurrying off the boat on which they were embarked - but the mayor ordered their detention, and three men were arrested and taken before the mayor.  Two were, after examination, discharged, and the third sent to prison to answer for his crime.

SOUTH CAROLINA VOLUNTEERS. - The secretary of war has informed the governor of S. Carolina that there is no necessity at present for calling the regiment of that state into service.

EXPEDITION AGAINST CHIHUAHUA. - The company of U. States dragoons that have for some time been at Austin, Texas, left there on the 16th June, for San Antonio.

Capt. R. M. Snell, of the Texan volunteers, has arrived at Galveston for the purpose of raising three or four companies of foot, for what service is not stated.

THE SANTA FE EXPEDITION. - Col. Price's regiment.  A letter from Lexington, Mo., dated the 2d, says - "Col. Price has been informed by Col. Kearney, that his regiment will be received, provided he raises eight hundred infantry - more cavalry not being wanted in the expedition.  Col. Price, it is said, objects to this arrangement, and a doubt exists whether he will be able to succeed in raising the number of men. There can be no doubt that Col. Kearney has more mounted men with him than is necessary for the expedition, and we are surprised at the opposition which Col. Price makes, to the new service with which Col. Kearney desires to invest him.  He ought not to hesitate about obeying Col. Kearney's requisition, more especially as it may conduce to the safety of the expedition, and to the promptness with which his men may be brought into the field.
[GLP]


70.343 Aug 1, 1846 arrival of the first, second, and third regiments of Ohio volunteers at New Orleans

Ohio Volunteers.  The first regiment of Ohio volunteers, commanded by Col. Mitchell, and Lieut. Col. Weller, arrived at New Orleans on the 8th of July, by steamers New World and Carolina, from Cincinnati, and encamped at the battle ground blow the barracks.

The 3rd regiment, under the command of Col. S. R. Curtis, Lieut. Col. McCook, and Adj. Eaton, arrived on the 9th.

Two steamboats arrived at New Orleans on the 16th with the 2d regiment.
[RCG]


70.343 Aug 1, 1846 arrival of five companies of Indiana volunteers at New Orleans

Indiana Volunteers.  A steamboat arrived at N. Orleans on the 16th of July, with five companies of the 2d regiment of the Indiana volunteers.
[RCG]


70.343 

New York Volunteers.  We learn that the full complement of seven regiments of volunteers required from this state, for service in the war against Mexico, has already been obtained, and all the line officers commissioned.  It is expected that the field officers will also receive their commissions in the course of twelve or fourteen days, when the whole force will be complete, awaiting orders from the war department.  An excess, nearly sufficient for another regiment, we understand, has been reported to the adjutant general's office.
[RCG]


70.343 Aug 1, 1846 account of traders, emigrants, and soldiers setting out for Santa Fe, Oregon, and California

Trade to Sante Fe, California, and Oregon.

Dr. J. Gregg, the author of "Commerce of the Prairies,"in a letter to the editors of the Boonslick (Missouri) Times, gives the following important statements.

     Independence, June 30th, 1846.

The traders having left this place in detached parties, as each proprietor finished his preliminary arrangements and got his goods and chattles, freight and cattle ready for starting, it is difficult to form a correct estimate of their numbers or quantity, unless one had taken the pains of stationing himself upon the borders at the opening of the navigation, in the spring, and counted them when passing.  I have, however, by minute and frequent inquiries ascertained that there are "en masse"upon the Santa Fe trail,      216 wagons. 

Still behind to start during the summer, principally  belonging to Mexicans, say, Small carriages, buggies, &c.,    150 "        50"    416

--having on board, as near as I can estimate it, an amount of merchandise, costing a fraction over one million of dollars, which in more than treble that of any previous season.

These vehicles, of various sorts, are accompanied by people as various--compromising traders and wagoners, loungers, on and connoisseur travelers, loafers and loungers, amounting to about one thousand men.

The Oregon and California emigration, (much the larger part of which is for the latter country,) amounts to , men, women, and children, about two thousand persons, and in all probability, I think, at least 400 wagons of all descriptions.

Then, there is our army, the number of which is quite uncertain, although, including dragoons and volunteers, infantry, and cavalry, it will, from present indications, amount to about three thousand men accompanied by two hundred and fifty wagons.

Thus, we have about six thousand souls, with one thousand wagons, moving westward, across the great prairies, during the present summer, from this part of our frontier,  How many may put off from other portions of our western border, I know no more than you; but report says that a large number of troops will leave Arkansas next month for our southwestern frontier and Mexico.

Your Friend,
Josiah Gregg.


[RCG]


70.344 Aug 1, 1846 mustering of the New York regiment destined for California, complaints of favoritism to Col. John D. Stevenson

The expedition to the Pacific.  -- The regiment under the command of Col. Stenvenson, destined for California, was mustered and inspected at the New York arsenal yard on the 21st ult.  It is said they intend to encamp on Bedloe's Island, and pass the time previous to their departure in active drill.

The Mechanics' Journal says. -- "Very just complaints are made of the favoritism of the administration in allowing John D. Stevenson to raise a regiment for immediate service, while volunteers are enrolled in New York and waiting to be ordered into survive, waiting without pay, and even without any provision for their maintenance.  A son of Mr. Marcy is to be paymaster of this regiment, for the administration has long since assumed the right of appointing the officers of the militia, though in direct defiance of the constitution, which reserves that right to the states respectively.  Sir Robert Peel, with the immense patronage in his power, made it a rule never to appoint a relative to office.  With all the admiration which this administration exhibits for British examples, this is a precedent which there appears no disposition to follow.
[RCG]


70.352 August 1, 1846, Steamer Princeton detached for Pensacola

THE PRINCETON, U.S. STEAMER, which has been exceedingly useful in maintaining the blockade of Vera Cruz, performing what no other vessel in the navy was as capable of doing, has suddenly been detached by Commodore CONNER, in order to bring despatches, with which she arrived at Pensacola, on the 20th , in five days from Vera Cruz.  The despatches are said to be from our Pacific squadron.  Of their purport nothing has transpired.
[GLP]


70.352 August 1, 1846, ARMY OF OCCUPATION

Our latest dates from the Rio Grande left the army still waiting for means of transportation and for supplies to enable them to progress.  Gen. Taylor is now encamped with four regiments, (Colonels Walton's, Davie's, Dankin's and Mark's,) with the Alabamians, under Capt. Desha, at Buena Vista, on the borders of a lake, seventeen miles northwest of Matamoros.  The health of the volunteers here, with Gen. Taylor, had much improved, owing to the fine air they enjoyed and splendid encamping grounds they occupied.

The roads were perfectly impassable for wheeled vehicles, owing to the swampy soil, occasioned by the immense falls of rain which had recently taken place. - The steamer Mercer arrived at the mouth of the Rio Grande, all safe, on the 17 th inst.  There were no signs of Mexican soldiery in the vicinity of Camargo.

Capt. Walker had returned from his expedition to Monterey, and delivered a report which is said to be an exceedingly interesting one of the state of the country through which he passed, halting places, &c. &c. - There is no probability of an opposition being made to the advance of the American troops between Camargo and Monterey, and from what could be collected, the Mexican force concentrated at the latter point, is extremely insignificant. Nothing regarding the reported approach of Paredes, with the army of reserve, of an authentic nature has been ascertained at headquarters, although  ??? are out in some numbers for that purpose.  Everything, however, seems to announce that the possession of Monterey will be fiercely disputed, as it is by nature and art, one of the most powerful strongholds in Mexico.  The inhabitants and soldiers are daily employed in improving its defences.

Our informant states that it was reported by the Rangers that they had penetrated to the precipitous cliffs that overhang Monterey, when a trooper, a very adventurous soldier, named Cummins, reached a point overhanging the Bishop's Palace, which commanded a view of the whole city.  The utmost activity seemed to prevail among the Mexicans, who were busily employed in repairing the old fortifications and erecting new ones. - The number of troops was not ascertained, but from the movements observable, it was evident they were preparing every means of defence.

The crops it is feared, are almost irreparably injured.  The cotton harvest is annihilated; as for the corn much will be saved, although greatly deteriorated.

The Mexican peasantry are employed very diligently in cutting wood and piling it on the banks of the river, for the steamboats.  They receive $2.50 a cord.  It is muskeet wood, and burns very well.  Gen. Taylor put it to them, whether they would cut it and get paid, or oblige him to have it cut by his own men, when they would lose the price of labor. Wood, however, he added, must be had.

Business is very brisk at Matamoros.  Fine weather had again assumed a permanent aspect; the waters were every where falling, and the whole of the military were joyfully preparing for the opening campaign.
[GLP]


70.352 Aug 1, 1846 mounted riflemen and Mormon infantry for California

"Army of the West"

We find the above designation fully assumed in an official order from Col. Kearney, 1st U S. dragoons, dated "Headquarters, Army of the West, Fort Leavenworth, June 19th, 1846,"directed to Capt. Allen, of said regiment, which together with Capt. Allen's "circular to the Mormons,"dated "Camp of the Mormons, Mount Pisgah, June 26th,"are published in the St. Louis Republican, of the 24th, as taken from the Nauvoo Eagle, of the 17th June.  The overture to the Mormons in the orders and circular are very comprehensive.  Gen. Kearny distinctly point to California as his place of destination, and that he stipulates for the discharge of the Mormons from service in that country.  He asks for five companies of infantry.  The Mormons are eager to embrace the overture.  The Republican adds: "We learn from the same source that Gen. Kearny in consideration of their having placed five hundred men at the disposal of the government, has emigrating Mormons, and that they shall have the use of "any of the Indian lands they may think proper to select,"until they are ready to cross the mountains.  The Mormons have, in accordance with this arrangement, selected Grand Island, on the Platt river, for their temporary residence.  It is a large tract and has a salt spring upon it.  There they will winter, and collect the entire Mormon population of the west, preparatory to their march to California next spring.  They propose to push forward from this point as rapidly as possible, and, after reaching in, to send back from five hundred to one thousand wagons, for the purpose of helping along those who may yet be in Illinois, Iowa, or Missouri.  This is to be done with all possible expedition.  Grand Island is stated to be between one hundred and two hundred miles west of COuncil BLuffs.  At the last dates the requisition of Gen. Kearny was rapidly filling up; and on the 17th, the United States officers gave the Mormons a splendid fete or ball, which is said to have been a fine affair."

A letter from an officer date --Camp at Cotton Wood, July 10th, published in the National Intelligencer, of the 30th, states that the detachment crossed Kansas on the 2d, and were 180 miles from Fort Leavenworth, without meeting with any accident.  They had no intelligence as yet from the detachment sent under Captain Moore to overtake the Santa Fe expedition.

The companies of Mormon infantry and col. Price's regiment of mounted Missourians, are expected to join general Kearny at Bent's Ford, at which place he halts for them to come up.  Including these he will have about 3 200 men with which to invade Mexico and Santa Fe.
[RCG]


NRR 70.368 Nashville "Union's"correspondence on the campaign, move toward Monterey anticipated


70.368 Aug 8, 1846 Camargo taken

Camargo was taken possession of by the advance corps, without a shadow of opposition.
[RCG]


70.368 Aug 8, 1846 wagons purchase and contracted for in Atlantic states

The U.S. Quartermaster at Baltimore, a few days since, advertised that he would purchase as number of wagons for the U.S. army.  The notice came to a ready market.  The way his quarters were beset forthwith, and the crowd of wagons that were ready for Uncle Sam's cash, was a caution.  We have heard of persons obtaining $150 for second hand wagons, that cost when now $90; and again we have heard of persons who had their eyes open for a speculation, realizing $600 in a single day by purchasing up wagons, and selling them to the government -- all scandal, perhaps.  Yesterday's American contained a laconic notice from the Quartermaster, that he had "wagons enough, and would purchase no more."
[RCG]


70.368 Aug 8, 1846 expenses of the war

Expenses of the War.  The St. Louis Republican of a recent date has the following:

"It is only by ascertaining the actual cost of particular items that the expenses of the war with Mexico can be estimated.  The government agents, a few days since, purchased five hundred barrels mess pork for the "use of the army of the West." This pork is to be transported to Santa Fe.  It cost $10 per barrel.  Three or hour years ago supplies were needed for an expedition on the same route, and contracts were made with Bent & St. Vrain, for transportation.  They were paid 8 cents per lb., from Independence to Bent's Fort.  The government, of course, paid the transportation to Independence.  It is alleged that the contract to which we have alluded was a losing concern, and that no one will undertake it for less than ten cents per pound.  A barrel of pork will average 320 pounds.  The cost of its transportation from Fort Leavenworth, to which point all public stores are shipped to Bent's Fort, will then be thirty-two dollars.  But this is not all.  It has there to be wagoned to Santa Fe, and it is a very moderate calculation to say that the additional cost, with the transportation from St. Louis to Fort Leavenworth, will increase the cost to $40 per barrel.  Add the original cost and it makes the actual expense of the barrel of pork, on its delivery at Santa Fe, fifty dollars.  In other words, the government pays $25,00 for the 500 barrels of pork. 

"The cost of all other freight must be charged in the same way -- by the pound-- and the expense cannot be much less than we have estimated."
[RCG]


70.368 August 8, 1846, move toward Monterey anticipated

     "It is now understood that we will move towards Monteray, a beatiful town at the head of the San Juan (river), about two hundred miles distant.  I think it is probable that in two weeks more the mounted force, viz. the Texas mounted riflemen and the United States dragoons will be on their march thither.  If we can get the needful transportation, we will overrun and occupy, before the end of summer, all that part of Mexico lying on this side of the Auahuae mountains. This I imagine will be the end of our operations in this direction.  If the war continues, the main blow must be stricken through Vera Cruz.  The means of reaching that point by water are always abundant, and we are taken at once into the heart of the enemy. where every blow will count.  To approach the city of Mexico by Monterey will require immense transportation of provisions and forage, over an uninhabited desert of a thousand miles, with roads through mountains and defiles.

    We hear but little of the enemy. The rumor is, and has been for some weeks, that they are fortifying the pass this side of Monterey.  It is said to be a strong place.  Yet we will pass it, if we try."
[GLP]


70.368 August 8, 1846, CAMP, ON THE BATTLE-FIELD

MAY 10TH, 1846.

SIR, - In compliance with your request, I have the honor to report that, in the deployment of the 4th Infantry, I found myself in command of companies B, D, and K, on the left of the road as we entered, and having been ordered to cross to the right abd advance, did so.  After crossing the pond, I had with me Lieuts. Hays and Woods and about twenty men of different regiments, mostly however, of the 4 th.  Upon deploying my men on the crest of the hill, I discovered one of the enemy's pieces about fifty yards in my front which was defended by about 150 Infantry.  I charged and took the piece and attempted to spike it, but not being able to do so, took it back to a place of safety. - The enemy had a breast-work in  my rear, and opened a heavy fire on me, with about ten men, I dislodged him and drove him across the road. Too much credit cannot be given to Lieuts. Hays and Wooda, of the 4 th.  They were among the very first to reach the piece, and to them belongs the credit of its capture. - Whilst I was engaged in driving the enemy from his breast-work, these officers, with their men, repulsed a party that charged them in order to recapture the piece.  I cannot refrain from calling your attention to Sergeant Major Maloney and Corporal Farrall, who behaved with remarkable coolness and gallantry. - Everybody did his duty nobly, as becomes American soldiers.

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant.

ROBERT C. BUCHANAN, Capt. 4th Infantry

To Maj. G. W. ALLEN, Command'g 4 th Inf'y.
[GLP]


70.368 August 8, 1846, Death of Lieut. Blake, deaths at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma

LIEUT. BLAKE. A letter from Gen. Worth, dated New Orleans, May 18, 1846, says. - You will probably by mail, hear of the loss of that gallant ornament and devoted member of your corps, my warmly cherished friend, Blake.  The manner adds poignancy to our sorrows.  Had he fallen in the conflict, in which by all accounts, he had especially distinguished himself, regrets would have been turned into envy.  After the battle, on casting aside his weapons, one of his pistols accidently discharged, and gave him a mortal wound.  Knowing and valueing him as I did, you will readily conceive how I deplore his loss, both as a gallant and true hearted friend, and accomplished comrade. He has left no better soldier behind."-

"Our troops hav ebehaved with great intrepidity. - Every man has done his duty. My own gallant regiment speaks for itself in the list of the killed and wounded - verified by the colors of the crack Mexican regiment, that of Tobasco.  Would to God I could have been with them; but a sad fate ordered otherwise. There is time yet; it is but the beginning of the end.  I sail to-morrow, and, with God's blessing will be in line by the 21st.

(Lieut. Blake served with Gen. Worth throughout his operations in Florida.)

THE MORTALLY WOUNDED.  The Surgeon General of the Army on the Rio Grande has sent to the editor of the Washington Union a list of the private soldiers who were mortally wounded in the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, and who expired on the days of the battles, or have since died of their wounds.  It is as follows:

William Atherton, Lewis H. Tucker, George Bates, Charles Wilson, Frederick Papae, James Manning, Thomas Cantwell, - Martin, - Eichler, Owen Hawkins, James Morgan, William B. Fuller, John Forsyth, Matthew Niddy, Charles Marsland, George Chisholm, Philip Lee, Orlando Pierce, Robt. Mathews, Daniel Mc-Dardie, - Eldridge, James Stockley, - Albertson, - Shermaher, Weigart Horace, - Francis, - Anthony, - Fisher, - Mullen, - Hunt, - Hart, - Wallace, - Farrell, - Lewis, - Murray, - Waldron, - Patton, - Haddock.

The names of the men who were killed outright, or who did not come under the observation of the surgeons, have not been reported to the Surgeon General's Office.
[GLP]


70.371 Aug 15, 1846 volunteers return to New Orleans

The brig Empresario, the steamer New York, and the schooner Native, all reached New Orleans on the 1st from Galveston and the seat of war -- bringing a number of volunteers that had been discharged under orders from government.  Among the passengers by the New York and Col. Morgan, Capt. Holton, and Lieut. Alvord, of the U. States army; Col. Narks, Adj. Hunter, Lieut. Harris, of the Andrew Jackson regiment, Louisiana volunteers; Col. Dakin, Maj. McCall, Capts. Fowles and Clark, and Lieut. Mace, of Dakin's regiment; and Col. Walton, Lieut. Col. Forno, Maj. Breedlove, and Dr. Wilson, of the Washington.

The Empresario brought back Capt. Desha's company of Alabama volunteers, who have been ordered to New Orleans, to be mustered out of the service, in compliance with the instructions of the war department.  Six additional companies of Alabama volunteers and the St. Louis Legion are to be disbanded.  The regiment of Cols. Peyton and Featherston are not recognized by the department as attached to the service.  Not a single company, and very few of the men had accepted the alternative offered to them by the department, of enlisting twelve months.
[RCG]


70.371 Aug 15, 1846 various items

A number of fine artillery companies arrived at the Brazos before the departure of the Empresario.  Gen. Smith, with the 3d and 4th regiments U.S. Infantry, had proceeded to Camargo.  Brig. Gen. Hamer was to be left in command at Matamoros, with a regiment of volunteers and a supply of artillery to garrison the ports.  Gov. Henderson, at the last accounts, was lying dangerously ill at Matamoros, little hope was entertained of his revovery.
[RCG]


70.372, August 15, 1846, War with Mexico, Volunteers, Navy

     The brig Empresario,the steamer New York, and the schooner Nutwe, all reached New Orleans on the 1st from Galveston and the seat of war - bringing a number of volunteers that had been discharged under orders from government.  Among the passengers by the New York are Col. Morgan, Capt. Holton, and Lieut. Alvord, of the U.States army; Col. Narks, Adj. Hunter, Lieut. Harris, of the Andrew Jackson regiment, Louisiana volunteers; Col. Dakin, Maj. McCall, Capts. Fowles and Clark, and Lieut. Mace, of Dakins regiment; and Col. Walton, Lieut. Col. Forno, Maj. Breedlove, and Dr. Wilson, of the Washington.

The Empresario brought back Capt. Desha's company of Alabama volunteers, who have been ordered to New Orleans, to be mustered out of the service, in compliance with the instuctions of the war department.  Six additional companies of Alabama volunteers and the St. Louis Legion are to be disbanded.  The regiment of Cols. Peyton and Featherston are not recognized by the department as attached to the service.  Not a single company, and very few of the men had accepted the alternative offered to them by the department, of enlisting for twelve months.

A number of fine artillery companies arrived at the Brazos before the departure of the Empresario.  Gen. Smith, with the 3d and 4th regiments U. S. Infantry, had proceeded to Camargo.  Brig. Gen. Hamer was to be left in command at Matamoros, with a regiment of volunteers and a supply of artillery to garrison the ports.  Gov. Henderson, at the last accounts, was lying dangerously ill at Matamoros, little hope was entertained of his recovery.

The propeller Massachusetts arrived at the Brazos on the 26th ult.  The brig Crusoe struck on Brazos bar in going over, and upon making the landing she unfortunately sunk.  The clerk of the New York reports that he saw on the 29 ththe bark Lazan, hence for Brazos Santiago, ashore ten miles to the east of the Brazos.  The troops on board were all saved. - Her cargo consisted of government stores which were all saved; the vessel was a total loss.

Nothing was known of the movements of the Mexican forces.  Letters from the city of Mexico stated that Paredes was to leave the capital to join the army on the 29th ult.

INCIDENTS OF THE BATTLE FIELD.

The Maryland Line.  A letter from Point Isabel on the 2d inst., says:  "There were four gentlemen from Baltimore in the battle of Palo Alto: the gallant and ill-fated Ringgold, who fell at the close of a long fight, in which he did incalculable damage to the enemy; Capt. Magruder, who, when the Mexican army charged upon the square of the artillery battalion, then unsupported by any other battalion, seized a musket which had fallen from the hands of a man killed near him, and fighting with the soldiers in the ranks, assisted in repelling the charge; Lieut. Randolph Ridgely, who, commanding two pieces, dashed to the assistance of the fifth infantry in the square, when charged by the Mexican Red Lancers, and in the most gallant manner assisted that regiment in repulsing it; and lastly, Mr. Lloyd Tilganan, a gentleman amateur, who graduated at West Point and resigned; but who, upon this occasion, reconnoitered the enemy's whole line before the battle, and, as a volunteer aid to Gen. Taylor, exposed his person every where, and was always in the hottest part of the field."

THE VETERAN OF NAPOLEON.

As Churchill's battalion of artillery were advancing to take their position in the second line of battalion on the 8th, a private in the 4 th regiment was come up to, who lay upon the battle field with both his legs shot off. He was one of the first that fell after the cannonade commenced, and was a veteran in Napoleon's wars.  After having escaped in the terrible conflicts of Austrelitz and Wagnam, and in the retreat from Moscow, and the battle of Waterloo, he lived to fall on the Palo Alto, by a cannon shot from a Mexican battery. As his fellow soldiers passed him and noticed at every pulsation of his heart, that the blood flowed from his wounds, they stopped an instant to sympathise with him, the noble hearted fellow, as his eyes were glazing in death, waved them on, and with his last breath, said, "Go comrades, I have only got what a soldier enlists for."

A private, on the 9th, who had followed Lieut. Dobbins through the thickest of the fight, raised his musket at a Mexican, and would have blown him through if the poor fellow had not most petiously cried out amigo, amigo, at the same time dropping his weapon; the private did the same and advanced towards the Mexican to take him prisoner, the Mexican then perfidiously raised his piece and instantly killed the generous American.  This so enraged Lieut. Dobbins, that he drew his bowie knife and at a bound reached the coward and literally split his head in twain.
[GLP]


70.373 Aug 15, 1846 notice of the departure of Maj. E. Kirby for the war

Major E. Kirby.  Among the distinguished officers of the army that embarked on board the steamship Alabama, on Saturday evening bound for the seat of war, we noticed Major E. Kirby, of the regular army.  Major Kirby, has rendered his country much service in his time, having served in the last war, and in the Black Hawk and Florida campaigns.  He belongs to the Cincinnatus school of soldiers; for when his country needs not his services in the field, he may be found tilling the soil on his farm near Brownsville, Jefferson county, N.Y., formerly the residence of his distinguished father-in-law, the late Major Ge. Jacob Brown.  It was the good fortune of the writer of this to meet Major K. last September, at the exhibition of the New York State Agriculture Society, at Utica, and well could he descant upon the beauties of a Burham, a Decon, and a Hereford.  Major K. has gone out as paymaster general, and took with him $100,000 for the pay of soldiers--and it may be safely ventured that he is shipper of Mexican dollars to Mexico.        N. Orleans Tropic.
[RCG]


NNR 70.373 Aug 15, 1846 Account of the Heroine of Fort Brown

THE HEROINE OF FORT BROWN.  The N. Orleans Picayune has a letter from Matamoros which furnishes some interesting particulars respecting the heroine of Fort Brown, who is generally known in the army of the south as "The Great Western."- The writer says: -

"She was first brought to the notice of the public in a few remarks by Lieut. Bragg, at the collation given by the army to the Louisiana delegation at Gen. Arista's headquarters in Matamoros. He mentioned her gallant conduct and noble bearing during the whole of the bombardment. A few of the incidents ofthe life of this extraordinary woman, which I have been able to pick up in camp, will be read with some interest; they prove that the sex has not been unrepresented in the soul-stirring and bloody scenes on the Rio Grande.

The Great Western belong to a class known and recognized in the organization of the army as "Laundresses,"three of whom are allowed to draw rations in each company, and are required to wash for the soldiers thereof, at a price regulated by a council of officers. She arrived at Corpus Christi last autumn with the 7th infantry, to one of the companies of which her husband was attached. Up to the time the army marched for the Rio Grande, she performed all her appropriate duties, and in addition, kept a "mess"for the young officers of the regiment.

When the army took up its line of march for the Rio Grande, the women, with a few rare exceptions, were left behind to come by sea. A very few procured ponies and followed thier husbands on their tedious and arduous march. Not so with "The Great Western." Her husband was sent by water, whether on duty or for disability I am unable to learn; but she, true to her character, declaring that "the boys"(young officers of her mess) "must have somebody to take care of them,"purchased a mule and a cart, packed her luggage, cooking utensils, and supplies, mounted behind her donkey, with whip in hand, and displayed upon the whole route qualities and attainments which the best teamster in the train might have envied. During the whole journey she kept up the "mess,"a relief from the burdens of which is the greatest boon to an officer on the march. The brigade to which she was attached arrived upon the banks of the Sal Colorado as Gen. Taylor was preparing to cross with the dragoons and the 1st brigade of infantry. The Mexicans upon the opposite bank were making great demonstrations by blowing bugles, &c., &c. After calmly surveying the scene from her cart, she remarked, with great coolness and determination, that "if the general would give her a good strong pair of tongs, whe would wade that river, and whip every scoundrel that dare show himself!"It may be imagined that the men were not backward in crossing after that.

When Gen. Taylor marched to Point Isabel with his army, on the 1st May, the 7th infantry, and of course, The Great Western, remained to garrison Fort Brown. How that noble regiment and the two companies of artillery left in this work sustained themselves, is already known, but nothing will more gratify them than to have justice done their gallant heroine, of whom they speak in the warmest terms. She, with all the other women left behind, some eight or ten, moved into the fort, where her mess was soon put in operation, the position of her tent and fire being near the centre of the fort. The enemy's fire opened on the 3d, just as she was commenceing her arrangements for the "boys"breakfast. Every security that could possibly be provided was offered to the women, to whom the gallant soldier always gives his first attention. The magazines were the only "bomb proofs"in the fort, and as the government had sent no amuninition to fill them, the next most inflammable material - the women - found perfect security in them. These women, however, be it said to the honor of the sex, were not idle. - Most nobly did they ply the needle in preparing sand bags out of the officers' and soldiers' tents, wherewith to strengthen the work, and protect the artillerymen when serving their guns. The Great Western, true to herself again, declined participating in this protection of sewing, and continued her labors at the fire, in the open air. From the firing of the first gun all hands were at their posts, Lowd's and Bragg's artillery speaking in tones of thunder the indignation they felt at being thus saluted on a bright May morining.

When the hour arrived for breakfast, but few expected the luxury which awaited them. The mess was as well attended to as if nothing but a morning drill with blank cartridges had come off, and in addition a large supply of delicious hot coffee was awaiting the thristy, who had but to call and partake, without distinction of rank. To some of the artillerymen, who were unable to leave thier guns, the beverage was carried by this 'ministering angel,' and, as may readily be believed, no belle of Orleans, as much as she might be admired and beloved, ever met a more gracious reception. The fire of the artillery was kept up almost incessantly until dinner hour - a soldier's dinner hour is 1 o'clock - when the good and generous woman again provided for those who were almost utterly exhausted and worn out, a delicious dish of bean soup - this bean soup is declared by the Mexicans to be the foundation of that invincible spirit which they have seen so strikingly displayed by the Yankee soldiers. This she distributed again, without money and without price. Thus did she continue to discharge her duties during the seven days that the enemy kept up an incessant cannonade and bombardment. She was ever to be found at her post; her meals were always ready at the hour, "and always of the best the market afforded."

When the despatches were made up for General Taylor on the evening of the 4th, a number of officers and others had written to their friends at Point Isabel, and among them "The Great Western"had found time to communicate with her husband; and I have frequently heard it said by those who saw her letter, for it was loudly called for and made public, that her description, if not the most accurate, was certainly the most grapic which was given of the events of the 3d and 4th May. She expressed her full confidence in the ability of the garrison to sustain itself, and only regretted the absence of her husband. To supply his place, however, I am told that she applied, early in the action, for a musket and ammunition, which she received and put in a secure place, expressing her determination to have full satisfaction whenever the enemy should dare approach within range of her piece. This they never did, and our heroine must rest contented with the refelction that she nobly performed her own duty and will long be remembered by the besieged garrison of Fort Brown.

She is probably as celebrated for her personal appearance as she is for her deeds. With an erect and majestic carriage, she glories in a height - six feet - which fully entitles her to a place in the grenadier, any soldier of which might well envy her athletic but graceful form. But her reputation, the dearest of all things to a woman, is what she prides herself on. The tongue of slander has never yet dared to attack her well earned and well sustained character. With virtue as a basis, and such heroic coduct to build with, she never need fear the necessity of exercising her extraordinary physical ability in defence of that reputation. But if attacked, the gallant defenders of Fort Brown will, I doubt not, be found pressing forward in her defence, and woe be to the dastard who receives a discharge of artillery from such gunners."
[LA]


70.384 Aug 15, 1846 the Mormon infantry at Fort Leavenworth

Mormon Volunteers.  Capt. (now Lieut. Col.) Allen has reached Fort Leavenworth with 500 Mormon volunteer infantry.  They proceed forthwith to join Gen. Kearny in his expedition against Santa Fe.
[RCG]


70.385 Aug 22, 1846 rumor of Mexican request that Great Britain and France mediate the end of the war with the United States

    The Offer To Negotiate For Peace

President Polk's overtures to Mexico, to send or to receive a minister plenipotentiary with powers to settle the existing controversy and terminate the war, will not only meet the cordial approbation of the people of this country, but will also elicit the plaudits of all the Christian powers.  This proposition of the president, it will be observed, was not at all dependant upon the success of his application to congress for the two millions of dollars which he asked that body for, with a view to aid him in the negotiation.  The letter from the secretary of state, Mr. Buchanan, to the Mexican minister of foreign relations, proposing negotiation, was dated the 27th of July, 1846, and was winging its way towards "the Halls of the Montasumas,"a full week before the president, in confidential message to the senate, apprised that body of his having any such design.  The confidential message was sent to the senate on the 4th of August--informing that body of the step he had taken, and asking money to aid him in negotiation a peace.--That the Mexican government will be constrained to accept this overture of our governments under which they are laboring, will now be added beyond doubt--the earnest advice of the British legation, and the offer of that governments to mediate for a peace between the United States and Mexico.  England might have been disposed to promote a dispute between Mexico and the United States, very naturally, so long as she had a quarrel of her own with the latter, which there was a probability would terminate in war, but having now settled all disputes of her own, she has such obvious interests to sub serve by a restoration of peace in Mexico--her commerce and her capitalists have so much to loose by Mexico being blockaded, invaded, overrun, and dismembered, that there can be no doubt of the sincerity of their interposition.
[RCG]


70.385 Aug 22, 1846 comments on the offer to negotiate for peace

To the influence of the British diplomatic agents at Mexico, it is probable will soon be added that of a new French minister, with whom a frigate was about to proceed to the gulf with, when the last steamer left Europe.  No potentate of Europe is more anxious to maintain a general peace amoungst the Christian powers, that Louis Philippe.  The continuance of a war between the United States and Mexico, would soon embrace other powers in the conflict.
[RCG]


70.386 Aug 22, 1846 promotion and appointments for distinguished services in the campaign

    Military Appointments

The following brevet appointments have been made in the army by the President, and confirmed by the Senate:--

    In Executive Session.

  Senate of the United States, August 8, 1846.

Resolved. That the Senate advise and consent to the following promotions in the army and brevet for gallant and distinguished services in the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, in Texas, on the 8th and 9th of May, 1846, and in the defense of Fort Brown, Texas, during its bombardment from the 3d to the 9th of May, 1846, agreeably to their nominations respectively, viz:

Lieutenant Colonel James S. Mc-Intosh, of the 5th regiment of infantry, to be colonel by breet, to date from the 9th of May, 1846.
Lieut. Colonel Matthew M. Payne,of the 4th regiment of artillery, to be colonel by brevet, to date from the 9th of May, 1846.
Brevet Lieut. Colonel William G. Belknap, major of the 8th infantry, to be colonel by breet, to date from the 9th of May, 1846.
Captain Edgar S. Hawkins, of the 7th regiment of infantry, to be major by brevet, to date from the 9th of May, 1846.
Capt. George A. Mc-Call, of the 4th regiment of infantry, to be major by brevet, to date from the 9th of May, 1846.
Capt. Joseph B. F. Mansfield, of the corps of engineers, to be major brevet, to date from the 9th of May, 1846.
Capt. Alexander S. Hooe, of the 5th regiment of infantry, to be major by brevet, to date from the 9th of May, 1846.
Capt. Robert C. Buchanan, of the 4th regiment of infantry, to be major by brevet, to date from the 9th of May, 1846.
Capt. Charles A. May, of the 2d regiment of dragoons, to be major by brevet, to date from the 8th of May, 1846.
Capt. P. W. Barbour, of the 3d regiment of infantry, to be major by brevet, to date from the 9th of May, 1846.
Capt. James Duncan, of the 2d regiment of artillery, to be major by brevet, to date from the 8th of May, 1846.
First Lieutenant Randolph Ridgely, of the 3d regiment of artillery, to be captain by brevet, to date from the 9th of May, 1846.
First Lieutenant William H. Churchill, of the 3d regiment of artillery, to be captain by brevet, to date from the 9th of May, 1846.
Second Lieut. James S. Woods, of the 4th regiment of infantry, to be first lieutenant by brevet, to date from the 9th of May, 1846.
Second Lieut. Alexander Hays, of the 4th regiment of infantry, to be first lieutenant by brevet, to date from the 9th of May, 1846.
Captain James Duncan, 2d artillery, to be lieutenant colonel by brevet, for gallant and highly distinguished conduct in the battle at Resaca de la Palma, to date from the 9th of May, 1846.
Captain Charles A. May, 2d dragoons, to be lieutenant colonel by brevet, for gallant and highly distinguished conduct during the battle of Resaca de la Palma, to date from the 9th of May, 1846.

Subsequently to the nomination of the above, which was on Saturday, a list of names for brevet appointments was received from Gen. Taylor, containing the following in addition to the above.  These additional names were submitted to the Senate yesterday morning; but as that body did not go into Executive session before its final adjournment at 12 o'clock, the list lays over for the future action:

Lieutenant Colonel Childs, 3d artillery.
Captain C.F. Smith, 2d artillery.
Capt. J.B. Scott, 4th artillery.
Captain Lewis N. Morris, 3d infantry.
Lieutenant Colonel J. Garland, 4th infantry.
Brevet Major George Allen, 4th infantry.
Major T. Staniford, 5th infantry.
Captain M. Scott, 5th infantry.
Captain Montgomery, 8th infantry.
Lieutenant C. R. Gates, 8th infantry.
Lieutenant G. Lincoln, 8th infantry.
Lieutenant C. D. Jordan, 8th infantry.
Captain A. Lowe, 2d artillery.
Lieutenant B. Bragg, 3d artillery.
Captian D. S. Miles 7th infantry.
Lieutenant F. N. Page, 7th infantry.

Colonel Twiggs, who is on General Taylor's list, having recently (since the battles of the 8th and 9th of May) been appointed a brigadier general in the army, his name for brevet of that grade was not included in the list submitted to the Senate.  About twenty more officers were presented as deserving brevets, if it should not be deemed proper to extend the number beyond the first class, but this was not done.  As the list now is, it is believed to be large beyond any former precedent.


70.386 Aug. 22, 1846 General Gains, Court of Inquiry, Col. Thornton acquitted

General Gains-- The Military Court of Inquiry, at old Point, concluded their task, and on the 11th ist., sealed and despatched their verdict to the war department. The conducing part of the gallant old general's defence occupies four columns of the Norfolk Beacon.

Col. Thornton.  It is stated that the Court Martial has honorably acquitted the brave officer.
[AEK]


70-386 Aug. 22, 1846 Capt. Thornton's defense

The trial of Capt. Thornton, 2d dragoons, on the charges preferred against him by the commanding general, for the loss of his squadron of dragoons, captured on the 25th April last, terminated on Wednesday.  It is a long established custom, we believe, in both the army and navy, to bring to trial the commander of and expedition, whenever unfortunate; and this however, unfortunate to individuals, appears but just to the accused and the country--truth is vindicated, and the community learns whether her intersects are committed to safe hands. Capt. Thornton was assisted, in the management of his case, by Capt. Barbour, 3d infantry, and Lieut. Bragg, 3d artillery; and at 10 o'clock, on Wednesday, his written defence was made to the court by Mr. Bragg.

Several members of the court, veterans who had stormed the breach, could not restrain a tear of sympathy--and many a moist eye was to be seen in the large audience which attended to hear the vindication of this gallant and universally popular officer.

We regret that we are not able to lay before our readers the whole of the admirable defense of the gallant captain.   He commenced by stating that a long established principle of his profession, and a stern sense of duty on the part of his accusers, had brought him before the court in his present position.  Success, he was aware, was, with military men, often the best of merit: yet he hoped to be able to show, even if he were not successful in his expedition, his failure was not owing to the omission of necessary precaution.

On the night of the 24th of April, with a command of three commissioned officers and fifty rank and file, he was ordered to reconnoitre a country some 27 miles in extent, and to bring information, whether the enemy had crossed the Rio Bravo, his numbers, and his position; and he had also further vested orders from the commanding general, to ascertain, if possible, whether he had crossed his artillery, and to report by the next day at 12 o'clock.  He referred to the testimony of Capt. Hardee and Lieut. Cane, for the manner in which he executed these instruction.  He regretted that he could not lay before the court the testimony of Lieut. Mason, but regarded his loss as nothing, compared with that of the friends and relations of the gallant young officer, who fell as he had lived, in the discharge of his duty.

From the recapitulation of the testimony of Capt. Hardee and Lieut. Cane, in the defense, it appears that every precaution was used to guard against surprise--that an advance guard was thrown out, that flanks were impassible for the most part, form the nature of the country it being a perfect defile, admitting at times a single horseman with difficulty, that when Captain Thornton halted his squadron to rest his men and horses, which was extremely necessary, a sentinel was placed at both ends of the road, so that no one could approach without his knowledge.  About daylight next morning the command proceeded toward the river, and to the constant inquiries made of every one that was met, "whether the enemy had crossed,"the reply was "he had,"but all spoke from rumor--this Capt. Thornton believed to be unreliable authority upon which he could not base a report, and he referred as an evidence of this, to the numerous false rumors with which the American camp had abounded for a month previous.  Captain T. alluded to the suspicious confidelity; and subsequent events, he though, proved to lead him into a position from which retreat was impossible.  Subsequent information upon which he could rely, satisfied him that his return to camp had been cut off, that the enemy was in his rear with a force of 500 cavalry and a party of Indians.  Upon the receipt of this information, he redoubled his precautions--he increased his advance guard and placed it under the command of Lieut. Mason, with minute instructions to keep ahead and be vigilant, but not to fire upon the enemy unless forced to do so.  Form this time, Captain Thornton proceeded without a guide, Chapito having deserted him.  Captain Thornton here argued, and we think conclusively proved that an attempt to return would have been more disastrous than his move forward; he also contended that a "rear guard,"with such a small force, owl have been untactical, and, in his opinion, unnecessary; and, further, that it was not prescribed. The rear was assigned to Captain Hardee, and he never left it without being ordered back by Capt. Thornton. He went on further to state, that if the command had obeyed his instructions, they would not have entered the field in which they were afterwards captured; but, he remarked, "no precaution from myself, or any one else, could have altered the result, our fate was sealed long before entering the field."

Captain Thornton, here summoned up the facts of the case, as shown by the testimony, from which it appeared that he had too responsible and somewhat variant duties to perform, that of commander of the squadron, and reconnoitering officer.  For a guide, a Mexican of doubtful fidelity; a country of twenty seven miles in extent, with which he was totally unacquainted, and fifteen hours, and eight of them in the night, to perform this duty in.  In the opinion of his officers, his rear could have been gained by day without his being able to know it. Spies were upon his actions from the time of his leaving the army, until his capture.  Ordered to keep an attitude of peace, until the first blow should be struck.  The following portion of this manly and soldier like defense, struck us so forcibly, that we believe that we can repeat it verbatim.  "It was my misfortune,"said Captain Thornton, "to secure that first blow, upon my devoted head, but it had to be secured, and why not by me?"Captain Thornton, here contended, that the information he obtained was important; that by means of his capture Gen. Taylor was able to understand his real position, that he was no longer on debated ground, and as an evidence of this, referred to the immediate call for reinforcements, the industry in the completion of Fort Brown and the march to Point Isabel for provisions.  But for the loss of his squadron probably, the thanks of a grateful people would not now be showered upon the heroes of the battles of the Rio Grande, but instead, the tears of widows and orphans might have been met with the usual indifference, by the national legislature.  Capt. Thornton, reminded, that to prevent this he would be willing again to hide in his bosom, the only bleeding heart amid the rejoicings of a victorious army.--Capt. Thornton, here remarked if he neglected any of the usual precautions, it was form want of knowledge, and begged the court to acquit him of {?} and to find a verdict, if necessary, against him in incapacity. He then referred to his services in Florida, and thought the manner in which he discharged his duties there, well known to some of the court would enable him to defy such an imputation. Capt. Thornton concluded by saying, that his honor and military reputation, were in the hands of the ocuts that the country had found her's safe in their hands, and with confidence he submitted his to them.
[AEK]


70.386 Aug 22, 1846 account of the Kentucky mounted regiment

Volunteer Army. --The Kentucky mounted men left Memphis about the 21st July.  The Tennessee regiment left there on the 26th July, both en route for Mexico.  The former are designated as,--

"The Hunters of Kentucky-- The Calvary regiment of Col. Humphrey Marshall, mustering 100 strong, are represented as a body of martial men. They are generally athletic young men, riding splendid horses, and their picturesque dress imparts to them a romantic appearance.  The hat particularly is very fanciful. It is a drab beaver with a broad brim, ornamented with several gold stars, and looped up with gold lace in the three cornered fashion of the Revolution.  They all wear their beards unshorn(t) with boots over the legs of their trousers, reaching above the knee, armed with huge spurs on the head and faced with red morocco.
[RCG]


70.386 Aug 22, 1846 distrust of the members of the California expedition of the government's promises

The California Volunteers.  The U. States Gazette says--It appears that the volunteers of California, who are at present encamped on Governor Island, are not quite as willing to go further than they have gone--at least upon the faith of the promise which the government has made to them.  It was the general impression that after the term of their enlistment expired, they were to receive grants of land in California, as a reward for their services.  Of course, this intention implied that California was to be made an integral part of the union
[RCG]


70.387 Aug 22, 1846 baggage wagons being made for the Army

Baggage Wagons.  We understand that 6 or 700 baggage wagons, and about as many sets of harness, for the U.S. army, are making in this city and the neighboring towns, and an unusual activity, for the season [ . . .] prevails therefore in those branches of trade.
[RCG]


70-400 Aug 22, 1846 Army of Occupation

We have nothing form General Taylor's corps, to report this week.  The discharge of Louisiana and Alabama volunteers, and their return home, occupies the southern papers for the time being, --and much dissatisfaction is expressed on all hands.

The difficulties with which this whole system of volunteer forces is surrounded, can hardly be appreciated by those that have not had an opportunity of observing how it works, and how it will not work.  The embarrassment which government would have to encounter in the instances of these very men, was distinctly foreshadowed in remarks which we submitted at the time they were being embodied.  The secretary of war is now heavily censured, and the treasury of the Union severely taxed, --the gallant troops that waited for nothing but to ascertain that the army of the nation was surrounded with difficulties, and threatened with destruction, to induce them to seize their arms and report to the scene of danger, after spending just sufficient time to completely organize, discipline, and fit them for action--no a day too much for that--are now discharged, without having seen an enemy. 

The secretary of war had difficulties to encounter, take what course he would.  To discharge those forces must have been unpleasant to him.  But the organization of the army was imperative.  The twelve months volunteers were crowding toward Gen. Taylor' lines, already incommoded with more troops than he had the means of transporting or of provisioning, in an enemy's country, beyond the margin of navigation.  Other officers, proud of their distinction, lead these new levies.  It will take as long, at least, to organize, discipline, and fit these forces for efficient service in the field, as was expeded upon the volunteers now discharged.

Gen. Taylor at the last dates, was urging on the supplies towards Camargo as expeditiously as he had it in his power.  the roads had been impassable, and by the river, he had as yet and inadequate supply of light draught steamers to get his troops and munitions to that place. 

The following are the latest we have from the Rio Grande.

"Camargo, (Mexico) July 23--We are furnishing transportation for the army, and securing supplies of forage on the route to Monterey. We have contracted for 1,000 to 2,000 mules,"(another letter fixes it positively at (1,500) "with the packing equipment's complete; and these, with the 500 wagons expected here, will be ample for the marching columns.  A large portion of the 19.000 men of this corps d'armes will be left at the different depots and entrepots, from Brazos Santiago to China, about 60 miles from this place on the route to Monterey.

"The troops are now fast arriving here in our steamboats; and the General will, in all probability, move forward from here about the middle of the next month,-- (August).  Now comes the commencement of those operations which will require all the capacity, skill, and energy of our General to accomplish.  The great difficulties of an army invading Mexico begin here.  So far, everything has favored Gen. Taylor, and he has acquired not only a most enviable reputation, but his good fortune has become a proverb.  I hope, of course, for his further success; but in order to secure it, the most careful combinations of every kind, preparatory to the march, are absolutely necessary.  Too much haste may prove as great and evil as a faulty tardiness.  It takes time for the requisite arrangements for the transportation required for so many men, suddenly collected here.  Meantime, the General is impatient of the least delay, and the officers of our department are incessantly occupied in preparations.
[AEK]


70-400 Aug. 22, 1846 Yellow Fever.

The British steamer Vesuvius, reached Bermuda on the 11the inst., having twenty-seven cases of yellow fever on board, besides losing ten of her crew with the disease, on her passage from Vera Cruz.  The captain reports that the fever had broken out on board the American squadron and the British frigate Endymion, off Vera Cruz.
[AEK]


70.400 Aug 22, 1846 regiment of volunteers for Santa Fe organized, artillery expected

Expedition against Santa Fe.  The last accounts we have from Fort Leavenworth are up to the 9th inst. Seven companies had arrived at the fort, and three more were expected, to complete the regiment.  The seven companies had voted for field officers, and Sterling Price, ex-member of Congress had been elected Colonel of the regiment, by the unanimous vote of the companies present.  The companies to arrive could not, of course, although privileged to vote, change the result.  The St. Louis Republican states that the election of Col. P. was forced upon the regiment by an unmistakable imitation that it would be disbanded if he was not chosed.  A private in one of the companies named Allen was elected Lieut. Colonel over D.D. Mitchell, Esq., of St Louis, the person designated by President Polk for the office, by a majority of 90 votes.  Four of the companies were to leave the fort, on their line of march, on the 10th inst.; the others were to follow as soon after as they could be furnished with transportation for provisions, &c.

Four companies, composing a separate battalion of artillery, were also daily expected at the fort.

Lieut. Col. Allen, of the U.S. Army, in command of the five hundred Mormon volunteers, was still at the fort.  There was much bad feeling between this corps and the other volunteers.  Liet. Colonel A. and his command were to take up the line of march on the 12th inst.

Still later accounts from Fort Leavenworth are up to the 11th inst.  About one thousand more Mormons had arrived at the fort, in hopes of being mustered into the United States service.  Two of the additional companies of volunteers had arrived at the fort, and Colonel Price's regiment marched out on the 10th inst.
[RCG]


70.400 Aug 22, 1846 Mormon volunteers reach Fort Leavenworth

Still later accounts from Fort Leavenworth are up to the 11th inst.  About one thousand more Mormons had arrived at the fort, in hopes of being mustered into the United States service.  Two of the additional companies of volunteers had arrived at the fort, and Colonel Price’s regiment marched out on the 10th inst.
[RCG]


70.401 Aug 29, 1846 decree relative to the powers of the extraordinary Congress in Mexico

Mexico, July 7th. The following decree, sanctioned by the army, is published:

"The present extraordinary congress of the national powers conferred upon the chambers of the national congress by articles 76, 77, and 78 of the organic bases."
[RCG]


70.401 Aug 29, 1846 Indian threat to Chihuahua, approach of the vanguard of the American Army

Chihuahua, July 7.  Our enemies on the East are the four tribes of Camanches, with their allies, the Cahiguas and others; on the North, the Apachas, subdivided into nine tribes, more numerous in population than the Camanches.  On the same side also, are the Anglo-Americans, rocked in the cradle of the Indian whom he abhors, and nurtured with the blood and sweat of the negro whom he despises.
[RCG]


70.401 Aug 29, 1846 movements of Mexican troops for San Luis Potosi

Mexico, July 21.  The Diario del Govierno says --"Two brigades completely equipped, have already left this capital for San Luis Potosi and in a short time the Provisional President (Paredes) will depart with the remainder of the army of reserve.
[RCG]


70.401 Aug 29, 1846 Mexican arrangements to use the interior resources of Mexico to sustain the war with the United States

Thus the nation will see that the government has not made use of the extraordinary powers conferred upon it by congress for providing means to carry on the war.  Our unjust invaders, who in the delirium of their ambition, have proclaimed that out want of resources would make us slaves without a conflict, will find that the Mexican nation has great resources in the interior, and that they will be sufficient in any event--for the administrative order and moral power of the government increase them.  The government of the United States, with little reflection, will perceive that the war which it wages against us, is not to be terminated by a conquest of our country, but by honorable propositions of peace.
[RCG]


70.401 Aug 29, 1846 departure of Mexican troops from the capital

July 22.  Left the capital for the interior, the 2d brigade, of 1,200 men, of all arms, with seven pieces of artillery, 500 horse, 400 mules, with ammunition and warlike stores.  The 1st brigade had left on the 18th, in the direction of Matamoros, under command of Gen. Garcia Conde.
[RCG]


70.401 Aug 29, 1846 Assassinations by the insurgents of Guadalajara, dismay over the deplorable state of Mexico

The insurgents of Guadalajara by a surprise assassinated the troops of General Arevalo; but the papers state nothing positive as to the fate of the General himself.  (The commander of the steamer says he was killed.  Letters from Mexico also state that he lost his life.)
[RCG]


70.401 Aug 29, 1846 American troops reported leaving Camargo for Monterey

Mexico July 28.  An express has just arrived, announcing that the United States troops to the number of 8,000 men have left Camargo on their way to Monterey.  Last night the secretaries of departments withdrew, and to-day at 1 o’clock P.M. Gen. Bravo took possession of the presidency.
[RCG]


70.401 Aug 29, 1846 Gen. Nicolas Bravo assumes the presidency of Mexico, resignation of the ministers

Letters of Marque.  A decree has been issued by the Supreme Government, in respect to cruises which may be made by privateers against the commerce of the U. States.

On the 28th, the Vice President, Gen. Bravo, assumed the reins of government in the Mexican capital.  It was stated that the Paredes ministry continued in the exercise of its functions until that day.  Gen. Bravo was about to appoint a new ministry.
[RCG]


70.401 Aug 29, 1846 Mexican Army assembles at San Luis Potosi

According to the statements of the Mexican Diario Official, the army assembled at San Luis Potosi, numbered 10,000 men, and when this force and that under Gen. Azpeitia consisting of two regiments of infantry, a squadron of lancers, and a section of engineers with three 12 pounders, numbering in all 2,000 men, which was to leave the capital on the 24th, would join Mejia, the army in the field would number from 12,000 to 15,000 men.  But 1,500 men were left to garrison the capital.  Mejia who succeeded Arista in the command of the army on the frontier, reports on the 9th that he was about to march for Monterey with his column.
[RCG]


70.401 Aug 29, 1846 "pronunciamento"in favor of Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna at Veracruz, he embarks from Cuba

Revolution in Favor of Santa Anna.

Jalapa, July 21, A pronunciamento was made on the 20th instant, in the town of Coatepec.  We are ignorant of its object.
[RCG]


70.401 Aug 29, 1846 steamer Princeton dispatched express for Pensacola

It is a remarkable coincidence, that just as the steamer Princeton was demonstrated to be of all the vessels of the squadron the most efficient in blockading the port of Vera Cruz, and was performing prodiges in that service, all at once she was detached by Commodore Conner, and arrives at Pensacola with important despatches for our government.  The British steamer Dee must have left for Vera Cruz very speedily after the Princeton.  The messenger dispatched by President Polk with instructions to Commodore Conner respecting the propositions to the Mexican government to send a minister to negotiate for peace, if he has good luck, will reach Vera Cruz about the same time that Santa Anna calculated to arrive there.  We say if he has good luck, for the N. Orleands Picayune furnishes rather an unfavorable account of his progress.
[RCG]


70.401 Aug 29, 1846 progress of the messenger bearing President James Knox Polk's overtures to Mexico

The messenger dispatched by President Polk with instructions to Commodore Conner respecting the propositions to the Mexican government to send a minister to negotiate for peace, if he has good luck, will reach Vera Cruz about the same time that Santa Anna calculated to arrive there.  We say if he has good luck, for the N. Orleans Picayune furnishes rather an unfavorable account of his progress. That paper says--

"We stated in the Picayune a few days since that a bearer of dispatches for Com. Conner had arrived at Pensacola, and that the Wolcott, revenue cutter, Capt. Fatio, had received orders to proceed to the Gulf with him.  She went to sea on Monday last but the captain fearing the approach of a storm, put back and Mr. Habersham, U.S. navy, the bearer of the dispatches, proceeded at once to this city, where he arrived yesterday.  He will proceed to the Brazos to-day, and from thence proceed in one of the revenue cutters at that point to Vera Cruz."
[RCG]


70.401 Aug 29, 1846 John Slidell's mission to Cuba

There was a report widely circulated some time since, that Mr. Slidell, a connection of the late minister to Mexico, had been dispatched to the Island of Cuba by our government, and it was inferred that his object was to ascertain the views of the illustratious Mexican exiles there, in relation to affairs between Mexico and the United States.  The Washington Union promptly and emphatically contradicted the insinuation at the time. 

But to return to the news from Mexico, furnished by this arrival of the Dee, at Havana.  The following are the prominent items:

[RCG]


70.401 Aug 29, 1846 Mexican decree authorizes privateers

Letters of Marque. A decree has been issued by the Supreme Government, in respect to cruises which may be made by privateers against the commerce of the U. States.
[RCG]


70.401-402 Aug 29, 1846 description of Camargo

   Route to Mexico

Camargo. --As the army of occupation has commenced its advance upon the interior of Mexico, by pursuing the Rio Grande up as high as Camargo, both by land and water, and as this will be the place where a permanent depot will be established, and from which the advancing army will leave the Rio Grande when it takes up its general march upon Monterey, it will naturally hold a conspicuous place in the estimation of the American people.  The Matamoros "Flag"furnishes the following:

Camargo is situated immediately upon the banks of the San Juan river, three miles from its junction with the Rio Grande.  It is a small rudely constructed village, with some few stone building, many built of mud bricks dried in the sun, some constructed by driving stakes into the ground, and then plastering them with much, and others formed of cane and platered in like manner.  The number of inhabitants will not exceed two thousand; but as the Mexican government has never thought her population worthy of enumeration, no possible statement can be made of the population of any of their towns.  The late extraordinary rse of the Rio Grande has caused the San Juan to back up and literally inundate Camargo, to the great damage of houses and property; also to the sacrifice of several lives.

Camargo may be considered the head of navigation, as above here the bed of the river is so filled up with rocks that its navigation higher up has never been attempted.  The road upon leaving Camargo and crossing the San Juan, becomes higher and less obstructed by swamp grounds. and it then becomes an important inquiry what other obstacles may present themselves in the distance between this place and Monterey, which is 210 miles.  The road passes through a level country, thickly set with a small underwood, the largest timber being ebony and the mesquite, neither of which grow to the height of more than 12 or 15 feet, and 12 or 14 inches in diameter.  So dense is this undergrowth, armies of 10,000 men each might march for half a day within a mile of each other without the vicinity of one to the other being unknown.
[RCG]


70.402 Aug 29, 1846 description of Monterey and Caiderete

Monterey. -- The literal meaning of Monterey is the king's woods; but to those who have been raised in a heavily timbered country, it would seem more appropriate to call it a grove of brush.  It is a common saying with Texans who have traveled through the forest that "it's so d--d which you can't shove a bowie knife through it."  And what may appear somewhat singular, every bush and shrub is armed with thorns curved in the shape of fish-hooks, and the hold they take upon the clothes and skin of travelers is not easily shaken off, as the jackets of the soldiery will testify to before they reach Monterey.

The whole distance is well watered from August until March, plenty of wood, reasonable pasture, many herds of cattle, numerous flocks of sheep and goats, now and then a small village-- which all have the appearance of decay.  Scattered along the road are miserable huts, singularly picturesque from their original construction, not quite equal to rail-pen stables built in the backwoods of Arkansas and Texas for scrub ponies.  Yet nature, in her mighty formations, has formed some positions on this road, which, if taken advantage of by a skilful and daring enemy, would prove a second Thermopylae to those might have the temerity to tread these formidable passes.  The American army will no doubt look ahead before entering these dangerous and shady pavilions.  The mazes of the labyrinth are beautifully pictured out by meandering paths and conflicting cross-roads, leading to some farmer's hut, some watering place, or the wily lure of some Mexican bandit.

Caiderete.--When within fifteen leagues of Monterey the village of Caiderete presents itself, enjoying the most lovely situation, standing upon a perfectly level plain, surrounded with green groves, presenting everlasting summer; the fields blesses with natural fertility.  The beholder involuntarily exclaims, Why should a Mexican toil or labor?
[RCG]


70.402 Aug 29, 1846 difficulty over supplying Gen. Steven Watts Kearny's expedition to Santa Fe, reports of alarm in New Mexico

Provisions must of necessity also be vary hard to get, and unless some other means of securing them be found out than such as was anticipated previous to their departure, they will be in a very bad way this winter.  It was pretty certainly known before they left, that there would not be even a show of fight on the part of the Mexicans, unless a very small force was sent along at first, for the assertion of the governor was made, and word sent to General Kearney by our informants to that effect; and he further says that if a respectable force comes upon him, he shall immediately abandon the country, and remove south of the Rio del Norte.
[RCG]


70.402 Aug 29, 1846 engineer corps at West Point being readied for Mexico

    VOLUNTEERS.

West Point. An extra exertion is making at West Point to get the Engineer Corps ready to start for Mexico. Out of 67 men and 20 are from Philadelphia, and chiefly mechanics, fine fellows, "and to the marror bone." The officers have been assigned, Capt. Swift and Lieuts. Smith and McClellan. As fast as the recruits are perfect in the infantry drill, they are put into another squad and drilled as engineers, in which they are fast learning the rudiments.

The rubber "ponton" train has been tried, and succeeds well.  Two of the boats sustained 67 men, two horses, and two pieces ordnance, and the corps think they can bridge the river at West Point in an hour and a half strong enough to take a whole army over.  All at West Point betokens that strict discipline that has given us such a gallant set of officers that will give as an effective army, with such good material as we have in our volunteers.
[RCG]


70.402 Aug 29, 1846 disorder among the New York troops gather for the California expedition

"It is said that the recruits for California now encamped on Governor's Island, are not behaving with the propriety which is becoming.  It is said that the "regulars"were called out upon a day or two since


70.402-403 Aug 29, 1846 letter from A. Moses of the Ohio regiment

The Ohio State Journal publishes the following letter from one of the Ohio volunteers in the army in Mexico:

Dear Brother:

Be not the least surprised if you should see me in Cincinnati in the course of six weeks.  When I volunteered it was to fight, and not to be idle for a year.  But I now find the regulars are to be able to defend any post of danger.  Gen. Taylor says that one regular is worth five volunteers, and that he only wants volunteers for a stand-by.  It would seem that we are kept merely to do the drudgery; and such is the case.

We had quite an affair a short time since.  Colonel Mitchell as commandant of this post, ordered a volunteer from Baltimore to bring him something.  The volunteer pained no attention to his order.  Our colonel then commanded him a second time to perform the service.  The volunteer turned upon his heel, and replied that "he would see him d--d first."  I was close by doing duty, when Col. M. ordered me and five other cadets to arrest the Baltimorean.  He immediately placed himself in a defensive position, and drew a knife, swearing at the same time that he would cut the first man that dared to come near him.  Lieut. Col. Weller then approached and ordered us to "stand back"when all party got to fighting.  So you see we have had one fight at least.

Our whole regiment and the Baltimore regiment were then all ordered out.  But as we had but sic men on the ground, and as the colonel's tent was about two miles from our encampment, out colonel was disarmed and carried to the ground by a superior number of stout fellows, where they laid him down.  Two of them were about to stab him, when I backed by our boys, jumped into the melee and released our commander from the ruffians.  By this time the field was full of soldiers and the Baltimoreans left.  I presume the case will undergo investigation.

Affectionately your brother,
A. Moss

[RCG]


70.403 Aug 29, 1846 Account of mosquitoes on the Rio Grande

A volunteer, writing to Louisville from the Rio Grande, says that the mosquitoes there "can stand flat footed upon the ground, and without difficulty drink water out of a pint tin cup."
[RCG]


70.403 Aug 29, 1846 Gen. John Ellis Wool's force, supplies, wagons

     ARMY JOURNAL.

Illinois Volunteers.  Gen. Wool, accompanied by his aides, and a large portion of the Illinois volunteers, reached New Orleans on the 23d ultimo.  These troops, it is stated, are destined for San Antonio de Bexar.

Troops for Chihuahua.  Light company  B, of the 4th regiment of U.S. artillery, under the command of Capt. J.M. Washington on the 18th ultimo. Capt. W. furnished the editor of the Sentinel with a statement of the forve which is to proceed to the Mexican state of Chihuahua, by the way of San Antonio, as follows:

Light Company 4th artillery
112 men.
2 companies 6th regiment infantry
200  "   
Squadron 2d regiment dragoons
150  "   
2 regiments Illinois infantry
1,554 "   
1 regiment Arkansas horse
777 "   
1 battalion Arkansas foot
388 "   
1 regiment Texas horse
777 "   
1 regiment Texas foot
777 "   
Total
4,734 "     

This force, it is stated, constitutes an independent command, which will be under Gen. Butler.  It is to strike into the province of Chihuahua, between Santa Fe and Gen. Taylor's position; and it will no doubt interrupt the retreat of the forces which will fall back from General Kearney at Santa Fe.  It will take the Santa Fe route to Mexico, and there cooperate with General Taylor.  Its route is through the most healthy and richest parts of Northern Mexico.
[RCG]


70.403 Aug 29, 1846 Col. Churchill departs New Orleans for Texas

Col. Churchill, Inspector General, has left New Orleans for Texas.  This indefatigable and veteran officer has, within the last six months, traveled over twelve thousand miles, inspected last spring on and near the Gulf of Mexico and in Florida, mustered into service all the volunteers in Indiana and Illinois and now goes to join Gen. Wool as chief of his staff, on the march to Chihuahua, in Mexico.  The good wishes and the prayers of his numerous friends and the country attend him.
[RCG]


70.403 Aug 29, 1846 complaint about the manner of buying and treating wagons for the Army

Wagons for the Army.  New Orleans dates of August 7, says -- "A large ship from Philadelphia brought a cargo of these wagons, which were landed some time since, and after laying exposed to out tropical sun on the Levee for eight or ten days, splitting and cracking, with their wheels and springs, the same ship is chartered to reload them for the Rio Grande, at a greight double that from Philadelphia--at least doubt what it ought to be from thence, though I think it probable there, as well as here, the government pay at least double what individuals would.  It is really enough to disgust any bosy to see the manner the whole affair is being conducted; and the way they are going on, the treasury, even after issuing the ten-millions of teasury notes, will be bankrupt before congress again meets."
[RCG]


70.406-408 Aug 29, 1846 proceedings and decision of the court of inquiry on Gen. Edmund Pendleton Gaine's efforts to raise volunteers

     GENERAL GAINES.

1. The court of inquiry, whereof Brevet Brigadier General H. Brady is president, instituted by "General Orders," No 23, of June 30th, to investigate certain transactions therein set forth on the part of Brevet Major General E.P. Gaines, commanding the western division of the army, and which convened at Fort Monroe, Virginia, on the 20th day of July, 1846, has reported the following fasts and opinion:

     "FACTS"

"General Gaines learned at New Orleans, about the 1st May, 1846, that a Mexican army, of superior force to the army under General Taylor was advancing to invade Texas, and that actual war was impending.  He was informed officially from General Taylor of his situation, and what auxiliary force of volunteers he had called from the states, viz: four regiments from Louisiana, and four regiments from Texas and he was requesting by General Taylor to aid the governor of Louisiana in equipping and forwarding the troops of that state."

"On the receipt of this information, Gen. Gaines wrote to the governors of Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, and Missouri, advising them to anticipate a call from the president of the U. States for volunteers, and to make preparations to raise the troops.  It was not, however, in form, a requisition on them to send forward troops before they were called for by the president.

"On the 3d May, General Gaines sent an officer to Mobile to raise volunteers for Taylor's army.  On the 4th, one company was raised and embarked for New Orleans.  The whole volunteer force to be raised at Mobile, Gen. Gaines limited by order of May 6, no to exceed two regiments of twenty companies.

"About the 4th May, the governor of Missouri, being at New Orleans, tendered to General-Gaines a regiment, which offer General Gaines accepted.

"On the 8th May, General Gaines authorized Col. Crane, commanding at Pensacola, whence General Gaines had withdrawn the garrison of regulars to send to Texas, to muster into the service one or more volunteer companies; also, informing Col. Crane that he had requested the governor of Alabama to send there two volunteer companies; making three or more companies called out, or authorized to be called out, for the protection of Pensacola.

"On the 9th May, he authorized A. M. Dunn to raise a company of 100 men to guard the arsenal at Baton Rouge.

"On the 12th May, he authorized A. Rust to raise a regiment of mounted gunmen-from five to ten companies; each company to number from 60 to 100 men; thereby authorizing the levy of 300, or 500, or 600, or 1,000 men.

"May 12th. He authorized W. B. Lewis to raise a regiment of mounted gunmen- five to ten companies of 70 to 100 men - amounting to 350, or 500, or 700, or 1,000 men.

"May 13th. He authorized Balie Peyton to raise a regiment of ten companies- each 60 to 100 - amounting to 600 or 1,000 men.

"May 14th.  He authorized F. Buisson to raise a battalion of two companies - each 60 to 100 - amounting to 120 or 200 men, to garrison forts Jackson and St. Philip till firther orders.

"May 16th. He authorized I. S. Gilbert to raise a regiment of mounted gunmen- five or ten companies; each compnay to be 60 to 100 men- amounting to 300,500,600, or 1,000 men.

"May 20. He authorized E. Fetherston, W. M. Fulton, W.S. Hays, J. R. Creecy, and E. L. Tracy, to raise each one regiment of ten companies, each 60 to 100 men.  The whole amounting to 1,500, 2,500, 3,000, or 5,000.

"May 22d.  He accepted the offer of the governor of Mississippi to furnish 2,000 volunteers- including the regiment to be raised by P.B. Starke.

"May 31st.  He issued orders to complete the muster of two regiments of volunteers from Alabama- only three companies having been at this time raised on his previous requisitions.

"In the latter part of May, General Gaines raised and mustered into service Gally's battalion of light artillery- three companies- 286 strong.  The precise date of this levy does not appear in any document before the court, and it is not remembered by the witness, examined to this point- Gen. Gaines assistant Adjutant General.

"The court find further, that in consequence of General Gains' communication to the governor of Kentucky, about the 1st or 4th of May, representing the situation of General Taylor's army, the governor raised and sent forward a regiment from Louisville; which on its arrival at New Orleans, about the latter part of the month, General Gaines accepted and mustered into the service of the United States.

"The foregoing statement shows all the troops raised or called for by General Gaines.  It appears, however, that the only troops actually raised and brought into service by him on these calls, were the St. Louis Legion, of Missouri, the Louisville Legion, of Kentucky, Peyton's and Featherston's regiments of Louisiana volunteers, and Gally's battalion of light artillery, and three companies of Alabama volunteers, raised at Mobile.

"The court find further, that when General Gaines was relieved from command of the Western Division, and ordered to repair to Washington City, and in excecution of said order, had arrived at Mobile on the 12th June, he was then and there informed by the governor of Alabama that much disorder prevailed among the regiments of volunteers assembled at that point by the president of the United States; for which reason the governor applied to General Gaines to receive into the service of the U. States, for the proper government of those volunteers, Brigadier Gen. Smith, whom the governor had commissioned to command them, and his staff.  Whereupon Gen. Gaines did receive and muster into service:

Walter Smith, as Brigadier General.

Thomas Caey, Assistant Adjutant General.
John J. Walker, Assistant Inspector General.
William P. Brown,  Brigade Quartermaster.
Henry K. Zettyplace, Paymaster.
Charles B. Sandford, Aid-de-camp.
Richard Lee Feam, Brigade Surgeon.

"The order of General Gaines published in this case, directed that it should remain in force till final instructions should be received from the proper authorities at Washington; and further directed Gen. Smith to organize the volunteers, and as soon as the said organization should be completed, to proceed with them without delay to the seat of war.

"The appointment by General Gaines of certain volunteers and others to staff offices, as shown in the official documents sent as evidence to the court, not being stated in the order appointing the court, as one of the matters into which it is directed to inquire, it is not considered in this statement of facts, nor in the opinion of the court.  The facts and circumstances, however, are set forth in the evidence for the information of the department of war.

"In regard to issues of public stores by order of Gen. Gaines, the court find that he ordered the issue of ordinance and ordnance stores to arm and equip all the volunteers called out by him; also, when necessary, for those called out by Gen. Taylor; also, that he ordered the quartermaster's supplies; also, he ordered the commissaries to furnish subsistence to all volunteers arriving at the general rendezvous for muster, and to issue to them previous to the muster.

"The court also find an issue by order of General Gaines of two pieces of field artillery, and twenty five rounds of ammunition to two private gentlemen and planters in the parish of West Baton Rouge, for the protection of the parish against the slave population, on condition of the return of the guns when called for.

"In regard to orders by General Gaines to staff officers to issue or pay public money, the court find only two such payments indicated in the documentary evidence. 1st. He ordered that quartermaster to pay $2,500 to Major Gally's battalion for commutation in advance of clothing; and 21.  He ordered the ordinance officer to pay accounts contracted by Maj. Hally for ammunition for his batteries, amounting to $1467()50. Both of which sums and accounts were paid accordingly.  And further, the court find that he ordered the quartermaster's department to pay in advance to all volunteers’ commutation of six month's clothing.  That any payments were made under this order does not appear by any evidence sent to this court.

"And upon the foregoing findings of the facts in the case, the courts submitted the following

     OPINION.

"It is contended by General Gaines that he acted in accordance with his instructions from the war department.   The court find that these instructions were as follows:

"1st.  August 28th, 1845.  The secretary of war wrote to General Gaines: 'It cannot be necessary to apprise you that the authority to make a requisition upon the governors of the respective states for the militia thereof, to be employed in the service of the United States, is vested only in the president, and limited in its exercise to two or three specified cases.  The emergency which would tolerate or excuse the assumption of this authority by a military officer in command at a distance from the seat of government, in anticipation of the president's action, must be one indicating great and imminent peril to the country--a peril so great and so imminent as to leave no reasonable doubt that the president, with a full knowledge of all the circumstances of the case, would have felt it his duty to resort to such aid.  The assumption of this authority by an officer so situation, should be under circumstances which would be sure to command his subsequent ratification of it."

"2d.  On the 13th September, 1845, the secretary of war wrote to General Gaines:  'You misunderstand your position in regard to the commanding general in Texas.  His command is wholly independent of you; the orders and instructions for his conduct emanate only from the government here; and you are directed to abstain from all interference with him.'

"3d.  And again, on the 30th September, 1845: 'The power which you have exercised could only be resorted to in cases of extreme public peril.  An error of judgment, with such motives as the president has with pleasure conceded to have governed your conduct in this case, cannot be regarded as a crime, or an offence subjecting the officer to trial."

"The court find further instructions to General Gaines from the office of the adjutant general, of date May18, 1846, from which the following is extracted:

'The volunteer force called into the service from Louisiana and Alabama, &c.. and which you have previously reported, meets the approval of the department.'"

"In the opinion of the court this approval ratifies the call and orders of General Gaines to raise two regiments at Mobile, and three of more companies at Pensacola.

"The court also deem it unnecessary to consider the case of the St. Louis Legion received into service by General Gaines; as he was informed from the adjutant general's office, May 22d, that 'the said regiment had been accepted, and would be regarded as a portion of the force called out by the president.'"

"In regard to the Louisville Legion, it appears from the statement of General Gaines, and testimony of Lieut Calhoun, to have been raised without a direct call from General Gaines; though accepted by him into service before he had received special authority from the war department.  It was, however, subsequently accepted by the department-- by instructions to General Gaines of May 28th-- in which instructions, however, written on the supposition that he called on the governor for the troops, he is informed of the disapproval of the department, and then the call was without authority of law.

"The court cannot find that General Gaines, at the time he received this legion into service, (about the last of May) had authority to do so under his instructions.  But as the regiment was already sent forward he felt himself, on its arrival at New Orleans, under the necessity to receive it, and to trust to the subsequent ratification of the department.       

"In regard to the other calls made by General Gaines, before the 17th May to raise troops for Taylor's army, the court are of opinion, that, under the previous instructions of the war department, and in the situation of Taylor's army, and upon ascertaining the slow progress of the enrolment of the Louisiana volunteers, and upon ascertaining further that General Taylor could not receive more than a small portion of the force which he had called from Texas -- that under these circumstances General Gaines was justified in endeavoring to supply Gen. Taylor to the amount of auxiliary force could not be obtained from the states to which General Taylor had applied, then General Gaines was justified in applying to the other states.  The court do not extend this approval to the requisitions for mounted gun-men.  The four regiments of this description of force, amounting to 4,000 men, which he authorized to be raised before the 17th May, destined to march overland to the army, however useful Gen. Gaines may have considered them for the future operation of the way, not being required or intended for the immediate emergency, were not authorized by his instructions or by law.

"It is proper in this connection to bring to the favorable native of the war department the prompt recall, by Gen Gaines, of all his requisitions for mounted gun-men on receiving orders to that effect; and that the government incurred no expense on account of these calls.

"For the calls made by General Gaines for volunteers, after the 16th May when he knew of the victories of Taylor, the court cannot find any necessity at the time, any authority in his instructions, or any warrant of law.  These calls authorized the levy of 7,000 men, besides Gally's battalion of artillery.  It does not appear, however, that any, except the artillery, were raised before the calls were countermanded.

"Two of the requisitions made by Gen. Gaines for volunteers appear to the court to be of a special character, viz: to raise a garrison of volunteers for Forts Jackson and St. Phillip, and for the arsenal at Baton Rouge.  As the government had withdrawn the garrison from the arsenal, and had not seen fit to garrison the forts, the court are of opinion, that General Gaines ought to have felt himself specially restrained from raising volunteer garrisons without authority.

"In regard to the authorities given by General Gaines to certain individuals to raise troops, it appears to have been his motive to avail himself, under what he felt as the pressure of the emergency, of the supposed influence of these individuals.  In Louisiana, where troops were actually raised under such powers, it was with the sanction and concurrence of the governor of the state, who commissioned the officers and organized the troops according to the state laws.  It does not appear in any case to have been the intention of General Gaines to act independently of the state authorities.

"In General Gaines' proceedings at Mobile, on 12th May, [June,] in mustering into service General Smith, and his staff, after he was relieved from his command, and instructed by the war department, to 'cease his independent action in these matters, and to confine himself to carrying out the orders and views of the president, so far as they might be communicated to him from that department--the court are of opinion that he transcended his authority, and violated his orders, particularly in appointing such a staff officer as an inspector general, after the recent and emphatic instruction to him by the secretary of war, that 'such appointments would not be recognized or confirmed, and that the president himself had no authority under existing laws to make such appointments."

"yet the court are satisfied that Gen. Gaines had not the intention to act in defiance or in disregard of his instructions.  He though that the disorganized state of the volunteers assembled at Mobile made it a matter of very urgent importance that a commander should be appointed over them.  He acted, too, at the special application of the governor of the state; and the court, therefore, recommend his conduct to the favorable construction of the president.

"the issue of rations to volunteers before muster is not provided in the regulations of laws.  But the court present to the consideration of the department, the necessity of the case, when the volunteers had arrived at the rendezvous, and were absolutely without means of subsistence.

"Such issues, as of the two pieces of field artillery and ammunition to planters of Baton Rouge parish are not provided for by the regulations of the army.  But under the circumstances, being required for the security of the parish, and issued to responsible persons, on condition of their safe return whenever demanded, the court are of opinion that is ought to be approved.

"In the absence of certain official information on the subject, the court suppose it to be the practice of the government to make advances to the militia called into service, in commutation of clothing; and that the orders of General Gaines on this subject did not introduce a new practice.  Of the correctness of the particular account of $2,500, which General Gaines ordered to be paid to Gally's battalion, the court have not the means of judging, and therefore leave it as an account to be settled, according to law and regulations in the auditing offices of the treasury.

"The court cannot approve General Gaines' order to Captain Whitley to pay Major Gally's bill of $1,467 50, for ammunition, as it does not appear that whatever ammunition was required might not have been furnished from Baton Rouge arsenal, or otherwise procured by the ordnance officer.

"The court have not considered, as connected with the issues of stores and payments of funds before mentioned, whether the persons or troops to whom, or on account of whom, the issues and payments were made, were legally in the service of the United States, inasmuch as the act of congress of the last session has since provided for the settlement of such accounts.  Of the lawful authority of General Gaines to raise the troops, the have expressed their opinion in the several cases.

"Having now reported their finding and opinion, the court recommend to the favorable consideration of the president the good and patriotic motives, and the public seal, by which, as the court believe, Gen. Gaines was actuated in all these transactions, and therefore they recommend that no further proceedings be had in this case."

II. The proceedings of the court of inquiry in the foregoing case having been duly submitted, the following are the orders thereon--

      War department, August 18, 1846

The proceedings of the court of inquiry in the foregoing case have been laid before the president, and carefully examined.

It is seen that the court have found that several of the acts of Brevet Major General Gaines "were not authorized by his instructions or by law; and that he has violated orders,"

That for the calls made by him "for volunteers after the 16th of May, when he knew of the victories of [General] Taylor, the court cannot find any necessity at the time-- and authority in his instructions, or any warrant of law."

That in mustering into service at Mobile certain general and staff officers, after he was relieved from his command by instructions from the war department, "the court are of opinion that he transcended his authority, and violated his orders."

The president views with deep regret the exercise of this assumed authority on the part of the late commander of the western division; and while he is disposed to give every consideration to the circumstances which may tend to qualify or mitigate his conduct he can see nothing in them which would justify him for withholding the expression of his decided disapprobation of the irregular and unauthorized proceedings of that officer.  But in consideration of the recommendation of the court and concurring with them in their opinion of the "good and patriotic motives and the public zeal by which he was actuated,"the president directs that further proceedings in the case of Brevet Major General Gaines be dispensed with.

The president cannot dismiss the case without inviting the serious attention of the army to the grave subject which has been presented for his consideration and decision.  The officers belonging to the military service zeal, gallantry, and skill have long been established.  The country duly appreciates their value, but unremitted care should be taken to abstain from any act which may tend to impair their high character.  And what so likely to derogate from this as the assumption of important executive or ministerial authority by a military commander, or the disregard of his orders?

The exercise of authority not possessed nor delegated--the non observance of instructions, or the expenditure of the public treasure, not warranted by law nor justified by imperious necessity, cannot be disregarded.  A just responsibility of all in authority makes it a public duty of imperative obligation to observe and strictly enforce the law and the rules of the service.

By order of the President,
  W.L. Marcy
   Secretary of War.

III.  The court of inquiry, of which Brevet Brigadier General H. Brady is president, is hereby dissolved. 
  By order,         
   R. Jones, Adjutant General.

[RCG]


70.416 Aug 29, 1846 Gen.  Stephen Watts Kearny arrives at Santa Fe, friendly reception

The Santa Fe Expedition. -- An express from Gen. Kearney reached Fort Leavenworth on the 14th instant.  The general with several companies United States dragoons, the 1st regiment Missouri volunteers under Col. Domphan, and Major Clarke's battalion of volunteer artillery left Bents' Fort for Santa Fe, on the 1st of August, all in fine health and spirits.  They had information that so far from a resistance, the Mexicans were anxious for the arrival of the Americans.  The ladies of Santa Fe were making extensive preparations for a fandango dance and other sports to welcome their reception, and some of them expressed a desire to accompany the expedition to California.  Captain Moore, United States dragoons, had captured three spies, sent by the Mexicans to look out.  They were taken to camp, and there told to examine every thing and make what enquiries they please, and were then dismissed.  Gen. Kearney would remain at Santa Fe till Colonel Price's regiment arrived, and then proceed to California.

Col. Allen with 500 Mexican infantry was progressing rapidly and would probably reach Bents' Fort before Col. Price's mounted men.  A great member of traders and a large quantity of goods were met on their way out.
[RCG]


70.416 Aug 29, 1846 unsuccessful attack on Alvarado

A demonstration, by order of Com. Conner, was made against Alvarado, on the 8th inst., in which the Mississippi participated.  The difficulty of passing the bar and the appearances of an approaching storm, induced a signal to haul off, after some shots had been exchanged, without injury on our side.
[RCG]


70.416 Aug 29, 1846 chartering of ships for the California expedition, charges of malfeasance by Thomas Jefferson Sutherland against Col. John D. Stevenson in connection with outfitting the California expedition

The California Expedition. -- We learn that Col. Stanton has chartered the ships Susan Drew, T.H. Perkins, and Loo Choo, to convey the California expedition to their place of destination.  These vessels are all of the best class of ships and of about 700 tons custom house measure--well ventilated and admiraly calculated for transports.

We are please to learn, that while millions of dollars have been squandered in extravagant charter parties at the south, these vessels have all been taken up at what would be considered reasonable terms if engaged by individuals.  The gross amount paid to the three ships is only $65,000.  Those who are acquainted with Col. Stanton will not be surprised at this, while the public will of course be prepared to learn that certain friends of the administration were anxious to do the work for double the sum!

For ourselves we have never believed that this expedition would sail under the command of J.D. Stevenson; and warrant for such an opinion, may be found in the well known Glentworth affair.  A man who has ever found it necessary to be an alias, should never be entrusted with a military command or made the associate and companion of gentlemen.  How Governor Marcy can justify it to his conscience and the country for having recommended Stevenson for this highly important command, we can not conjecture.

We have now lying on our table a paper, signed Thos. Jefferson Sutherland making many grave charges against Stevenson which he pledges to prove before a court of enquiry if an opportunity be afforded him.  Of course we know nothing of their truth; but whether true or false, the government will not be held excused by the people, if the expedition be permitted to sail under the command of Stevenson without an investigation into these charges.

We copy the following iron this paper, which has been handed us by Sutherland who is himself a captain of volunteers.

4th.  That he has purposed a fraud upon the members of his regiment by procuring a large quantity of clothing, not American in its fashion nor suited to the climate of California, which he designs to compel his men to purchase from him at prices far above the real value; his son-in-law being the pretended contractor.

5th.  That he reported company rolls to the governor of this state as complete according to the requisitions of the war department, when in fact the companies did not contain the men protessed to have been enrolled, and thus procured commissions for favorites to the exclusion of competent men and good officers who had reported perfect rolls of companies, whose ranks were filled with respectable men.

6th.  That he has used his influence to exclude from the corps of officers of his regiment all men of capacity and experience, and those who would be most likely to be directed by a nice regard for the interest and honor of their country, and to constitute it a body of weak, or very young and unexperiences  men, who must needs be his suppliant underlyings.

7th.  That he has publicly declared that if he was sent out by the government in a convoy, he would run away from the naval commander; and that after he had landed in California he would no longer obey the President of the United States nor any other authority of the government.

8th That he has practiced duplicity on the President, the Governor, and other persons in office in this state, unbecoming an officer and a soldier.

These are grave charges which concur not me alone, but the whole country, and they are now declared with the fullest sense and understanding that I endorse their truth with the commission which I myself hold, and a time and imprisonment on an indictment for libel, if the charges should prove to be such- and with this I am content.
[RCG]


70.416 Aug 29, 1846 Gen. Zachary Taylor leaves Matamoros for Camargo

Gen. Taylor left Matamoros on the 5th August, in the steamer Whiteville, for Camargo, accompanied by about one half the Texan regiment of infantry and a few regulars.
[RCG]


70.416 Aug 29, 1846 order barring spirituous liquors from Matamoros

"General Order, No. 94.  No spirituous liquors will be permitted to enter the river or the city of Matamoros for the purposes of barter or traffic on the account of any person whatever, whether sutler in the army or private dealers.  Any liquors found in violation of this order will be confiscated and sent to the quartermaster in N. Orleans to be sold--one half of the proceeds for the benefit of the informant, the other half to be applied to the support of the hospital department.

The merchants at Matamoros will be permitted to vend the liquors they may actually have on hand but to receive no new supplies.

The commanding general issues this order under the sanction of the general government, and calls upon all officers to give their aid in executing its provisions.  The quartermaster's department and Col. Clark will take the necessary measures to have it communicated to the persons interested, particularly to the dealers in Matamoros, and the masters of all public transports or other vessels in the river.  Any steamboat captains or other hired persons that are found violating it, will be at once dismissed from the service."

We judge from the numerous articles in the Matamoros papers, that the above order has occasioned no little excitement.  How far it is possible to evade its provisions, is the question.  "Spirituous liquors?"  says the sulter, and the government wines and malt liquors they insist are included in the prohibition.
[RCG]


70.416 Aug 29, 1846 probability of reaching Monterey in September

By the close of September this column will reach Monterey, where the chances of a battle are sufficiently uncertain  to make it a matter of daily doubt and speculation.  The very air is rite with rumors.  It is said that Wool is now in command; if so, and he continues there, it is a guarantee of hard knocks
[RCG]


70.416 Aug 29, 1846 health of the army

The health of the regular army is represented to be good.  The volunteers are suffering considerably, mainly from indiscretions, to which want of strict discipline renders them liable.
[RCG]


70.416 Aug 29, 1846 Col. Archibald Yell's letter about the lack of equipment for Arkansas volunteers

LETTER FROM COL. YELL, OF THE ARKANSAS VOLUNTEERS.

    Headquarters, Shreveport, La. July 28.

MY DEAR SIR: I have only a moment to write to you.  We reached this place on yesterday at 11 o'clock A.M. and by 10 P.M. we crossed the river, and will take up the line of march for San Antonio.  I regret that we have been disappointed in receiving our public arms and camp equipage.  There has been inexcusable negligence somewhere, and I shall make the report to the proper department; and if that negligence should be continued, and we reach San Antonio without finding our arms, I shall make a final and direct report of the case to the secretary of war, and in he does not correct such inattention he will deserve to be removed from his present position.  I hope, however, all will yet be satisfactorily explained, and that we shall be furnished on our arrival at our point of destination.  

I am pleased to say that our troops are remarkably healthy yet, and in good spirits.  They will, when an opportunity offers, give a good account of themselves.--

In haste, yours,    A. YELL
[RCG]


NNR 71.001 5 Sept 1846 indications of government aiding to restore Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna to power, contradiction of the "Union"notwithstanding, he is allowed to pass the blockade, enters Veracruz, assumes command and the revolution progresses, Mariano Paredes y Arillaga overthrown and imprisoned by Gen. Jose Mariano de Salas, who aids Santa to power

WAR WITH MEXICO.

All eyes are now directed towards Ver Cruz waiting the progress of the new revolution in Mexico. Even our cabinet, if may credit the Washington correspondent of the N. York Journal of Commerce, at a meeting held on the 27th ult. determined to take no step in reference to the demonstation of the Santa Anna party, until the result of the revolution shall be known. The fleets are to remain inactive and Gen. Taylor is to continue to menace invasions. The "Union"has repeatedly denied, that our government has any connection with any Mexican faction. Notice the fact of Santa Anna not being prevented to enter Vera Cruz in the dull British steamer Arab, which he effected on the 16th of Aug. although it was known to the whole squadron that he would about that time make the attempt--and although our crack steamer, Princeton made a show of attempting to intercept the Arab.  Yet it may have been that wind, weather and fortune, all conspired in favor of the daring enterprise. Certain it is, that a letter from the American Ex-Consul, Campbell, introduced Gen. Santa Anna to the Commandant of the American squardron, Com. Conner.

The Savannah Republican says--"We have been frequently asked whether Com. Conner will be likely to allow Santa Anna to pass unmolested into Ver Cruz?  We unhesitatingly answer yes--if he has received hi despatches from the government at Washington.  We have no positive information on the subject, but we rather guess so from few facts and circumstances which may be easily connected.  In the first place, we think that the government and Santa Anna understand each other thoroughly. Mr. Slidell McKenzie, who may now be considered the man with the "white hat,&"has been to Cuba--has conferred with the fleet off Vera Cruz, and with General Taylor.  Senor Tamariz, secretary of the treasury of Mexico during the last administration of Santa Anna, has been in the United States--probably at Washington.  He came to Charleston, and there chartered a steamer for a large sum to caryy him to Cuba, where he arrived only a day or two before the announcement that Vera Cruz had declared in favor of the exiled chief.  Private letters received in New York from Havana as late as the 8th instant, state on high authority that Santa Anna is not so averse to peace on high authoritythat Santa Anna is not so averse to peace with this country as has been generally supposed, and that he will rejoice at the appearance of any liberal offer was in contemplation by the administration, we may not only infer from the call for the passage of
the two million  bill but from the well ascertained fact that Mr. Polk has actually depatched a messenger to Mexico.

Now, putting all these facts together, we are inclined to the belief that this whole movement is well understood, and that the assendency of Santa Anna, and the banishment of Parades will be followed by an early adjustment of the difficulties between the two governments.  If, therefore, the scheme has worked right, it is highly probably that there will not be the slightlest difficulty interposed to the triumphal entrance into Vera Cruz by Santa Anna and his friends.

OVERTHROW AND IMPRISONMENT OF PAREDES. The N. Orleans papers of the 24th ult. furnish an account of the arrival of the British brig of war During, with Vera Cruz dates to the 16th.

General Santa Anna reached Vera Cruz on the 16th and immediately placed himself at the head of the movement in that department.

Mexico and Puebla had declared in favor of Santa Anna. General Bravo had scarcely assumed the presidency to act in the absence of Paredes, before Paredes was seized and placed in confinement in the Citadel of Mexico.  Gen. Salas "assumed the responsibility"and took command. His two sons proceeded immediately to Vera Cruz to meet and welcome Santa Anna. They reached Vera Cruz on the 8th.

The Picayune say--"Before Santa Anna left Havanna he took letters from Gen. Campbell to Com. Conner, and avowed himself, in reply to some inquiries as to his intentions, as follows--"If the people of my country are for war, then I am with them; but I would prefer peace."

Gomez Farias aided the revolution at Mexico.  Slas has issued a proclamation, directing congress to meet on the 6th of December, under the constitution of 1824; the retoration of which he declares to be one of the chief objects of the revolution.  That is, the federal Constitution--of which he was always a warm advocate.

Santa Anna will be an indifferent hand to govern under confederate authority, or we have mistaken his character.
[RCG]


NNR 71.001 Sept. 5, 1846 rumor of annexation of California

ANNEXATION OF CALIFORNIA. Various rumors brought by the British steamer to N. Orleans, from Vera Cruz, assert that California--meaning we presume, Monterey-- Mazatlan, or some other port on the Pacific has been taken possession of, or has declared in favor of annexation to the United States. The most plausible version of the report is from Mexican letters dated 8th August, stating that "some of the disaffected citizens of Monterey, in conjunction with a few inhabitants of American origin, who were aided by the crew of the U.S. sloop of war Falmouth, took possession of the city, hoisted the American colors, and proclaimed California’s annexed to the United States." The crew of the Falmouth will be surprised to learn the caper they have been cutting beyond the Cordilleras whilst they supposed themselves quietly blockading Vera Cruz all the while.
[RCG]


NNR 71.001-002 Sept 5, 1846 Capt. John Rogers Vinton take Mier

ENTRANCE OF THE ARMY INTO MIER.

Mier, (Mexico,) July 31, 1846.

Captain Vinton's command entered this place this morning without the least show of opposition, the inhabitants thronging to the Plaza in crowds as the troops filed into it and stacked their arms in front of the house of the Alcade. It seemed to me as though there were men enough in the square to have beaten us off with nothing else save the loose rocks lying about; yet not a hand was raised.

Mier is by far the most pleasant, cleanly, and well regulated place we have yet seen in this part of Mexico. It is built on a hill overlooking a clear running stream of the same name, three miles from the Rio Grande, and is said to contain 6,000 inhabitants, although I do not know where they stow them all. You may well recollect that it was in this place that the Texans under Col. Fisher were compelled to surrender after they had killed twice their number of Mexicans.

I have stated that the number of the inhabitants is put down at 6,000; admitting that it is 4,000, it was still entered and taken possession of by 93 men only --85 regulars and 8 of McCollock's Rangers, acting as a mounted guard. You could not serve any town in the United States in that way, and this place is a perfect fortification from its position and the strength of the houses, which are of stone. Captain Vinton's command occupies a large school house in one corner of the Plaza, near the church--strong, and at the same time commodious and comfortable quarters.

It is company B, of the third artillery, or "Redlegged Infantry,"as it is now called from the fact that the men are at this time serving as infantry, while they wear the red artillery stripe down their pantaloons. I give you a list of the officers, who are all in good health: Capt. J. R. Vinton, Assistant Surgeon Prevo, Lieuts. S. Van Vliet, and E. J. Thomas.

I return to Camargo in the morning with the Rangers. If I could have my own way I should remain here, for it is worth forty of Camargo.
[RCG]


NNR 71.002 Sept 5, 1846 attempt on Alvarado

UNITED STATES SHIP CUMBERLAND,
Off Vera Cruz, July 30, 1846.

SIR: Shortly after closing my letter of the 28th instant, the Cumberland, Potomac, and two of the schooners sailed from Green Island for the purpose of attacking the enemy's vessels in the river of Alvarado. In passing through the channel leading to the roads of Antonio Lizard, I regret to inform you this ship, owing to a strong current, ran on the northwest part of a coral reef, called the Chopas, in three fathoms water. This was about half past 4 o'clock in the afternoon of the 28th.

After great exertions, and lightening her more than a foot by pumping off the water, removing the provisions and shot to the other vessels, and depositing most of the spar deck guns on a shoal part of the reef near the vessel, (whence they can be easily removed,) with the assistance of the Mississippi, she was finally extricated from her perilous position at about 8 o'clock, P.M. , on the 29th, after grinding in the coral reef for upwards of 27 hours. With the exception of her false keel, of which small crushed fragments rose to the surface of the water alongside, the ship does not appear to have sustained any material injury, as she makes no more water than usual. It is reasonable to infer, however, that much of the copper on the bottom has been rubbed off.

It affords me great satisfaction to add that the officers and men of the Cumberland performed their incessant labor with untiring zeal and assiduity; and my acknowledgements are due to Captain Fitzhugh, his officers, and men, for the very efficient aid rendered by the Mississippi, whose services were of the greatest importance, and to Lieutentant Le Roy and the men of the Potomac, who shared our labors.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

D. CONNER

[RCG]


NNR 71.002 Sept, 5 1846 effect of Gen. Zachary Taylor's temperance orders at Matamoros

By the steamer McKim, from Brazos Santiago, which reached New Orleans on the 30th we have the following, extracted from N. Orleans papers:--

Col. Clark has succeeded in re-establishing order at Matamoras, by promptly executing the recent temperance orders of Gen. Taylor.

Capt. F.L. Ball, of the Kentucky volunteers, is supposed to have been murdered by the Mexicans on the road between Barita and Matamoras.
[RCG]


NNR 71. 002: September 5, 1846 -expedition of the Rangers to the interior

Camargo, Mexico, Aug. 11, 1846.

One step towards Monterey is to be taken tomorrow. Captain Duncan's battery, accompanied by a small portion of M'Cullough's men, leave this place in the direction of the mountains, and by some road on the opposite side of the river. It may be looked upon only as a reconnaissance, although an artillery force is along. Of whatever befalls them on the road you shall be made acquainted all in good time. If the command does not take Mier in the route, it will go close to that place.

News has reached here this morning to the effect that the city of Guenero has pronounced in favor of the United States government. The people of that place have all along been friendly towards the Americans, or have so seemed; but whether from any love they might bear them, or from fear of the encroachments of the Camanches, is a matter I am not able to determine at this present writing. I believe, honestly, that the people of Guenero have some intelligence and are better disposed than those of any place on the river.

The crack steamer Brownsville, by which I send this, brought up two companies of the advance of the Baltimore troops last evening, the rest coming on by land. They are a hardy looking set of "b'hoys"by all appearance, but I have no doubt will do good service. Captain Blanchard's company of twelve-months Louisiana volunteers, recruited from the regiments recently disbanded, entered camp this forenoon.
[JTW]


NNR 71.002 Sept 5, 1846 China occupied

The town of China, on the Rio St. Juan, about 65 or 70 miles from Camargo, was taken on the 5th instant by Capt. M'Cullough of the Texas Rangers, without opposition. Col. Seguin with one hundred Mexicans were in the town, but on the appearance of the Americans they retreated.
[RCG]


NNR 71.002 Sept 5, 1846 Gen. Taylor proceeds to Camargo, grand review

A letter from Camargo, dated August 9, says:

The steamer Hatchee Eagle arrived here last evening, Gen. Taylor and his staff coming up on her. The talk is of an immediate movement at some point on the route. Whether the army is to move by way of China, or is to cross the San Juan at this place and march on the other side of the river, has not yet been settled upon I believe. There are now near 3,000 men, all regulars encamped here, and hosts, of volunteers are en route and shortly expected--some of them this afternoon.

The general impression among the best informed, as regards the chances of the Mexicans giving another battle, is that Gen. Taylor will have an opportunity of gaining fresh laurels at Monterey or near that place. On the river the inhabitants appear friendly enough, but in the interior the case is different.
[RCG]


NNR 71.002 Sept 5, 1846 Gen. William Jenkins Worth's division prepares to move to Monterey

Editors of the Picayune-- Gentlemen: I have just heard of the arrival of the remainder of the Texas infantry, under Col. Johnson -- also of portions of the 3d and 4th U.S. infantry, under Col. Garland, with Capt. Bragg's battery. I have already mentioned that Gen Worth's brigade was under marching orders for the interior, the order being to be in readiness to move within eight days from yesterday.
[RCG]


NNR 71.016 Sept 5, 1846 complaints from volunteers at Matamoras about high prices for provisions

PRICES CURRENT AT MATAMOROS. In a letter from one of the Ohio volunteers, published in the Cincinnati Gazette, we find the following quotation of prices which they have to pay for anything beyond their rations, in that direction, viz: sugar, per lb. inferior, 40 cents; coffee, do. do. 35 cts.; cheese, do. do. 30 cts.; cider per gallon stale, $2.50 whiskey per gallon, inferior, $4; shoes, stogas, per pair, $2 50; shirts each, hickory, $2.

Another Ohio paper says--"The volunteers in the army of invasion complain bitterly at the exorbitant exactions of the sutlers. One poor fellow, troubled in spirit says: "it is pretty tough, I can tell you--wages only seven dollars a month, whiskey from one to two dollars a gallon, and other necessaries of life in the same proportion."
[RCG]


NNR 71.016 Sept 5, 1846 junta at Santa Barbara declares independence of Mexico, Gen. Castro declares martial law

CALIFORNIA. The Washington "Union"furnishes the substance of the information received by the government, from which, and from the Philadelphia Ledger, we obtain the following facts.

On the 15th of Jun, a junto met at Santa Barbara, headed by Governor Pico, for the purpose of declaring California independent.

The Mexican Commandant General, Castro, to resist this movement, proclaimed martial law throughout the country.
[RCG]


NNR 71.016 Sept 5, 1846 Sonoma occupied by Col. John Charles Fremont

Col. Fremont's advanced detachment, about the 1st July, took possession of Sonoma, situated to the north of San Francisco. Col. Castro immediately placed himself at the head of his forces to dislodge them. Col. Fremont met the movement in person. Castro retreated.
[RCG]


NNR 71.016 Sept 5, 1846 Com. John Drake Sloat takes Monterey
71.016 Sept 5, 1846 Capt. John Berrien Montgomery in the Portsmouth takes Yerba Buena

On the 6th of July, Commodore SLOAT, entered the harbor and took possession of Monterey, hoisted the American flag, and issued his proclamation, as commander-in-chief of the U.S. forces in the Pacific, giving the inhabitants every assurance of protection and friendship, announcing that they were destined to become apart of the Union, and to enjoy the privileges of its citizens--enjoins them, in the mean time, to preserve their present Alcades and other magistrates. Those who decline to become American citizens are, on laying down their arms, permitted to depart in peace, with their property.

On the 9th of July, Capt. Montgomery, of the U.S. ship Portsmouth, entered the harbor of Yerba Buena, and issued his proclamation, in virtue of instructions from Com. Sloat, similar in import.
[RCG]

On the 9th of July, Capt. Montgomery, of the U.S. ship Portsmouth, entered the harbor of Yerba Buena, and issued his proclamation, in virtue of instructions from Com. Sloat, similar in import.
[RCG]

\

NNR 71.016 Sept 5, 1846 transport wagons contracted for the Army

WAGONS.--We understand that 6 or 700 baggage wagons, and about as many set of harness for the U.S. army, are making in this city and the neighboring town, and an unusual activity, for the season, prevails therefore in those branches of the trade. Several of the wagons passed through this city yesterday.
[RCG]

\

NNR 71.017 Sept 12, 1846 dispatches to Mexico

DESPATCHES TO MEXICO. The New Orleans Picayune of the 29th ult. says: "As there were two or three revenue cutters at Brazos Santiago, when the Alabama left there, we presume that Mr. Habersham had no difficulty in procuring an immediate conveyance to Vera Cruz. Mr. Habersham, it will be recollected, was the bearer of Mr. Buchanan's letters to Commodore Conner and the Mexican secretary of war, but had been detained here for the want of a vessel going to Vera Cruz."

The Charleston Partiot of the 4th inst., has the following: "U.S.R. steamer Legare, off Rio Grande, Aug 22. I have just received on board a bearer of dispatches for Vera Cruz, and sail immediately. You may expect to hear of my arrival at New Orleans about the 10th or 12th of Sept. The steamer Mclean arrived here yesterday, and will go back for coal."

Mr. McLane, has been received with as great cordiality on his return to his native country as he appears to have been parted from with regret at the court to which he was a representative. English journals and English statesmen, all speak of the American minister with respect, and testify to the services he has contributed towards a restoration of harmony and of comparative good feeling between that country and the United States, and also refer to the deep solicitude he has evinced no less than to the business like capacity and statesman like views which have distinguished his intercourse with their government. The New York chamber of commerce and the common council of New York, on Mr. McLane's arrival on the 5th at that city from Boston, by deputation, met him with congratulations on the happy success of his mission, and with expressions of good will and good wishes.
[RCG]

\

NNR 71.020 Sept 12, 1846 difficulties attending the California expedition preparing at New York

The Albany Argus publishes the following letter, we presume, from one of the volunteers.

"The California regiment is still stationary here in New York, though every effort is making to expedite its departure. The government has engaged three noble ships, 700 to 800 tons, for transports, at a cost of $65,000. The preparations made for arming the regiments are very extensive. We are to be furnished with 800 percussion lock muskets, 800 do, with flint locks, and 800 rifles. In addition to this there will be equipments and cannon sent out for one company of artillery, and all the appointments for the corps of dragoons. This is done to provide against any possible contingency, and to make success any thing but problematical. If, therefore, on out arrival, we should not be enabled to co-operate with Gen. Kearney, immediately, Col. Stevenon will probably at once organize the dragoon corps. It is also expected that one company will be furnished with rifles, so that we shall form a complete army in ourselves, having one company of artillery, one of dragoons, seven of infantry, and one of light infantry or riflemen. I have had the pleasure of examining some of the muskets destined for our use, and I hesitate not to say that a more perfect article was never made. They are of the latest and best army pattern, perfect in their construction, and of most exquisite finish. The bayonet is secured from being wrenched off in action by a moveable ring, which renders it utterly impossible for the most expert swordsman to change the position or unfix the bayonet."
[RCG]

\

NNR 71.020 Sept 12, 18 1846 reasons why the "peace with Mexico"now anticipated may prove delusive

"The peace with Mexico,"from the measures which have been promulged, and other measures supposed to be in process, our readers no doubt are by this time looking out for an announcement of, instead of a continuance of the caption, which, however, encircles with laurels, has not yet became an agreeable one to the peace-loving citizens of our happy republic. As yet, however, we cannot cry "peace", we have on one hand, the assurance that every member of the new cabinet of the (late?) acting President of Mexico, Bravo, is in favor of a peace with the U. States, and the assurance on the other hand, that Santa Anna "prefers peace,"though, it is added, if the Mexicans insist on war, that he must needs obey their will, putting that and that together, and then adding a third assurance which we also find on just about the same reliable authority, (the public journal and their letter writers,) that the people of Mexico are exceedingly anxious for peace, giving credit to all these, and not doubting the official assurance which President Polk took occasion in his late communication to the Mexican minister of foreign affairs, so emphatically to repeat, the he was all along been most solicitous to restore, as he was before hostilities, to preserve peace, putting, we say, all these together, and adding the now admitted anxiety of both France and England for an amicable settlement of the difficulties between the United States and Mexico, such assurances as these, that all parties concerned, as well as of others not concerned, are anxious for a restoration of peace, and it would seem as if the deuce must be in it, if we cant obtain a peace under such favorable circumstances, more especially, as it is not at all concealed that our executive would be willing to stipulate to pay a few millions to obtain the terms he designs to propose.

Yet, with all these inducements, these apparent facilities towards a restoration of harmony, and not withstanding the general impression that an understanding exists between President Polk and Santa Anna, an impression which has been fortified almost into a certaintyon many minds, by the fact of Commodore Conner going on board the Princeton himself,"on discovering the British steamer Arab approaching, on board of which Santa Anna was known to be, and his allowing the latter to slip into the port of Vera Cruz without boarding, all these favorable appearances notwithstanding, there are those that still apprehend that way may be continued. Some, through want of faith in Santa Anna; some from a certainty that Almonte, who accompanied Santa Anna, is an inveterate opponent of the dismemberment of Mexico; others from the fact that Santa Anna was accompanied by several distinguished military officers, one of them said to be the best cavalry officer in Mexico, (as, though Santa Anna redes); and others again who are not without suspicions that Paredes, Bravo, Santa Anna, and Almonte all understood each other, and are playing a Mexican game upon us; others doubt the disposition of the people of Mexico being friendly to a settlement on terms of dismemberment, and think that let Paredes, Bravo, Santa Anna, or whoever may be dictator, he will be compelled to defend, or attempt to defend the integrity of the Mexican territory.
[RCG]

\

71.020: September 12, 1846 General Taylor delayed

"THE ARMY OF OCCUPATION"

General Taylor with, it is believed, the whole of the "regulars"under his immediate command, were concentrated as high up the Rio Grande as Camargo, by the 10th of August, a few advance detachments being pushed a little in advance of that post, in the direction of Monterey. It was expected, at the latest dates from thence, that wagons, horses, and mules, as well as munitions and provisions, for which he had been impatiently waiting, might arrive there by the 20th or 30th of August, sufficient to authorize his quitting navigable water and commencing a march for the interior of Mexico.

In the mean time, whilst General Taylor was detained, after the victories of the 8th and 9th of May, for want of these indispensable "materials"for an offensive campaign, from pursuing the enemy, the terms of the volunteers who had hurried to his relief on the first requisition, expired, and they have been discharged without a man of them having been afforded a chance to meet a Mexican in arms. No fault of theirs, or of the general in command. It may have been the fortune of war.

"It is not in the power of mortals to command success. You have done more, my countrymen,

"You have deserved it."

Fresh volunteers, or twelve month's of men, to the number of ten or twelve thousand, have just reached the scene of action, and whilst they garrison the positions which General Taylor has left in his rear, or gradually march to sustain him, they are devoting most of their time, as they should do, to acquiring sufficient discipline to qualify them to meet a disciplined enemy. A few companies only, and those composed of troops from vicinities in which they have had opportunities to acquire considerable discipline, have as yet been associated with "the regulars."It must take some time to qualify troops gathered from the interior, and who have never seen service, to meet such troops as were met with on the 8th and 9th of May, without imminent risk of a very different result.

An abstract of the latest intelligence from this division of the army will be found in this number.
[JTW]


NNR 71.020: September 12, 1846 THE EXPEDITION UNDER GENERAL WOOL .

Without waiting for arrival of the general and his volunteers and munitions, we perceive that a detachment has advanced from Antonio de Bexar to the Rio Grande in the direction which this division was to take, between Santa Fe and Camargo. We shall hear from them shortly.
[JTW]


NNR 71.020(2): September 12, 1846 OPERATIONS UPON THE PACIFIC .

We are yet without authentic information from our squadron, other than was noticed in our last, received by the British brig of war Daring, at New Orleans. Government may possibly be in our possession of intelligence not yet promulgated. Of the occupation of at least two of the ports on the coast of California, by our squadron, there is no doubt. The British commandant on that station, it is said, was at a loss how to act in such a case, and dispatched an officer for advice or instructions from the British minister at Washington or the governor general of Canada.

As Commodore Sloat has had all the tedious, inactive service, and had, no doubt, made himself familiar with the whole concern on that station, we sincerely rejoice that the little share of éclat which was to be obtained in that remote latitude, has fallen to his lot, before officers sent for the purpose of superceding him in the command arrived.
[JTW]


NNR 71.021 Sept 12, 1846 Lt. James Duncan's report on the battles of the 8th and 9th May

BATTLES ON THE RIO GRANDE

The report by Lieut. Duncan, of the operations of the corps under his command in the battles of the 8th and 9th of May, has but lately reached us through the columns of the New York Courier.
[RCG]


NNR 71.021-022 The affair of the Baltimore battalion "and their Ohio commander"

The following letter is from the camp of the Baltimore volunteers on the Rio Grande:

Camp Belknap, August 2, 1846.

Our battalion is joined to one from Ohio, which forms a regiment, and this in connection with two other regiments from Ohio, comprises a brigade. There are also regiments from Alabama, Georgia, and Tennessee, quartered at this same camp, which is situated on a high bluff of land, from which we can see thousands of tents, and hear the drums beating the reveille.

Yesterday, Lafayette Hands, Andrew Metteer, and some of our boys went over to Barita, and returned in rather high spirits. As they were returning home, some one gave Andrew Metteer a catfish, which Col. Mitchell, of Ohio, who is Colonel of the whole brigade, claimed as his own, and ordered three of his men to take it from him. On the men seizing him, in compliance with the orders of their commander, Metteer drew a dagger and stabbed two of them. Colonel Mitchell then rushed on Metteer with a drawn sword and inflicted several severe gashes on his head, from the effects of which he fell as if dead. Layafette Hands then seized the Colonel, wrested his sword from him, and chased him with it for some distance around the camp, until another sword was handed him, when they had a regular sword fight, lasting some minutes, until the Colonel's sword broke, and he again ran, finally escaping to his own quarters. He then gave immediate orders for his men to turn out, armed with ball cartridge, when out Captain gave similar orders, and marched the Chesapeakes down to meet them. When we arrived, Captain Stuart, who in the absence ordered out the battalion, and we were all full of fight, and I verily believe that our 600 Baltimorians could have whipped the whole 2 500 Ohioans. Dan Wells had taken dead aim at the Colonel, and would have blown him sky high, had it not been for Charles Ehrman, who struck his musket. The Colonel then claimed the command of the whole brigade, and ordered us to out camp, which order we were compelled to obey. Colonel Watson was at Barita, where we immediately sent after him, and on his arrival he started for the camp of Colonel Mitchell, to demand an exploration of his conduct. On his arrival there, however, he was told that the Colonel had started for Matamoras to report to Gen. Taylor, but Colonel Watson is now after him, and I do not know how the spree will end.
[RCG]


NNR 71.022 Sept 12, 1846 letters detailing march from Matamoras to Camargo, difficulties encountered, progress impeded, incidents, movements, and position, advance under Gen. William Jenkins Worth proceeds to Cerralvo

Extract of a letter from young Stettinius, of the Baltimore volunteers to his parents, dated Camp Belknap, opposite Baritta, July 29, 1846:

"My dear father and mother--It is with pleasure that I again write to inform you of the past, the present, and of the anticipations of the future. When I wrote my last letter, we were at the mouth of the Rio Grande. The ground was very low and marshy, and when it rained we were completely deluged. It was, however, far preferable to the Brasos. The water which we drink is from the Rio Grande. It is of a dark yellow color, caused by the muc with which it is mixed. After standing, however, for a few hours, it becomes pure and sweet.

On the 25th, we left the mouth for this place, a distance of nine miles, but our guide, the adjutant, not knowing any precise road, led us out of the way about 25 miles. During the whole march we had not a dry place for the "sole of our foot." We had to wade through tow canals, supposed to have been dug by the Mexicans during the Texan war. It was quite amusing to see the men in the water, struggling to get to the opposite shore, falling down, others falling over them. Many, one of whom was Lieut. Boyle, stuck fast in the mud, and were near being lost. We all, however, arrived safe at night, tired enough. We slept on the bank of the river, and awoke next morning, covered with sand crabs.

There are a great many birds of various kinds here which we hunt. Among them are the mocking bird and the red bird. There are also many rare plants, such as the wild cactus--some grow like a pineapple and bear a yellow flower, while others are flat like a cap, and bear red blossoms. Out colonel says we shall probably remain here until we start for home, as there appears to be no likelihood of our having a fight. There is a great deal of wild cattle about us which we shoot. They afford us a good supply of fresh meat, We have been here three days, and have already killed three beeves.

The place abounds in rattlesnakes, scorpions and lizards; also a reptile called Santa Fe, whose sting produces death in a short time; likewise large red ant which bite terribly; poisonous spiders, and last, but not least, the mosquitoes.

One might be led to think that in this desolate and far distant country we were wholly destitute of music, but at night we have plenty of it. The concert is opened by the mosquitoes, who is soon followed by the cricket. Then comes master wolf, with Soprano; the basso is admirably performed by Monsieur Jackass, whose tremendous voice nearly drowns the tenor of the frog. The concert cease by a piece called the reveille, which is composed of the fire and drum, at 4 o'clock in the morning. Father, you should volunteer for Texas!
[RCG]


NNR 71.022 Sept 12, 1846 hot weather, Army concentrated at Camargo, advances made towards Monterey, want of wagons

THE ARMY OF OCCUPATION.

Matamoros, Mexico, Aug 18, 1846

Messrs Editors-- The army is fast concentrating upon Camargo, or at least that wing of it under the immediate direction of Gen. Taylor. This, you know, is preparatory to a movement upon Monterey. The General expects to put his column in motion by the 1st of September, may be he will start earlier, but I do not think he will be enabled, if even so soon. Monterey is, by the shortest route from Camargo, a military march of twenty days, at least, provided the army be well supplied and no obstacles, other than natural, be interposed. With the present means, I do not think it can be accomplished, at this season, much short of a month.

I conceive the advance upon Monterey, even if I prove fully successful, to be a "feat of arms"barren of fruit: for what is to be gained by it? I have no doubt the Mexicans will make a stand at Monterey or this side of the city, and give out troops some hard work to do; but that the place will fall into out hands I've no doubt, as I have none of the ultimate success of the American forces.

In relation to the amount of force the Mexicans can bring into the field into the neighborhood of Monterey, there are various estimates; but no one knows-- for whilst the enemy, by a well organized system of espionage, knows all about us, we about them know but very little indeed, out knowledge scarcely extends beyond the precincts of out camp. Thus has it ever with the "Army of Occupation." Heretofore there was excuse in the smallness of out numbers, which disabled us from sending out scouts; but no there is now excuse on that score, and a want of knowledge of the enemy's numbers and position is an unpardonable neglect, or argues too great contempt of their valor--which was unexpectedly shown on the 8th and 9th of May last.

As I have said, I have no fear of the ultimate triumph of our arms. The greatest fear I apprehend is that whilst the main body of our army is marching upon Monterey, the enemy will make a diversion in this quarter, and attempt to regain Matamoras by a "coup de main,"or get possession of Point Isabel. Last night we had an alarm in town. Indeed, a body of some 400 Rancheros burst into the city, bent on mischief. There merely made a show however, and took themselves off; but it makes known to you how poorly we were off here, that we could not pursue and punish them. Had they remained a little while longer; an armed body of citizens, (American) would have been upon them, assembled upon the spur of the occasion. As it was, the wee regular force left here had to keep guard over the Q.U. commissary and pay departments, thus left heedlessly exposed to pillage. This late affair may stir up to the realities of our situation, the powers that be, and not leave us londer to the sport of fortune for safety. This morning Colonel Clark has taken upon himself to enlarge the force here, and has called over from the other side of the Rio Grande a battalion of Ohio volunteers, and will organize the American citizens. It is not strange that here is a captured city, with a depot for the army, left exposed to pillage, without an adequate force to prevent it; and besides no means taken to know who has a right to be here? I myself have seen "fellows"whom I am certain are emissaries from the Mexican army prowling about here; and it is a known fact that Mexican officers were killed and taken prisoners at Palo Alto and Resaca, recognized as the former "milk and chicken merchants"of Camp Taylor! Indeed, I consider out situation here a little critical, as we have not an adequate force to defend the city; and should it be seriously threatened, by a large force of the enemy, we will have to fire the place and cross the river to Fort Brown which is now all but the parapets, under water. The demonstration last night was a most daring one. The first show of another will be followed by the forcible expulsion of every "ochre-colored face"if not of a war of extermination upon the deceitful thieving Rancheros.

The Florida war is being acted over here again, both in relation to the conduct of the war and the creation of an enormous "sinking fund." The "hawks of the chapparal" like the Seminoles of the hammock, now infest every road and by path to cut off the unwary. Several have been thus killed by the volunteers who had left Matamoras for elsewhere and have never been heard of since--one a captain of the Kentucky Regiment. The "Guerrilla" system of old Spain is commenced in the new world. The only consolation we have is that at this kind of warfare the Texans are equally good with the Rancheros, and that we can put Capt. Walker against Roman Falcon.

The measles have got among the wester volunteers and plague the boys mightily. Those from the eastern parts of the country have forunately passed through the disease whilst young and have no fears of it. Your Baltimore and District boys have gone up the river to Camargo--left hence two days ago. They are generally well. but a little too much disposed to fight "a la rowdie"by way of getting their hands in against the time of meeting the Mexicans. Some few were in the guard house at Matamoras, but considering these were often in the watch house when at home, it was looked over lightly, and no general reflection passed upon the credit of the whole for the riotous conduct of the few. I have no doubt in a fight with the enemy they will show themselves valiant and strong--bold and fearless.
[RCG]


NNR 71.022 12 September 1846: Confusion over disbanding of the six months' volunteers

Our information is that the department ordered General Taylor, positively, to dismiss all the six months' volunteers for whom he could not furnish immediate service. From this order, he retained the Texas mounted men, for he could give them immediate service, but as he could not put all the six months' volunteers from Louisiana, Alabama, and Missouri into immediate services as he had more men the he needed, he did not choose to make selections, and therefore issued the orders for disbanding the whole. Previous to the receipt of this peremptory order from the department he had attached the St. Louis Legion to Col. Twigg's command of regulars.
[RWH]


NNR 71.022 12 September 1846: letter from young Stettinius of the Baltimore volunteers about their position in Mexico

My dear father and mother-It is with pleasure that I again write to inform you of the past, the present, and of the anticipation of the future. When I wrote my last letter, we were at the mouth of the Rio Grande. The ground was very low and marshy, and when it rained we were completely deluged. It was however far preferable to the Brasos. The water which we drink is from the Rio Grande. It is of a dark yellow color, caused by the mud with which it is mixed. After standing however, for a few hours it becomes pure and sweet.

On the 25th, we left the mouth for this place, a distance of nine miles, but our guide, the adjutant, not knowing any precise road, led us out of the way about 25 miles. During the whole march we had not a dry place for the sole of our foot. We had to wade through low caoals, supposed to have been by the Mexicans during the Texan war. It was quite amusing to see the men in the water, struggling to get to the opposite shore, falling down, others falling over them. Many, one of whom was Lieut. Boyle, stuck fast in the mud, and were near being lost. We all however, slept on the bank of the river, and awoke the next morning, covered with sand crabs.

There are a great many birds of various kinds here which we hunt. Among them are the mocking bird and the red bird. There also many rare plants, such as the wild cactus- some grow like pine apple and bear a yellow flower, while others are flat like a cap, and bear red blossoms. Our Colonel says we shall probably remain here until we start for home, as there appears to be no likelihood of our having a fight. They afford us a good supply of fresh meat. We have been here three days and have already killed three beeves.

The place abounds in rattlesnakes, scorpions, and lizards; also a reptile called Santa Fe, whose sting produces death in a short time; likewise large red ants which bite terribly, poisonous spiders, and last but not least, the musquitoe.

One might be led to think that in this desolate and far distant country we were wholly destitute of music, but at night we have plenty of it. The concert is opened by the musquitoe, who is soon followed by the cricket. Then comes the master wolf, with Soprano; the basso is admirably performed by Monsieur Jackass, whose tremendous voice nearly drowns out the tenor of the frog. The concert ceases by a piece called the reveille, which is composed of the fife and drum, at 4 o'clock in the morning. Father you should volunteer for Texas.
[RWH]


NNR 71.022 12 September 1846 letter about the concentration of the Army at Camargo preparatory to a movement upon Monterey

The army is fast concentrating upon Camargo, or at least that wing of it under the immediate direction of Gen. Taylor. This you know is preparatory to a movement upon Monterey. The General expects to put his column in motion by the 1st of September, may be he will start earlier, but I do not think he will be enabled to if even so soon- Monterey is, by the shortest route from Camargo, a military march of twenty days, at least, provided the army be well supplied and no obstacles other than the natural, be interposed.
[RWH]


NNR 71.022 12 September 1846 measles among volunteers from the west

The measles have got among the western volunteers and plague the boys mightily. Those from the eastern parts of the country have fortunately passed through the disease whilst young and have no fears of it.
[RWH]


NNR 71.022 12 September 1846 rowdyism among the volunteers from Baltimore and the District

Your Baltimore and District boys have gone up the river to Camargo- left hence two days ago. They are generally well, but a little too much disposed to fight "a la rowdie"by way of getting their hands in against the time of meeting the Mexicans.
[RWH]


NNR 71.022-71.023 letter from Point Isabel about various activities and movements

The last case of murder I heard of was that of Col. Haynes. I saw him killed a few evenings before as Richard III, when he died as all monarchs do- very badly. His death was a loss to the theatre at Matamoros, as they are left destitute of a tragic hero. He was not only celebrated as an actor, but was generally known by his having stopped the play, in the theatre at Corpus Christi, while he and Adjutant Gen. Johnson went out to take a drink.
The command at Matamoros is under Col. Clark, who has a portion of regulars and the 3rd regiment Ohio volunteers under Colonel Curtis, who are stationed on the bank of the river, at Fort Paredes and Fort Brown. Since the movement of the army above to Camargo, the place seems very dull and the judicious order of General Taylor, prohibiting the sale of spirituous liquors after the 15th, has helped to make it so, and made the place somewhat decent.

A friend of ours accompanied Gen. Smith to Camargo by land. He says they left Matamoros to join Col. Wood ’s command of mounted Texans, but Col. W. had gone another route. Gen. Smith nothing daunted, started off with only one friend as a volunteer and two servants. Rather harsh, you will say, after having heard the day before that Canules was between them and Reynosa. They went the first afternoon to Guadalupe; the next day to La Mesa, and the next into the Lagona St. Anna, about twelve miles from Reynosa. Here the water rose over the wagon body in less than half an hour. They were obliged to unhitch their mules and for three days they worked with seven Mexicans and six yoke of oxen, to get clear of the water occasioned by the overflow. At the expiration of the third day they got out and proceeded on their way. Fortune still pursued the General, as a party of Toukewa Indians supposed to be the same we saw at Matamors came over to the Mexican side and took off a family of eight persons from the very rancho at which our friend was going to pitch his tent; so you will see there is luck for him yet. They got sale at Camargo, where Gen. Smith (now Colonel) was ordered by General Taylor to take command of the 5th and 7th regimens of regular military. Since then Col. Smith has received under his command the company of Louisiana volunteers commanded by Captain Blanchard. That company have now got the regular uniform, and the officers say they cannot tell the difference between them and the regular soldier. It is certainly an ornament to Louisiana, to think there are some men that had sum sufficient to remain to defence of their country.

Gen Worth moved forward towards Seralvo on the 99th with the 8th infantry, under Captain R. B. Scriver, of your city, Capt. Duncan’s battery, and Bradford’s company ; and two companies of Texas mounted men to convey back the mules, 700 in number. They were packed with provisions; General T. throwing forward his supplies to Seralvo, Captain Duncan had previously been up there, and reported a beautiful wooded country- the Mexicans were willing to grant him all the assistance in their power- that there was plenty of water and forage for horses- met with agreeable reception. One Mexican, whom they met in the road in the night, would not stop for them, and they shot him, when he threw his hors over a precipice and took to the chapparal. On their return they found the horse, which had evidently belonged to an American, and no doubt had been stolen.
[RWH]


NNR 71.023: September 12, 1846 Regiments toward Monterrey, sickness, inactivity for want of wagons

August 22, 1846.

General Taylor has started two regiments in the direction of Monterey, and several other regiments will be pushed forward in a few days. There is great complaint for the want of wagons. For goodness sake why are three or four hundred wagons permitted to remain on your levee. If the administration are serious in the prosecution of the war, why such palpable neglect? The idea of keeping 12 or 15,000 men in the hot sun, cutting chapparal, meets the disapprobation of every individual in the army. I, for one, know the arduous duties thrown upon Col. Hunt, yet there could be found plenty of assistants, and those wagons must come over in double quick time, or we shall believe, on this side, the war is a most inglorious humbug. I say, sent the wagons and give Gen. Taylor "a white man's chance."The Rio Grande has taken a second and greater rise than the first-the whole of the low lands under water.

A good deal of camp sickness-confined however, principally to the Illinois and Indiana troops. The sickness yields to medicine, and there are few deaths.

The Mexicans are very confident of giving us a severe thrashing at a pass in the mountains. They are certainly in possession of information which emboldens them, and the opinion gains ground here, that unless the administration backs out, that Parades will be found at the head of 30,000 troops in and about Monterey. Rough and Ready does not believe a word of it, and if you recollect, General Worth and most of the officers gave it as their decided opinion that Arista and Ampudia would not attack us. I say to you that we will have the hardest battle fought since the battle of Waterloo-unless, in the absence of Paredes, Santa Anna should attempt to get into power, and compel his countermarch to the capital. The administration should prosecute the war vigorously, and bring it to a close. Any treaty made now would not last twelve months. The Mexicans are as treacherous as the Sioux. They do not consider themselves whipped.

I must conclude by requesting you to send forward the wagons, and relieve us from our 'masterly inactivity'. You will receive the thanks of 15,000 dis-spirited soldiers; and it will be the means of saving thousands of dollars to the treasury. Excuse this hasty scrawl, as it is written in a hurry for the steamer, Alabama.

A VOLUNTEER.

P. S. Say to adventurers, if they do not want to get into double trouble, they must not bring alcohol or slops to this market. The Generals swear by all that is holy, they will have each box, barrel and package examined, and if they find any smuggling they inflict a punishment cruel to youths with tender skins. They are in earnest, and I think the army will improve from this day forward. A. V.
[JTW]


NNR 71.02(2): September 12, 1846 Baltimore Volunteers

BALTIMORE VOLUNTEERS. The Patriot of the 8th states that some twenty or thirty of the Baltimore volunteers have returned, having been discharged on account of sickness.

A letter written on board the steamboat Brownsville, while on her way from Matamoras to Camargo, says,-Two companies of our battalion, (Baltimore), are now on this boat, on their way to Camargo. The remaining four will follow immediately. The two which are now on board are under the command of Captain James E. Stewart. I would here take the opportunity of speaking a few words in reference to this officer. He is a gentleman as well as an officer, kind and yet decisive towards the subordinates, respecting and respected. He enjoys the greatest confidence of his fellow officers in matters of consideration, and it seems that his judgment is necessary before a final consummation. He is a son of the gallant Colonel Stewart, who so triumphantly defended Fort McHenry during the last war, and the bright laurels won by him will receive no tarnish in the hands of his brave son. Give him an opportunity, and if I am not greatly deceived, he will prove himself on of Maryland's brightest stars.
[JTW]


NNR 71.02(3): September 12, 1846 Letter from Camargo

A letter dated Camargo, 11th August, says- "We are not troubled with mosquitoes here except in the houses, where they can remain cool through the day. But the ants seem to have possession of the town. - Last night they made a serious attempt to carry me off in my sleep. Thousands of them attacked me.
[JTW]


NNR 71.023(4): September 12, 1846 Flare-up Among the Illinois Volunteers

FLARE-UP AMONG THE ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. We hear from New Orleans that is was exceedingly difficult to keep down the spirit of insubordination among the volunteers under Col. Hardin. This was manifested to some extent on board the Hannibal, but was still more apparent when they were about to be shipped to the point of destination. One steamer and three or four transport schooners had been appointed to receive them. Lots were drawn, and it fell to the Chicago company, under the command of Captain Mower, to go on board a very small transport vessel. To this the Captain and all his company demurred. They were called out, paraded, and he made a speech to them. They determined then to march to town and thence to proceed home. At this juncture Colonel Hardin appeared with four companies of men. The mutineers were ordered on board, put there, and the Captain placed under arrest. This prompt movement put an end to any further attempt at insubordination. [St. Louis Republican , Aug. 5].
[JTW]


NNR 71.023(5): September 12, 1846 Ohio volunteers

OHIO VOLUNTEERS. About sixty of the Ohio volunteers have returned from the Rio Grande. They gave sad accounts of the condition of things there. Fare intolerable; sickness extensive; work hard; climate bad. -Gen. Taylor gave them permission to return on account of sickness. He is willing to part with more. Government has poured in upon him more troops than knows what to do with. The following is an extract of a letter from one of the Third Regiment of Ohio Volunteers, dated Camp Belknap, opposite Burita, July 29th, 1846, to his friend in Cincinnati:

"We left the mouth of the Rio Grande the next morning after I sent you my last pencil scraw. WE did not start till the sun was five hours high, and were compelled to march thirteen miles in the hottest part of a very hot day, through swamps and chapparal; sometimes wading in two feet of water and three of mud, and a pretty looking set we were. A steamboat took the heavy baggage; we beat her by two hours; we then had to carry all our baggage upon a bluff, about a mile and a half back of the river, and ther pitch our tents. The next day we pushed half a mile further up the river, and with axes and spades, commenced clearing a camping ground for the whole regiment. We had a tall time in clearing out the chapparal, full of snakes, frogs, lizards and turtles, (or gophers, as they call them here. ) We had one good mess of soup, however.

"We are now encamped two miles from the river, from which we have to carry all our water in camp kettles. We are literally hewers of wood and carriers of water, "and nothing else."The water is very muddy, and much worse than the Missouri; but we are glad to drink it, mud and all, considering the distance we have to carry it, the scorching weather, and the salt provisions. Our food is adominable; when you break a biscuit, you can see it move, (if the critters are not dead from eating bad flour. ) The pork and bacon are of the same character. We would not mind this so much, if they would only serve us out enough; we do not get half rations, and were it not for the wild beef we shoot, we should starve.

"We expect to remain her for two months. Mosquitoes abound; the "boys"are getting home sick, and trying every way to get discharged. We have a great many sick; out of nine in our mess, five are sick, one of whom we think cannot recover; a case of yellow fever is reported in Barita. Some of the "boys"who used to sing,

"Rio Grande! I would I were upon your banks,"

now reverse the case, and wish they were three thousand miles away from it." [Cincinnati Gaz.
[JTW]


NNR 71.024 12 September 1846 complaint of a Pennsylvania volunteer about the poor arrangements for supplies

The late appointments for volunteer general officers may all be very good men, and if experience is afforded, some if not all, may become able generals, but a disaster would now involve our country in a protracted contest.

This is my experience in campaigning, and I may be deceived in supposing that many things might be done better than they are. For instance, I think it a great outrage that the quarter master department and commissary department, are not so managed as to supply all the troops called into service with provisions and forage as needed, when the fact is, that since we have been encamped here, our men have been three times without a supply of provisions for days together, and for a week past our horses have had no forage furnished.
[RWH]


NNR 71.025-027 12 September 1846 account of the bombardment of Fort Brown

We have been favored by an officer of the army with the subjoined communication, narrating particular sets of gallantry and other interesting incidents which occurred during the bombardment of Fort Brown on the Rio Grande. The brilliant bravery and gallant achievements which distinguished the battles of the 8th and 9th of May command the warmest admiration; but assailed on all sides by a vigorous, incessant, and long-continued attack, as Fort Brown was there is no event in our military annals in which, it appears to us a higher degree of military skill and resource, courage and endurance, under the most trying circumstances, were displayed, than in the brave and successful defence of that post. In all of these conflicts- those in the field, under Gen. Taylor, as well as that of the fort- the high spirit and training of West Point, it should be remembered, were every where conspicuous; and if any thing were needed to sustain the friends of that noble institution against the demagogue- clamors which have assailed it they might point with pride to these actions which have shed so much luster on our arms.

The various letters which have been written on the subject of the bombardment of Fort Brown seem to have been gotten up on the spur of the moment, written during the high excitement which prevailed amoungst us, without regard to justice to officers, non- commissioned officers, and soldiers and to the importance of such an event in our military history.

Having occupied a position to judge the combined action of the garrison, and of observing all the various incidents of the bombardment, I take pleasure in furnishing a correct account of it, as I am not only anxious to do justice to all concerned, but am anxious that events which must bear an important place in our military history should be fully and correctly detailed to the public. And if I succeed in rescuing from oblivion any of those events which reduced so much to the credit and honor of our regular army, I shall feel that I have at least contributed my mile towards reestablishing its worth in the estimation of those of our people who, from long- continued peace, had almost forgotten it.

On the 26th of April, the day after the attack and capture of Thorton's squadron of 24 dragoons, we were first possessed of certain information that the enemy had crossed the Rio Grande in considerable force, and it was evident that he had in view "one of two objects, either to advance on Point Isabel to cut all our supplies, or to attack Gen. Taylor in position; either of which rendered the completion of Fort Brown of immediate necessity in order that it might be held by a small force, whilist the remainder of the army was free to move against the enemy, leaving the United States flag still planted and protected on the left bank of the Rio Grande. From this to the 1st of May the forcers were kept more constantly engaged on the work, laboring hard by day whilst at night they were kept constantly on the alert in expectation of an attack.

On the 1st of May the commanding general ordered the movement of his army, designation as the garrison of Fort Brown the seventh regiment of infantry. Captain Lowd's company of the second artillery and Lieut. Bragg's battery of light artillery, composed of two six pounders and two twelve pounder howitzers. The army moved at 3 o'clock PM on the 1st , and the garrison of Fort Brown marched in two companies and the seventh infantry being assigned to every bastion except the one occupied by Capt. Lowd's company, which manned the eighteen pounder battery of four guns, bearing on the town of Matamoros and the Mexican batteries. When the army marched it was confidently expected that the fort would not be attacked, but General Taylor would certainly have a fight, either in going or returning from Point Isabel. The fort was now far from being finished, or in a proper state of defence- on curtain entirely unfinished, the draw bridge and interior defences not yet commenced.- Our commander saw before him an immense deal of labor to be expended on the work before it could be regarded in proper state of defence, and that not a moment ought to be lost in its completion.

Immediately after reveille on the 2d of May the seventh infantry was turned out to work, and continued to labor hard during the whole day, and until long after dark on the unfinished curtain and gateway, whilist the artillery companies were not less usefully employed in placing their batteries in a condition for offensive and defensive operations. At tattoo at night our gallant commander was on the alert, and, fully impressed with the importance of his trust, ordered his command under arms, and saw every man at the post he was to occupy in case of an attck, directing that every man should be instructed to be ready to report to his place at the plarapet at a moment's warning. During the day muskets were place in the hands of every man capable of bearing arms, and our force numbered five hundred and sixty men and forty officers: thirty-two officers and three hundred and forty-one rank and file seventh infantry; three officers and forty-two rank and file of Captain Lowd's company; four officers and fifty one rank ad file of Lieut. Bragg's company, six dragoons, and one officer and ninety-two rank and file of a detachment of inefficient men from other regiments. Of this number, ninety-five were on the sick report, seventy seven being the number of inefficient men left from other regiments,, and the remainder of the five hundred and sixty were citizens and sutlers, twenty-five in number. This was the strength of our force during the whole of the bombardment, and it has been truly said that "we were surrounded by as many thousands as we had hundreds."

Reveille on the memorable morning of the 3d found the gallant Brown at his post, and whilst giving an order to his staff giving an order to his staff officer to have the seventh infantry turned out to work on the defences, his attention was attracted to the first shot fired by the enemy. With a smile of joy he turned to his staff officer and said: "Sir, we have other to do today; order the batteries manned; go to the right and see that every man is at his post, I will go to the left." Lowd's battery needed no order, it was already manned and each piece directed by an officer, Captain Mansfield, our engineer, having volunteered to aim the fourth piece. At this time it was observed that the flag had been overlooked and not yet raised, when Lieut. Van Dorn volunteered to raise it; which was done under fire from the enemy, which was drawn upon him. The work commenced, and notwithstanding the fear entertained that the axles of the old 18 pounder would not stand it, it was done, and well done.

The enemy's fire was opened onus from the nearest fort, called by us the "Sandbag Battery", by the Mexicans "La Fortine Redonda". This was composed of one eight-pounder and two mortars, under the command of Capt. Passamente, a Frenchman, who as he asserts took up arm for his adopted country and for the protection of his family, but who bravely declined to follow the fortunes of Gen. Arista when he ingloriously fled from Matamoros. To the skill of Capt. Passamente as an artillerist we can all bear witness, as a constant and well-directed fire was kept up from his battery until his eight-pounder was dismounted by us. The enemy's fire was commenced and continued with nine pieces of artillery. At this time Sergeant Weizart of B Company 7th infantry, was killed by a round shot. The enemy's fire was now continued from the batteries between La Fortine Redonda and the lower fort from Las Fortine de la Fetcha, and the mortar battery in its vicinity. After silencing La Fortine Redonda, our batteries continued a deliberate fire on the other batteries and the town until ten o'clock, when the enemy ceased firing to repair their batteries, the embrasures of which were well torn to pieces. We were compellad to cease our fire, in consequence of the necessity of using our ammunition as sparingly as possible, the fort having been left with only one hundred and fifty rounds of ammunition for each eighteen pounder, and the six pounder just as badly provided. Lieut. Bragg was now ordered to place his guns in barbette in the several bastions for defence, one, under his own direction, placed in the bastion commanded by Capt. Hawkins, one, under Lieut. Thomas, in the bastion commanded by Major Seawell; one under the direction of Lieut. Reynolds, in the bastion of Capt. Miles; and the other, under the direction of Lieut. Johnson, in the bastion commanded by Capt. Lee. In this condition we were surrounded , and without the means of preventing our enemy from placing his batteries almost wherever he pleased, and using against us his immense supply of ammunition to every advantage. The conduct of the officers and men of Capt. Lowd's and Lieut. Bragg's companies during the cannonade with their batteries deserves high commendation, as they attracted the admiration of the whole command by the skillful management of their guns. From seven o'clock on the 1st the seventh infantry was kept constantly at work on the defences, though the enemy's shells fell and exploded in all directions around them, every man lying down, when a shell fell near, and immediately resumed the spade and mek after it had exploded. Officers were seen showing an example of their men, even in throwing dirt on the parapet.
[RWH]


NNR 71.034 19 September 1846 account of the Alvarado affair

The three armed schooners got close in- the steamers Mississippi and Princeton not near enough for their shot to take effect. I suppose, however, the commodore felt disposed to let them know on shore that he was there on a visit, and the two steamers and two schooners opened their fire on the fort with round shot and shell, their shot taking wonderful effect.- What was very strange, the fort did not return fire. The schooners might have been injured had they opened on them. When it became twilight three or four hundred ranged themselves under the cover of the chapparal bushes, and commenced firing on the schooners which were near on shore, the schooners returning the fire with the long gun, musketry, grape, canister, and shell until the firing ceased from the shore. Certainly many must have been killed, for at every flash from shore a stand of canister or grape was poured right into them. When the firing ceased from the shore, the schooners hauled off, by order, into deep water.- During the night the weather was squally, with heavy rains. The next morning it was portentous of a heavy gale from the northward, which here, in this gulf is generally a terrific hurricane. Signal was made from the commodore to stand to the northward and anchor at this anchorage. The day was one- enough to sicken the oldest tar; thick with heavy rains, and a dead beat to windward, against a strong current. Thus ended the visit of observation to Alvarado.
[RWH]


NNR 71.035 19 September 1846 the Cumberland Frigate on a reef

Shortly after closing my letter of the 28th instant, the Cumberland, Potomac and two of the schooners sailed from Green Island for the purpose of attacking the enemy's vessels in the river of Alvarado. In passing through the channel leading to the roads of Antonio Lizardo, I regret to inform you this ship, owing to a strong current, ran on the northwest part of a coral reef called the Chopas, in three fathoms water. This was about half past 4 o'clock in the afternoon.
[RWH]


NNR 71.035 19 September 1846 the brig Truxton lost

The only event of importance which had transpired of late, is the loss of the U.S. brig Truxton on the bar of the Tuxpam river, about 130 miles northward of Vera Cruz. The intelligence was brought to the squadron on the 19th by the St Mary's that ship having picked up one of the Truxton's boats, with Lieutenant Berryman on board.

It appears that Captain Carpenter of the Truxton, wishing to get his vessel near shore to protect his boats while obtaining provisions, employed a Scotchman he had taken out of a Mexican prize to pilot him in, but who, whether by design or accident run him around on the 15th. On the 17 th with the exception of Lieut. Hunter and a boats' crew she was abandoned by the officers and men, who went ashore to the number of about 60 in all, and surrendered themselves to the Mexican commandment
[RWH]


NNR 71.036: September 19, 1846 THE ATTACK ON ALVARADO.

A correspondent of the New Orleans Picayune gives the following account of the affair:

"U. S. Steamer Mississippi,

Off Point Antonio Lizardo, Aug. 9, 1846.

"GENTLEMEN: The commodore has just made signal that letter bags will be sent to Pensacola, and as I may not have a chance again, I write now.

"Day before yesterday we all got under way and steered down to Alvarado for the purpose of attacking that place. We took our position, as did the Princeton also, and commenced firing; but the current running so strong that we were unable to spring the ship, we could only use our bow guns. The other ships, with the exception of the schooner, were not within gun shot. We found it useless to send the boat expedition, as we could not stem the current. Night came on and we stopped firing- The commodore said we would recommence next morning. When morning came, the signal was "come here again,"and so here ends our first fire on the enemy. We shall not renew the attack until the arrival of the steamers Spitfire and Vixen. They drawing but little water, will be used to tow the boats across the bar. The schrs. Bonita, Pearl, and Reefer were lying in shore during the attack, and they received many discharges of musketry, which fortunately did no harm; but one of them left fly a shell and knocked a Mexican lancer, horse and all to the d--l. You will received more particular accounts by some of the newspapers and from the officers of whatever vessel takes this latter to Pensacola-for the commodore will not tell us what vessel is going to Pensacola, but I think it is the Princeton."
[JTW]


NNR 71.038 19 September 1846 Gen. Zachary Taylor, having been detained from 10th May to 1st Sept. for want of material of transport, at length succeeds in purchasing 1,500 mules from Mexicans, loads with provisions and munitions, reviews his forces and advances towards Monterey

True, General Taylor has at length obtained supplies and means of transport which enable him to leave the Rio Grande and push after the enemy in the direction of Mexico, after having been detained for want of such provisions from the 10th of May until the first week of September. This sufficiently evinces that our Administration are not yet familiar with the difficulties incident to carrying on- or rather commencing a campaign in a foreign country.
[RWH]


NNR 71.038 19 September 1846 disposition of forces

General Twigg's Command-First Division- 3rd brigade, composed of 3rd and 4th infantry, commanded by Col. Garland; 4th brigade composed of the 1st and 2nd infantry under Col. Riley, regular cavalry, and Capt. Ridgely's battalion of light artillery

General Worth's Command-Second Division- 1st brigade, composed of the artillery battalion, acting as infantry, and the 8th infantry; 2d brigade, composed of the 5th and 7th infantry. Duncan's battery and Capt. Blanchard's company of Louisiana volunteers are attached to this division.
[RWH]


NNR 71.038 19 September 1846 management of mules

The Mexican muleteers, assisted by the soldiers soon put things to right yesterday morning, and the train went on, the nose of each mule being tied fast to the tail of his predecessor. They cut a most ludicrous spectacle, a long train of mules, thus tied; it effectively puts a stop to their kicking and running away.
[RWH]


NNR 71.038 19 September 1846 march of Ohio volunteers from Matamoros to Camargo

The 1st and 2nd regiments of Ohio volunteers, six companies of the Louisville Legion, and the Baltimore battalion, arrived here today. They have been seven days on the march from Matamoros, and brought all the men but two to Catamargo. One of these died from an injury in the thigh, and the other died in convulsions soon after wading a lagoon. They suffered very much for want of water, and, to make it harder, and more dangerous for the men, their officers had the bad taste to march them by day instead of night. This proves that the Northern troops can stand the climate of Mexico nearly as well as those from the South.
[RWH]


NNR 71.038 19 September 1846 Col. William Selby Harney's expedition

Col. Harney left San Antonio on the 23rd of Jul with about 120 U.S. Dragoons, 500 mounted Texans from the Red River counties, and 18 Delewares in the United States service under Capt. Beaver. The Colonel was marching for Monclova, Mexico. This movement of Col. Harney astonishes General Taylor very much but we will soon know what he thinks of it. I guess Col. H will learn that his moving in advance of Gen. Wool (who is to take the same route) and that too, without any authority, saying nothing about his muster volunteers into the service on his own responsibility, will not meet with the approval of the commander of the army.
[RWH]


NNR 71.038 19 September 1846 march of Ohio volunteers from Matamoros to Camargo

The 1st and 2nd regiments of Ohio volunteers, six companies of the Louisville Legion, and the Baltimore battalion, arrived here today. They have been seven days on the march from Matamoros, and brought all the men but two to Catamargo. One of these died from an injury in the thigh, and the other died in convulsions soon after wading a lagoon. They suffered very much for want of water, and, to make it harder, and more dangerous for the men, their officers had the bad taste to march them by day instead of night. This proves that the Northern troops can stand the climate of Mexico nearly as well as those from the South.
[RWH]


NNR 71.038 19 September 1846 Presidio occupied by "adventurers"

Letters from Monterey assert that a body of Americans, who came down by the way of New Mexico, were joined near the Presidio by a number of Texan adventureros, and the combined force entered the town without any opposition.
[RWH]


NNR 71.038 19 September 1846 Mexican forces at Monterey, General William Jenkins Worth reaches Saltillo

Mr. Kendall writes on the 22s ult., from Camargo, that the most authentic intelligence from Monterey represented that Mejia had 2,000 regulars and 3,000 raw recruits, all without money or shoes, and ill provided in every respect.

In the same letter Mr. K. announces that news had been received that Gen. Worth had reached a point one third of the way to Seralvo the morning of the 21st- all well.
[RWH]


NNR 71.038 19 September 1846 fatal explosion aboard the steamboat Enterprise, list of killed and wounded in the explosion

An explosion occurred on board the steamboat Enterprise on the Rio Grande. This casualty occurred a little after daylight on the 21st ult., about forty-five miles above Reynosa. There were over 150 persons board and many in the immediate vicinity of and directly over the boilers who were scarcely injured.

For the satisfaction of those of our reader who have friends on board the Enterprise, we give the following list of killed and wounded, made out with great care, and which is no doubt correct.

Killed-- Enoch Tucker, A. Boswell, Tenn., Thomas Gaulney, N.Y.; second cook and a stranger name unkown.

Badly Wounded-- Lieut. Dearing of the Louisiana Legion; Wm. A. Cook, C.B. Cook, Tenn., Captain Woods, Wm. Grey, Jacob Bowridge, Thomas Eagle, Texas; J.C. Howard, sutler Baltimore; Joseph Grigsby, Mr. Hickey, sutler, Louisville Legion, Thomas Henepee, Samuel Martin, Patrick Kelly, Frank Tallant, deck hands; J. P. Clark, mate.

Slightly Wounded-- Wilton Cunningham, James Wilson, Tenn.; J. Wheeler, J. Humerick, Matthew Samson, Christian Coleman, Texas; Mr. Adams, sutler, Louisville Legion; Edmond Newell, clerk; Captain Kelsey, Conn.; Henry A. Emmons, mate.
[RWH]


NNR 71.039 19 September 1846 advance of Gen. John Ellis Wool's division

We learn from a gentleman who lately arrived from the Falls of the Brazos that news reached that place a few days since that 2,000 of the mounted men from Kentucky and Tennessee had arrived at Robbins' Ferry on the Trinity. Several persons residing at the Falls immediately started to go to the Trinity to contract for furnishing beef and other supplies for the troops on their route to the Brazos. As no depot of military stores has been established between Robbins' Ferry and Bexar, it is probable that the troops will wait several days on the Trinity, until their horses can be recruited and teams procured to convey a supply of provisions to sustain them on the route."
[RWH]


NNR 71.039 19 September 1846 Col. William Selby Harney's expedition

Much curiosity as well as astonishment was exhibited amongst the officers at Camargo and at Matamoros, on learning that Col. Harney had advanced; crossed the Rio Grande and invaded Mexico without waiting for the arrival of General Wool.
[RWH]


NNR 71.039 19 September 1846 Gen. Stephen Watts Kearney's division leaves Fort Leavenworth for Santa Fe, his force, account of the parties on the route

General Kearney left the Fort on the 3d ult., for Santa Fe, in advance we presume of the main body of his forces. They remained five days at the Fort. The troops had lost about one hundred horses altogether, but were still in good spirits and willing to go ahead. The company of infantry reached the Fort two days before the mounted troops: they had not lost a man on the way, and were in excellent health. The whole regiment when he left, were on half rations and had but few days provisions them. The wagons taking supplies for them, were met some eight days behind them.
[RWH]


NNR 71.039 19 September 1846 difficulties obstruct the New York California expedition

The difficulties between Col. Stevenson and his regiment are not yet ended.- The colonel has chartered four vessels to take his regiment on to California- but as things look now, one will be amply sufficient unless he sails it very soon. The circuit court is crowded this morning with the parties and witnesses to a case of habeas corpus, which is to test the legality and validity of Colonel Stevenson's commission. General Sutherland continues to be the active instrument of opposition and perhaps will succeed in breaking up the enterprise. If he does not, it will fall to pieces of itself, most likely, under the operation of the new movement for peace. In either case a partisan of the government has been liberally rewarded and it is "all right."
[RWH]


NNR 71.039-040 19 September 1846 comments of the Mobile "Register and Journal"on the disbanded volunteers

The disbanding of the volunteers. We have little said of the disbanded volunteers, about whom there has been so much effort to get up an excitement in New Orleans and elsewhere, because we had not the means of deciding for ourselves how far the war department had compromised itself in its correspondence, as it has been accused of doing, by engagements to receive and retain volunteers for a period of six months. We have always believed that the course of the department in disbanding these troops and sending them home, was in fulfillment of strict duty under the laws wherein there is no discretion allowed- nor have we had any doubt that it is for the benefit of the service and the interest of the country. These troops could not be retained lawfully for a less period than twelve months- and if they had volunarily changed their term and reentered under new law for twelve months, they would have been, or at least some equal or larger number of these would have been supernumeraries in camp. Gen. Taylor has, without them, of the regular mustered troops, even more than he needs, and more than his means of transportation enable him to send forward.
[RWH]


NNR 71.40 19 September 1846 article on payment of the disbanded Louisiana volunteers

The four companies of volunteers called out at New Orleans, by Gen. Gaines, for Texas, without any orders from the war department; and without any occasion for their services, were paid $51,600 for three months services.-

"We take the liberty to say the assertion relative to the pay of the volunteers is wholly unfounded.- There is not one particle of truth in it. So far from receiving $51,600 neither the four companies nor any individual man of them has received on red cent of pay, from the general, state, or municipal government. It was not for pay or emolument or personal advantage of any kind, that those men volunteered their services to defend the country when it appeared to be menaced with invasion by the Mexicans, and it is hard that their proceedings should misrepresented to the public. What kind of encouragement is this for men voluntarily to leave their homes and endure the hardships of a camp for months in a distant region, at an inclement season of the year? They come back,, are paraded through the streets- display the skill in martial exercises which they acquire in the service- and are there dismissed without a dollar in their pockets- many of them not knowing where they shall obtain a pillow to rest their tired limbs, or procure a morsel of food to assuage their hunger. None of them, we believe actually suffered from either of these causes but if they did not, it was because they were furnished with food and lodging by the kindness of private citizens. It is a reflection upon the justice of our national and local authorities, that payment of these patriotic men has son long been deferred. Four months have elapsed since they returned from Texas, and this sacred debt has not been discharged. We say 'sacred' because it was incurred in a sacred cause and from honorable motives.

"The fact alleged that they went into the service without a call from the government, so far from being a bar to the validity of their claim to remuneration, strengthens it and makes it irresistible. Their service was voluntary and disinterested- and therefore its values is the mere enhanced and its recompense, as we first remarked, ought to be regarded as a sacred debt- a debt of honor, which concerns the whole country."
[RWH


NNR 71.040: September 19, 1846 Terrible Riot

TERRIBLE RIOT. A very melancholy affair, little creditable to the discipline, order and character for civilization, which, in spite of all that has occurred during the present campaign, we are proud to say are the attributes of the volunteers, occurred near Burita, Rio Grande, on the 31st ultimo. On that day a steamboat took on board at Burita five companies of one of the Georgia regiments. A good deal of animosity had previously been exhibited by two of these companies, one against another; one of the rivals was an Irish company. From some circumstance or other, not explained, a row broke out in the evening between them-close proximity, we presume, producing hostile collision-and fire arms and bayonets and swords were very freely used. The Colonel of the Georgia regiment did all he could to put an end to this disgraceful affray; but so fierce was the conflict between the contending parties that all was unavailing although it is stated he shot one man and wounded two more with his own hand. While the battle was raging between these insensates on the deck of the steamboat, Colonel Baker, 4th Illinois regiment, ordered out companies A and G, commanded by Captains Roberts and Jones, to assist in putting and end to it. He then went forward. He then went forward at the head of twenty men, and urged the rioters to desist; but on his attempting to ascend the ladder of the steamboat, he was fiercely attacked by those on board, and after a desperate fight he was shot through the neck, the ball entering behind and passing through his cheek, prostrating him at once. His small party was obliged to retreat, having no ammunition with them, carrying off Colonel Baker senseless. Commissary Post, Sergeant Oglesby, and six men of the Illinois regiment were wounded-two mortally. Captain Roberts, company A, then attempted to board the boat, but, after a desperate conflict, he and his men were beaten off- Captain R. received a severe bayonet wound through the shoulders into the back, three in length. The affair having now assumed a serious aspect, Maj. Harris brought out the whole remaining force of the 4th Illinois regiment, well provided, with ball cartridge. At sight of this the rioters ceased their disturbance, when the Georgians were disarmed and put under a strong guard. Colonel Baker, who received his would while fighting hand to hand with the Captain of the Irish company of the Georgia battalion, (also severely hurt), will recover, it is said, as will also Captain Roberts. There were thirty lying wounded on the boat and on shore on the morning of the 1st instant. Those who were killed outright, some eight or ten, were said to have been thrown overboard. An inquiry was to have been immediately instituted to ascertain the cause of his sad affair.
[JTW]


NNR 71.040(2): September 19, 1846 Health of volunteers

HEALTH OF THE VOLUNTEERS. The Louisville Courier says-"Some eighty volunteers who were discharged from the Kentucky, Ohio, and Indiana regiments on account of sickness, came up on the steamer John J. Crittenden."

The Lexington Observer of the 9th says--"Two of these volunteers belonged to this place and have arrived at home. Some of the Montgomery volunteers also passed through this city on their way home. They look to be in wretched health, and were discharged because of their supposed inability to do further service during the period of their enlistment. We understand they report a great deal of sickness among the volunteers. It may reasonably be inferred, however, that as they are now on the move, towards Monterey, the health of the men will be improved."
[JTW]


NNR 71.040(3): September 19, 1846 Illinois Volunteers

ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. The St. Louis New Era says- "About 20 sick volunteers returned to this city on furlough on the Corrine. They are sad specimens of the effects of disease, and some of them will scarcely survive. One volunteer named Escord, who had been suffering from fever, in a fit of phrensy, jumped overboard below Memphis and was drowned. There are said to be about two hundred of the Illinois volunteers at New Orleans in a lamentable situation, unwell and without money. -One of those men informs us that when he left the regiment they were twelve miles from Victoria in Texas, and on that day 260 of the Illinois volunteers were reported to be sick in camp, and unable to travel. Such are some of the practical results of war. A few heroes are made, but the mass of those who fill the armies suffer from privations and disease. We fear that many brave fellows will fall under the hand of inglorious disease during the present fall."
[JTW]


NNR 71.048 19 September 1846 difficulties with supplies for the Army of the West, arrangement of forces, depredations of Indians

Col. Kearney with a command of at least 1800 men, reached Fort Bent on the 30th of July, and left for Santa Fe on the 2d of August. All these men were mounted when they left Fort Leavenworth, except a few companies of infantry, which had preceded him from hence and arrived out before him. Absolute want of forage for his horses, obliged Gen. K. to push on immediately from Fort Bent, in hopes of finding food for them on the prairies. He had but a limited supply of rations, and these were extenuated by reducing the men to half rations.

"To all our inquiries,"says the St. Louis Republican of the 10th inst., "as to the prospect of forage for his animals at Santa Fe, we have received the same uniform answer; it was not to be had, except in very limited quantities- at the rancheros from ten to twenty and more miles from Santa Fe. In the whole department, the highest estimate of the surplus wheat is 7,000 to 8,000 bushels, and corn was so scarce as to make it worth, when it could be obtained at all, $3.50 per bushel. Such is the prospect presented for the support of the horses, mules, and cattle, which accompany the expedition."

A battalion of 500 Mormon infantry are marching in the general's rear, towards Fort Bent. These are followed by Col. Price 's regiment of mounted men, a thousand strong, and by Major Willok's battalion, consisting of five hundred mounted men. In the course of the present month, another regiment of infantry will be organized, and on their way, numbering at least one thousand men. And to these are to be added a thousand men, at least connected with the train of the army." Should they ever reach Santa Fe, the company will consist, in round numbers of forty eight hundred men; and with the teamsters and attendants of the camp, it will be swelled to six thousand. At least this number will, at all events, have to be subsisted and that subsistence must, beyond question, be derived from the United States."
[RWH]


NNR 71.048 19 September 1846 progress of President's James Knox Polk's "dispatches"proposing negotiations

"Those dispatches"- Mr. Habersham to whom is supposed the government entrusted the dispatches addressed "To the Mexican Secretary of Foreign Affairs,"dated 27th July last, we find has at length reached Commodore Conner, off Vera Cruz, by whom they were to be forwarded to Mexico. The New Orleans Picayune says, "If it did not evince a querulous spirit, we would say, that government carries travel to the tune of "take your time, Miss Lucy." We have been watching the progress of the messenger with some curiosity. He left the City of Washington on the 28th July- some days previous to the President communicating to the Senate in confidence, his having made pacific propositions to Mexico. Mr. H. reached Mobile on the 4th of August and proceeding thence to Pensecola, embarked on the steamer Walcott for Vera Cruz. The Walcott put back on account of weather and on the 13th we find Mr. H. at New Orleans- from whence, on the 19th he embarked for Brazos when he met with the Legare, on board of which he embarked for Vera Cruz and at length we have an account of his arrival there with his dispatches, which Commodore Conner the next day sent with a flag of truce to the city.
[RWH]


NNR 71.049 26 September 1846 mediation between the United States and Mexico proposed by Great Britain

From what has passed in the British parliament, it appears that their government did propose the mediation for a peace between Mexico and the United States, some time since. The Washington Union gave the public to understand that no such proposition had been made. The British minister states that the proposition was to such form as left it optional with our government to answer or not, and that no answer was given,- but that the offer has again been made, and in such a way as to require an answer.
[RWH]


NNR 71.049 26 September 1846 incident of Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's passing the blockade, his reception at Veracruz

All counts say that Santa Anna was not received at Vera Cruz on landing with the cordiality which he had anticipated. After had an opportunity to address them, more enthusiasm was awakened, and 500 troops proceeded towards the capitol to which Almonte and Rejon had already repaired. Santa Anna proceeded to a hacienda some distance on the route, where he remained to recruit.
[RWH]


NNR 71.049 26 September 1846 doubts of reception by the Mexicans of an American minister unless forces are withdrawn, remarks of the "Union"

The impression derived from rumours at Pensecola, Mobile, and Washington, and which the public journals spread, was, that the Mexican Authority- for the time being had refused to enter into negotiations, unless the invading army was withdrawn. Others had it that they demanded an armistice as preliminary to receiving a Minister.

The last Washington "Union"however asserts that "the public journals are under erroneous impressions about the dispatches brought by the Princeton." Nothing can be inferred from this journal.
[RWH]


NNR 71.049 26 September 1846 French Journals

It is of some importance to notice, by the way, that some of the French journals are loudly complaining that the British ministry had not observed that cordiality which was to have been exposed from them, toward the French government, in a case where the interests of the two countries were so mutual, as in the arbitrating a peace between the United States and Mexico.
[RWH]


NNR 71.050 26 September 1846 debates in British Parliament, mediation explicitly offered

If that discussion had ended in rupture between Great Britain and the United States, our mediation, of course between the United States and Mexico would have been out of the question. The offer therefore, which was made to the United States was in effect this- that if the United States were disposed to accept the mediation of Great Britain that mediation would be frankly offered and tendered.
[RWH]


NNR 71.051 26 September 1846 letter on the capture of John Pine Bankhead and the Truxton

Having the honor of being a friend of your son's I take the liberty of addressing you to alleviate the solicitude of your family on the receipt of the news of the loss of his vessel, and the capture of her officers and crew by the enemy, with the exception of Lieuts. Hunter and Berryman.

The former gentleman informs me that your son was quite well when he left the vessel, and speaks in the highest terms of his conduct on the emergency.

I would also state that the officers are enjoying all the honors f war, and are residing with the Lieutenant Governor at Tuspan- a person very kindly disposed towards them- and that the province itself has declared for peace. As the Mexican Government are in our debt a number of prisoners, your son's detention must be a short one. Sincerely hoping that your son will shortly will be restored to you.
[RWH]


NNR 71.051-052 26 September 1846 loss of the Truxton on the breakers of Tuxpan

On the 16th a small vessel was seen standing to the port of Tuxpan, and Lieut. Hunter, with nine men, proceeded in the cutter to take possession of her.- They forced their way through the breakers, and captured the vessel, which proved to be a Mexican schooner, with thirteen persons on board. After an unsuccessful attempt board the Truxtan, Lieut. Hunter anchored astern of the brig. On the morning of the 17th the brig hoisted flag of truce, lowed out the dingey with sail battened over her, and cast her adrift. The current carried her through the breakers and Lieut. Hunter took possession of her.- She contained some articles of provisions, and a letter to him from Commander Carpenter in the following words:


I have resolved to surrender the brig, and you are at liberty to use your discretion about going in. I shall as to have assistance sent to you immediately.
[RWH]


NNR 71.052 26 September 1846 Monterey (Pacific) surrenders

I wrote you from Monterey on the 6th of July, or shortly after, giving you a detailed account of the occurrences at this place. Fearing, however, that you may not have received it, I forward it to you by this opportunity, which will probably be the last communication you will receive from me, being now homeward bound.

On the 6th of July all was bustle in the cabin of the Savannah; some four or five men were busily employed writing letters, proclamations &c., preparatory to talking possession of California. It was long after the witching hour of midnight ere I was enabled to catch a short and troubled repose, as all was to be prepared by six o'clock the following morning, which came as bright and beautiful as a July day of our own favored island. At six A.M. Capt. Mervine came on board to receive orders, and at 7 he left with a summons to the military commandant to surrender the place forthwith to the arms of the United States, and also a similar summons to the military Governor for the surrender of all California.

At 9. A.M. of the 7th July, the expedition started from the Savannah, composed of the boats of the Savannah, Levant, and Cyane, and landed without opposition at the mole. The forces were then marched up a short distance to the custom house, where a concourse of the inhabitants were assembled. Here the marines and men were halted, and the proclamation red to the multitude by Rodman M. Price, Esq., purser of the Cyane, in a loud and distinct manner, which was received with three hearty cheers by those present. The flag of the United States was then hoisted by acting Lieut. Edward Higgins, immediately after which a salute of 21 guns was fired by the Savannah and Cyane. The custom house was then turned into a barrack for the United States forces, and everything settled down quickly.

Communications were immediately dispatched to Commander Montgomery, of the Portsmouth at S. Francisco, at which place, and at Zanonia, the U.S. flag hoisted on the morning of the 9th; and before ten days had elapsed the whole California, North of Monterey, was under the flag of the United States, much to the apparent satisfaction of the people; who hope it will last, knowing how much better off they will be under the Government of the United States.
[RWH]


NNR 71.053 26 September 1846 Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's passport

The New York Telegraph states that they have received the following information exclusively, and that it is true:

Gen. Santa Anna, when the Arab was boarded by an officer of the St. Mary's was in bed. His handsome wife had risen a few moments previous to the officer's arrival, and sat in the cabin in a loose wrapper. A pass was exhibited to the officer, signed by the American Secretary of State, and of course he was allowed to proceed.
[RWH]


NNR 71.054 26 September 1846 "Union"repeats that the country is impatient for Gen. Zachary Taylor to "act", that he has mules now to enable him to advance, the "plan of the campaign has been concocted in a decisive spirit we ought no to doubt"&c., announces advances of the Army and that Monterey is probably taken

The Washington Union of the 14th says:

The last mails bring no very late intelligence from the army on the Rio Grande. The last dispatches from General Taylor state that the army will be on advance for Monterey by the 1st of September at the latest- perhaps several days earlier.- The country begins to be impatient for action. The heroes of the 8th and 9th May displayed such energies on those memorable occasions as could not but encourage the most sanguine expectations of a prompt and vigorous campaign." Old Rough and ready"has become the soubriquet of the commanding general. We hope that he will realize the character in the end of the chapter. The General who leads the army into an enemy's country should be full of resources- "self-balanced, self-centered"- susceptible of the highest enthusiasm- capable of imparting it to all his followers- bold as well as active- confident of himself- exerting every means, and employing secondary substitutes, according to the circumstances in which he may be placed. Such, we hope, will prove to be the course of the brave commander and the gallant officers with whom he is associated. General Taylor, it is now understood, has the means of transporting in his bands- mules as well as wagons. We hope soon to hear of his rapid marches, and his victorious progress. The plan of the campaign has been conceived in a decisive spirit; and we ought not to doubt that the success of the results will correspond with the vigor of the design.

One rumor has lately prevailed for which we learn there is no sort of foundation. It came in the shape of a letter from Matamoros, about the 18th of August, and was published a few days ago in the "Baltimore Sun." It states that on the preceding night four hundred rancheros had broken into the town and created some confusion; that it was the commencement of the guerrilla mode of warfare, &c. The whole story was unfounded. It was an idle quiz, perpetrated upon the colonel of a volunteer force, which betrayed him into ridiculous blunders.

The Washington Union of the 16th says:

Dispatches have been received which agree, in the most material circumstances, about the movements of the army with the private letters. General Taylor, having sent forward the van and the body of the army, was to leave Camargo on the first days of the present month. A very experienced officer, who has the best opportunities of judging the course of events, expressed the opinion to us today, by this time General Taylor was in possession of Monterey.

We understand that no allusion is made to Colonel Harney in any of the dispatches just received. One would suppose that General Taylor was better acquainted with his movements than the Mexicans.
[RWH]


NNR 71.055: September 26, 1846 Letter from Camargo

Camargo, Aug. 31st, 1846.

GENTLEMEN:- "Thus far into the bowels of the land have we marched without impediment."The first Brigade, under General Worth, is now well on to Monterey, and the second, under Col. P. F. Smith, and third, under Colonel Garland, are expected soon to follow. - Captain May, with the second Dragoons and Major Munroe, with the Light Artillery, are to move forward in the same direction. These, with the Texans, Ohio, and Kentucky volunteers all under the command of Old Rough and Ready, will constitute an effective force of 7,500. But a portion of these, however, will proceed to Monterey, the remainder will be stationed at different posts in the rear, to guard them and preserve a communication with the supplies. This is not a pleasant service for those who are eager for the fray, but it can't be helped.

The want of proper means of land transportation is severely felt, although General Taylor has an effective force of nearly 15,000 men, not a single additional wagon has arrived, and the conveyance of baggage and accoutrements is effected exclusively by mules, of which come 1,500 or 2,000 have been hired or purchased from the Mexican. [Correspondent of the New Orleans Bee.
[JTW]


NNR 71.055(2): September 26, 1846 News from Carmago

Camargo, August 31st. - It is almost incredible, yet true, that whilst the Government has pressed on to this frontier more than 15,000 men, not a single additional wagon cart has been sent to transport supplies, unless they have been landed with a very short time past. - While the army is stationed on the river steamers afford great facilities, but any movement into the interior must of necessity depend upon land transportation. About 2,000 mules have been purchased or hired from the Mexicans, and by packing them, the force now in motion is enabled to advance.

General Worth, with his command, arrived at a pleasant little town called Seralvo, at the foot of the mountains, on the 24th, where he will remain until the main body of the army approaches. It is about seventy miles from here. Colonel Smith is yet within a few miles of this point, but will advance immediately.

General Taylor expects to be at Monterey by the 15th of September, and in Saltillo, about sixty miles beyond, by the 1st of October. Whether any movement beyond the latter place will be made on this line of operations is unknown to the uninitiated. Whether we shall meet with any resistance, is a question upon which opinions are divided. It is certain there will be no resistance this side of Monterey, unless it may be a skirmish between small parties, and that is not very probable. Col. Hays in his tour, of upwards of two hundred miles, met no resistance. Gen. Worth has not seen any enemy. Single companies of Texan Rangers have traversed the country in different directions and me no opposition. Small parties of men have traveled different routes without interruption. So far, every thing indicates a state of quietude and peace.

At Montgomery we understand there is from three to five thousand men, almost in a state of disorganization, and deserting every opportunity. Gen. Mejia commands there. I doubt if there be any serious fight. The Mexicans have no army that can resist the one now moving against them. They are all excellent troops, and efficient in every respect.
[JTW]


NNR 71.055(3): September 26, 1846 THE RIOT ON THE RIO GRANDE.

'Col. Baker had just returned with a company of his regiment from the burial of one of their number, and, hearing the riot still progressing on the steamboat, he ordered this company and one other to follow him to the boat, with the view of quelling it. In his attempting to do so, one of the officers attached to the Georgia companies engaged in the melee at once attacked him with his sword. They had been engaged but a few moments, when come cowardly villain among the rioters fired a pistol at him, which passed through the thick part of his neck from behind into his mouth, knocking out one of his teeth. Such is the report to me this morning from the assistant surgeon of his regiment. The wound is not this morning considered mortal, although last evening I did not suppose he would be alive at this time. He is more comfortable than could be expected, and we now entertain no doubt that he will recover. In addition to Col. Baker, Capt. Roberts was slightly wounded by a pistol shot. Capt. Post, acting commissary, slightly; Sergeant Helm, of company C, badly wounded, a ball passed directly through his body; Corporal Ursary very slightly; private Dillion mortally wounded with a bayonet-he probably will not live the day out; privates H. Martin, Shepherd, and Lee, all slightly wounded. -This constitutes, as far as can be ascertained, all who were wounded in the third regiment of Illinois volunteers, and who acted under the command of Col. Baker in the effort to suppress this disgraceful and unpardonable riot. How many are killed and wounded among the two companies who were engaged in the riot on the Corvette I cannot ascertain with sufficient certainty to venture any statements."[Letter to the New Orleans Delta. ]
[JTW]


NNR 71.056 26 September 1846 the march from Matamoros to Camargo, letter from "the sergeant"

After a twelve days march, I have arrived here well, although personal suffering and inconvenience have been with us all, more than you can possibly imagine. We have marched nearly eighteen miles every day, through a country of dense chapparal, the sun blazing upon us with an intensity of heat I never before experienced. But add to this a want of water, and such a condition and such a duty may well seem intolerable. We sometimes had not a drop of water for twenty and twenty four hours; and at others our relief was from drinking from the muddy pools which were found a halled with a shout of delight upon the way. Were I to relate all, you would scarcely believe that human nature could endure such privation and exposure as I have witnessed. Out men have dropped from the ranks and sought shelter among the dry chapparal, careless whether they lived or died. The spot of their retreat has been marked, and when we reach water, a party has been dispatched to bring them in- and we made the march under these trying circumstances, without losing a man.

A hot sun- a breathless atmosphere- a thick chapparal- and no water; this is another picture of campaigning. In the last I gave you, we figured in water up to our necks, and w had a taste of that also. In the early part of the march we have just completed. On our way we killed several very large rattlesnakes; they are here in great numbers, but none of our men have so far been bitten. The reptile the most obnoxious our apprehensions is a very poisonous species of spider which very often proves fatal to the person bitten. I witnessed a few nights ago the sufferings of one of our men from this cause; his agony was so great as to wring from him the most piercing screams; I am glad to say, however, that he recovered.

We have been very fortunate so far; the health of our men is upon the whole very good, and they stand the climate better than any other regimen here. Indeed, amongst the others it appears to me that the drum is continually beating the funeral note of some poor fellow who has just been "planted."

The other day a wagon of the Kentucky baggage train, passed over the fleshy part of the leg of one of their men; mortification ensued, and he was a dead man by morning. Several instances of this character have had the effect to confirm an opinion the wounded in such a climate, is but a passport to the grave; gangrene seems so sure and sudden. Our doctor is now getting ready to take off the foot or toes of one of Captain Piper's men, who was run over by the same train. But I give you these details to interest, not to alarm you that you may have definite idea about our whereabout and true condition. It is all in a man's lifetime you know, and what is to be will be. For my own part, I am happy enough. It is just the life I wanted to have a taste of, and I am by no means disposed to relinquish it.

When we left Barita, we marched through a lagune, nearly a mile of which the water was up to our armpits; I don't know that was ever more amused in my life, and it would have been an odd and ludicrous sight could connoisseur of fun have perched upon us. Imagine to your mind's eye, three men, feeling their way, wading and swaying here and there, holding their musket high over head to preserve them from the water, while now and then some unlucky fellows would souse into a hole, and tumble over out of sight, until he could scramble up or be hauled out by his comrades. Our baggage train numbered ninety-nine wagons, each drawn by six mules.

On our march from Matamoros, we were overtaken by a horse express, one of Captain May's men, dispatched after us by Gen. Twiggs, with information that intelligence had been received at headquarters, that Canales would make an attack on us so as to cut off our baggage train. If you could have seen the Baltimore boys then! The blood was up to fighting heat in a minute- a perfect thrill of exstacy accompanied the intelligence as it ran along the lines. Every musket was thoroughly examined, and all were anxious for an introduction to Canales and his army. But, alas! And alack a-day, their homes were blighted, and no Canales with his men appeared.

I am really beginning to be fearful myself that we shall have no fight. I would like to have on chance on a battlefield, if it were to only see how I should feel. There is nothing like a practical insight into human nature, as it exists in one's own breast. But I am almost certain we shall have no fighting to do. We are, however, still destined to proceed, "onward", is the word, to Monterey. We are not to have our baggage train; all our trunks are to be left behind. Provisions, air munitions, and all necessary articles are to be carried on packed mules. The route to Monterey is long, and I am told by one of our guides very difficult. Let it be ever so difficult we will let Gen. Paredes see that while war lasts, our determination to march through Mexico will never be abandoned. We have here something like twenty thousand men, which is rather more than enough to beat all the troops Mexico can bring into the field.

Excuse all errors and appearances, for I write upon a piece of the top a flour barrel, lying in my lap.
[RWH]


NNR 71.056 26 September 1846 operation of the Army of the Center, preparations to advance on Chihuahua, San Antonio de Bexar occupied

Gen. Wool is up early and late, and is fast bringing the volunteers into form. He is still in town, but, tomorrow or next day, will pitch his tent, with the troops in Camp Crockett, as will every officer whose constant business does not make it necessary to remain in town.

I have no doubt that the general will take possession of the capital of Chihuahua some time in the month of October. The distance to the Rio Grande is calculated at about 140 miles, and from there to Chihuahua 450 miles, making our march 600 miles, over lovely country.

The Kentucky and Tennessee cavalry, it is supposed, will join Gen. Taylor's command. They have as yet, not arrived. Gen. Wool's force will amount to about 5,000.

Since writing to you on the instant Capt. Washington's company of the 4th United States artillery arrived here from Carlisle, (Pa). They entered the city yesterday, and passed through in full uniform with four 6 pounders and two 12 pound howitzers, with their caissons, traveling forge, baggage train, &c, which made quite formidable appearance for this part of the country, and much astonished the Mexicans here, they never having seen so great an artillery displayed in an army, and believing nothing could equal that of the Mexicans. They encamped on the San Pedro, about two miles from the city.
[RWH]


NNR 71.056-057 26 September 1846 Army of the West, additional regiments mustered into service, paid, and discharged

The St. Louis Republican of the 8th says: "Major A. D. Stuart, paymaster of the United States army for this district, we understand will leave today for Fort Leavenworth, to pay the companies compromising the regiment of infantry now forming there to join Gen. Kennedy. They will be entitled, we suppose, to a year's clothing, and traveling expenses from the place of enrollment to the place where they are mustered into the service. If we are correctly informed, Major S., is anticipating what he supposes will be the orders of the proper department, and to do so, we understand has raised the money from the Bank of Missouri, upon his own drafts.
[RWH]


NNR 71.057: September 26, 1846 Missouri regiment dismissed

ANOTHER COUNTERMAND. - Letters were received at St. Louis on the 12th instant, from the war department, notifying the United States officers at St. Louis of the determination of the government to dispense with the services of the regiment of infantry called for by the requisition on the governor of Missouri of 18th of July, and which regiment had nearly all, assembled at Fort Leavenworth. The order directs that they shall be mustered out of services as speedily as possible, either at Fort Leavenworth, or any other point where they may be. They will, or course, receive pay for the time which they may have passed in service, for traveling to Fort Leavenworth, and, we presume, six months long.
[JTW]


NNR 71.057(2): September 26, 1846 Letter from a volunteer, artillery

FROM BENT'S FORT. -The St. Louis New Era has the following extract of a letter from a volunteer in Major Clark's artillery company:

Fort Bent, August 9, 1846.

"We are not encamped exactly at the fort, but about nine miles this side. Our intelligence is very limited as regards our future course, the officers seeming to consider that the dear people have no use for information. The impression is we shall start after resting eight or ten days to recruit horses and men, they are both in almost a universally use up condition, though there are not a great number actually laid up by sickness-in all, in our company, about ten. There is great complaining about a want of provisions, the men actually not receiving more than about half as much as they can eat. The issue to be made in the future of coffee is to consist of four tin cups for the entire company for 24 hours. One company lately attacked a provision wagon and took therefrom all they wanted; and their example may be imitated. Some of the companies, I believe, have less or nothing to complain of."
[JTW]


NNR 71.057(3): September 26, 1846 Disappointed volunteer

A DISAPPOINTMENT. - One of our citizens, a youth of remarkable courage and consistency, and indomnitable perseverance, left this city some years ago for Texas, where he became distinguished in the military service. He was here, last spring, looking for an appointment in the mounted regiment, in which he was promised a captaincy. Being here, he was designated and employed by the government to carry the Santa Fe traders the intelligence of the war with Mexico. When the Texas senators were informed that he had undertaken the task, they pronounced that would be rash in the extreme for Capt. Howard to undertake the enterprise without an escort. But the captain did undertake and execute it with entire success. He returned to this city, a few says ago, and found that he had lost his captaincy, there being no vacancies-and the war department cut down his allowance for his energetic enterprise one half. [Washington corres. of the N. Y. Commercial. ]
[JTW]


NNR 71.057 26 September 1846 New York California expedition delayed

New difficulties have broken out amongst California volunteers at Governor's Island, New York. On the 18th the regiment was marched to the guard house to receive their bounty money previous to embarking. The men of company C- the first company marched up- refusing to pay the prices charged for the clothing, viz: $5 for jackets, $3 for pants, and $1.50 for caps. They were willing to pay a fair price, but were confined for insubordination. Company A then came up and refused. They were marched back to their quarters; and confined to their tents. Col. Bankhead, finding the refusal general, told them they would be compelled to embark without their pay- which they preferred to taking the clothing at the prices charged.
[RWH]


NNR 71.057 26 September 1846 Col. Jonathon D. Stevenson's effects seized, difficulties later resolved

Col. Jonathon D. Stevenson- A motion, we understand, was yesterday made for the appointment of a receiver of the property and the effects of this gentleman, upon a creditor's bill filed against him, in which N. Dane Ellingwood was complaintant.- The motion was granted. Will not this stop his supplies from the government? He is under bail, which was put in upon his arrest under a writ of ne excal, to stay within the jurisdiction of the court.
[RWH]


NNR 71.057-058 26 September 1846 letter from an officer at Matamoros

The main body of the army having advanced to Camargo, I am left here to follow on a few days with some of the rear parties. This leaves a few idle hours on my hands and it will be interesting for me to occupy them with a narration of facts and fancies that come within my observation or that pass through my brain: I only hope that it will be equally interesting for you and those around you to read these random thoughts strung together in a random manner.

I have seen many letters, dispatches, communications, &c. from Washington, and also letters from this place to the press of the United States, having the Mexican troops, affairs, country, and people as topics; but all that I have seen has impressed me unfavorably as regards to the knowledge received by the one class of writers, and that intended to be conveyed by the other. Something, therefore, on these subjects may be interesting. My information and opinions addressed in the following manner: Shortly after arrival at this place I received the General 's permission to take a room in town. My next door neighbor, Don is a fair representative of the most worthy class of Mexicans- well educated, well acquainted with history, and statistics of his own country and those of the United States; at the same time, without energy, enterprise or industry; bigoted as a Catholic, yet opposed to the priests as republican opposed to all the recent military Governments, and as a patriot opposed to the Americans. I was called upon almost daily to protect his family from the unceremonious visits or the rude treatment of the volunteers, so that an intimacy was soon established between us: he was pleased to see me in his house, he and his wife and sister took pains to teach me the language, and we were soon on the most amicable relations; and enabled to interest each other in conversation. From the Mexicans one meets in the streets nothing is to be learned, except probably some isolated fact. They are polite and cold- Enter their houses, which you can seldom do without intrusion, and you are treated with a still more cold civility. From the Americans and Irish merchants could learn but little of the true character of the people. They are better acquainted with the state of trade, and geographical facts, and with the mere present temper and opinion of the people. But in this family I learned that feelings exist and opinions are entertained which I neither saw nor heard else, here. For more than two months I have been intimate with this family, and have been a daily visitor, and I have always found them consistent- warm impulsive feelings, weak judgment, and weak character.

The province of Texas extended say they, to the Nueces, and the conquest of Texas extended no further. On the east bank of the Rio Grande, and as far in the interior as the Arroyo Colorado, Mexican families resided- Mexican customs, and Mexican laws prevailed. Texas presumed to lay claim to the Rio Grande and by force of arms of the United States possessed themselves the country. This they say was ungenerous, unjust, and mean; as a powerful people did wrong to a weaker one; under the cloak of a shallow claim. The presence of our troops upon the Rio Grande they looked on as an invasion of their country; when we get among finer and more intelligent race of men. As a nation they are peculiarly given to hope for something better. They are satisfied to see things as they are; they can see no way by which they are to be improved, and are unwilling to make an exertion to improve them; and yet they hope and sincerely expect that things will turn out better.- They do not believe yet but their troops are superior to our regulars; and, as for the volunteers, they consider them as useless being undisciplined. They explain the defeat of the "Resaca"in different ways; the Ampudia men say that Arista sold the army; others say that Ampudia acted as a traitor. There is no doubt but that Ampudia demoralized the army much by his seditious talk, both to his officers and men.

They believe that their cavalry is the best in the world; all that they want is good horses; provided with these; they will be enabled to break an y square or line of infantry. In their own fights, the cavalry ride over the infantry. They believe moreover that in May's charge the whole merit was due to the horse- that they ran away with the riders and carried them much further than intended. In want of other arguments, they fall back upon the history of their revolutions, when rude and undisciplined masses drove from this country the regular troops of Spain. Their first position is to doubt if we will be successful against equal numbers, and they calculate with certainty on our falling before superior forces. Second, that the great disadvantages we will labor under when in the interior of the country, far removed from our supplies, that these difficulties will defeat us, without the agency of Mexican troops.- Third, that though they may be beaten, still they will not be conquered; they will have to continue the war three years, when we must be defeated by our own expenses. That these opinions are held is proved in other ways. We can get the services and property of these people for the money, but we have not got their good will.

There is another circumstance that will make our military success unavailable: the want of stiffness in the nation. If they had a commerce for this war to destroy; if they had an internal industry which it would interrupt, or if the people possessed luxuries and comforts of which they would be deprived, there would then be something to operate against, and by which we could move the people. We could be as the whirlwind in the forest- leave the desolation of war around us. But, constituted as Mexico is, our visitation will be as the tempest in the prairie: for a moment we will agitate the grass that is in our track, but leave no impression behind us.- The country is without commerce, industry or institutions; the people are without comforts, and are armed with a panopoly of vanity and pride which is bullet- proof. They have but to step aside and let the storm pass, biding their time to set. And, should it not come, they will still smile complacently as they reflect that this tempest, which had done them no harm, has at least been expensive to their enemies.

Nothing can be more uncongenial to their feelings than the idea annexation, or of living under American laws. They recognize the superiority of our institutions; they see that property is protected, that industry is promoted, that our people are not the sport of yearly revolutions, nor victims to the exactions of a ruthless and starving soldiery. They wish that their institutions and laws could be the same, and that they could have the same chance of being a happy and industrious people; but they want it among themselves. But, with annexation to the United States, they see not their amalgamation with our people, but to their own extinction. They see their religion sunk from the high position it now holds they will have strange laws and strange customs thrust upon them; they will see their lands pass from their hand through some deficiency of title, of which they are now happily ignorant; they will have the wild restless population from Texas and the valley of the Mississippi for neighbors, whose contempt for all law is supreme, and whose disregard of the decencies of life, and of property, and of life itself, is notorious.- No its better for us to wait, say they; time may improve our Government, or we may be enabled to set up one for ourselves. At any rate, whatever disorders we have we must submit to; we have still our own religion, our own people, our own lands, and our own laws and customs, and no advantage which we might gain from annexation to the United States can compensate us for the loss of these. Such is the spirit and feeling as expressed by themselves, and is demonstrated by their acts. How will this affect our military operations? We must expect to find no party in our favor, no gratuitous information or assistance- every thing reluctantly given, even for high prices, whereas the Mexican General will be informed of all the pariculars relative to us which he may desire to know. They will offer no resistance to our progress, and probably will cause us but little annoyance to our supply trains and our foraging parties; for although imbued with the feeling of bitterness and hate, they still want the courage and enterprise of the Spanish guerrilla to make them formidable. Should, however, occasions present themselves where there would be but little risk and certainty of escape, and booty to be acquired they would not fail to make the trial; and if successful would make it a bloody triumph. Should disaster happen to us, then would they be about us.
[RWH]


NNR 71.058 26 September 1846 comment on Gens. Pedro Ampudia and Mariano Arista

So much for General Arista. Ampudia did all he could to destroy Arista and, I think was gratified at the results of the two fights.
[RWH]


NNR 71.058-060 26 September 1846 Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's proclamation from Veracruz for the regeneration of the republic

Vera Cruz, August 16, 1846. MEXICANS: Called by the people and the garrisons of the departments of Jalisco, Vera Cruz, and Sinaloa, South Mexico, and other points of the republic, I quitted Havana on the 8th inst. at nine in the evening, with the sole object of coming to aid you in saving our country from its enemies, internal and external. Great has been my joy, when, on arriving at this point, I learned that the former had been overthrown by your own forces; and that I was already proclaimed, on all sides, as general-in-chief of the liberating army. A proof of so much confidence will be met by me with the utmost loyalty; but on accepting the plan proclaimed, allow me to enter into some explanation, which I consider necessary, in order to dispel any suspicions founded on a past, the recollections of which are so painful to me.

Desiring to consolidate peace in the interior of the republic, in order to make it flourish and prosper, and to assure by that means the integrity of our immense territory, I devoted all my efforts, in consequence of the events of 1834, to establish an administration endowed with vigor and energy, and capable of keeping down the spirit of turbulence and discord. Without ever going beyond republican forms, I endeavored for this purpose to support myself on property, on high position, on creeds, and even on the few historical memorials existing in our country; hoping thus to moderate, by the inertia of conservative instincts, the vehemence of popular masses. But without ascendancy and prestige, as I was, and the elements assembled by me being viewed with distrust, resistance was made on all sides; which, however, expected to overcome in time. I call on God to witness, that in this I acted with patriotism, with sincerity, and with good faith.

After some years of trial, I began to remark that the republic did not advance; that some departments showed tendencies of separation from the others; and that the public discontent was daily increasing wavering then in my convictions, they afterwards lost all their power, when a part of the country had been occupied by strangers, and our national existence of the, whole was endangered. I called on the people to the rescue, and they answered me with threats; as if any other misfortune could have been preferable to that in which the country then was placed. Urged by the firm determination that we should be a sovereign and independent people, and knowing, on the other hand, the vast resources on which we could rely for support, I then became convinced that our government, being organized in a manner by no means conformable with the wishes of the nation, and governed by secondary legislature, not adapted for the advancement of its interests, the people revenged themselves in that way, by seeking for an occasion in which they should be called on to take care of their own good, and to organize their government in a manner which they should consider most proper.

In our time, we have seen another nation, in a similar conflict employing similar means to oblige its government to promise the representative system which it was anxious to have established, and when that had been obtained, we have seen its moral apathy changed into heroic enthusiasm against the foreign invader who endeavored to subjugate it. Is there anything, therefore, strange in the idea that our people should, in this instance, do as much to recover the full enjoyment of their sovereignty, acknowledged by all governments, though trodden under foot by all, in the practical administration of affairs? On this point I owe to my country, in consideration of the part which I have taken, to declare frankly and honestly, upon this critical and solemn occasion, that it can be saved only by a return to first principles, with entire, submission of the minority to the sovereign will of the majority of the nation. Upon proof so clear and peremptory, of the serious difficulties attending that which I had considered best calculated to secure to the republic respectability abroad, I found it right to recede, and to yield to public opinion, and follow it with the same ardor and constancy with which I had opposed it before comprehending it. To discover the most effective means of raising the spirit of the public, and predisposing it to the war, with which we were threatened on the north, was my employment; and I was beginning to develop the measures for that purpose, when the events of the 6th of December, 1844, occurred, and plunged the republic into the miserable situation in which you now see it.

Expatriated from that time forever from the national territory, with a prohibition to return to it under the hard penalty of death, the obstacle which I was supposed to present to the establishment of an administrative system, conformable with public exigencies, being removed, I believed that the men who had succeeded in placing themselves in my stead, by calling public opinion to their aid in effecting it, would respect that opinion, and summon the nation to organize its government according to its own wishes. Pained, as I was, not to be allowed to take part in the real regeneration of the country, I still most sincerely desired it; because I believed that whilst our political horizon was daily becoming darker, no other means was left to save us.

My prayers for this were redoubled, on seeing that, in consequence of the development of the invasive policy of the United States, stimulated by the perfidy of the cabinet of General Herrera, on the serious question of our northern frontiers, the European press began to indicate the necessity of a foreign intervention in our domestic concerns, in order to preserve us from the ambitious projects of the neighboring republic. That, however, which raised my uneasiness to the greatest height, was to see in a newspaper of credit and influence, published in the old world, a proposition made in October last, to bring us back, by force, under the yoke of our ancient masters. My conviction was, nevertheless, still strong, that no Mexican, however weak might be his feelings of attachment for his country, would dare to favor such ideas openly, and still less to recommend them to the consideration of the people.

Meanwhile, news reached me of a revolution projected by General Paredes, which revived my hopes; for though he had been the determined enemy of every representative popular government, I supposed that he had altered his opinions, and I honored him so far as to believe him incapable of advancing schemes for European intervention, in the interior administration of the republic. He succeeded, and his manifesto declaring his adhesion to the plan proposed by the troops quartered at San Luls Potosi, increased my uneasiness; because I clearly saw in it a diatribe against the independence of the nation, rather than the patriotic address of a Mexican general, seeking, in good faith, to remedy the evils of his country. His perverse designs were, in fine, fully revealed, as well by his summons [for the assemblage of congress] of the 24th of last January, issued in consequence of this revolution, as by the newspapers showing the tendency of his administration to the establishment of a monarchy, under a foreign prince, in the republic.

As one of the principal chiefs of the independence of our country, and the founder of the republican system, I was then indignant at this endeavor of some of its sons to deliver the nation up to the scoffs of the world, and to carry it back to the ominous days of the conquest. I thereupon took the firm determination to come and aid you to save our country from such a stain, and to avoid the horrible consequences of a measure by which its glorious destiny was to be reversed, carrying it back to what it was, and to what it never should be again. To execute this determination, was to offer up my blood to any one who, in case of failure, might choose to shed it, in compliance with the terms of the barbarous decree which drove me from the republic; but I preferred to perish in this noble attempt, rather than appear indifferent to the ignominy of my country, and see the countless sacrifices made for our independence, and the right to govern ourselves, all rendered illusory.

Mexicans: The real objects of those who, while invoking, order and tranquillity, have constantly endeavored to prevent the nation from organizing its government as it chose, have now been laid open; and the time is come when all true republicans of all parties, the body of the people as well as the army, should unite their efforts sincerely, in order to secure entirely the independence of our country, and to place it at liberty to adopt the form of government most suitable to its wishes, each sacrificing his own individual convictions to the will of the majority. How, indeed, can the minority, however wise, opulent, and powerful they may be, pretend to assume to themselves the right to regulate the affairs of the community, or to govern the majority, without an express delegation from the latter, given of their own accord, not presumed, nor still less extorted by force? This may be among people who are ignorant of their own rights, and where the want of the means of independent subsistence subjects the many to the few, who have monopolized everything; but it is not to be effected among us, in whom the democratic spirit, in the midst of so many favoring circumstances, has been developing itself for thirty-six years, and now renders imperious and decisive, the necessity of concentrating by practice, the political axiom of the sovereignty of the nation.

This most essential circumstance has been disregarded and despised in all the constitutions hitherto given to the country; and in the only one which has appeared most popular, the antagonism of the principles adopted, has rendered it ineffective; so that democracy, which alone can serve as a solid basis for our social edifice, has been unable to develop itself, and thus to afford the peace which is its instinctive law, and the other ineffable benefits which it produces. Hence the convulsions which have so long agitated us, and of which some European writers have taken advantage, so far as to depreciate our race; opposing the liberty and independence of the republic; manifesting the necessity of interference, in order to strengthen it against the febrile invasion of the United States; and declaring, in fine, that it would be as easy to conquer Mexico with a portion of the troops now quartered in the island of Cuba, as it was in the time of the native Mexican princess. My blood boils on seeing the contempt with which we are thus treated, by men who either do not know us well, or who, interested in transplanting among us the fruits of their old social systems, and of the times in which they originated, consider America in the same state in which it was in the sixteenth century. Should any attempts be made, as indicated, to carry these mad plans into effect, all interests of race would be silenced, and but one voice would be heard throughout the continent. The one hemisphere would then be seen arrayed against the other, and for the disasters each would fall on the rash aggressor who should thus attempt to interfere with the internal administration of other nations, he alone would be responsible.

To pronounce thus against the many nations which form the great Hispano-American family, to declare them incapable of enjoying republican institutions is, in fact, to be ignorant of, or to conceal, what is proved by the testimony of Chili, New Grenada, arid Venezuela, in contradiction of such assertions. It is to attribute, no doubt with evil intentions, to men of a certain race, defects of administrative forms, which, not being entirely democratic, have produced the bitter fruits of the monarchical forms, engrafted on them, without adverting to the fatal influence of the latter on the lot of the others.

To expect, moreover, to strengthen the nation by monarchy, under a foreign prince, is to suppose the existence in it of elements for the establishment and maintenance of that system; or that, wearied by its struggle, to conquer its liberty, the nation sighs for European masters, or for anything else than the peace, which alone it wants. Erroneous, most erroneous indeed is this idea. In the efforts of the nation to emancipate itself from the power of the few, who, in good or in bad faith, have endeavored to rule it in their own way, its democratic tendencies have acquired such a degree of intensity and energy, that to oppose them, to attempt to destroy the hopes to which they gave birth, by a project such as that advanced, would be to provoke a desperate measure; to endeavor to cure an evil by the means calculated to exasperate it. Fascinated by the example of a nation not yet a century old, and which, under its own government, has attained a degree of prosperity and advantages not enjoyed by those of the Old World, notwithstanding their antiquity, and the slow progress of their political systems, our republic aspires only to the management of its own affairs, either by itself, or through representatives in whom it has confidence, in order to develop the vast resources of power and wealth in its bosom.

This being therefore its dominant, its absorbing idea, it would have resisted the other plan with all its might and if an attempt bad been made to change its direction by the employment of foreign bayonets, it would have flown to arms, and war would have burst forth throughout its immense territory, renewing even more disastrously the bloody scenes of 1820 and the succeeding years. From such a state of things, the Anglo-American race would have derived great advantage for the progress of its ambitious schemes, or for forming a new republic from our interior departments, by exciting their sympathies and gratitude for the services rendered them in repelling a project no less injurious to itself. This tendency, which has been excited in some departments by disappointment from not obtaining provincial liberties, which they desired, would have become general throughout all; and no force would have been able to restrain them from carrying such views into effect.

On the other hand, the republic being composed for the most part of young men, who have no knowledge of the past, except from the sinister accounts of their fathers, and who, educated with republican ideas, rely with confidence on a government eminently popular, to lead their country to prosperity and greatness---where are the internal supports which monarchy presented as the means on which our salvation can be founded? That which has disappeared, habits of passive obedience no longer exist; and if there remains a sentiment of religion, time has undermined the political power of the directors of consciences. An influential aristocracy, so necessary for the permanence of monarchies such as exist in old Europe, the only proper place for institutions of that class, is not to be found, nor can it ever be organized here. In Europe, the misery of the great mass of the overloaded population, which depends on its own labor to obtain what is strictly and merely necessary for its subsistence, in the midst of an industry which is so severely tasked, allows no time to the people to think of their political rights, nor means to free themselves from the tyranny of the patrician families, on whom they depend, all the landed property being in their hands. But no such state of things can be found in our republic; in which all is uncultivated, virgin, rich, and fruitful, offering to man, in the utmost abundance, and with the greatest facility, all that he can ask for his labor---all that can lead to that individual independence which favors the development of democratic instincts.

These difficulties being, therefore, of such a nature as to render nearly impossible the establishment of monarchy in our country, attempts have been made, in order to overcome them, to throw the affairs of the republic into the greatest disorder, preventing the organization of its government within, and aggravating the most serious question of our northern frontiers with another nation.

In this manner the faction which fostered that parricide project, having attained the first of its ends by many years of artifices and maneuvering, next proposed to carry the second into effect, by provoking, in a manner almost direct, the government of the United States to aggrandize itself by taking our rich department of Texas, and then advancing into the very heart of our country. To involve our people in the evils of a fearful invasion, has been its last resource, in order to force them to accept its painful alternative obliging them either to become the prey of Anglo-American ambition, or to fly, for the safety of their national existence, to monarchical forms under a European prince.

For this object it was that this party, having the control in the chambers of 1844-45, refused to the government of that period the appropriations which it asked for maintaining the integrity of the national territory, already seriously jeoparded. It did more: it raised up a revolution, in which the slender allowances made to the government for that object, on its urgent demands, were unblushingly declared to be suppressed; and, on its triumph, it scattered the means collected for the war, and hastened to recognise the independence of Texas. The chief of this revolution, who has always acted under the influence of his own fatal inspirations, then appeared again in insurrection at San Luis Potosi, with the force destined for the defence of the frontiers; and withdrawing that force to the capital of the republic, he there usurped the supreme power, and began to put in operation his scheme of European intervention in our interior administration, whilst the hosts of the Anglo-Americans were advancing to take possession, even of the banks of the Rio Bravo. Having at his disposal considerable forces in the adjoining departments, he allowed the enemy time to advance, without resistance, through our territory; and at length-most tardily-be sent to Matamoras a small body of troops, needy, and unprovided with anything necessary for conducting the campaign with success. Who can fail to see, in these perfidious maneuvers, the bastard design of attracting the forces of the enemy to our central territories, in order there to propose to us, in the midst of the conflicts of war, as the only means of safety, the subjection of the republic to servitude, the ignominy of the country, the revival of the plan of Iguala---in fine, the return to the government of the viceroys.

With this object, and for this fatal moment, which every means was employed to hasten, was a congress assembled, chosen for the purpose, composed only of representatives of certain determined classes, not forming even a sixth of our population, and elected in a manner, perfidiously arranged, to secure a number of voices sufficient to place the seal of opprobrium on the nation. Leaving, with scarcely a single representative, the great majority of the nation, the eleven bishops of our dioceses were declared deputies, and our ecclesiastical cabildos were authorized to elect nine others on their parts, giving to the bishops the faculty of appointing such proxies as they might choose, to take their places in case they should not find it convenient to attend in person. Does not this prove abundantly that a decided endeavor was made to supplant the will of the nation, in order to give some species of authority to this scheme of European intervention in the settlement of our internal affairs?

The protestation of republican sentiments made by General Paredes, after these irrefragable proofs so fully condemning him, were only new acts of perfidy, intended to tranquilize the republic, to set its suspicions at rest, and to arrange the occasion for carrying into effect his base designs. He uttered these protestations in the middle of March last, when he saw the public discontent manifest itself against his powers and his plans. But what followed? Did he not continue to protect the Tiempo, a newspaper established in the capital itself, for the sole object of rendering republican forms odious, and recommending the necessity of a monarchy; advancing every argument which could be supposed calculated to lead astray the good sense of the nation? Did he convene another popular congress? Did he retract the summons which be had issued in January, placing the fate of the nation at the mercy of the few men who remain among us of the old colonial regime? Everything continued in the same way; and, when the press was prohibited from discussing forms of government, it was in order to give an amnesty to the writers in favour of monarchy, who were then prosecuted by the judicial power, and to encourage them to continue their criminal publications, while silence was imposed on the defenders of the republican system. Meanwhile he hastened, by every means in his power, the assemblage of the congress destined to carry into effect his monarchical plan; he concentrated his forces, in order to suppress all movements on the part of the people, alarmed by the neat, approach of such an unpropitious event; abandoning our frontiers to the invaders, or rather surrendering them to the foreign enemy, by the reverses which he had prepared and arranged at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma.

No, Mexicans! let there be no compromise with a party whose conduct has been a tissue of cruel treachery towards our country ; have nothing to do with it, however flattering be its promises, and whatsoever the forms with which it may in future invest itself.

In the last convulsions of its agony it sought to assure its safety by its accustomed maneuvers. It proclaimed principles which it detested. It allied itself with bastard republicans, and exhibited itself as the friend of liberty, in order, by that means, to avoid its just punishment, to maintain itself in power, and to continue to undermine the edifice cemented by the illustrious blood of the Hidalgos and Morelos.

The fraudulent schemes of the enemies of our country being thus unfolded, and the true source of its misfortunes being laid open to all, the radical remedy of the whole evil consists in putting an end for ever to the ruinous control of minorities, by calling on the nation honestly to fix its own destiny, and to secure its territory, its honor, and its welfare. Thus placed in entire liberty to act, as it should be, in the midst of the discussions carried on by the press, in the tribune, and even in the streets and squares, it will take into consideration the evils which surround it, and seek the means of resisting them 1 and satisfied in its desires, mistress of its own fate, it will display the energy peculiar to a free people, will prove equal to the conflicts in which it is to be engaged-and will come out of them, not only honorably, but moreover, entirely regenerated. In this way, the administration, established, resting on, and springing from public opinion, may display all its organized forces, to maintain our territory, instead of quartering them in the central towns, as hitherto, under a government created by seditious movements, constantly at war with the nation, and occupied solely in endeavoring to save itself, without regard for our external dangers.

Fellow-countrymen, never has the situation of the republic been so difficult as at present. Its national existence threatened on one side, on the other an attempt has been to subject it to the hardest of all lots, to European dominion. Such is the abyss to which we have been brought by the endeavor to govern our young society according to the system adopted in the old. This is the true cause of the long struggle in which we have been engaged, which has weakened our forces, and by which the interests of the majority have been sacrificed to the extravagant pretensions of a small minority. This state of things must be ended, in compliance with the wishes of the nation; and by opposing to the former, the Union of republicans of true faith, the concert of the army and the people. By this union we shall conquer the independence of our country; thus united, we shall confirm it by establishing peace on the solid basis of public liberty thus united, we shall preserve the integrity of our immense territory.

But now, with regard to the plan proposed for revolution, it is my honor and my duty to observe, that by limiting the congress therein proclaimed to the organization of the system of government, and the determination of what relates to the serious question of our northern frontiers, the provisional government of the nation would find itself required, until the system has been thus organized, to use its own discretion on all other points. This would be investing the provisional government with a dictatorship, always odious, however imperious might be the circumstances rendering it necessary. I therefore propose that the said assembly should come fully authorized to determine with regard to all branches of the public administration, which may be of general interest, and within the attributes of the legislative, power; the provisional executive of the nation acting with entire submission to its determinations.

I consider it, moreover, indispensable that a uniform rule be established for the regulation of the interior affairs of the departments; and that for this purpose the constitution of the year 1824 be adopted, until the new constitutional code be completed. By this means we shall avoid that divergency of opinions, at this critical moment, when uniformity is so much needed; the national will which sanctioned that, code will have been consulted, and the executive of the nation will have a guide to follow, so far as the present eccentric position of the republic will allow. I submit both measures to the will of the departments, expressed by the authorities, who may be established in consequence of the revolution; proposing, moreover, that the provisional government of the nation should adopt forthwith the second, as the rule of its conduct, until it be determined otherwise by the majority of the departments, in the form already indicated. The slave of public opinion myself, I shall act in accordance with it, seeking for it henceforth in the manner in which it may be known and expressed, and subjecting myself afterwards entirely to the decisions of the constituent assembly, the organ of the sovereign will of the nation.

Mexicans! There was once a day, and my heart dilates with the remembrance, when leading on the popular masses, and the army, to demand the rights of the nation, you saluted me with the enviable title of soldier of the people. Allow me again to take it, never more to be given up; and to devote myself until death, to the defence of the liberty and independence of the republic.
[RWH]


NNR 71.065 October 3, 1846 Arrest and execution of Mexican spies at Camargo, attack on Americans between Camargo and Matamoros

Intelligence from Point Isabel, of the 16th instant, states that two Mexican spies had been arrested at Camargo and hung. It is also stated that a party of Americans on their way from Camargo to Matamoros were attacked by some Mexicans, and one American and six Mexicans killed.
[WFF]


NNR 71.065 3 October 1846 suspension of the building of wagons for the Army

The Newark Adventurer of the 16th states that orders are received there to stop building wagons for the army for the present. Only about 150 as yet been forwarded from there.
[RWH]


NNR 71.065: October 3, 1846 LATEST FROM THE ARMY OF OCCUPATION.

Advices reached New Orleans, on the 21st from Brasos St. Jago.

Capt. Murray reached Camargo on the 8th Sept. post haste from Gen. Worth's camp at Seralvo, 60 miles from Monterey. McCullouch's rangers had come into camp with intelligence that on the 4th, about 40 miles from Seralvo, they discovered a body of Mexicans, who retired as the rangers advanced until the latter discovered a body of 800 to 1000 men. They ascertained the Mexicans to be in force, and probably designed to attack General Worth before the army arrived.

Capt. Murray met General Taylor, with a part of his force, some distance in advance of the main body, and within 35 miles of Seralvo, on a forced march to its relief. Captain Murray thought it highly probable that a battle was fought on the 8th. The Mexicans it was said had determined to make a strong resistance between Seralvo and Monterey. The forces of Ampudia and Arista were co-operating, and their numbers now said to be 8000, were accumulating rapidly, the Mexicans rallying to their standard from all quarters. Monterey is said to be well fortified.

Santa Anna, Ampudia and the Governor of Tamulipas, have issued proclamations which have been received at Camargo. The proclamation of Ampudia makes the penalty very severe upon all who may furnish provisions, assist in transporting provisions, or in any wise aid the Americans. It prohibits them from holding any intercourse or carrying on any trade with us. Death and a confiscation of property are the penalties for disobeying the order.

General Taylor issued an order on the 10th instant, at Camargo, forbidding any American citizen to locate in Camargo without a written permit from the General. No goods would be permitted to remain, and no person not connected with the Army suffered to stop in Camargo.

Intelligence from Point Isabel, of the 16th instant, states that two Mexican spies had been arrested at Camargo and hung. It is also stated that a party of Americans on their way from Camargo to Matamoras were attacked by some Mexicans, and one American and six Mexicans killed.

At Matamoras col. Clark was shot at while sitting in his room. It was ordered that all Mexicans be deprived of their arms, and none should either go out of the city or come into it without the written order of the commander.

There appears to be a vast deal of sickness at Matamoras and other towns on the Rio Grande. The McKim brought over 250 invalids to New Orleans, a number of whom were admitted into the Charity Hospital.
[JTW]


NNR 71.066 3 October 1846 curiousty respecting reply received by government from Mexican government, speculation thereon, hopes of a peace diminished, the "Union for going to war in earnest, another campaign required.

The government paper at Washington preserves a silence not easily accounted for, in regard to the nature of the reply received by the president from the government of Mexico, provided the general impression derived from other sources to be correct as to the tenor of that reply. Granting that state policy would frequently, especially during a state of war, render the promulgation of dispatches improper, yet it is difficult to perceive how such a reply as it is said the government has received, could be that of character. Not only public curiosity, but an immense amount of public private, and individual interests could relieve the anxiety incident to these involvements, so that the future might be duty attend to by all, is so obvious a duty that we are bound to presume that government has some motive for the silence in this case, however much it may puzzle us to conceive what that motive can be.

From information derived from our other sources, the impression has become fixed, however, that the authorities of Mexico instead of replying definitely to the proposition of President Polk, have alleged that their executive has not the adequate authority to act in the premises, and that until their congress shall assemble in December, they are compelled to defer an answer.

This resolves itself at once into a decision that war must be continued.
[RWH]


NNR 71.066: October 3, 1846 Gen. Stephen Watts Kearny marching for Santa Fe

"The Army of the West,"under Gen. Kearney, was at the last authentic intelligence from thence, in full march for Santa Fe, with more than ample force for its occupation. A report had arrived at St. Louis that General K. had taken Santa Fe without opposition, but it was believed to be premature.
[LA]


NNR 71.066(2): October 3, 1846 The Mormon Battalion

Not only more than adequate force to take possession of, but many thousands of "settlers"intending permanently to occupy California, are far on their way towards that region. From one of those parties that started prior to the commencement of the Mexican war, we have in the St. Louis Republican of the 21st September, the following gloomy account:

"The Mormons. We have a most dismal account of the condition of the Mormons who undertook to migrate to California, but stopped at a place agreed on between them and Col. Allen, when the latter was desirous of raising a battalion of infantry from among them. They were to locate on the Platte river, and there to remain for an indefinite period of time. They attempted to raise a crop for their subsistence, but failed to do so, and have abandoned the Platte, and are now at Bellevue, on the Missouri river, near the Council Bluffs. -They are said to be in a starving condition, and nothing but the aid of the government, during the coming winter, will save many of them from death. President Polk, it is understood, some time ago dispatched an agent to their camp, to inquire into their condition--probably with a view of granting them some relief--and he is said to have returned to this city on the General Brooke."
[JTW]


NNR 71.066 3 October 1846 prizes taken by a Mexican privateer

Captain J. H. Rodney of the brig F. L. Vail, arrived at St. John's, N.B. from St. Martins, reports that on the 23d of July, he saw Mexican privateer with three American vessels, prizes, passing by the Island of St. Martins, apparently bound through Sombrero passage.
[RWH]


NNR 71.066(3): October 3, 1846 Infantry assembled at Fort Leavenworth

THE REGIMENT OF INFANTRY, which had just assembled at Fort Leavenworth and about the marching of which so late in the season anxiety was awakened, at last received their pay and outfit, and had no sooner done so, than an officer arrived with orders from the department for their immediate discharge. The expenses incurred in raising, subsiding, clothing, supplies, and transports for this corps is estimated at between ninety and one hundred thousand dollars.
[JTW]


NNR 71.067 3 October 1846 intelligence from John Charles Fremont, &c.

We have received communication by which we learn that Mr. Toplin arrived at Independence September 11th, direct from the Sacramento river, where he left Capt. Fremont on the 3d of April last. Capt. Fremont had received no news of the war, but was intending to remain where he was until he received further orders from the United States, which were daily expected.- Our reader will remember that he was ordered out of the country, but did not intend to go until he was ready.

Mr. Toplin was at Bent's Fort on the 18th of August, Gen. Kearney and all of his troops had been gone some days. He met at Col. Price's regiment at Pawnee Fork and Col. Price himself at Pear Spring, with the remainder of his command. They were all in good health and getting on well. The Mormon battalion was at Council Grove on the 20th August.
[RWH]


NNR 71.067: October 3, 1846 The Army of the Center ready for Chihuahua march; Col Harney arrested

THE ARMY OF THE CENTRE, under General Wool, at the last dates from his headquarters announced to between 3 and 4000 men; were nearly ready to commence the march for the Mexican province of Chihuahua.

Colonel Harney, with his mounted dragoons, returned from his excursion into Mexico, without surprising Monterey, as some seemed to apprehend that he had done or might do, and without, so far as we can perceive, having achieved anything from which laurels can be culled. Three of his men were killed by the Mexicans on their route back. His corps will probably form the advance of Gen. Wool's division, which will consist altogether of over 5,000 men.

It was stated in some accounts that Col. Harney had returned in consequence of orders that effect from Gen. Taylor, and that he was under arrest and would be court-martialed, but the account has been contradicted.
[JTW]


NNR 71.067 3 October 1846 arrival at New Orleans of sick and discharged volunteers from the Rio Grande

The United States steamer Telegraph, Captain Auld, left Brazos Santiago on the 12th and arrived here yesterday via Port Lavacca and Galveston, which place she left on the 16th. The Telegraph brought to the city 365 sick and disabled volunteers, and 45 officers, and landed at Lavacca 72 Texan Gunmen, and part of a company numbering 20 men, at Galveston.
[RWH]


NNR 71.067 3 October 1846 General Zachary Taylor concentrating on Cerralvo

Gen. Patterson was left in command of all the volunteers from Camargo to the mouth of the Rio Grande. Generals Butler and Quitman accompanying General Taylor. He has prohibited any strangers from coming up the river, under instructions from Gen. Taylor. It was then reported that Gen. T. would not proceed further than Seralva, until he received further orders from the Government.
[RWH]


NNR 71.067 3 October 1846 Col. Hay's marching

Gen. Taylor crossed the San Juan on the 6th, and took up the line of march on the7th for Seralvo, where the forces under Worth had halted. Hay's regiment would leave China and take up the line of march for the same place, as to reach there about the same time as Taylor.
[RWH]


NNR 71.067 3 October 1846 hospitals crowded at Camargo and Matamoros

There were 600 sick volunteers in the hospital at Camarago, and they dying very fast. So many were sick, that it required nearly a whol regiment to attend them. Those whom the Tennesseans left behind, seemed particularly unfortunate, for they had to call on the Alabamians to attend the living and bury the dead. As fest as men get able to leave the hospital, they are discharged and sent home. In fact, Gen. Taylor has a disposition to discharge all volunteers who are discontented and whish to return to their homes. Though the number of patients in the hospital at Matamoros is larger than at Camargo, the mortality is greater in the latter place- near three to one. Those who are accustomed to a southern climate, when once prostrated by the fever seldom regain their former strength on the Rio Grande, without a change of atmosphere.- They die off quickly, else become so enfeebled that they are unable to help themselves. A person who has visited the hospitals at the different posts has said that if one-half of the western and northern volunteers who went to the Rio Grande are effective men on the 15 th of October, it is more than he looks for.
[RWH]


NNR 71.067 3 October 1846 Gen. Robert Patterson in command from Camargo to the mouth of the Rio Grande

Gen. Patterson was left in command of all the volunteers from Camargo to the mouth of the Rio Grande. Generals Butler and Quitman accompanying General Taylor.
[RWH]


NNR 71.067 3 October 1846 many deaths

In Camargo there were between 600 and 700 volunteers in the hospitals, and they were dying very fast.
[RWH]


NNR 71.067 3 October 1846 Gen. Pedro Ampudia reinforces Monterey

One letter we have seen sets down the force which Ampudia entered Monterey at from 5,000 to 10,000. It adds that he had issued a proclamation prohibiting all intercourse between the Mexicans and the American army under pain of death.
[RWH]


NNR 71.067 3 October 1846 doubts expressed by the "Union"as to the accounts of "desertions"

In reference to the above and to previous accounts the Washington Union says.- The news which reached us from the army, on Saturday night through the New Orleans papers, is not to be received without many grains of allowance. No dispatches have been received for the three last days; but if it is not difficult to see that the last rumors from the army have come to us through reporters who have imparted hues of too dark a complexion to their stories. We do not credit this report, for example, that when General Taylor arrives at Seralvo, he intends to tarry for dispatches from Washington. It would have been far more consistent with a tactician to have remained at Camargo near to his depots, than to have gone on with provisions for 12,000 troops for 30 days, and then pause upon his march to consume his rations and receive his dispatches. We do not believe it. The reports of sickness, too, are probably extravagant- though it would not be surprising if at this season of the year, under new circumstances so trying to unacclimated constitutions, some hundreds of sick should be found in an army of more than 20,000 people.
[RWH]


NNR 71.067-068 3 October 1846 letter to relative campaigns, munitions, supplies, &c.

Before this reaches you I presume you will have known whether Mexico has declined our offer and is unwilling to receive a Minister from the United States or not. It is said here that Princeton; which arrived few days since al Pensecola, brought the reply of the Mexican Government to our proposition, and all the private letters received here from Vera Cruz and the city of Mexico unite in saying that our offer has been politely declined; the reason assigned is that the Executive Government do not feel authorized to act, and that it rests with the Supreme Congress, which does not meet until December.

When Mr. Polk, upon his own responsibility, brought on this war, I wrote you that neither the Administration nor the people were aware of the job they had undertaken. The former has found out this secret some time since, and the people are finding out very rapidly, and, before many weeks or months have elapsed, will have their eyes fully opened on the subject. Probably there is no man in the country so heartily sick if the war, or more sincerely desirous to get rid of it than Mr. Polk and never was an Administration placed in such a false position as he is at present. When he commenced it he thought he could swallow up Mexico at a single mouthful; that , so soon as she heard of the 50,000 volunteers and all the regular army she would "cave in"at once, and sue for peace on any terms; instead of which, after we have spent millions and millions of money, have collected all our military force on her frontiers, fready to advance from different points into her territory and cover her coasts with our fleets- whilst the cloud of war has thus gathered over and is ready to burst upon her, we offer to treat and to send a Minister for the purpose. She very coolly says, in so many words, to us, "we are very sorry you are so soon tired of the war; we are very comfortable ourselves; it has thus far done us no injury, or created any extra expense, and beg leave to decline receiving any Minister from you." The fact is, Mexico is impassive; she cannot be struck in a vital place; the natural obstacles of the country and the total absence or limited nature of the supplies will prevent a large army from penetrating to the capital, or near it, and the plan of doing so from the Rio Grande is peculiarly absurd, even if it were to succeed, as the distance is double what it is from the seacoast.

Gen. Taylor will no doubt reach Monterey and will find a city of non-combatants, and the object of the campaign no further advanced than at Matamoros. We may take some of their seaports, but that is of no material consequence, as Mexico has but little comme nce, and none that is of any advantage to her, as it is all done by foreigners, and in foreign ships; and as to taking possession of her frontier towns or provinces, it is very acceptable to the inhabitants, as our army, by their immense expenditure, is enriching the country by consuming every thing they can furnish, and paying four prices for every article. As to the manner in which the war has thus far been conducted, utter ignorance, waste and extravagance, have marked all the arrangements connected with it here at home, and has consequently had corresponding effect on the condition and movements of the army; and in nothing has there been grosser or more palpable errors that as regard to the means of transportation, and a volume might be filled with details. At this moment our levee is incumbered with wagons intended for Gen. Taylor's army, lying day after day, with all their fixtures exposed to a sun which raises the thermometer to 130 degrees; and mules bought in the Western country, and brought here at great expense, are being shipped by vessels which receive $3000 to$5000 freight for the run down to the Brasos Santiago, carrying 100 to 150 mules each; many of which perish on the voyage from want of proper care, and the usual risks of a sea voyage, and one half of those landed will die from not being acclimated. One of these transports recently embarked 127 mules here and landed 22; the remainder died or were thrown overboard in a gale; and all this is done when far better, more serviceable and acclimated mules can be bought there at $25 each. All this, however, is but a mere item in comparison with other arrangements, and particularly with the arrangements connected with the inland expedition to Santa Fe & c.'

The following anecdote, among other things, shows what were the views and expectations of the Government as to the present war: A field officer of the army, now with General Taylor, told me, when passing through here, that he was in Washington last spring when the first news arrived of hostilities, and Congress adopted prompt measures for the war; he was conversing with a prominent member of Congress, the chairman of an important committee, which brought him in constant and confidential communication with the Government, of which he was an ardent political supporter and this officer was stating his views as to the most efficient plans for prosecuting the war against Mexico; and, after he got through doing so, added that if this plan was followed he thought the war might be brought to a close by January next." January !"said the chairman in reply, and with much astonishment; "Well, sir,"said the officer, "if such are your expectations, the sooner you being to get the money ready to buy her off the better."
[RWH]


NNR 71.068 3 October 1846 departure of New York California Expedition

The Commercial Advertiser of the 28th says- The California Expedition is off at last, shorn somewhat of its numeric force, as it has long been almost wholly of its moral. Its departure had been signalized by a prolongation of that un happy compound, made up almost equally of misfortune and misconduct, which has attended it from the beginning; and it requires no very abiding or superstitious faith in omens to believe that the issue will be useless and inglorious, in strict conformity with the inception and progress.
[RWH]


NNR 71.080 3 October 1846 Santa Fe taken by Gen. Stephen Watts Kearney

August 18. Gen. Kearney proceeded through the pass and at 5 pm reached hill that overlooks Santa Fe.

Major Clark's artillery was put into line, and the mounted troops and infantry were marched through town to the Palace (as it is called) and his staff dismounted and were received by the acting governor and other dignitaries and conducted to a large room. The general gave the assurance of safety and protection to all unoffending citizens. The stars and stripes were hoisted on the staff which is attached to the Palace by Major Swords. As soon as it was seen to wave above the buildings, it was hailed by a national salute from the battery of Captains Fischer and Weightman, under the command of Major Clark. While the general was proclaiming the conquest of New Mexico as a part of the United States, the first gun was heard." There,"said he, my guns proclaim that the flag of the United States floats over this capitol." The people appeared satisfied. The general slept in the palace. (we democrats must call it the governor's house.) One company of dragoons ws kept in the city as a guard and the business of the day was ended.
[RWH]


NNR 71.067(2): October 3, 1846 Matamoros, no Irishmen deserted

Matamoras, July 21st, 1846.

To all whom it may concern:-I hereby certify that no Irishmen deserted me in any engagement or skirmish with the Mexicans, during the campaign on the Rio Grande; and for public information, I will state that the deserters on the night of 2nd May, when an attack was made on the enemy, were one Englishman, two Americans, and three Germans, who all speak good English. One of the Americans gave as such an excuse for running that his horse was lame.

S. H. Walker,
Lt. Col. Texas Rangers.
[JTW]


NNR 71.081: October 10, 1846 THE WAR WITH MEXICO.

The accounts received during the week are but mere confirmations of previous intelligence.

Army of occupation. The steamship Galveston arrived at New Orleans on the 29th ult. from Port Lavaca and Galveston.

The Galveston Civilian says--"The Kentucky regiment under Col. Marshall, numbering about 800, in encamped at the mouth of the Lavaca, with 200 men on the sick list, owing to the fatigues of a long march. This regiment has just received orders to march forthwith to Camargo. The Tennessee regiment is daily expected. Neither of these regiments were intended to join gen. Wool.

An arrival at Port Lavaca, which left Matamoras on the 18th instant, reports that news had been received very late from General Taylor, to the effect that he was marching upon Monterey with 8,000 men, and was within a few miles of that city. Monterey was said to be defended with a force of 15,000 Mexicans under Gen. Ampudia."
[JTW]


NNR 71.081(2): October 10, 1846 "ARMY OF OCCUPATION."- letter anticipates battle at Monterey.

A letter published in the Washington Union, dated Matamoras, Sept. 14 says: "It is agreed on all hands that we are to have a fight at Monterey. The Mexicans are pouring into this place and making every preparation to Gen. Taylor a warm reception."
[JTW]


NNR 71.081 10 October 1846 Kentucky regiment encamped at Lavaca

The Kentucky regiment under Col. Marshall, number about 800, is encamped at the mouth of the Lavaca with 200 men on the sick list, owing to the fatigues of a long march. This regiment has just received orders to march forthwith to Camargo. The Tennessee regimen is daily expected. Neither of these regiments were intended to join gen. Wool.
[RWH]


NNR 71.082 10 October 1846 settling accounts with volunteer officers: Captain G. H. Tobin's correspondence with Jonathan M. McCalla

Sir- You are charged on the books of this office with $1,625, the value of the clothing furnished for the use of your company, and for which you will be held accountable. In order to relieve yourself from this accountability, you will enter on your first muster roll all articles of clothing and blankets issued to the men under your command, and request they paymaster to deduct the several amounts from their first payment.--Jon M. McCalla, second auditor

Sir- By a decision of the honorable secretary of war, each soldier is entitled to 'six months' clothing to the amount of $21- all over that are to be charged with. There will be other charges of which you will be informed by this office. You will please consider this letter your guide in addition to the one you received from me of the 31st ult.--Jon M. McCalla, second auditor

Sir- I have the honor of acknowledge of receipt of two favors from you, one dated 31st July, the other 8th August. I can only answer by a yarn.

A countryman of mine was one indulging in the very intellectual occupation of sucking fresh eggs raw and reading a newspaper. By some mischance he contrived to bolt a live chicken. The poor bird chirped as it went down his throat and he very politely observed- "Be the powers, my friend, you spoke too late."

I can only say, sir, that your favors have reached me too late. They have been chasing me through the Mexican Post Offices; that is, to express myself more clearly, when I receive them, they (the letters) were down in Mexico and I was up here, and when I didn't receive them, they were up here and I was down there.

The fact is that most of my men have been paid off, and are now scattered to the four corners of the globe. They were mostly sanors, as I was myself. From them (if there be charges) nothing can be expected. The camp and garrison equipment has been turned over to the proper officers, with the exception of sundry axes smashed and placed hors du combat in chopping down there amiable chapparals on the banks of the Rio Grande. I except, also, the camp kettles and pans, many of which were used up in roasting, boiling, stewing, and frying our pork and beans, bacon, and fresh beef, not to speak of the slow venison, which some were nurtured enough to call Mexican beef (may the Lord forgive them).

For my own responsibility in the matter I regret more on Uncle Sam's account than on my own, that I am not worth a continental dime. I have been not only paid, but I believe over paid by about $40. My conscience compelled me to remonstrate with the Paymaster but they assured me that they made no mistakes. I considered their feelings and indulged them.. However I am gonna make good on the money. I gave it to the sick and damaged soldiers.

Most of the other Captains are in the same fix as myself (barring the overpay) about the responsibility refer to my epistle as an answer.

If you have any further enumerations for me please direct the entire case to Major General John Davis V. Orleans. I seldom go to the Post Office cause I have nobody to correspond with, and yet I am not the man who never had a father nor mother, but was won at a raffle-Captain G.H. Tobin.
[RWH]


NNR 71.083 10 October 1846 General Stephen Kearney's proclamation at Santa Fe to the inhabitants of New Mexico

As by the act of the republic of Mexico, a state of way, exists between that government and the United States, and as the undersigned, at the head of his troops on the 18th inst. took possession of Santa Fe, the capital of the old department of New Mexico, he now announces to hold the department with its original boundaries (on both sides of the Del Norte) as a part of the United States, and under the name of the Territory of New Mexico.

The undersigned has come to New Mexico with a strong military force, and an equally strong one is following close in his rear. He has more troops than necessary to put down any opposition that can possibly be brought against him, and therefore it would be folly or madness for any dissatisified or discontented person to think of resisting him.

The undersigned has instructions from his government to respect the religious institution of New Mexico, to protect the property of the church, to cause worship of those belonging to it to be undisturbed, and their religious rights in the amplest manner reserved to them. Also to protect the persons and property of all quiet and peaceful inhabitants within its boundaries, against their enemies, the Eutaws, Navahoes, and others, and while he assures all that if will be his pleasure as well as his duty to comply with these instructions, he calls upon them to exert themselves in preserving order, in promoting concord, and in maintaining the authority and efficiency of the laws; and to require of those who have left their homes and taken up arms against the troops of the United States, to return forthwith to them, or else they will be considered enemies and traitors subjecting their persons to punishment and their property to seizure and confiscation, for the benefit of the public treasury.

It is the wish an intention of the United States to provide for New Mexico a free government with the least possible delay, similar to those in the United States, and the people of New Mexico will then be called on to exercise the rights of freemen in electing their own representatives to the territorial legislature, but until this can be done the laws hitherto in existence will be continued until changed or modified by competent authority, and those persons holding office will continue in the same for the present, provided, they will consider themselves good citizens and willing to take an oath of allegiance to the United States.

The undersigned herby absolves all persons residing within the boundaries of New Mexico, from further allegiance to the republic of Mexico, and hereby claim them as citizens of the United States.- Those who remain quiet and peaceable will be considered as good citizens, and receive protection.- Those who are found in arms, or instigating others against the United States, will be considered as traitors, and treated accordingly. Don Manuel Armijo, the late governor of this department has fled from it. The undersigned has taken possession of it without firing a gun, or spilling a drop of blood, in which he must truly rejoices, and for the present will be considered as governor of the territory.

Given at Santa Fe, the capital of the territory of New Mexico, the 23d day of August 1846, and in the 71st year of the Independence of the United States.
[RWH]


NNR 71.086-087 10 October 1846 Proclamation issued by Gen. Zachary Taylor on crossing the Rio Grande, announcing the course to be pursued towards Mexicans

The people of Mexico: After many years of patient endurance, the United States are at length constrained to acknowledge, that a war now exists between our government and the government of Mexico. For many years our citizens have been subjected to repeated insults and injuries, our vessels and cargoes have been seized and confiscated, our merchants have been plundered, maimed, and imprisoned, without cause and without reparation.- At length your government acknowledged the justice of our claims, and agreed by treaty to make satisfaction, by payment of several million dollars; but this treaty has been violated by your rulers, and the stipulated payment has been withheld. Our late effort to terminate all the difficulties by peaceful negotiation has been rejected by the dictator Paredes, and our minister of peach whom your rulers had agreed to receive, has been refused a hearing. He has been treated with indignity and insult, and Paredes has announced that war exists between us. This war, thus first proclaimed by him, has been acknowledged as an existing fact by our president and congress with prefect unanimity, and will be prosecuted with vigor and energy against your army and rulers; but those of the Mexican people who remain in neutral will not be molested.

Your government is in the hands of tyrants and usurpers. They have abolished your state governments, they have overthrown your federal constitution, they have deprived you of the right of suffrage, destroyed the liberty of the press, despoiled you of your arms, and reduced you to a state of absolute dependence upon the power of a military dictator. Your arms and rulers extort from the people by grievous taxation, by forced loans, and military seizures, the very money which sustains usurpers in power. Being disarmed you were left defenceless, and as easy prey to the savage Gamanches, who not only destroy your lives and property, but drive into captivity, more horrible than death itself, your wives and children. It is your military rulers who have reduced you to this deplorable condition. It is these tyrants, and their corrupt and cruel satellites, gorged with the people’s pleasure by whom you are thus oppressed and impoverished, some of whom have boldly advocated a monarchial government, and would place a European prince upon the throne of Mexico. We come to obtain reparation for repeated wrongs and injuries; we come to obtain indemnity for the past, and security for the future; we come to overthrow the tyrants who have destroyed your liberties, but we come to make no war upon the people of Mexico, nor upon any form of free government they may choose to select for themselves. It is our wish to see you liberated from despots, to drive back the savage Gamanches to prevent the renewal of those usurpers, and to compel them to restore to you from captivity, your long lost wives and children. Your religion, your altars, and churches, the property of your churches, and citizens, the emblems of your faith shall be protected. Contributors Note: The rest of the proclamation was illegible.
[RWH]


NNR 71.087 announcement of the "Union"that the effort to negotiate peace is to be abandoned and more coercive measures pursued, comments of the "Intelligencer"thereon

There can no longer be a question that the refusal of the Mexican Government to accept our propositions for peace, instead of relaxing our own measures will stimulate our Government to a more vigorous prosecution of the war. We must bring its pressure home to the people of Mexico. We must make them feel the evils of the war more strongly, in order that they may appeal to their own Government for peace. It cannot be denied nor concealed that new energy is to be infused into our operations; and the strength of the national arm is to be put forth more efficiently than ever.

When the army of occupation became the army of invasion,, and our victorious banners were planted on the right bank of the Rio Grande, with the view of the conciliating people of Mexico, it was proclaimed by the commanding General, under instructions from his government, that our armies were to respect their private property; and that they were to take nothing and receive nothing which was not to be paid for.- We were anxious to soften the horrors of war in every respect and to conduct it upon the most liberal and refined principles. We had even determined to dispose with the rights which the Laws of Nations fully recognized." Instead of th pillage of the country and defenceless places a custom has been substituted more humane and advantageous to the sovereignty making war. I mean that of contributions. Whoever carries on a just war, has a right of making the enemy’s country contribute to the support of the army, and towards defraying all the charges of the war. We waived these rights in every sense of the term. But what has been the result? It is shown in several articles which have appeared in New Orleans papers, and in letters from the officers of the army. We republished one of them the other day from the columns of the ‘National Intelligencer’. It seems certain that our forbearance has not been appreciated by the Mexican people, and that, not content with receiving fair value for their productions, they have demanded exorbitant prices, whilst their hostility to us has remained undaunted. Officers ask, how can you expect to make it the interest of such people to terminate the war? The experience of the lst five months strengthens the argument.
[RWH]


71.087 10 October 1846 departure of Gen. Thomas Sidney Jessup to take personal command of the quartermaster's department

So much complaint has been made, and so many difficulties experienced, that we rejoice to find from the Union of the 2nd, that "Major General Jessup, Quartermaster General, left Washington this morning for the frontier of Mexico, to take upon himself the general direction of the affairs of his Department in that quarter. This step has been taken with a view to provide for every exigency without the delay and inconvenience which sometimes result from warning instructions from Washington, and in order to secure the utmost clemency and economy to the measures of that Department. We understand also, that when General Jessup left Washington he had recently purchased two excellent steamboats on very moderate terms, for the operations of the Rio Grande, in order to have the high freights which were demanded for the transportation of our stores. Other appliances have been recently adopted, which will save much expense and contribute most effectually to the transportation of the necessary means of our army.
[RWH]


NNR 71.088-71.089 Conditions of the volunteers on the Rio Grande

VOLUNTEERS ON THE RIO GRANDE---A letter from a member of the Louisville (Ky. ) Guards, to his brother in Louisville, written at Camargo, Mexico, September 1st says--

There are not so many sick as we have had, but the cases are generally of a more fatal character, being bilious fevers, which, being very violent, if not reduced in a day or two prove fatal. We have lost some six men since we have been here. Every day you can hear the roll of the muffled drum, and it casts gloom over the countenances of all. There are many going home from disability to perform military duty.

In a letter of Aug. 25, he says--

The day after the date of my last, the six companies of the Legion, whose lot it was to walk, took up the line of march for this place, (via Matamoras)--The country through which we passed is generally low and marshy. After going about four miles, we came to a Lagune, two miles wide and about two feet deep, mud and water. Being heavily laden with our clothes and provisions, the men suffered a great deal, a good many fainted, and had to be carried out by others. One man, belonging to the Baltimore and Washington regiment, died a few minutes after getting out.

The water decided the distance of our marches throughout. The march on the 18th I will recollect long as life lasts, not so much for any suffering I had to undergo, as for what I saw. We made twenty-five miles; the first ten was accomplished early in the morning and without a halt. At the end of the ten we had tolerable water, and rested two hours. ---It had been determined to go to the next water; the march was through a sandy prairie, with occasionally a few miles of chapparal; in the latter the heat is suffocating; they are not high enough to make a shade, and too thick to admit a free circulation of air. The troops were scattered along the road for ten miles in perfect disorder. By dark we came to a muddy pond of filthy water which served to quench our thirst. A great many did not get into camp, till past midnight; some had to be brought in the wagons. We pitched no tents, but tumbled down upon our blankets without taking off any of our equipment.
[PTH]


17.090-092 10 October 1846 diary of an officer of the Army of the West to Santa Fe

Thursday August 13- Started at 12M, Col Doniphan’s regiment in sight as we left the camp. We soon met the spy company, who, with his small party, had captured four Mexicans well mounted and armed. They summoned him and his party to surrender, but the captain told them that he thought their safest plan was to surrender to him.- They prudently consented to do so. They acknowledged themselves sent to ascertain who were.- They were made prisoners.

One of the Mexicans who was taken day before yesterday, was disarmed and sent forward to his village, distant 24 miles, with letters and proclamations. He promised to meet us tomorrow. At eight miles, we came to the establishment of a Mr. Wells, an American. He had an abundance of horses, mules, and cattle. With him was another American who had been sent from Santa Fe by an American merchant of that place, to inform Gen Kearney that the Mexicans were 10000 strong and had determined we were fifteen miles outside of Santa Fe, at a deep ravine.

The Americans at Santa Fe and other towns are very much alarmed for their safety. The Mexicans tell them that if defeated, they will return to their towns and villages and get full revenge on them.

All of this is news communicated to us in a heavy rain, and we are encamping in the midst of it. No little excitement prevails in camp. To retreat nine hundred miles is idle; and if they do met us, as they promised we shall vindicate the character of the Saxon blood in death or victory, Mark that! General Kearney is as cool as if walking to his office on a May morning to attend his accustomed garrison duties, and all look to him as to a man, who has shed glory on the American name. It is sad here that Governor Armijo is opposed to the fight, but is urged on by the rich men of the country; yet the latest accounts are that the rich are backwards in lending their money. But if 10,000 men are assembled they must have furnished the means. There is a Mr. Bonny living near this place, he visited us, and gave us a fat slicer. This is the first settlement we have met. The place is called "Moro." Two beautiful mountain streams meet here, each is sufficient size for milling purposes. The artillery came up at sundown. At this place the road by the Simerone comes in.
[RWH]


NNR 17.090-092 diary of an officer of the Army of the West to Santa Fe, continued

Thursday August 13- Started at 12M, Col Doniphan's regiment in sight as we left the camp. We soon met the spy company, who, with his small party, had captured four Mexicans well mounted and armed. They summoned him and his party to surrender, but the captain told them that he thought their safest plan was to surrender to him.- They prudently consented to do so. They acknowledged themselves sent to ascertain who were.- They were made prisoners.

One of the Mexicans who was taken day before yesterday, was disarmed and sent forward to his village, distant 24 miles, with letters and proclamations. He promised to meet us tomorrow. At eight miles, we came to the establishment of a Mr. Wells, an American. He had an abundance of horses, mules, and cattle. With him was another American who had been sent from Santa Fe by an American merchant of that place, to inform Gen Kearney that the Mexicans were 10000 strong and had determined we were fifteen miles outside of Santa Fe, at a deep ravine.

The Americans at Santa Fe and other towns are very much alarmed for their safety. The Mexicans tell them that if defeated, they will return to their towns and villages and get full revenge on them.

All of this is news communicated to us in a heavy rain, and we are encamping in the midst of it. No little excitement prevails in camp. To retreat nine hundred miles is idle; and if they do met us, as they promised we shall vindicate the character of the Saxon blood in death or victory, Mark that! General Kearney is as cool as if walking to his office on a May morning to attend his accustomed garrison duties, and all look to him as to a man, who has shed glory on the American name. It is sad here that Governor Armijo is opposed to the fight, but is urged on by the rich men of the country; yet the latest accounts are that the rich are backwards in lending their money. But if 10,000 men are assembled they must have furnished the means. There is a Mr. Bonny living near this place, he visited us, and gave us a fat slicer. This is the first settlement we have met. The place is called "Moro." Two beautiful mountain streams meet here, each is sufficient size for milling purposes. The artillery came up at sundown. At this place the road by the Simerone comes in.
[RWH]


NNR 71.096 10 October 1846 rumor of design to call out volunteers to assail Veracruz, amount of the forces now in field operating against Mexico

There are various informations afloat, that it is the intention of the president to call out the residue of the 50,000 volunteers authorized by the late act of congress, for the city of Mexico, by way of Tampico or Vera Cruz

Army under Gen Taylor: 10,000 men, Detachments between Monterey and Point Isabel: 4,000, Under General Wool west of main army 3,000, Under Gen. Kearney northwest of Gen. Wool: 2,500, Total: 19,500.
[RWH]


NNR 71.100 17 October 1846 review of the progress of the campaign

We have nothing from the Gulf Squadron or from the Pacific Squadron since our last. The intelligence which has reached us from General Kearney's division of the West, is that he is in quiet possession of Santa Fe, is busied in fortifying it, and in preparing for the movement of the one half of his forces to take possession of Upper California and penetrate to the Pacific, whilst the other half will proceed a view of forming a junction with General Wool.- The regiment of infantry that had just assembled at Fort Leavenworth for the purpose of reinforcing Gen. Kearney, has been paid off, and are discharged.

From "the Army of the Centre,"General Wool's division, we have but little further. An arrival from Galveston brings a letter which says:- "The Kentucky regiment under Colonel Marshall, numbering about 800, is encamped at the mouth of the Lavaca, with 200 men on the sick list owing to the fatigues of a long march. This regiment had just received letters to march forthwith to Camargo. The Tennessee regiment is daily expected. Neither of these regiments were intended to join Gen. Wool.
[RWH]


NNR 71.100-101 17 October 1846 Monterey attacked, defended for three days, surrenders to Zachary Taylor, armistice concluded, incidents

The morning of the 20th was devoted to reentering, and determining a plan of attack. In the afternoon General Worth's division marched by a circuit for the rear of the city and engaged that night between Monterey and Saltillo.

Captain Eaton one of the aids to General Taylor, left Headquarters, now at Monterey, on the 25th and reached Washington City on the 11th inst, bringin official accounts of the battles which took place between the 19th and 25th and the terms of capitulation were agreed upon.

The opportunity which Gen. Taylor so generously afforded Gen. Worth to cut the first laurels from the field,- we should say heights, that commanded Monterey, was worthy of both officers- and right gallantly did Gen. Worth improve the opportunity,- and as gallantly have those under his command seconded his daring.
[RWH]


NNR 71.101 17 October 1846 official dispatches announced by the "Union"on the battle of 22d Sept.

We lay before our readers this evening the official dispatches of General Taylor detailing the heroic and victorious onset of our army upon Monterey.- They bear the most ample and honorable testimony to the gallantry, the skill, and the patriotic self devotion of our officers and soldiers. In this respect, the intelligence from Monterey fully responded to the high wrought expectations of the country. Regulars and volunteers- through three days' battle alternately under a burning sun and drenching rains, against a foe strong in an overwhelming superiority of numbers, and in the advantages of a position so strongly fortified as to be apparently almost impregnable- seem to have vied with each other, their gallant leaders, in efforts noble and chivalrous daring. The result is a triumph every wasy memorable in military annals. In tree days our army has carried intrenchments which the enemy had expected to maintain against any exhibition of military force on our part, and in which they probably stored, on the calculation, a large magazine of provisions. The Mexicans re thus driven from their chosen strong hold, and one of the strong keys of Mexico is now in our hands.
[RWH]


NNR 71.102 17 October 1846 report on the battles of the 23d September and 25th September, correspondence and articles of capitulation of Monterey INCOMPLETE

Sir: At noon on the 23d instant, while our troops were closely engaged in the lower part of the city, as reported in my last dispatch, I received a flag, a communication from the governor of the state of New Leon, which is herewith closed,- To this communication I deemed it my duty to return an answer declining to allow inhabitants to leave the city. By eleven o’clock P.M. the 2d division which had entered the town from the direction of Bishop’s Palace, had advanced with in one square mile of the principal plaza, and occupied the city up to that point. The mortar had in the meantime, been placed in battery in the cemetery within good range of the heart of the town, and was served throughout the night with good effect. . . name.

The light batteries, one of which is commanded by Lieut. Mackalf, were now drawn upon the slope of the ridge, and the howitzers opened upon the height of Palace Hill.. A few shells only were thrown before the enemy commenced firing with a 9 pounder from the height immediately over the right of the column, aiming at Duncan’s batteries. The several regiments took positions, and a few more shells were thrown towards Palace Hill, but did no execution. The 9 pounder continued to throw its shot, with great precision, at our batteries, one ball falling directly in the midst of the pieces, but fortunately hitting neither men nor guns. Finding his batteries thus exposed, and unable to effect any thing, Col. Duncan removed his command to a rancho about a half a mile further up the Saltillo road, where Gen. Worth took up his position, after ordering the foot regiments to form along the fence, near the point of the ridge. The artillery battalion, 5th, 7th, and 8th infantry, and the Louisiana volunteers remained in this position about two hours, directly under the fire of the enemy’s guns, (now two.) The balls fell directly in their midst all this time without wounding a man! The Mexicans manage their artillery in battery as well as the Americans do. This I believe is now conceded by every officer.

At half past 10 the column moved toward the general’s position. At this time Capt. McKavett, of the 8 th infantry, was shot through the heart by a nine pound bill, and a private of the 5th infantry was so severely wounded in the thigh that he died the next morning. About fifty Mexicans now appeared upon the hill side, over the moving column, and fired at our troops some hundred musket shot, without doing any harm. The division deployed into the positions pointed out, and remained an hour or two, when Capt. C. F. Smith, of the artillery battalion; with two companies (his own and Capt. Scott’s) and four companies of Texan rangers on foot, were ordered to storm the second height. This the gallant officer cheerfully undertook, and was followed with enthusiasm by the officers and men of his command. It was considered on all sides to be a most dangerous undertaking, and this party was considered emphatically a forlorn hope. That the height would be taken no one doubted, but that many brave fellows would fall in the attempt seemed inevitable. The distance to be climbed, after reaching the foot of the hill, was about a quarter of a mile; a part of the way was almost perpendicular, and through, thorn bushes and over sharp-pointed rocks and loose sliding stones.

The 7th infantry, commanded by Capt. Miles, was ordered to support Capt. Smith’s party, and by marching directly to the foot of the height, arrived before Capt. Smith who had been ordered to take a circuitous route. Capt. Miles sent up Lient. Gantt with a detachment of men, upon the hill side, to divert the attention of the enemy from Capt. Smith’s command, which could not yet be seen. The 7th had already sustained a heavy fire of grape and round short, as they forded the San Juan, which winds around the foot of the height, which fell like a shower of hail in their ranks, without killing a man. Lieut. Gantt’s party were greeted with grape and round shot, which cut the shrubs and tore up the loose stones in the ranks without killing any one; but the gallant young officer came within an inch of being killed by a cannon ball, which ranked down the steep, and filled his face with fragments of rock, dust, and gravel. This fire was accompanied by a constant discharge of musketry, the enemy covering the upper part of the hill side, but the detachment continued to move up, driving the Mexicans back, until they were recalled. Capt. Smith’s party now arrived and moved up the hill, the Rangers in advance, and did not halt for an instant until the Mexicans were driven from the summit.

Whilst this was going on, Col. Persifer F. Smith, who commanded the 5th and 7th infantry- the 5th, with Blanchard’s Louisiana boys, under Maj. Martin Scott, had been ordered to support the whole, gave orders for these commands to pass around on each side and storm the fort, which was situated about half a mile back of the summit on the same ridge, and commanded the Bishop’s Palace. Such a foot race as now ensued has seldom if ever been seen; the Louisiana boys making the tallest kind of strides to be in with the foremost. Capt. Smith had the gun which he took on the height, run down toward the breastworks and fired into it. Then cam Col. P.F. Smith’s men, with a perfect rush, firing and cheering- the 5ht and 7th and Louisianians reaching the ridge about nearly at the same time. The Mexicans fired at them with grape, but it did not save them or cause an instant’s hesitation in our ranks.- Our men run and fired and cheered until they reached the work, the foremost entering at one end whilst the Mexicans, about 1,000 in number, left the other in retreat. The colors of the 5th infantry were instantly raised, and scarcely were they up before those of the 7th were alongside. The three commands entered the fort together, so close was the race- the 5th, however, getting an advance in first. In less than five minutes the gun found in the fort was thundering away at the Bishop’s Palace!- Thus was this brilliant coup de main made almost without bloodshed.
[RWH]


NNR 71.105 17 October 1846 adjustments in territory of the United States, and other North American powers as a result of the conquest of California and New Mexico, and the Oregon treaty

The conquest of California and New Mexico extends the boundary of the United States on the west coast, from the forty-second to the thirty-second parallel of north latitude, and produces a great alteration in the territorial possessions of the belligerent powers. The comparative size of Mexico and the United States, in1833, was as follows:

U. States territories 1,408,000,000 square acres

Mexican territories 1,081,600,000 square acres

We have now to deduct from Mexico and add to the U. States:

Upper California 240,869,160

New Mexico 137,472,000

Texas 123,904,000

-----------------502,236,160

Left to Mexico 579,363,840

In 1838 the possessions of various powers on this continent were as follows:

Russian 480,000,000

British 1,792,000,000

United States 1,408,000,000

Mexico 1,081,600,000

Central American 119,040,000

Total (7,328,000 miles) 4,880,640,000 acres.

Deducting from Mexico and adding to the United States 502,236,160 acres and from the U. States and to the British possessions, 32,000,000 which the United States claimed, but ceded to Great Britain by the Oregon treaty, the possessions of the various powers on the North American continent now stands as follows:

1846 Miles Acres

Russian 750,000 480,000,000

British 2,850,000 1,824,000,000

United States 2,934,744 1,876,236,150

Mexican 905,259 579,363,840

Central American 186,000 119,040,000

7,626,000 4,880,640,000
[RWH]


NNR 71.112 17 October 1846 Juan Nepomuceno Almonte appointed president of Mexico ad interim. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna assumes control of armies

The New Orleans Picayune says that advices from Mexico via Matamoros states that General Almonte has been appointed president of Mexico ad interim, and Gen. Santa Anna generalissimo of the armies of Mexico; and further that Santa Anna was then engaged in raising and organizing troops, intending to take the field in person in the north.
[RWH]


NNR 71.112 17 October 1846 Gen. Stephen Watts Kearny operating from Santa Fe

Advices to the 9th September are received from Gen. Kearney. He had ordered an expedition into the interior about 150 miles, expecting the Mormon battalion of infantry up by the time they returned. It had been determined that the two companies of dragoons under Captains Moore and Cook; and the Mormon infantry, should accompany Gen. Kearny in his expedition to California
[RWH]


NNR 71.112 17 October 1846 prize brig Naiad at New Orleans

The Hamburg brig Naiad, prize of the blockading squadron on the Mexican coast; arrived at New Orleans on the 17th.
[RWH]


NNR 71.113 17 October 1846 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna assumes the military and declines civil supremacy, Gen. Jose Mariano Salas defers determining whether to receive a minister from United States until Congress, which alone has power in the premises, shall assemble

Santa Anna instead of assuming the duties of civil supremacy has assumed the military, and takes the field as commander of the armies. He has suddenly become the chief head, and hope of the war party in Mexico, which indeed, to say the truth, embraces nearly the whole of the population.

The conduct of the present cabinet is as frank and honorable as it is possible for it to be, and none of the administrators which have preceded it, has been so explicit with the nations. We now see that none had such claims to its confidence; the present cabinet can be said to direct affairs, it is the people who really govern.
[RWH]


NNR 71.114 24 October 1846 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna’s reply to the tender of supreme executive authority, his arrival and reception at the capital, levy of men for the Mexican army, articles relative to funds for the war

Sir: I have received your favor of this date, acknowledging a decree issued by the supreme government of this nation, embracing a programme of the proceedings adopted to regulate a due celebration of the reestablishment of the constitution of 1824, the assumption by myself of the supreme executive power and the anniversary of the glorious cry of Delores.

My satisfaction is extreme to observe the enthusiasm with which preparations are made to celebrate the two great blessings which have fallen upon this nation- her independence and her liberty- and I am penetrated with the deepest gratitude to find that my arrival at the capital will be made to contribute to the solemnities of so great an occasion. In furtherance of this object I shall make my entrée into the city tomorrow, at mid-day, and desire, in contributing my share to the national jubilee, to observe such a course as may best accord with my duties to my country- beloved of my heart- and with the respect due to the will of the sovereign people.

I have been called by the voice of my fellow citizens to exercise the office of commander in chief of the army of the republic. I was far from my native land when intelligence of this renewed confidence, and of these new obligations imposed upon me by my country was brought to me, and I saw the imminent dangers which surrounded here on all sides, formed the chief motive for calling me to the head of the army. I now see a terrible contest with perfidious and daring enemy impending over her, in which the Mexican republic must reconquer the insignia of her glory, and a fortunate issue, if victorious, or disappear from the face of the earth, if so unfortunate as to be defeated. I also see a treacherous faction raising its head from her bosom, which in calling up a form of government detested by the united nation, provokes a preferable submission to foreign dominion; and I behold at last, that after much vacillation, that nation is resolved to establish her right to act for herself, and to arrange such a form of government as best suits her wishes.

All this I have observed, and turned a listening ear to the cry of my desolated country, satisfied that she really needed my weak services at so important a period. Hence I have come without hesitation or delay to place myself in subjection to her will, and desirous to be perfectly understood, upon reaching my native soil, I gave full and public expression of my sentiments and principles. The reception which they met convinced me that I had not deceived myself, and I am now the more confirmed in them, not from having given them more consideration, but because they have found a general echo in the hearts of my fellow citizens.

I come, then, to carry my views into operation, and in compliance with the mandate of my country. She calls me as commander in chief of the army, and in that capacity I stand to serve. The enemy occupies our harbors- he is despoiling us of the richest of our territories, and threatens us with his domination! I go, hen, to the head of the Mexican army- an army the offspring (rijo) if a free people- and joined with it, I will fulfill my utmost duty in opposing the enemy of my country. I will die fighting, or lead the valliant Mexicans to the enjoyment of a triumph to which they are alike entitled by justice, by their warlike character, and by the dignity and enthusiasm which they have preserved, of a free nation. The war is a necessity of immediate importance; every day’s delay is an age of infamy; I cannot recede from the position which the nation has assigned me; I must go forward, unless I would draw upon myself the censure due to ingratitude for the favors of which I have been overwhelmed by my fellow citizens; or, unless I would behold her humbled and suffering under a perpetuation of her misfortunes.

Your excellency will at once perceive how great an error I should commit in assuming the supreme magistracy, when my duty calls me to the field, to fight against the enemies of the republic. I should disgrace myself, if, when called to the point of danger, I should spring to that of power! Neither my loyalty nor my honor requires the abandonment of interests so dear to me. The single motive of my heart is to offer my compatriots the sacrifice of that blood which yet runs in my veins. I wish them to know that I consecrate myself entirely to their service, as a soldier ought to do, and am only desirous further to be permitted to point out the course by which Mexico may attain the rank to which her destinies call her.

In marching against the enemy, and declining to accept of power, I give a proof of the sincerity of my sentiments, leaving the nation her own mistress, at liberty to dispose of herself as she sees fit. The elections for members of a congress to from the constitution which the people wish to adopt, are proceeding. That congress will now soon convene, and while I shall be engaged in the conflict in armed defence of her independence, the nation will place such safeguards around her liberties as may best suit herself.

If I should permit myself for a single moment, to take the reins of government, the sincerity of my promises would be rendered questionable, and no confidence could be placed in them.

I am resolved that they shall not be falsified, for in their redemption I behold the general good, as well as my honor as a Mexican and a soldier. I cannot abandon this position. The existing government has pursued a course with which the nation has shown itself content, and I have no desire to subvert it by taking its place. I feel abundant pleasure in remaining where I am, and flatter myself that the nation will applaud my choice. I shall joyfully accept such tasks as she shall continue to impose upon me; and while she is engaged in promoting the objects of civilization, I will brave every danger in supporting its benefit, even at the cost of my existence.

Will your excellency have the goodness to tender the supreme government my sincere thanks for their kindness? I will personly repeat them tomorrow, for which purpose I propose to call at the palace. I shall there embrace my friends, and hastily pressing them to my heart, bid them a tender farewell, and set out to the scene of war, to lend my aid to serve my country, or to perish among the ruins.

I beg you to repeat to your excellency assurances of my continued and especial esteem.

Antonio Lopez De Santa Anna.
[RWH]


NNR 71.114-115, 71.146 24 October 1846 notice of groups of recruits for the war in Mexico

A body of recruits for the regular service, numbering nearly 600, now at the principal depot, at Fort Columbus, Governor’s island, under the superintendence of Col. R. B. Mason, of the 1st dragoons; is about to be organized into a battalion of four companies, preparatory to joining the regiments for which they have been enlisted; in the field.

They are a fine body of men, and will render efficient service whenever the torch of war shall illuminate their path.
[RWH]


NNR 71.115 24 October 1846 opinions stated relative to Gen. Zachary Taylor’s movements, "plan of prosecuting the war,"government said to be dissatisfied with Taylor for delaying so long at Matamoros and to have ordered him on to San Luis Potosi, & c., letters detailing the operations against and surrender of Monterrey.

From the various and contradictory statements and opinions furnished by those who would appear to have the best opportunity of knowing or judging, leave our readers to form their own conclusions, it will be seen that some including the department in Washington, are urging Gen. Taylor to advance the army under his command without delay, further into the heart of Mexico; that others are of the opinion that an outward movement can not be made with a possibility of success before Gen. Taylor is reinforced by several thousand men, besides leaving the posts in his rear amply guarded, and his chain for transportation of munitions and supplies sufficiently protected.

The Washington correspondent of the New York Journal of Commerce, writes on the 15th instant: "It appears to have been doubted whether the government intends to take possession of Tampico or not; and whether it is intended to send reinforcements and supplies from that point to meet Gen. Taylor at San Luis Potosi. But I have been informed that the Mississippi took out orders on the 30th September to Com. Conner to take possession of Tampico immediately. He has four revenue cutters and a number of small steamers, by means of which he can execute the order. There are twice as many marines in his squadron as will suffice for the enterprise. It appears also that a force has been gradually drawn of late from various points, and is about to be concentrated at New Orleans or some other port, and that ample means of transportation have been put under the control of Gen. Jessup. It would seem therefore, to be the design to send some six or eight thousand troops from Tampico to meet General Taylor at San Luis Potosi.

Gentleman: The army arrived in sight of Monterey on Saturday, the 19th inst., about 8 a.m. As soon as the advance picket showed themselves on the plain, to eastward of the town, a battery, called the Old Monastery, opened its fire, and continued it, at intervals, during the day, without injury to any one. The day was spent in some unimportant movements to call attention from the engineers, who were busily engaged in making observations from every point, and during the night an expedition was out until a late hour. The result of these observations induced Gen. Taylor, on Sunday, the 20th to push General Worth’s division, with two artillery batteries, commanded by Lieut. Col. Duncan and Lieut. Mason, and Col. Hays’ Texas regiment, into the mountains, to the left of the town [their left] and all the enemy’s works in that quarter.
[RWH]


NNR 71.115 October 24, 1846 Force of the several divisions of the Army employed against Mexico

ARMY OF OCCUPATION

The steamer Mckin left Brazos Santiago on the 5th, and reached New Orleans on the 10th instant, bringing Major Coffee, paymaster of the army, Capt. Dawson, U. S. artillery, Capt. Howard, Mississippi regiment, and more than two hundred sick and discharged volunteers. This arrival furnishes additional details, but nothing later from Monterey than we had before.

Major Coffee states that the loss in the late engagements was greater than at first supposed, especially the Mexican loss, which he rates 1,500, ours at 600.

We make the following external, the first from a letter published in the New Orleans Times. These letters evidence occasionally rather a free use of the pen as well as of imagination.

Camp, three miles from Monterey, September 24, 1846.

Gentlemen: The army arrived in sight of Monterey on Saturday, the 19th inst., about 8am. As soon as the advance picket showed themselves on the plain, to eastward of the town, a battery, called the Old Monastery, opened its fire, and continued it, at intervals, during the day, without injury to any one. The day was spent in some unimportant movements to call attention from the engineers, who were busily engaged in making observations induced Gen. Taylor, on Sunday, the 20th, to push General Worth's division, with two artillery batteries, commanded by Lieut. Col. Duncan and Lieut. Mason, and Col. Hay's Texan regiment, into the mountains, to the left of the town (their left0 and all the enemy's works in that quarter.

Monday, 21st. Every thing being ready to make a demonstration on the enemy's works, the main body of the army marched into the plain. As the troops came in sight, the batteries opened on them, and also on a battery of two pieces commanded by Captain Webster and a mortar in charge of Captain Ramsey.

A part of the first division, led by Col. Garland, composed of the 1st and 3rd infantry and the Baltimore battalion, filed off to the left as they came up until they reached a point were Major Mansfield, assisted by Col. Kinney, was making observations. ---The order was to attack the point the engineers should point out. He said dash into the town; and Col. G. with his command, pushed into it, under a tremendous fire from three batteries and a shower of musketry. Major Mansfield and Col. Kinney went ahead with him. The fire of the enemy was returned with great spirit, and for more than an hour the thunder of artillery and the roar from the small arms exceeded any thing I ever heard or saw. The force of the enemy and the strength of their works made it necessary to order up reinforcements---accordingly the 4th infantry and Gen. Butler's division of volunteers were ordered up. The fire was soon renewed with increased animation on both sides.

I have not time now to go into the details of these attacks. The result was that we got possession of one fort in the lower part of the town, with five pieces of cannon; and were repulsed in the attempt on the second fort, distant about four hundred yards. The action was a most bloody one, and our loss very severe. The 1st, 3rd, and 4th infantry suffered terribly.

Colonel Watson, of the Baltimore battalion, was killed some distance ahead of his command, displaying much zeal and gallantry. I regret to state that many of the regular officers think that this battalion did not come up to the fight as they should have done.
[PTH]


NNR 71.116 24 October 1846 details of deaths

I will relate you a number of incidents that occurred during the three days:

Col. McClung, of Mississippi, the great duelist got upon the breast work, waived his hat, and was in the act of giving three cheers, when a ball struck him, from the effects of which he has since died.

Samuel W. Chambers, one of the Rangers, or "the Delaware hero", as they call him, got over the breast works, obtained a foot-hold on the top of an eighteen-pounder, and deliberately took aim with his "fire-shooter", firing with great effect, and crushing the Mexicans, until the piece was taken by General Worth and turned on the city. Chambers escaped without a wound.

Capt. Gillespy, of the Texas Rangers, was killed whilst pouring water, into the tube of a cannon, with the Mexicans all around him. But it is impossible for me to mention all the numerous incidents that occurred at the present time.
[RWH]


NNR 71.117 24 October 1846 notice of the corps of sappers and miners on their way to Mexico.

This corps, seventy two in number, came down from West Point this morning, and have gone board the ship Clinton (transport) for Point Isabel, from whence they are under orders to join General Taylor, at his headquarters. The company is under the command is under the command of Capt. Swift, of the engineer corps.
[RWH]


NNR 71.117 24 October 1846 design on Veracruz contemplated

A Washington letter in the N. York Herald represents the future policy of the war department in its operations against Mexico, to be as follows:

The plan of the invasion is to be changed. The march from Monterey to the city of Mexico is at least six hundred miles longer than from Tampico on the gulf, or Alvalrado, or Vera Cruz, which latter point affords the nearest and most accessible point. The detachment under Gen. Patterson, strongly reinforced by volunteers, is to attack Tampico, reduce it and march forward into the interior towards Mexico- and we are more strongly impressed with the idea this evening than we were yesterday, that nearly simultaneous attack by land and sea is contemplated upon Vera Cruz, if not already resolved upon and arranged.
[RWH]


NNR 71.117 October 24, 1846 deaths in hospital at Matamoros

Deaths in the general Hospital at Matamoros, from the 15th to the 30th September, 1846. --J. W. Robin son, W. W. Huff, N. Hunt, Berry, Love, P. Cook, Boyd, and Trotler, 1st regiment Georgia volunteers; Clark, Cormant, Miller, Phelton, Payton, Stevens, and Shiver, 1st regiment Mississippi volunteers; Frederick, company C, 3rd dragoons; Shuckert, Louisville Legion; A. B. Lemon, Williams, Arister, Smith, Whicker, 2nd regimnt Illinois volunteers; J. A. Sheppard, and H. J. Monday, 4th regiment Illinois volunteers; John A. Williams; Wm. Lucas, John C. Mackie, D. Hudson, W. Drummond, C. D. Fetty, and James Epperson, 3rd regiment Illinois volunteers.
[PTH]


NNR 71.117 October 24,1846 "progress of the war,""plan of invasion to be changed,"rumors at Washington that Gen. Zachary Taylor is to be superceded in command, inquiries as to Gen. Winfield Scott

The Progress Of The War

There seems now to be every probability of a longer war than was by many anticipated. The probability that at least a second campaign would be necessary before a peace would be "conquered"has been several times thrown out incidentally in out columns. That it was not more distinctly expressed was from apprehension that doubts expressed as to the success of our arms might dampen ardor in some direction. One point has been distinctly urged,- and, we believe, cannot be too earnestly pressed,- and that is, that government, if they design to carry on a foreign war for any length of time, should forth-with take more effectual measures to recruit the regular army, as the only certain dependence for maintaining an adequate army out of the limits of the Union.

That a formidable movement against Tampico, and some say against Vera Cruz also, is contemplated, there can hardly be a doubt. To insure a success, worthy a contest there, a formidable land force will be indispensable. The mere occupation of the ports might be accomplished by an adequate naval force, but the object is understood to be, to approach the city of Mexico from this direction, as a shorter and more accessible route than the one Gen. Taylor has been ordered to pursue.

We are informed of a speedy attack upon Tampico, as a result of the late cabinet deliberations, and that with this view, a portion of the New York volunteers, called for last summer, may expect now a call for active service.

We have strong reasons to believe, also, that Vera Cruz is no longer to be spared; but that a co-operate attack by land and by sea will follow close after the storming of Tampico, if it does not take place simultaneously.

The government is resolved to force it upon the Mexicans that we are in earnest, and is satisfied that the sooner the enemy is convinced of it the better for them, for us, for humanity, and for the treasury.

A Washington letter in the N. York Herald represents the future policy of the war department, in its operation against Mexico, to be as follows:

The plan of the invasion is to be changed. The march from Monterey to the city of Mexico is at least 600 miles longer than from Tampico on the gulf, or Alvarado, or Vera Cruz, which latter point affords the nearest and most accessible point. The detachment under Gen. Patterson, strongly reinforced by volunteers, is to attack Tampico, reduce it and march forward into the interior towards Mexico- and we are strongly impressed with the idea this evening than we were yesterday, that a nearly simultaneous attack by land and by sea is contemplated upon Vera Cruz, if not already resolved upon and arranged.

Gen. Taylor will leave Monterey occupied with a garrison; and march forward with his main body up on Saltillo without delay, depending on the country for supplies. It is necessary that his army should be divided to enable it to subsist in their slender resources left in their retreat by the enemy. For the whole force to remain in Monterey would be to remain and starve. He will occupy the little towns in his progress in pursuit of the enemy, and if his force reserved for the forward movement be not sufficient for the conflict when he shall have overtaken Ampudia, (who runs like an Arab,) he will pause until his reinforcements in the rear can be called up, as the emergency may demand. Of course he will have his pickets and pioneers sufficiently in advance and upon his flanks to give notice of the approach to the Mexicans or any scattering parcels of their army.

From Monterey to the city of Mexico there is a journey of at least 700 miles, (some say 900) among the table lands, and deep gorges, and dangerous passes of the mountains of Mexico. This line of march running southward lies parallel with the eastern gulf coast, at about 250 miles distant, more or less. Vera Cruz lying nearly in a direct line across from the city of Mexico to the coast subsequently opens a passage to the capital as short and more convenient and accessible than the route traversed by General Taylor from Point Isabel to Monterey.

The Savannah Republican of the 15th instant has the following intelligence:

Lieut. Berryman, the gallant officer who behaved so nobly at the loss of the Truxton off Tuspan, passed through this city on Wednesday might last, as a barer of dispatches from the squadron at Vera Cruz to the Government in Washington. We learn from a gentleman who conversed with Lieut. Berryman on the cars, that it has been determined to attack Vera Cruz on the land side by an expedition from Tampico, and that the hoisting of the starts and stripes in the city, will be a signal for the attack by the squadron upon the castle of San Juan d’Ulloa. This is the only way in which the castle can be taken, and the obtaining possession of that point is deemed necessary to end the war.

The brig Saldana, with Capt. Mason’s and Lieut. McLane’s troops, of mounted riflemen, arrived safe at Brazos Santiago, on the 4th instant, and the brig Union, Capt. Hooper, which sailed about the same time as Saldana, arrived the day before. Both vessels weathered bravely the storms which have prevailed since their departure. This is gratifying news to the numerous friends of those who were on board the vessels.

Sappers and Miners.-This corps, seventy-two in number, came down from West Point this morning, and have gone on board the ship Clinton, (transport,) for Point Isabel, from whence they are under orders to join Gen. Taylor at his headquarters. The company is under the command of Capt. Swift, of the engineer corps. [N.Y. Express.

The editor of the Philadelphia ‘North American,’ who was recently on a visit to West Point, says of this corps- "Although the corps had already been but a few weeks in practice, it had already rivaled, in constructing bridges and throwing them across the river, the quickest time of the French engineers. In the works of mining and sapping, a harder, or more unusual labor had to be performed, and although the corps was engaged in digging trenches and throwing up breastworks for the two days we were at the point, the spirit of the men were not daunted by the prospect of hard labor and active service."

Command of the Army of invasion.-The N. York Tribune, significantly asks the Washington Union to answer the following queries-

1. Has not General Taylor recently intimated to the government his desire to be aided or relieved in the command in the chief against Mexico?

2. Has not General Scott recently urged upon the government his claims to command the army advancing on Monterey, and been coldly refused?

3. Is it not the purpose of the president to appoint one of the new generals of his own creation to the chief command of our forces invading Mexico?

The Washington correspondent of the N. York Herald writes on the 19th –

We learn from an officer of the army, that General Scott, a few days ago, applied to the president for the privilege heading the army of invasion under the new plan of operations with the land forces; but that the executive declined his application on the ground that the services of the major general in chief would be as advantageous to the government at the war office as the head of the army.
[MJK]


NNR 71.117 October 24, 1846 letter detailing the negotiations for surrender of Monterey

Extracts from a letter from an officer of the U. S. army in Mexico dated--Monterey, September 25, 1846

"Yesterday morning a flag of truce came into our camp offering to surrender the town, provided the troops marched out with their arms, colors, artillery, and private property, which Gen. Taylor refused. They entered however into an armistice from 10 until 12 o'clock. Gen. Taylor transferred the negotiations from our camp to Worth's headquarters at the Bishop's palace a large work situated on an eminence in rear of, and commanding the city. After much discussion Gen. Taylor agreed that the cavalry and infantry should march out with their arms, and that the artillery should carry a field battery of six 6-pounders and thiry rounds of ammunition and personal effects. All the forts, fortifications, with their armaments, ammunition, supplies, and government property of every description to be delivered over to us at 10 o'clock this morning. They are allowed one week to vacate the city, and are then to withdraw beyond this province, the whole of which is given up to us except Tampico--and this I presume they claim, as the navy has not succeeded in taking it. This, you will perceive, makes the Sierrra Madre mountains the Boundary.

"General Ampudia, during the conference, said he had positive information that Gen. Kearney had taken Santa Fe and that our citizens had captured California. What a slice has this taken from them!

"They have further entered into an armistice for eight weeks. Gen. Taylor agreed to this on Ampudia's positive assurance that our commissioners were in Mexico arranging the basis of a treaty.

"Gen. Worth has just completed a series of the most brilliant operations in modern warfare, and with but little loss. He carried four works and then came into the town when every house was a fortification. He acted thus: Divided his forces into two columns, moving parallel, and opining their way with pick axes through the houses and walls. Thus when they knocked a hole in the house they of course had possession, and in this way avoided the streets and enemy's fire from roofs of houses and barricades thrown up in every street.

"Our side or wing of the army has had some hard fighting, and our loss has been very great. They had a very strong work on this side, the southeast, built of earth, stone and sand bags, containing a 12, a 9, and a 6 pounder and an old fashioned thirty-two pound howitzer, with a large musketry force. This work was flanked by a stone house arranged with loop holes and flat roof with a parapet for the men to lie behind. Both of these were again flanked by another redoubt about 300 yards distant, heavily armed with cannon, infantry with escopets and fine English muskets. The first works were carried, but attended with great, very great loss; for independently of all those, there was a cross fire from a very strong castle about 1,000 yards distant, with shell and 12 pound shot.

"We had been attached to the dragoons, and as they could do nothing in this kind of work we have had but little chance. However when our troops moved down Ridgely rode up to Gen. Taylor and volunteered to move with two pieces to what could be done, as all of us were ignorant of the ground. He cheerfully granted if Twiggs consented. ***** We moved forward at a dashing gallop, with only two pieces, leaving caissons behind; when within 400 yards they turned their whole fire upon us. It was terrific. We however gave them three or four rounds, but discovering the strength of the work, and perceiving we should be annihilated in 30 minutes, retired. Having had two men and three horses wounded. I verily believe two more rounds, as they then would have had the exact range, would have knocked us all over. The third and fourth infantry and the Baltimore battalion threatened the right and the Mississippi and Tennessee volunteers attacked and carried it on the left. Poor Watson was shot dead, through the neck, about seventy yards from the work leading his men on. The third infantry went into the engagement with twelve officers; five killed, one mortally and one slightly wounded--judge of the fight.

"Shortly after these were carried General Taylor told Ridgely to take two pieces and move on an open plain not over 250 yards from the third fort mentioned and silence it. R. told him he thought it too strong for our pieces to affect it in the least, and asked if it had been reconnoitered. He said no, and proposed it should be done. Ridgely dashed off half speed, and perceiving it was very strong, returned and reported. God only knows how he escaped, as there was a continuous blaze of musketry fired at him until he returned, and yet neither him nor his horse was touched. ***

"We had on the 23rd a severe street fight, the Mississippi volunteers all with rifles, some of the Tennesseeans and Texans on our side, against some 5,000 Mexicans whom Ampudia had collected in the plaza. They evacuated and carried off the cannon from the third fort on the night of the 22nd. We took possession on the 23rd and Gen. --brought on this street fight, greatly to Gen. Taylor's disgust, but he had to support him. Bragg was sent in with his battery and got badly used, as he also on the 21st."
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NNR 71.118 October 24, 1846 Order of General Stephen Watts Kearny for an expedition from Santa Fe, speculations on operations in New Mexico and California

Army Of The West

Head Quarters, Army of the West,
Santa Fe, N.M., Aug. 31, 1846.

Order No. 17.-I, The Commander-in-Chief will, on the 2d proximo, leave this city for El Rio Abajo, with nine hundred men, who will provide themselves with provisions for twenty days, &c.

II. The expedition will consist of 300 dragoons, under command of,; 500 Missouri cavalry, under command of,; and 100 Missouri artillery, under command of Capt. Fischer, and Lieuts. Chouteau, and Kribben, &c. &c.

By order, Gen. S.W. Kearney, &c.&c. It is understood that the troops are to move 200 miles on the east side of the Rio del Norte, and return on the west side. The object of this sudden call is partly to put down some show of hostility at Albequerque, and to take formal possession of the small towns situated along the Rio Grande, and partly to make the proclamation of the General felt by the discontented amongst the Aristocracy about "El Paso." Besides, Armijo, and Ugarta are still engaged in the south with the raising of troops, and it is expected that this expedition will either disperse them or cause their submission.

The Pueblos, the poorer classes of the Mexicans, seem to be well satisfied with the changes in the Government, and receive us everywhere with open arms; but he who supposes that the rich do not watch every opportunity to shake off the American yoke (?) is much mistaken.

Whether, and how soon troops will be sent to California, is still uncertain, and it seems principally to depend on the reinforcements which General Kearney expects to receive by Captain Allen, the Mormons, and Col, Price’s regiment. So far Captains Moore and Cook, with 200 dragoons, are ordered for that purpose, but no time is specified, and but few volunteers to strengthen this expedition; at least it is not known that any other officers than Capt. Fischer, Lieuts. Kribben and Hassendeubel, have offered. The soldiers are still more backward than the officers; and it seems to be doubtful whether he will be able to raise a company for that purpose.—Among the knowing ones, it is a settled fact, that neither horses nor mules would ever be able to move in masses, of two or three hundred, over the mountains. For this reason they are preparing to march….with the expectation of subsisting, for several weeks, on the chance of game.

If the expedition to California should start before the 1st of October, it would, according to Fitzpatrick’s opinion, not reach Monterey before the middle of February, making the trip about 130 days.

A letter dated September 2, adds that Armijo and Ugarta are moving towards us with five thousand troops. But this story is not generally credited.—General Kearney expressed himself about it--"six thousand are better than two thousand; they are harder to manage and much more easily confused."
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NNR 71.118 October 24, 1846 Report of affairs at Forth Leavenworth

Mr. Brant Chapman and five other persons reached here last evening in a skiff, with which they descended the Missouri River from Fort Leavenworth. They left on the 6th instant, at 2 P. M. On Sunday the 11th inst. they passed the steamers Little Missouri and Tributary at the mouth of the Osage, both hard aground. General Brooke had hauled over and was on her way up. Met Clermont No. 2 and Archer hard aground at Portland Bar; met St. Joseph in the bend below Lexington on the 9th; Algoma on the night of the 8th at Lexington. River falling, with but 30 inches on the principal bars. October 13.
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NNR 71.118-71.119 October 24, 1846 march and route of Illinois volunteers through Texas

VOLUNTEERS.

Illinois Volunteers In The West.
Monday, August 24th, 1846

The 1st and 2nd regiments of Illinois volunteers have arrived at their encampment, two miles below the Alamo and city of San Antonio, on the river of the latter name. A few particulars, of interest to their friends, may now be furnished for your paper, which has so extensive a circulation throughout Illinois.

Our march from Port Lavaca, the point at which we landed in Lavaca Bay, has been one hundred fifty good Spanish miles, through a country of remarkable fertility, presenting to the eye of a northern man many striking features, which will hereafter become worthy of public notice.

While I write, the sun is just hiding his face in the forest of the Lapan, and the Tankawa, and around me the soldier is singing, "home, sweet home!"while he drives his tent pins, after a faithful eighteen miles for a days march. The laugh, the song, the joke, the hurra, and the merry talk, among seventeen hundred men, seem to indicate an absence of all care, and the enjoyment of good health and high spirits.

Since we landed in Texas the only death we have any intelligence of in camp was that of Mr. Vanduser, the orderly sergeant in Captain Dodge’s company, from Kendall County. He died of a lingering fever, at Camp Irwin, ten miles from Port Lavaca, on the 11th inst., where he was buried on the next morning, by his brother soldiers, with the solemnity and decency due to his merit and due to the feelings of the bereaved family he left in Illinois.

We have all been remarkably healthy in general, though the measles, in a mild form, has spread to a great extent in some of the companies. We left a sick station at Camp Irwin, on the 12th inst. and one at the Savilla Creek on the 19th; the latter in the care of Dr. Hope, and under the command of Captain Webb, who remained there with his company-one one of the best companies of volunteers ever offered for the service of the country. In all, I believe, we have left about two hundred me in the rear, one third of whom were sick, the other nurses, &c; but we have the cheering news to-day that the "rear guard,"as we call them, are coming up strong, and what few still remain are nearly all convalescent.

The opinion prevails among our officers, that considering the change of climate, at this particular season of the year, our regiments have been singularly blessed with good health.

The most interesting camp news today is, that Dr. Price, of Bellesville, St. Clair county, one of the appointees of the president as surgeon, has arrived in camp, to be assigned to whichever regiment Gen. Wool may designate. This leaves our friends, Dr. Hope, of Alton, and Dr. White of Chicago, the right to toss up who shall go home and attend to his business, where there is competition. Ahem!

A dragoon arrived this morning with dispatches to General Wool from the Camp of Col. Harney, who is now on forced marches "back agin"from the Presidio of the Rio Grande to San Antonio. It is said, the Colonel, in his zeal to serve his country, so far forgot his military obedience as to take up his line of march from the latter to the former named place without any orders whatever from his superior and commanding officer, Gen. Wool, and that the General has ordered his return. If all this be true, I see no great harm in it. I suppose Colonel H. wished to train his dragoons by a few days marches, so as to keep their hands in for the coming trial of bottom and speed between this place and Chihuahua. Pooh! What’s a thousand miles and then we will settle some important questions as to the comparative speed and endurance of American infantry and cavalry on thousand mile marches- for we calculate to go there and back again without seeing a hostile Mexican.

I believe the prevalent Texan opinion is, that a majority of the inhabitants of the Province of Chihuahua, have for several years, and still are, decidedly partial to our polical institutions and our social security in proportion as they are tired of civil wars in Mexico and disgusted with their thousand and one mushroom tyrants, who reign to-day, ruin tomorrow, and run away the next day. Such a state of feeling in that province ought to render the protection of our newly required republic, in anything like border defense, an easy and economical task for Mr. Polk and his successors.

I hope there are important services in store for General Wool’s command of four or five thousand troops in his central position, and I hope too, the laurels which he and those officers under his command, who would not appear awkward in laurels, may win, will be brightest and best. But I declare I do not know upon what foundation I have erected this hope.

The six months men have all gone home from his place, and the Red River cavalry are expected here daily. I will give you soon some hints of things I have seen here not connected with the army. No letters or papers from your place-they say mails are irregular and uncertain-the post office is besieged by officers and men for letters from home, and not a letter received here up to this date.

Respectfully yours, &c. P.L.

. . .

Camp Crocket, Aug 29, 1846.

As nothing of peculiar interest has transpired in camp since my last, I will make mention of some subjects which have proved worthy of notice on our march through the country-and, among these, I know of none more striking than the vestiges which now remain of the early Spanish settlements.

GOLIAD IN RUINS

On the 14th, as our long train was moving through the entirely unsettled country bordering the San Antonio river, most unexpectedly our attention was attracted to some venerable looking ruins in the distance, which proved to be the bare black walls of the now desolate and doomed city of Goliad. This stands on the west bank of the river, in the bend the shape of a crescent. The town site is elevated with commanding, so as to give the ruins a venerable appearance through the surrounding champaign country. The immediate cause of its abandonment and desolation is to be found in the history of the Texan revolution. The inhuman murder of Fanning and his men at this place by Urrea, under the order of Santa Anna made it necessary for the inhabitants and Mexican army at Goliad to fly in terror before the avengers, and on a dark and terrible night, they fled in despair, expecting never again to stand before the Texan forces at this point. They applied the torch to their own dwellings, and left in a heap of smoldering ruins where their once beautiful town had so long stood, the abode of civilized society and peaceful happiness. They snatched the gold and silver from the alters, and bid adieu to the holy church where, for a century, the faithful had worshiped in uninterrupted security.

MISSIONARY STATIONS

But after a fatiguing march of many days through the wilderness, with no human habitation in view, our eyes were directed to some lowering domes and lofty battlements, with a heavy growth of grass and prickly pear upon their summits, on the same river. This is the mission of St. John. Two or three miles further, ascending the same stream, stands the stupendous mission of St. Joseph. Again, two miles, the mission of conception, and two miles further, the city of San Antonio and the old mission now connected with the Alamo. What are these missions? Moss covered ruins. What were they? The out-posts of Christianity in the wilderness of the savage.- When Mexico was a Spanish province, the faithful ministers of her religion conceived the scheme of christianizing this vast portion of our continent.- With a zeal and courage like that of Ignatius Loyola, they planted the seeds of their religion in his rude heart. As we have visited them with feelings of no ordinary interest, we suppose the mention of their existence; being now within the undisputed limits of our country, might prove worthy the attention of tourists and travelers in general. We have seen only those we have mentioned and one other, which still stands undespoiled, and in use, in the town of San Antonio; yet we are informed that many others are standing in ruins on these rivers. St. Joseph’s about five miles below San Antonio, on the rive, is the most extensive; its grand court yard is about two hundred yards square; its principle chapel is about one hundred and five feet long by thirty in width; the wing containing the cells of its nuns is about one hundred and fifty feet long by fifty-seven in width; the height of its principal dome is about eighty-feet; its court is surrounded by old buildings, enough for the accommodation of about one hundred families; the base of the wings is divided into small cells built with great strength; the battlements and towers are covered with the prickly pear, growing to the height of six feet above the walls, and with grass and mesquite wood, the common growth of the country; the bells lay scattered and broken, some in the courtyard, and others in the cupola.

The main front of the building opposite what was once the grand entrance is adorned with richness of architecture and statuary, so far superior to anything in its class among the religious edifices of our country, that it strikes an American with awe and admiration. Besides many statues of full size, in an arch around the entrance are also plaster images of small dimensions- the large one representing the saints and Christ and the Virgin- the small ones in groups surrounded by well preserved wraths of fleur de lis and other flowers, representing the striking scenes in the history of Christ and his Apostles. The entire exterior of these vast buildings, as well as the roofs, domes and parapets, have been painted in imitations of mazaic work, portions of which are not yet defaced. In a small chapel in the basement, which is still locked, stand in a state of preservation, under the care of the present keepers of the property, three statues- one of Jesus with a crown of thorns and pierced hands and feet, and bleeding one side; one of the Virgin weeping, and the others we could not distinguish through the grates, where we were obliged to peep in.

The principal material of these edifices is rock and a kind of cement, which in its mouldering condition, although hard, has the appearance of old lava. The sills of the doorways and the caps of many of the pillars, as well as the door posts or of white marble, of ponderous dimensions.

A strong evidence of most extensive labor in the establishment of these missions, is to be found in the canals which have been dug to irrigate with the waters of the San Antonio river, large tracts of country, extending over leagues of land. In some places this plan of irrigation seems to indicate that in former years the drouth rendered agriculture and horticulture unavailable without much artificial aid, and it proves too, as well as does the completion of such vast public edifices, that the labor of large numbers of the aborigines must have been employed by the missionary priests and their associates in the work.

The dates of the completion of these respective edifices range along from the beginning to the middle of the last century, which makes some of them more and some less than one hundred years old, and although they do not boast of a very remote antiquity, the desolation of war and the corroding nature of this climate upon buildings, as well as the rapid growth of wood and vegetation peculiar to this region, gives them the appearance of very ancient ruins. They are, to say the least, much older in appearance than any of the other buildings we have seen standing in the United State, excepting, perhaps, the old Spanish cathedral at New Orleans, or the old Scandinavian fort or old mill at Newport, Rhode Island. The reason why I take such hasty notice of them now is, that we have men of competent skill and talents detailed from our camp for the purpose of making drafts and giving accurate descriptions of them they can find, as well also to furnish from the most authentic sources of the history of their construction, use and overthrow, for future publications.

LAPAN INDIANS.

A murmur of indignation was running through our lines to-day, in consequence of a scene of unusual interest which transpired here this morning. An old squaw from an encampment of Lapan Indians about two miles below us on the river, came to the camp of the Texan volunteers, and offered for sale two Spanish girls from thirteen to fifteen years old. They were dreadfully emaciated and almost destitute of a single garment of clothing. The Texans seized the girls and squaws and carried them immediately to head quarters, where, upon examination, it was ascertained that the Lapans had murdered a whole family, the parents and brothers of the two girls, in the vicinity of the Rio Grande, stolen all their property and led the girls into captivity; there they had treated them with extreme cruelty, and nearly starved them to death, and were now offering them for sale.- The girls readily pointed our the ringleaders of the outrage, and some fifteen or twenty of them were arrested for further investigation by the order of Gen. Wool.

SAN ANTONIO

There is nothing very attractive in the present appearance of San Antonio, save the most ancient looking walls of such portions of the old towns are still occupied, and the dilapidated ruins of the parts now deserted. In 1813, when the Spanish entered this place during the Mexican rebellion, San Antonio contained a population of nine thousand inhabitants-now one thousand is the extent of its numbers. The principal houses are flat roofed stoned edifices, one story in height, with doors and windows constructed like those of prisons and fort-for protection at an early day against the Indians. Some two or three modern looking American buildings have been erected, also of stone, which indicate the commencement of a new era in this country-I mean the coming of the Anglo-Saxon. The society here is composed of illiterate Mexicans and a few intelligent Americans, as the people of the United States are called-the American society, however, is quite limited. The fandango is the chief amusement; this comes off every evening-resorted to by "the million;"the "upper ten thousand"keep aloof, "the boys,"as Texan volunteers and others are called, go and pay their dime a dance for a few rounds in the waltz, quadrille or reel, with some olive signorita.- The "Tiger rooms"are open and tolerably well patronized by both sexes of Mexicans, as well as by the "new comers." Some officers can beat the Jews winning at Monte. So passes the time, and we return to reflect upon things of more importance.

The few priests who still maintain their ground here, in spite of many bloody scenes which have marked the spot, are true to their profession and their duty; they celebrate mass, and keep holy days with fidelity and zeal, and vespers are attended by many of the older inhabitants with punctuality. I understand that one Presbyterian preacher has been encouraged to remain, who teaches school and preaches regularly in the town.

I will endeavor to give you some you some idea of the Alamo in a few days; at present, I must conclude by saying a few words about the mails. Since the Texan mail has been withdrawn, the United States mail has only begun an irregular foreshadowing of what I suppose is its intended to be hereafter, a system of arrivals and departures. The purport now to send and receive a mail, once a week, but I believe the black fellow who rides the mule, brings the mail bag without anything in it. However, send us the news, we may possibly get a chance paper occasionally.

Yours, respectively, P.L.

P.S. Since my last, one thousand mounted volunteers from Arkansas, have arrived and encamped with us.
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NNR 71.119-120 October 24, 1846 accounts of disease among the Tennessee volunteers

The following letter from our esteemed correspondent Lieut. E. Eastman of Nashville Blues, will be found interesting:

Camp near Camargo, September 11, 1846.

Before this reaches Nashville you will doubtless have heard of the condition of our regiment, and of the great amount of sick among our volunteers. In view of the fact that some 250 or 300 volunteers have just been discharged from our regiment by the surgeon's certificate, and already left for their homes in Tennessee, I deem it a duty which I owe to my fellow soldiers and officers who have reluctantly been compelled to return before the conclusion of the war, and at a time when the country needed their services, to say that such was the only course they could preserve their own existence, and that in remaining here they could be of no service to the government.

Our situation here is truly melancholy, and I can see no good reason for concealing it. Many of our companies have dwindled away to a comparatively small number by sickness and death, and many noble brave, generous sons of Tennessee have breathed their last on the Rio Grande. The principal diseases are congestive fever, inflammation of the bowels, measles, and the chills and fever. The measles appear to be peculiarly fatal, and wholly different from the disease of the same name in the United States. --The patient scarcely ever recovers. The hand of death has been heavily upon us--dispensation of Providence are mysterious, and we submit without a murmur to Him "who spoke and it was done--who commanded and it stood still."

The necessity of discharging all who are sick consists in several particulars. 1st, want of medicine to effect a cure; 2nd, the severity of the disease, the uncertainty, and I would add the almost utter impossibility of recovering in this climate, and 3rd, very few, if any, ever recover after being prostrated by disease here.

In view of these facts I would ask, is not every soldier justified in getting discharged who is attacked by diseases which almost invariably proves fatal? He could be of no service to his country here, and by remaining would sacrifice his own life. Dr. Norris, who is now our principal surgeon, is worthy of the greatest praise for his noble conduct in the trying scenes through which we have passed. --The sick have been so numerous that frequently he could not obtain an hour's sleep for four days or nights in succession--Dr. Robertson, one of the assistants being dangerously sick, and Dr. Stearns being absent with a portion of the sick sent to the hospital at Camargo.

All the well men in the Nashville Blues left with Captains Cheatham and Lieutenants Bradfoot and Putnam, for Monterey some days ago, together with all the other companies of the regiment capable of performing the march. Enough well men, however, were left to take care of the sick. In our company some forty were left, including myself and those at the hospital at Point Isabel. Some twenty-five or thirty Blues have been discharged--four have died in all since we left, Nashville, and one died who was discharged are able to leave, I shall start with my small detachment for Monterey. I remained, in pursuance of Gen. Pillow's order, with the men in our company unable to march.

I should do injustice to Brigadier General Pillow did I omit to mention his unceasing exertions to alleviate the sufferings of the sick. He has done every thing in his power, and his magnanimous conduct as an officer meets with universal admiration.

This town is literally void of interest and I am heartily sick of it. Last night, to break the monotony of the camp, the regiment above u had an alarms, which spread up and down the river, and two companies were sent out as scouting parties, who fired many guns, had some fun, and returned in the morning to their quarters without discovering any thing in the shape of a hostile Mexican.
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NNR 71.120 October 24, 1846 Sick Tennessee Volunteers retiring

Return of Volunteers . --The Nashville papers mention the return to that place, on the 4th instant, of about two hundred sick volunteers, belonging to the first regiment of Tennessee troops--most of them out of funds as well as out of health. Many of the other regiments have been considerably reduced by the same cause, as will be seen by the subjoined extract of a letter from Col. Samuel R. Curtis, commanding the third regiment of the Ohio volunteers. The more recent accounts, however indicate that the health of the remaining troops had much improved.
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NNR 71.120 October 24, 1846 Col. Samuel Ryan Curtis' letter about the health of troops at Matamoros

Matamoros, September 7, 1846:

"In my regiment there are 150 on the sick list. The same proportion at Camp Washington, when you were there, would have made the list eight or nine hundred, as there was then under my command all the volunteers from the state, and five or six times the force I now command. My surgeon reports that, though the number continues large, there is evidently a change for the better, and almost every man is on the mend.

'It is considered a very hard battle, and a bloody one that carries off ten per cent of a given force. Very few battles of the many thousands the world has fought have risen above five per cent. But by disease and death I have seen my ranks already reduced from 780 to 620. --And in some of the regiments, where they have guarded themselves, or been more exposed, the regiments are reduced from 760 to 500. The number gone are not all dead. Hundreds pass down the river daily on their way home, having procured a certificate from their surgeon that they are attacked by incurable disease. They will many of them return home to their families emaciated, sick, and unable to oil. They are wounded soldiers who have met the pestilential foes of the south; and as much deserve the honor and care of their country as though the fatal shaft had been composed of lead.

'So far as life and death are concerned, I would rather risk a battle once a week, with my regiment in the north, than remain in a climate so unnatural to them. --But we do not repine--we do not complain. Those who stay, and those who die here, are doing so in the discharge of the duty. Of those who leave to return home, many will never reach there, but will find graves in the gulf or river. '
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NNR 71.120-121 October 24, 1846 Notices of Officers and men

CAPT. THORNTON, of the United States dragoons, accompanied Capt. Eaton, the bearer of despatches from Monterey to the city of Washington,--with the purpose of prevailing upon the department of war, to afford him an opportunity of retrieving himself from the effects of the late disaster near Matamoros.

LIEUT. COL. WATSON. --Every thing relating to this gallant officer has a melancholy interest for our citizens. The following is an extract of a letter written in the camp before Monterey on the 22nd of September, by an officer of the US army, to a gentleman of Baltimore.

"In the attempt to enter the town we lost Colonel Watson of the Baltimore volunteers, who conducted himself most gallantly. I saw him a few minutes before he fell. He had lost his horse, which was killed under him, and was on foot. He was shot dead while leading his men to the charge."

The York (Pa. ,) Republican says:

Col. W. H. Watson. --"We notice with regret the fall of this gallant Baltimorean in the fierce conflict at Monterey. He was one of the most popular and esteemed residents of Baltimore--the commander of one of the oldest volunteer corps--once her representative in the state Legislature, and speaker of the house of delegates of Maryland. He was also the chief Marshal of the great Whig Young Men's convention in May, 1844, and passed the 4th of July of that year in York with the Colombian Fire company, of which he was president. He was appointed by Gov. Pratt to command the Baltimore and Washington battalion of volunteers in Mexico, where he has bravely fallen in his country's service. Noble, gallant, and chivalrous, due honors to his name will be unquestionably rendered by the generous citizens of Baltimore."

Messers. Editors: I send you extracts from a letter I have jest received from Col. Charles A. May, US dragoons. Yours, JBW

Dragoon camp, near Monterey, Mexico.

September 26th 1846

Dear J--It is sad and painful duty to perform, in announcing to you the death of your father's young friend. We have had hard fighting for the last three days, and he was mortally wounded in a charge against the enemy's cavalry. He behaved most gallantly and fell in the front of battle. Yesterday he died, but retained his senses until the last. He was a gallant fellow, and is much regretted. You can say this to his friends, that he had every attention. I was not present when he expired, but was absent on duty. He was buried with military honors.

Many gallant spirits have gone out in the last three days. The flowers of our little army have fallen--peace be with them! The enemy yesterday surrendered the city on condition that they should be allowed to march out with the honors of war. *****

The gallant Watson fell at the head of his regiment, leading the charge. I cannot tell you of our loss, but it is at least five hundred killed and wounded.

My men have not suffered any, as they have been exposed but very little. *****

I write this on my saddle, and am so tired I can't hold my pen any longer. I have not slept for the last three days or nights, so you must excuse this wretched scrawl. Yours, Charley May.

---

We regret very much that the above letter announces the death of a most respectable young gentleman, Mr. Herman Thomas, of Harford county, of this state. When congress passed the act calling into service the volunteers, numerous were the applications to those in authority for commissions. --All, of course, could not be gratified, and Mr. Thomas was among the unsuccessful applicants. --Resolved, however, to win laurels in his country's service he left for the seat of war among the first, and took his place in the ranks. He was especially recommended to Colonel May's notice, as will be seen by the above letter, and had scarcely time to distinguish himself before he met a soldier's death.

Capt. Field. --The New York Express says:--"among the officers killed at Monterey was Captain Field, of the United States army. His lady was on a visit to this city, residing at the house of Assistant Alderman Oliver, anxiously expecting letters from her husband. The first intelligence that reached her after her arrival here, was his death. Mrs. F. is the daughter of the late Colonel Vose, a gallant officer who was with the army on the Rio Grande, and whose death also she was called to mourn a short time since. Thus has she to lament the lass of a husband in whom her very life seemed wrapped--sorrows sufficient for one, at least, to be called to bear."

"Capt. Williams, of the topographical engineers; killed during the series of desperate conflicts before Monterey, was a resident of for some time married in this town. He married the daughter of the estimable widow of the late Thomas Peters, Esq. , at whose residence the orphans of Capt. Williams now remain, their mother being also died. Georgetown is not only fully represented in the gallant army of the south, but offers her share of the shining victims to be immolated on the altar of this most unfortunate war."GEORGETOWN DC ADVOCATE.

Capt. Lewis N. Morris. --The details of the battle of Monterey confirm the sad rumor that Captain Lewis N. Morris, of this city, fell at the head of his regiment, during the progress of that sanguinary conflict. The mournful intelligence has deeply afflicted his surviving relatives, and brought sorrowing to the hearts of a large circle of the friends and acquaintances of the departed.

Captain Morris was a native of this state; grandson of Lewis Morris, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, and eldest son of Capt. Staats Morris, who served as aid-de-camp to Gen. Wayne, during the Indian wars, at the close of the revolution. He graduated at West Point Military Academy, in 1820, as second lieutenant of artillery, but was soon after attached to the 3rd infantry, then, and for several years, stationed on the western frontier. He served in the Black Hawk war, in 1832, and was promoted to a company in October, 1833.

In November, 1840, he was ordered to Florida, where he remained in active and often dangerous service, until the spring of 1843. During most of the period of his residence in Florida he had the command of his regiment, and for six months he was entrusted with the command of the Middle District of Florida, having his headquarters at Fort Gamble. During that campaign he rendered efficient service. Few men displayed greater personal courage, as none stood more deservedly high as an accomplished and successful disciplinarian.

He went to Corpus Christi with Gen. Taylor, and commanded the 3rd regiment in the well fought battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma. During those battles he exhibited great coolness and courage, and for his distinguished gallantry in those engagements, was nominated by the president brevet major.

Captain Morris, in the battle, which has terminated his career, accompanied the command of Major Lear, in their gallant charge upon the masked batteries within the walls of Monterey. He was among the foremost of the column, and when Major Lear fell wounded, he took command. His position was one of great hazard and responsibility; and fell, pressing forward to the capture of the battery, under a murderous and sweeping fire from the enemy.

The death of Capt. Morris will be deeply regretted. He was an officer of great experience, and promise, in the 46th year of his age. He has left a wife and family; and the tears of a grateful people, who can appreciate the virtues of a brave soldier, will be mingled with hers over the grave of the departed. Albany Journal

Lieut. D. Irwin. --In the list of officers who fell at Monterey we are pained to recognize the name of Lieut. D. Irwin of the regular army, son of Joseph Irwin, Esq. at Fort Monroe. But while we sympathize with the venerable parent in the loss of a gallant and accomplished son, it is a consolation to reflect that he met a patriot soldiers death, in his country's cause, in the van of the battle, and in the arms of victory. Norfolk Herald.

THE HEREOS OF MONTEREY. --General Worth is a Massachusetts man, born at Martha's Vineyard.

GENERAL DAVID E. TWIGGS. --The citizens of Augusta, Georgia, have made arrangements to present to General Twiggs, a sword, as a testimonial of their appreciation of his gallant conduct in the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, on the 8th and 9th of May last.

CAPTIAN ALBERT BLANCHARD, who distinguished himself at the battle of Monterey is the son of Reuben K. Blanchard, of Charlestown, Massachusetts, Captain B. was born within a rifle shot of Bunker Hill--and educated amid the recollections which belong to the spot.

Col. A. C. Fanning, of the United States army, died suddenly in Cincinnati a few days since, of apoplexy, in the 59th year of his age. He entered the army in 1812, served through the war with England; was with General Jackson through the Seminole war, and was in service in Florida, where he participated in two of the most sanguinary battles. He was Lieutenant Colonel of the 2nd regiment of artillery, and colonel by brevet of date December 31, 1835.

DEATH OF CAPT. WM. WALTERS. --The St. Louis Republican of the 31st announces the death of Capt. W. at the Planters House in that city, on the day before. He was assistant commissary in the army, and was on his route to assume his new duties. --Capt. Walters was the editor of the Illinois State Register published at Springfield, and in this capacity had taken an active part in state and national politics, for many years past.

COL. MCLUNG, of Mississippi, died of the wounds received in the battle of Monterey.

CAPT. CROGHAN KER, and LIEUTS. A. LOWERY, and G. HUMPHRIES, United States dragoons, embarked with the United States recruits from Fort McHenry, a short time since on board of the brig C. H. Rogers, for Brazos Santiago. Captain K. has served in the army upward of ten years, and besides having been engaged in the actions of Palo Also and Resaca de la Palma, served through the entire Florida campaign.

Two days before Capt. Ker left Baltimore, as a testimonial of their appreciation of his worth as a soldier and gentleman, Sept. 9, 1846.

The presentation was made through B. C. Presstman, Esq. , preceded by a very eloquent an appropriate address which drew forth the warmest applause from those assembled, and was received by Captain Ker with a few brief but appropriate remarks. On the conclusion of the ceremonies of the presentation, the company sat down to a collation, prepared in a handsome style.

Lieut. Woods, who fell at Monterey, was a native of Lewistown, Pennsylvania, where his father the venerable Congregational clergyman of that place, still resides. His maternal grandfather was John Witherpoon, one of the signers of the declaration of Independence and president of Princeton College.
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NNR 71.121 October 24, 1846 account of a Delaware Hero

A DELAWARE HERO--A correspondent at New Orleans, who belongs to the army, has sent the Philadelphia Ledger a letter detailing the exploits of a young Delawarian, named Sam'l E. Chambers, who it seems, was the "brother in arms"of the writer. --Chambers joined the army at Corpus Christi, and went with Captain Walker's Texas Rangers to the Rio Grande. On the first of May, when Walker made the desperate attempt to cut his way through to Taylor's camp for the purpose of opening the communication, Chambers was one of the few men who went with him. In the encounter with the Mexicans, they lost all but fifteen men. Chambers had a horse shot under him. He captured another from a Mexican, which shared the same fate as the first, and was the last man who returned to camp. --Chambers did admire the discretion of Captain W. as much as he did his courage, and applied to Captain May for a place in his company in the expected battles on the 8th and 9th. The application was granted and C. was the second man that crossed the Mexican battery in charge. He was found after the battle lying under his horse by the side of one of the Mexican pieces, with his dislocated and much bruised, and entirely insensible. He was removed from the field, and has since recovered from his injuries. The writer of the letter says his comrades have given him the name of the "Hero of Delaware."Some of those who observed his conduct during the battle, say he fought as if he intended with his single arm to put to flight the whole Mexican Army. With his sabre in one hand, he assaulted the men in charge of the battery, and with the other he discharged his pistols in their faces. --Three bayonet wounds through the body which he received, show how desperate the contest was, and how gallant he stood his ground. The father of this young hero was named Isaac Chambers. He resided in the state of Delaware, and has also lived in Philadelphia. His mother lives at present in Wilmington, it is believed and the object of the letter is to acquaint the latter of her son's safety. --Success to him, and may his gallantry win him more substantial honors than the admiration of his comrades.
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NNR 71.122 October 24, 1846 Sundry incidents in the battle of the Rio Grande

A correspondent of the New York Journal of Commerce, who signs himself "A friend of the Army,"has published in that paper a communication the object of which "is to detail some of the services rendered by a portion on gen. Taylor’s army which have heretofore been passed over almost in silence, while the services of others have been placed before the public in a most conspicuous fight." The following passages were extracted from it:

"In the gallant charge of Capt. May with a squadron of dragoons of the 9th, there were several officers who participated with him in all the danger of the onslaught yet their names were never mentioned. But few know that such a man as capt. L.T. Graham was in that charge with his company, and entitled to just as much distinction as capt. May, who because his name happens to be placed two above the other upon the Army Register, or from some other unknown cause, gets all the glory, not only from the public, but from congress, receiving two brevets, while the other officers of the squadron are not noticed. This is manifest injustice.

Among other instances which might be cited, is that of capt. Duncan, a brave and gallant officer, who is brevetted for gallant services on the 8th, and again for highly meritorious and distinguished services on the 9th, while lieut. Ridgely gets a brevet for services on the 8th but is not noticed for what he did on the 9th.

Now let us inquire what each of these two gentlemen did on the 9th, and see if justice has been done them.

Each of them on the morning of the ninth commanded a company of light artillery of about the same magnitude. It was however Ridgely’s fortune to be placed in the advance of the army with the 5th infantry. This position he retained until the action commenced. Captain Duncan was placed near the rear of the column, which marched by platoons through the narrow road, and of course extended a long distance to the rear.

The action commenced the moment the head of the column reached the enemy, and from this time until he was routed, and the retreat towards the river, lieut. Ridgely’s battery was most actively engaged, and as he very justly remarks in his report, he had the honor to command the only artillery that was engaged; consequently all that was done in that engagement by artillery, is due to him, and not to Duncan, as it was as it was impracticable for the latter to reach the field until late in the action, and Ridgely is not noticed. Such instances of injustice as the foregoing have created much dissatisfaction in the army, and in my opinion it would have been better for the service to bestow no brevets at all, than to pass over so many who so richly deserve them.

There appears to be another cause for dissatisfaction in the army, which is, that some regiments that figured conspicuously, have not had justice in the official dispatches.

I have as yet seen no statement which appeared to me to do justice to the gallant manner in which our infantry received and repelled the charge of the Mexican Lancers on the 8th.

The commanding in his report says, "the enemy’s cavalry made a charge upon the 5th infantry, and was repulsed; "that Ridgely’s artillery did great execution among them, scattering them in every direction." Hereby leaving the inference that the infantry did no execution, but that the cavalry were in fact repulsed by Ridgely. This impression would most certainly obtain from the reading the general’s report; but so far from this being the case, the services of this regiment on that occasion contributed not a little, (in our opinion) towards a victory.

When Gen. Taylor discovered that the enemy’s lancers were making a movement from the left of their line, passing around a skirt of woods towards our right flank, apparently with the intention of turning it, he ordered the 3rd and 5th regiments of infantry to march in that direction and intercept them. This movement was promptly executed, and over cover of the woods and the smoke of our guns, these regiments gained a position about a half mile from the main body of the army, where the lancers must pass; and it was but a few moments before they were seen approaching around the pint of woods which had until now concealed them.

The regiments were instantly thrown into square, -the 5th front, the 3rd about three hundred yards in the rear, and in this position they awaited the enemy.

When the Lancers espied our troops formed in square, they were taken by surprise, halted at a distance of some four hundred yards from the 5th Infantry, and formed for a charge. Their numbers appeared most overpowering, and it was afterwards ascertained that the odds were at least three to one in their favor.

As soon as their columns were formed, the charge was sounded from numerous trumpets through their lines- at the same time setting up a most unearthly shout, and putting their horses at full speed, they came bounding towards the 5th, a little band of three hundred and forty men.)

As they came sweeping down the prairie, dressed in the wild costume of the Mexican cavalry, their appearance was truly terrific: but the officers encouraged their men to stand firm in their places, and not to permit their ranks to be broken, impressed upon them the importance of maintaining the square. It required all of their efforts to give confidence to the soldiers, as they heard the most formidable accounts of their troops: they were considered the choice troops of the Mexican army, and it was upon them that their general had placed the most reliance. Indeed they had been pronounced by one of our dragoon officers a fine body of well disciplined troops.- This, together with the fact that they were one thousand strong, rendering the situation of the 5th anything but enviable at this particular juncture.

It is stated by an experienced officer, that the situation of soldiers when in square against cavalry, awaiting a charge is the most trying of all others. There is n excitement in the attacking party which simulates the most timid, and blunts the thought of danger. The enthusiasm of the impetuous assault when making the charge, spreads from man to man like wildfire, and the most cowardly get some sparked of courage from their brave comrades around them: on the contrary, imposing array of a large body of horse coming upon them at full speed, is enough to shake the nerves of brave men. The moral effect is very great; and the Mexican general, (Torrijon) taking advantage of this fact, to cut the square to pieces in a short time. Little did he know of the material of our army; the men behaved most nobly. Not a man moved, spoke, or fired a shot, but permitted the Lancers to approach, fire their carbines into the square, and when within a distance of thirty yards from the second front, the command was given in a distinct and audible tone of voice, for that front to "ready, aim, fire." It was well timed, and well directed; and most fatal and decisive was the effect. Thirty riders plunged headlong from their saddle never to mount again; and the others, thrown into the utmost terror and confusion, turned back to their army, and did not make their appearance again.

It was while the Lancers were retreating, that two pieces of Mexican artillery, each drawn by five mules, were seen approaching within two hundred yards of the square. Had they brought them into battery at this distance, and given the infantry a round of grape, the effect on the condensed square would have been most fatal; but they continued to approach still nearer. Whereupon Col. McIntosh called for lieut. Ridgely, who had been with him during the day with two pieces of Ringgold’s artillery, but had been detained with the main army when the fifth were ordered to the right. At this moment someone exclaimed ‘there he comes!’ and sure enough he was discovered approaching from the direction of the army, his horses flying at the very top of their speed, and in an incredibly short space of time had reached the square, wheeled his guns into battery, unlimbered, and before the Mexicans had time to detach their mules from their guns, he was pouring charge of grape and canister into them from his battery.

The first shot killed four gunners at one of their pieces, and was followed up by other equally effective, which soon placed "Messieurs Mexicanos"completely "hors du combat,"and drove them back in double quick time back to their lines without firing a shot in return.

Thus it will be seen that the 5th Infantry repulsed the Lancers with great loss on the 8th, and that lieut. Ridgely repulsed the artillery on the same day, but that the operations of each were separate and distinct from the other, and that lieut. Ridgely did not fire a shot at the Lancers, or do "any execution"among them at the time they charged the infantry.
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NNR 71.122 October 24, 1846 Col. Humphrey Marshall's Kentucky regiment of volunteers

From Col. Marshall's Regiment

By the southern mail of the 17 inst. we received a letter from our friend James S. Jackson, esq. giving the later intelligence from col. Humphrey Marshall's regiment than has been heretofore received. The writer presents a sad picture of the condition of the regiment, not only as regards the health of the men, but also as respects their personal comforts, being the greater part of them in a very destitute condition and without the means to supply their necessities in consequence of the failure of the government to provide for the payment of their dues. So utterly regardless of the condition of the regiment have they been whose business it is to see that their wants are properly cared for and that they suffer for nothing, that Mr. Jackson states that at the moment of writing 75,000 dollars at least was due to Marshall's regiment alone. Besides all this, the destination of the regiment has been suddenly changed, and instead of , as originally intended; being permitted to continue their march to San Antonio de Bexar, there to join the command under Gen. Wool, after a two months' journey through Arkansas and Texas, under the burning rays of a summer's sun, they are halted at Victoria in the midst of the sickly season and in a very unhealthy location, and there ordered to remain until they shall' have received orders from Gen. Taylor, to whose command, it appears, they are now destined. The consequence is, as might have been foresee, that four hundred are reported to be on the sick list--some made the number even greater than this--in a very few days after they are halted, and with the sickness on the increase.

When the bill comes to be footed up, the nation will be amazed at the extent to which the lives of our citizens have been literally sacrificed and the treasury of the nation wasted; which might have been saved by a more judicious and wise policy on the part of our rulers.

The following is an extract from the letter above referred to. It is dated at Port Lavacca on the 23rd September:

"Disease has increased in our camp alarmingly since our arrival here. Yesterday the surgeon reported 160 new cases in the hospital. Many of our boys look chapfallen at this sudden reverse of our condition, but the commander and the surgeons seem to recognize the change as one they had expected, and to feel no great degree of fear for the result. I hope by the next letter I write to give you an account f improving health in the regiment. You ought to see the boys. Their condition is a reproach to the government. They are barefooted, and some of them literally without breeches, many without hats and coats, but they stand up as proud as if they were dressed in imperial purple. The government is in debt to this regiment this day 75,000 dollars--it has received no pay whatever, and though paymasters pass and repass, it has seen no signs of payment. Young men of education and intelligence, used to the luxuries of private life, are by this neglect absolutely turned naked in a wild country, and exposed to the climate and suffering from the weather, without any care for their condition on the part of the government they serve. They would raise a row pretty quickly, but that they respect too highly the feelings of their own officers to place them in an awkward position by drawing down on them the displeasure of the war department."
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NNR 71.123 October 24, 1846 Troops embark for Mexico

TROOPS FOR MEXICO.

The baroque Margaret Hugg, Capt. Little, bound for Point Isabel, (Texas), sailed from Fort Monroe on Thursday last, with a detachment of 200 troops, lately stationed at that post, under the command of Major W. W. Morris; consisting of Company "A,"4th Reg. U. S. artillery, Capt. F. E. Hunt, commanding; lieutenants J. P. Gaiesche and J. A. Brown. Each of these companies is 92 strong. And detachment of 20 infantry recruits, Lieut. McJilton, commanding.
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NNR 71.123 October 24, 1846 sickness of Illinois volunteers

ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. Of the two regiments of Illinois volunteers at Camp Patterson, on the 8th ult. three hundred were on the sick list, about one hundred of whom were in the hospital. The sick had to lay on their blankets on the ground, in small miserable tents, and most of them get drenched every rain that falls.
[St. Louis Republican.
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NNR 71.123 October 24, 1846 Speculations about forces gathered to oppose the Army of the West: word of the position of Col. John Charles Fremont

Army of the West. A letter from a distinguished officer of general Kearney's staff, dated Santa Fe, September 1, 1846, says--"Mr. Charles Bent informs me that Sublette left Fremont in May, at the head of the Sacramento, and he thinks he will return by the way of Bent's Fort.

'The rumors from below in reference to the forces collected to oppose us are very contradictory. We move in the morning to meet them, and my opinion is, that they will disperse without giving us battle.

'Nothing, however, prevents the people of the country from rising en masse to oppose us, but the belief that they will be whipped whenever they do so, and if a rising should take place on any extensive scale, I think it will be after Gen. Kearney leaves here for California."
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NNR 71.123 October 24, 1846 French brig captured while trying to force the blockade at Tampico

Capture. --Information has been received by the revenue cutter Van Buren, at New Orleans from Vera Cruz, that the U. S. brig Somers had captured a French brig, whilst attempting to force the blockade at Tampico, and sent her to Commodore Conner, off Vera Cruz.

The U. S. ship Saratoga, which vessel sailed from Rio de Janeiro on the 22nd of August for the Pacific.

The U. S. Iron steamers Mary Summers, Captain Peck, and the De Rosseett, Capt. Freeland, left Savannah on Thursday last for their destination, Rio Grande.

The Southampton, U. S. store ship, was at St. Vincent, August 19--All Well.

A letter has been received, via: Havre, from an officer on board of the U. S. store ship Lexington, bound to California. It is dated at sea, north lat. 29, long. 40, August 7th, 1846--All Well.
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NNR 71.128 October 24, 1846 requisition for additional regiments of volunteers, "mum"as to future operations, "mental food for the Army"
REQUISITION FOR VOLUNTEERS. We have from various sources, intimations that the President of the United States either has made, or is about to make requisitions upon the governors of many states for their quota of volunteers under the act of last session of congress. The Philadelphia Inquirer states that it is rumored that six regiments are called for from Pennsylvania. New York papers signify that a brigade is called for from that state, and add, Col. Webb, of the Courier & Inquirer, has applied for the command. A rumor was circulating at New Orleans at the last dates from thence, that a call had been made also upon that state. After what Louisiana has already furnished, we should hardly suppose that another requisition would be made on their patriotism, especially as her position on the frontier renders her immediately liable to any emergency, such for instance as she so promptly met when Gen. Taylor was in danger of loosing his munitions and supplies at Point Isabel.

It is supposed that those volunteers are intended for the expedition against Tampico, or Vera Cruz. The Union, of last night, has an editorial in relation to the above and other rumors, under the caption of "CALL FOR VOLUNTEERS,"which says, "whether, or when, the government will call for some volunteers, we know not, and it is possible they have not as yet decided; but no such call has yet been made." The article thus concludes: "We cannot be mistaken in stating that a vigorous prosecution of the war is the order of the day. But we will not undertake to develop the plan of the campaign. The extents will duly develop themselves."

From this as well as another editorial of the Union a few days since, we judge that "mum"is to be the word in future, as to operations.

MENTAL FOOD FOR THE ARMY – "It would have done your heart good,"(says the Tract Agent, Rev. Mr. Vail, who raised $1,000 in New Orleans fir supplying the army with Christian books,) "to have witnessed the gratitude with which the soldiers received our books-in some cases, as I address-ed them, company by company, passing a formal vote of thanks-and in others in the ardor of their feelings giving three cheers to the American Tract Society."
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NNR 71.128 October 24, 1846 comments on the inability of Secretary of the Treasury Robert John Walker to negotiate a loan with the banks, speculation on his future course

United States Finances.- The unsuccessful attempt of the Secretary of the Treasury to negotiate a loan, either with the Banks or the Bankers of New York and Boston, has given rise to a number of pointed articles in the opposition journals. We have been looking for what the official journal would say upon the subject, but have met with nothing definite in its pages as yet. Letter writers at Washington intimate that the Secretary is now more than ever determined to sever all connection between the Government and the banks. He has refused such offers as they have made him. The Banks have refused the offers he made to them,- and so the case stands as to the Banks. Business men were certainly alarmed, their own interests being involved and apprehensions awakened that their usual resources for making purchases and payments might be so absorbed by the banks attempting to sustain the government in its expensive war. It is now said that their remonstrances would prevent the banks from parting with funds on the terms which they had offered to Mr. Walker.

The Bankers, on the other hand, are no doubt anxious to negotiate the loan, but, -they look ahead to see what United States stock is likely to command in market some time hence – and whether the expenses of the war are not likely to throw a large amount of United States stock in some form, into the market, thereby depreciating its value. Their offer has no doubt been predicated accordingly The Secretary of the Treasury believes that he can obtain money on better terms. It is supposed that Gen. Armstrong, Consul at Liverpool, who went out in the last steamer, has instructions to attempt to negotiate a loan in Europe, - and that the Secretary will in the mean time, rely upon the issue of Treasury notes for contingencies.

Congress will meet in six weeks from this. Mr. Walker may get on until that period, with the aid of what funds he yet has in the deposit banks, the cash he will receive for duties and sales of public lands, and the issue of treasury notes. If he can keep those notes and the U.S. stocks at par till that period, he will achieve more than many believe to be in his power. When he took charge of the treasury, United States stock was at a premium of somewhere about 16 per cent.

The period arrived at which it is natural for the people to be somewhat anxious as to the project which the Secretary will be likely to submit to Congress in his Annual report, for providing ways and means to meet the expenditures of the cifsuing. Curiosity is awake to see what amount has been expended during the past year, and especially for the two months during which we have been at war. Mr. Walker’s exhibit will be most anxiously looked for as some criterion may be formed therefrom as to the future expenses of the war.

The heavy importations of foreign goods which reduce duties will invite from abroad during the first year after the new tariff comes into operation, will replenish the public treasury and measurably relieve the government. This will continue until the goods have to be paid for and until the space is drained out to pay up the balance which our exports will fall below the amount of our imports. Then look out for the consequences of abandoning our own manufacturers, and resorting to foreign, instead of availing of a home market.

Since placing the above type we find in last nights’ Union the following:

OFFICAL. Treasury department, October 22, 1846. This department will issue treasury notes to the amount of three millions of dollars, bearing an interest of 5 2-5 per cent per annum, payable to the order of persons or corporations making deposites therefore in specie in sums of not less than one thousand dollars, with either the Treasurer of the United States, assistant treasurer at Boston, New York, Charleston, or St. Louis, or treasurers of the mint at Philadelphia, or New Orleans. The notes will bear even date with the date of the deposite.

R.J. WALKER, secretary of the treasury.

The Union, in an editorial, noticing the advertisement says, "The notes issued will be receivable "for all public dues, both in the land office and customhouse, as well before and after maturity, and must be regard in the light, for many uses, of specie bearing interest; and at the rate now proposed, we cannot doubt, there will be a large demand for these notes."

-

From the National Intelligencer of the 10th instant.

It may be affirmed that there is no country in the world in which the lessons of common sense and experience are so entirely disregarded, when they conflict with party dogma, as in these Unites States. Practical and shrewd as the people pf this country certainly are, in all that concerns the ordinary pursuits-of life, this proneness to surrender their judgments, if not their consciences too, into the hands of party leaders and hypyrics, constitutes a striking feature in our national character. And this remarkable inconsistency, strange to say, appears to be peculiar to the popular form of government; for in such only can demagogues rise and flourish by party legerdemain and cajolery. A striking instance of this obedient surrender of the judgment glaring party imposture is furnished in the support still given to the sub-treasury scheme-a scheme only congenial to despotic governments, and utterly incompatible with the habits, the conveniences, and the whole social structure of free communities.—This scheme, originally broached many years ago by a southern abstractionist, was then discountenanced—he being at the moment in favor with the dominant party; but, unhappily for the country, that same party, not long after, selected it as its specious scheme for popular delusion, and put it into operation. It proved, however, so repugnant to our system of government, so impracticable indeed, and so obnoxious to the public taste, that, a wiser party coming into power, it was soon repealed and discarded. But it had now become an item of the party creed and therefore must be adhered to; and when its friends regained the ascendancy in the government it must needs be received, and all he faithful called on to stand by it. Every days experience calls on its impracticability, and its mischievous nature, even were it practicable. Its very patrons, the officers of the government, are obliged daily to violate its provisions, although their observance is enjoined under the severest penalties.

At the very moment the government organ here is singing hosannas to its wisdom, the act is treated with contempt and derision by the government itself. While one high officer is in New York begging the banks to lend the government money—receivable of course, in their notes—another proceeds thither, and with government funds buy New York bank notes to bring here for disbursement to the public creditors. And all this while the pains of the penitentiary are denounced by the law against any officer or agent who violates its provisions. The whole matter is become a farce, yet party allegiance requires the system to be upheld and defended. We have seen nothing which exhibits more strikingly the grossness of the whole hard money imposture than the two following paragraphs, appearing in the same number of the leading democratic paper of N. York, the Evening Post, which articles, indeed, gave rise to these remarks. In that paper of Wednesday we find, first, this paragraph extracted from the address of the New York Democratic Convention assembled to nominate a governor:

"Experience has shown that the fiscal transactions of the government should be disconnected with all banking institutions; that the revenue system should not be made an instrument for the circulation of a paper currency; and that these objects should only be secured by collecting the public dues and discharging the public obligations in specie; or, in other words, that the government should collect, keep, and disburse its revenues in gold and silver."

And, in the same paper, the following item of intelligence:

"the Secretary of the Treasury has been in this city several days, and, we understand offered to sell the deposite banks treasury notes from three to four millions of dollars, bearing interest at 5 per cent. The banks offered to take them at 6 per cent per annum."
[MJK]


NNR 71.129 October 31, 1846 GENERAL JOHN ELLIS WOOL'S division marching for Chihuahua and naval affairs

The details given this week from the seat of war, are full of interest. The operations of the navy in the Pacific, and of General Kearney in the west, furnish a tolerably distinct view of affairs in both directions. From General Wool's division we have nothing definite, except that he has marched in full force for Chihuahua. The arrival of the steamer James L Day at New Orleans on the 22nd, brings the latest intelligence. She left Port Lavaca on the 19th. The Kentucky regiment, Colonel Marshall, took up their line of March on the 13th, and the Tennessee regiment, Col. Thomas, on the 15th for Camargo. On the 18th news reached Port Lavaca that they were now ordered to proceed to Matamoros instead of Camargo.

From Victoria, Texas, we learn that Colonel Thomas' regiment passed that place on the 5th October for Placedo's Creek where they intended to remain 8 or 10 before starting for Camargo.

Three companies of the Kentucky regiment passed through Victoria on the 6th instant, on their way to Comargo. The Advance consisted of Captains Milam's, Lillard's, and Pennington's companies, and is commanded By Major Gaines. The remaining companies would leave in eight or ten days under the command of Col. Marshall.

From the "Army of Occupation"a number of interesting letters have been received, besides those which we insert, from which we shall cull for our next.

It is reported that Ampudia has been superseded in command of the army of the north, by Mejia.

The report from Monterey that Santa Anna had reached Saltillo, is manifestly premature. Accounts from the city of Mexico, via Havana, state that Santa Anna left there on the 28th with 4,000 men. He could not make the march from thence to Saltillo in less than three weeks. They had not heard of the battle of Monterey at Mexico on the 28th.

Major Graham, United States army, bearer of the President's orders to General Taylor to terminate the armistice, left New Orleans on the 22nd for the Rio Grande, in the steamer Galveston; Captain Webb, quarter master's department, and Lieut. Kearney with his company of U. S. dragoons, on board.

Some of the latest letters from Monterey represent the army there as being not only without adequate means of transportation, but as being upon short allowance for provisions and as requiring to be immediately reinforced.
[PTH]


NNR 71.129 October 31, 1846 Incidents and results from recent battles

"Army of Occupation"

Much anxiety has been relieved by arrival of the steam ship Galveston, at New Orleans on the 20th, bringing accounts from Monterey as late as the 6th October.

The reports from the several officers to the commanding general, of the battles at Monterey had not yet been completed. The accounts heretofore given are now confirmed in general. The N. O. Picayune says.

"Captain Owen (formerly Lieutenant) of the Baltimore battalion, left Monterey on the 6th instant, and we are indebted to him for many interesting details. He informs that the American loss in the three actions is set down at five hundred and sixty-one killed and wounded. Our correspondent, writing on the 29th ult., makes the loss a little less, but it had not then been ascertained with precision. The Mexican loss has not been, and probably never will be ascertained with precision. The Mexican loss has not been and probably never will be ascertained with certainty. It is believed to exceed one thousand."

We rejoice to learn that the report we had of the death of Col. McClung, of the Mississippi volunteers, was untrue. It was believed at Monterey on the 6th that would recover.

His friends will regret to hear that Lieut. Dilworth, of the 1st infantry, was still alive and hopes were entertained that he would recover. He was so desperately wounded that his recovery would be deemed a miracle, but he has great strength of constitution and his numerous friends do not despair.

Maj. Lear, of the 3rd infantry, is doing well, and it is believed that he will recover.

The death of Mr. Herman S. Thomas, of Harford county Md. , will be deeply felt in his native state. He had joined McCulloch's rangers to see active service, and fell in storming the second height. He was in Mr. Kendall's mess.

The following officers, who came on the Galveston, were in the battle of Monterey; Lieut. Sackett, United States army, Captain Nicholls, Louisiana; Lieut. B. F. Owen, Baltimore battalion; Lieut. Thomas J. Curd. --Lieut. C. is the bearer of despatches from the army to Washington.
[PTH]


NNR 71.129 October 31, 1846 Gen. Zachary Taylor orders up additional forces to Monterey, steamer Col. Harney and schooner Atlantic lost, duels at Camargo

General Taylor has now under his command at Monterey upward of 5,000 troops, and he is ordering up all his regulars and most of the volunteers. He feels confident of maintaining his present position against all Mexico. All the fortifications, but a short time since the glory and boast of the Mexicans, are now in Taylor's possession.

A bearer of despatches reached Matamoras from Washington, en route for Monterey, on the 5th inst., in ten days and was expected to arrive at Monterey in four more. There is quick work.

The steamer Sea, supposed to have been lost in the gale, arrived at the Brazos on the 3rd inst. She brought half a million of dollars, and steamer Whiteville which arrived on the 6th, brought 40,000 dollars more.

The Mexican force at Monterey could not have been less than 10,000 or 12,000 men; and now that their forts have been examined by our engineers, they are pronounced to be of the strongest and most scientific construction--impregnable, indeed, it would seem.

A Letter from Gen. F. Smith says--

"We have taken 32 pieces of brass cannon, and an immense amount of ordnance stores, and are now in possession of all the works, city, and surrounding country."

The steamer Colonel Harney, Captain Shannon, was totally lost on the 12th instant, on Rio Grande Bar. --Twelve persons perished, two of whom were sergeants of the U. S. Army. Captain M. could not ascertain the names of the persons lost. The Col. Harney was loaded with government stores from Brazos St. Lago, bound up the Rio Grande.

The schooner Atlantic hence for the Rio Grande, with a load of coal for the government, was also totally lost on the 8th inst. 8 miles to the south of the mouth of the Rio Grand.

The Hon. Balie Peyton and Brigadier Gen. Thomas Marshall, of the Kentucky volunteers were to have fought a duel at Camargo on the 12th inst. another duel between Capt. Munson, of N. Orleans and Capt. Cheevers, of the volunteers, was also to have taken place on the same day.
[PTH]


NNR 71.129 October 31, 1846 Gen. Zachary Taylor’s general order No. 6, issued 29th Sept. at Camargo, respecting Mexican outlaws, provocations inducing the measure

The steamer Major Brown has left Camargo to go up the river to ascertain how far the river may be navigable, and the "flag"says it is intended to establish a military depot at the furthest navigable point, so as to have stores at at a place as near as possible to the route taken by Gen. Wool, marching from San Antonio to Chihuahua. At the last accounts she had reached Mier without meeting obstruction, and was proceeding on up. An officer was on board to survey the river and select the extreme navigable point.

Some excitement has been occasioned at Monterey by the refusal of Gen. Taylor to allow Col. Cazenau to open a stock of goods at Monterey, which he had brought there at great expense. It is said he was required to pay over to the alcalde of the city the same duties which would have exacted had a Mexican imported them for sale. The details of the affair we do not clearly understand.

The following order from Gen. Patterson will promote the safety of travelers going to and from Monterey:


ORDERS – No. 6


Headquarters Army of Occupation, Camargo, Sept. 29, 1846.

Agreeably to the terms of the armistice entered into by Maj. Gen. Z. Taylor, commanding the army of occupation and the commander of the Mexican forces at Monterey, it was established that all the troops in the service of the Mexican government should retire west of a line passing in a north and south direction, 30 miles to westward of Monterey.

All bodies of armed Mexicans, therefore, who shall be found henceforth in the neighborhood of the Rio Grande, or on the route to Monterey, will be viewed as acting without authority from their government officers, and will be considered and treated as outlaws.

The recent murders in this vicinity and on the road call for decided action, and the commanding general directs that all commanders of posts and camps on the river, and of escorts on the route use every exertion to apprehend any Mexicans who may be found in their vicinity bearing arms; and furthermore, that in the event of resistance or attempt to escape of said Mexicans, they shall be treated as outlaws and enemies to mankind, and shall be fired upon by troops and captured or destroyed.

By order of Maj. Gen. Patterson. Geo. A. McCall, Ass’t Adj’t Gen.
Official: Jno. M. Brannan, Lt. 1st Art’y, Acting Adj’t
[MJK]


NNR 71.129, 71.152 October 31 and November 7, 1846 the Kentucky and Tennessee mounted regiments marching for Chihuahua

The details given this week form the seat of the war, are full of interest. The operations of the navy in the Pacific, and of General Kearney, in the west, furnish a tolerably distinct view of affairs in both directions. From General Wool’s division we have nothing definite, except that he had marched in full force for Chihuahua. The arrival of the steamer James. L. Day at New Orleans on the 22nd, bring the latest intelligence. She left Port Lavaca on the 19th. The Kentucky regiment, Colonel Marshall, took up their line of march on the 13th, and the Tennessee regiment, Col. Thomas, on the 15th for Camargo. On the 18th news reached Port Lavaca that they were now ordered to proceed to Matamoros instead of Camargo.

From Victoria, Texas, we learn that Colonel Thomas’ regiment passed that place on the 5th October for Placedo’s Creek where they intended to remain 8 or 10 days before starting for Camargo.

Three companies of the Kentucky regiment passed through Victoria on the 6th instant, on their way to Camargo. The advanced consisted of Captains Milam’s, Lillard’s, and Pennington’s companies, and is commanded by Major Gaines. The remaining companies would leave in eight to ten days, under the command of Col. Marshall.

From the "Army of Occupation"a number of interesting letters have been received, besides those which we insert, from which we shall cull for our next.

It is reported that Ampudia has been superceded in command of the army of the north, by Mejia.

The report from Monterey that Santa Anna had reached Saltillo, is manifestly premature. Accounts from the city of Mexico, via Havana, state that Santa Anna left there on the 28th September with 4,000 men. He could not make the march from thence to Saltillo in less than three weeks. They had not heard of the battle of Monterey at Mexico on the 28th.

Major Graham, United States army, bearer of the Presidents orders to General Taylor to terminate the armistice, left New Orleans on the 22d for the Rio Grande, in the steamer Galveston; Captain Webb, quarter master’s department, and Lieut. Kearney with his company of U.S. dragoons, on board.

Some of the latest letters from Monterey represent the army there as being not only without adequate means of transportation, but being upon short allowance for provisions, and as requiring to be immediately reinforced.


ARMY OF THE CENTRE – GEN. WOOL.


Letter from a correspondent of the Boston Courier, dated Army of Chihuahua, San Antonio de Bexar, Oct. 2, 1846.

I avail myself a short respite from my arduous duties to give you some little information in regard to the movements and operations of this division of the invading army. I arrived here on the 20th Sept. from La Baca, after a somewhat fatiguing journey. On the 26th ultimo the advance of this army left from Presidio Rio Grande, consisting of the following troops, viz: company B, 4th light artillery, under captain Washington: two companies 2d dragoons, under brevet major Beall; three companies 6th infantry, and one company Kentucky volunteers, under major Bonneville, United States army; six companies Arkansas cavalry under colonel Yell; four companies of Illinois volunteers, under captains Webb and Morgan; corps of pioneers, artificers, &c. under command of captain Lee, of the engineers U. States army; a train of one hundred and eighteen wagons, loaded with subsistence, ammunition and quartermasters stores, boats and lumber, for making a flying bridge across the Rio Grande- the train under charge of captain O. Cross, assistant quartermaster United States army. The entire command of col. Wm. S. Harney, 2d dragoons, amounting to fourteen hundred effective men.

On the morning of the 29th ultimo. Gen. Wool, with a portion of his staff, and escorted by two companies of the first dragoons, left here to overtake the advance.

Col. Churchill, inspector general is left in command of the rear division, to follow the remainder of the forces as soon as a sufficient number of wagons (now en route for this place) shall arrive from La Baca. Major Thomas, chief of the quartermasters department, also remains for the purpose of hastening the forwarding of supplies, &c. and will be here in about five days, with col. Churchill and the remainder of the forces, to join gen. Wool at the Presidio, when the entire forces under his command will march upon Chihuahua. Eight companies of the first regiment volunteers, (Illinois) took up their line of march yesterday for the Presidio, under the command of Col. J.J. Hardin, with a train of twenty four wagons and two pieces of cannon.

The wagons with supplies and stores, are rapidly arriving; one train of fifteen wagons came in on the 30th ultimo, and one to-day of twenty-one wagons.

It is almost impossible to imagine the difficulties encountered by the quartermasters department towards fitting out and preparing the "trains"for transporting supplies. In the first place the mules have to be broken to work in harness. There is a scarcity of teamsters, and inefficient wagon-masters are sent from New Orleans, where they are picked up and sent out upon their representing that they are first rate teamsters – the greater part of whom scarcely know how to harness a mule, not to speak of their driving a five mule team.

Too much praise cannot be awarded to maj. Thomas for his untiring exertions and unceasing vigilance in organizing the department, and protecting the interest of the service from the depredations of those who are constantly devising means to cheat the government. It was really amusing to see coming into La Baca with old wagons and broken down oxen to sell to the government, for which the most exorbitant prices were asked. Six hundred dollars has been asked for a wagon and five yoke of oxen, for which three hundred dollars would be a great price. Individuals have an idea that the government must purchase from them at any price, and that government officers are bound to believe what they say, without examination. However, they found major Thomas an officer possessing to much practical knowledge to be taken in by them. Consequently he is abused in the newspapers in the most outrageous manner, and why? For the simple reason that they cannot deceive him and rob the government.
[MJK]


NNR 71.129 October 31, 1846 Infantry marching for Camargo

"ARMY OF OCCUPATION."

Much arrival has been relieved by the arrival of the steam ship Galveston, at New Orleans on the 20th, bringing accounts from Monterey as late as the 6th October.

The reports from the several officers to the commanding general, of the battles of Monterey had not yet been completed. The accounts heretofore given are now confirmed, in the general. The N.O. Picayune says.

"Captain Owen (formerly Lieutenant) of the Baltimore battalion, left Monterey on the 6th instant, and we are indebted to him for many interesting details. He informs us that the American loss in the three actions is set down at five hundred and sixty one killed and wounded. Our correspondent, writing on the 29th ult., makes the loss a little less, but it had not been ascertained with precision. The Mexican loss has not been, and probably never will be ascertained with any certainty. It is believed to exceed one thousand."

We rejoice to learn that the report we had of the death of Col. McClung, of the Mississippi volunteers, was untrue. It was believed at Monterey on the 6th that he would recover.

His friend will regret to hear that Lieut. Dilworth, of the 1st infantry, has died of his wounds. –Lieut. Graham, of the 4th infantry, was still alive and hopes were entertained that he would recover. He was so desperately wounded that his recovery would be deemed a miracle, but he has great strength of constitution and his numerous friends do not despair.

Maj. Lear, of the 3rd infantry, is doing well, and it is believed that he will recover.

The death of Mr. Herman St. Thomas, of Harford county, Md., will be deeply felt in his native state. He had joined McCullouch’s rangers to see active service, and fell in storming the second height. He was in Mr. Kendall’s mess.

The following officers, who came on the Galveston, were in the battle of Monterey; Lieut. Sackett, United States army; Captian Nicholls, Louisiana; Lieut. B.F. Owen, Baltimore battalion; Lieut. Thomas J. Curd.—Lieut. C. is the bearer of despatches from the army to Washington.

General Taylor has now under his command at Monterey upward of 5,000 troops, and he is ordering up all his regulars and most of the volunteers. He feels confident of maintaining his present-position against all Mexico. All the fortifications, but a short time since the glory and boast of the Mexicans, are now in Taylor’s possession.

A bearer of dispatches reached Matamoras from Washington, en route for Monterey, on the 5th inst., in ten days, and was expected to arrive at Monterey in four more. There is quick work!

The streamer, Sea, supposed to have been lost in the gale, arrived at the Brazos on the 3rd inst. She brought half a million of dollars, and the steamer Whiteville which arrived on the 6th, brought $40,000 more.

The Mexican force at Monterey could not have been less than 10,000 or 12,000 men; and now that their forts have been examined by our engineers, they are pronounced to be of the strongest, and most scientific construction- impregnable indeed, it would seem.

A letter from Gen. F. Smith says –

"We have taken 32 pieces of brass cannon, and an immense amount of ordinance stores, and are now in possession of all the works, city, and surrounding country."

The steamer Colonel Harney, Captain Shannon, was totally lost on the 12th inst, on Rio Grande Bar.—Twelve persons perished, two of whom were sergeants of the U.S. army. Captain M. could not ascertain the names of the persons lost. The Colonel Harney was loaded with government from Brazos St. Iago, bound up the Rio Grande.

The Hon. Balie Peyton and Brigadier Gen. Thomas Marshall, of the Kentucky volunteers were to have fought a duel at Camargo on the 12 inst. Another duel between Capt. Munson, of N. Orleans, and Capt. Cheervers, of the volunteers, was also to have taken place on the same day.
[MJK]


NNR 71.129 – 71.130 October 31, 1846 George Wilkins Kendall’s letter giving interesting details

The Picayune publishes a series of letters from Monterey from Mr. Kendall, from which we select the following items:--

Speaking of wounded comrades reminds me of poor Thomas. He was one of the most daring fellows in McCulluch’s company, and had his horse wounded in the charge the enemy’s lancers made upon us on the morning of the 21st. On the following morning, while storming the battery on the height overlooking the Bishop’s Palace, he was mortally wounded, and after suffering incredibly died on the morning of the 24th. A musket ball shattered his hip joint, at the same time that the brave Capt. Gillespie was shot through, and the two are now quietly resting side by side on the height where they received their death wounds—Mount Gillespie, as it has been appropriately named by Gen. Worth. The friends of Thomas are among the most respectable in Maryland; he was in the same mess as myself, and it may afford his acquaintances some consolation to know that every attention was paid him, during his last hours, that circumstances would admit.

I saw Ampudia as he left town for Saltillo on the morning of the 26th - rode along in his escort for a mile or two. The base and lying wretch, for every page in his black history proves him such—looked crest-fallen, nervous, and timid to a degree. He was fearful less some of the Texas rangers, many of whom had deep wrongs to avenge, might shoot him from the way-side; and as he rode through their encampment, situated directly on their route, he could not conceal his fears. They allowed him to pass, however, without even a cry or shout of exultation.

A great many are discontented at the terms given the Mexicans, and think that they now will certainly fight again after being let off so easily. Had the battle continued on the 24th three hours longer, the Mexicans would undoubtedly have been on their knees crying and begging for their lives.

A terrible carnage would have ensued had not Ampudia sent in proposals for the surrender of the town, for his forces were huddled, if I can use such a term; and all this General Taylor well knew. To carry out the known conciliatory policy of our government, however, appears to have been his aim—to spare life and property, in accordance with his instructions, his object—and this should relieve him from all censure in the matter. For myself, I believe the whole policy of our government is, and has been wrong for years.

General Taylor is still encamped at the old ground, three mile from here—Generals Worth and Smith are in town. The main part of the wounded officers are doing well. Gen. Butler is recovering, while Colonel McClung and Mitchell are also in a fair way.

Our army has taken, or rather, retained, thirty-five pieces of artillery, many of which are valuable, and as much ammunition as will ever be needed to use with them. The killed and wounded of the enemy cannot be ascertained with any degree of certainty, nut it is known now that there loss far exceeded ours. The reports of the different commanders in General Taylor’s army have not all been sent in yet, but enough is known to render it certain that our loss will not very twenty from five hundred killed and wounded. A considerable number of the wounded will die, so that the number who will have lost their lives will be about three hundred. Gen. Worth lost eighty, killed and wounded; about twenty killed, or have died since battle.

The large fort on the north of the town is a very strong work, and it would have cost a heavy sacrifice of life to have taken it. It is built scientifically—has four salients, each of which is pierced for eight guns. Inside of the walls, which are apparently new, and ‘which enclose an area of some two or three acres are the thick walls of an unfinished cathedral, inside of which are twenty very large pillars intended for the support of the roof. These pillars are at least twelve feet square at the base; and, like the walls, are about 20 feet high. The walls of the fort are solid and neatly built, having a gateway and drawbridge on the side next to the city.
[MJK]


NNR 71.130 October 31 1846 Gen. Zachary Taylor’s general order No. 115 directing the march from Cerralvo to Monterey

THE MARCH AGAINST MONTEREY. We have published very full accounts of the three days siege of Monterey and the capitulations of the Mexican troops occupying the town and fortifications. The correspondent of the New Orleans Picayune, in his letters written previous to the 19th, furnishes some of the progress of interesting sketches and explanations of the progress of the invading army, or which we at once avail ourselves.

Seralvo, Mexico, Evening, September 11, 1846.

Gentlemen—The following order has just been read at parade. It is important, and I hasten to furnish you with it in time for the express or mail carrier who goes down tomorrow. It is better than all the rumors that have emanated from the army these two months:


Head quarters, army of occupation.
Servalo, September 11, 1846.

[ORDERS NO. 115.]


1. As the army may expect to meet resistance in the further advance towards Monterey, it is necessary that the march should be conducted with all proper precaution to meet attack and secure the baggage and supplies. From this point the following will be the order of march until otherwise directed:

2. All the pioneers of the army, consolidated into one party, will march early to-morrow on the route to Marin, for the purpose of repairing the roads and rendering it practicable for artillery and wagons.—The pioneers of each division will be under a subaltern to be specially detailed for the duty, and the whole will be under the command of Capt. Craig, 3d infantry, who will report to head quarters for instructions. This pioneer party will be covered by a squadron of dragoons and captain McCulluch’s company of rangers. Two officers of topographical engineers, to be detailed by capt. Williams, will accompany the party for the purpose of examining the route. Two wagons will be provided by the quartermaster’s department for the transportation of the tools, provisions, and knapsacks of the pioneer party.

3. The first division will march on the 13th inst. to be followed on successive days by the 2d division and field division of volunteers. The head quarters will march with the first division; capt. Gillespie with half of his company, will report to major gen. Butler; the other half, under the 1st lieutenant, to brig. Gen. Worth. These detachments will be employed for out posts and videttes, and as expresses between the column and head quarters.

4. The subsistence supplies will be divided between the three columns, the senior commissary of each division receipting for the stores and being charged with their care and management. The senior commissaries of divisions will report to capt. Waggaman for this duty.

5. Each division will be followed immediately by its baggage train and supply train, with a strong rear guard. The ordinance train under captain Ramsay will march with the third division, between it’s baggage and supply train, and will come under the protection of the guard of that division. The medical supplies will, in like manner, march with the first division.

6. The troops will take eight days rations and forty rounds of ammunition. All surplus arms and accoutrements, resulting from casualties on the road, will be deposited with lieut. Stewart, left in charge of the depot at this place, who will give certificates of depot to the company commanders.

7. The wagons appropriated for the transportation of water will not be required, and will be turned over to the quartermaster’s department for general purposes.

8. Two companies of the Mississippi regiment will be designated for the garrison of this place. All sick and disabled men, unfit for march will be left behind, under the charge of a medical officer to be selected for this duty by the medical director. By order of major general Taylor.

W.W.S. BLISS, Ass’t. adj’t general.
[MJK]


NNR 71.130-71.131 October 31, 1846 "march of the second division of the select six thousand"

On the road to Monterey, Mexico,
14 miles from Marin, in camp, Sept. 15, 1846

GENTLEMEN—We are encamped for we know no how many hours—for an express has just arrived from gen. Taylor, bringing orders for us to overtake him in the morning—and I will foot up our progress to this place, by copying from my note book:

Second division of the select six thousand-march from Servalo to Monterey.

Sept. 14—The 2d division under general Worth, which was ordered to march to-day—the 1st division, under general Twiggs, having marched yesterday—had just placed their personal clothing and accoutrements in convenient conditions for packing yesterday evening, when they were called out for inspection, orderlies, servants, and all, leaving their tents unattended. Just as gen. Worth appeared on the field a heavy rain, accompanied with wind, commenced, and, prostrating many of the tents, soaking every thing in camp. At 2 o’clock this morning, the reveille beat, and the poor fellows, with all their duds still wet, commenced their preparations for the march. The tents were at once struck and packed—wagons were brought up to receive the tent poles, camp kittles, &c.—private mules and pack horses were harnessed—camp women with children at the breast, and of all sizes, packed themselves and little ones upon Mexican mules and ponies, and, by daylight the column was in motion. The rear guard did not get off until 11 o’clock. The day has been exceedingly warm. We have marched twelve miles, over a country different in every respect from any I have ever before seen. The shrubbery and plants are entirely new to me, with the exception of the eternal cactus, which grows all over Mexico, in a hundred varieties. The wild olive, and a white, round leaf shrub with pink colored blossoms, cover the mountains and table lands. We have crossed five or six clear, cool streams to-day, and are encamped upon the brow of a ravine, down which runs a spring brook. On one side of the ravine is a perpendicular rock of limestone filled with slate pebbles. From this rock hundreds of cool streams gush out, and opposite the headquarters of the old 7th infantry, is a basin of cold, clear water, about five feet deep into which at least one thousand of our men have plunged, this evening. This stream is full of pataxas (sun fish) and trout.

15, we are now about 14 miles from Marin. We passed a few moments since, a rancho which had just been deserted in great taste – the cows, goats and chickens having been left behind. We left camp this morning at four o’clock. Our way has led along the foot of a mountain which rises on our right to a height 2,500 to 3,000 feet. We likewise have a mountain on our left, of nearly the same height. These two mountains converge before us, and descend at the same time, to about the level of the table lands upon which we now are. But far in the distance before us rises the Sierra Madre, higher and more majestic than any we have before seen. Our march has been over a very bad road to-day. Up hill and down—all rocks and pebbles, ravines and mines. The whole country over which we have to-day traveled is covered with aged "Spanish bayonet"trees, a species of palm, each leaf of which is pointed with a sharp thorn. Some of these trees are two and a half to three feet in diameter, and must be from 150 to 200 years old. As we reached this camping place, and express came from gen. Taylor, directing this division to join him at Marin by a forced march. We are, therefore, bivouacked, ready to march at a moment’s warning. It seems that the Mexicans are assembled in force, between here and Monterey, and that Santa Anna himself is in the field. [Rumor.] There is no doubt about there being a strong force at Monterey, and gen. Taylor therefore directs that the 1st and 2d divisions shall join to-morrow, and march before the town.—Capt. Graham of the dragoons, had a skirmish last night near Marin, with some Mexican videttes, and killed one or two, and took two or three more prisoners. As I have said before, it is the opinion of most of the officers, that a harder fight is in store than has before taken place. Gen. Worth keeps his division always in readiness, so that he could hardly be surprised by night or day. Last night a sort of stampede was got up in camp, and we shall have another night of course. I can not help thinking that if an alarm were to come off to-night, a most singular scene would follow. We are bivouacked in a thicket of trees, or large shrubs, all of which have thorns. To walk through them without stooping and dodging about to avoid the thorns, is impossible. Horses and mules are tied by long lassos, in every direction. The whole thicket, as well as the road for a half mile, is filled with men stretched out on blankets, chatting about the probabilities of a fight—some predicting that no such happiness is in reserve for them, whilst others of more experience, think differently. Gen. Taylor enters Marin to-night, and will there consolidate his little army. We march to-morrow morning at half past 3.
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NNR 71.131-10/31/1846 Ampudia's Address to His Troops

Ampudia's Address to His Troops. The following is a translation of gen. Ampudia's address to his troops upon learning of the advance of gen. Taylor upon that city, forwarded to us by our corespondent. The address is conceived in good taste, and it is useful showing the mounted force of the enemy hovering upon the skirts of our army, and the estimation in which Ampudia held gen. Taylor's troops.

The general in chief of the army of the North to his companions in arms

Soldiers - The enemy numbering only 2,500 regular troops, the remainder being only a band of adventurers without valor or discipline, are, according to reliable information, about advancing upon Seralvo, to commit the barbarity of attacking this most important place. We count near 3,000 regulars and auxiliary cavalry, and these will defeat them again and again, before they can reach this city. Soldiers, we are constructing fortifications secure, and hence we will sally forth at a convenient time and drive back this enemy at the point of the bayonet.

Soldiers! Three great virtues make the soldier worthy of his profession; discipline, constancy under fatigue, and valor. He who at this moment would desert his colors, is a coward and a traitor to his country. Our whole nation, and even foreign countries are the witnesses of your conduct. The question now is, whether our independence shall be preserved or forever lost; and its solution is in your hands.

I have assured the supreme government of the triumph of our arms, confiding in your loyalty and enthusiasm, and we will prove to the whole world that we are worthy sons of the immortal Hidalgo, Morelo, Allende, Iturbide, and so many other heroes who knew how to die combatting for the independence of our cherished country.

Soldiers! Victory or death must be our only device.

PEDRO DE AMPUDIA.
Headquarters, Monterey, Sept. 14, 1846.
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NNR 71.132 10/31/1846 San Juan D'Ulloa

The London Daily news gives the subjoined minute description of this famous castle:

"On the termination of the war with Spain, after the miserable remains of their garrison had been sent off to Havana. I went with two companions over the castle of San Juan d'Ulloa. It is a tremendous place ifat all well manned. No wonder it had held out so long. Had it not been for the raging of the yellow fever within its walls and the want of provisions, the Mexicans would never have taken it without a naval force very superior o the one they possessed, though they have never since had any force comparable to that one.

"The outer walls of this fortress are of immense thickness-upwards of twelve feet; and in the positions most exposed, the walls are seventeen or eighteen feet in depth of solid white stone. It is a very porous and rather soft stone, so that balls do not split or crack it so much as they quietly embed themselves. These outer walls have batteries all round; the guns are well planted, with here and there a neat corner for mortar. The inner walls are so constructed that if the outer walls are gained it would still be at a slaughterous expense to the besiegers, if the garrison were at all competent to avail themselves of their position.

"We entered the fortress from below at the principal gate, which was of great strength, and very skillfully contrived; and then went along a stone passage, which had several gateways, and cunningly devised ' narrow passes, with high stone walls on each side. This was terminated by a canal, or moat, with a draw-bridge over it. We next arrived at flights of stairs, and passing up several vault-like ascents, we gained the top of the grand batteries. The general characteristics is that of great strength, and plenty of room ot work in. They mounted 120 long 24-pounders, all of brass. They were, for the most part, in excellent condition. The mortars were of large calibre, though not in such good order as the guns. The powder magazines were each literally a dry stone well, plugged at the top with blankets, and having a round metal lid over the mouth that opened upon the batteries.

"We next descended to the inner works, and gained the secondary walls by a circuitous route. Besides the necessity to the besigiers of having guides who well knew every turn of the works, the excitement and smoke are almost certain to produce a confusion, in which the voice or presence of the guides would be lost, and the party dashing onward might only arrive at a dead wall, a gap looking out upon the sea, or the mouth of a twenty-four pounder. -The circuitoous route of our descent from the upper to the lower range of walls was entirely exposed to their batteries, the guns grinning at us all the way, like so many black tusks, as we traversed stone causeways and narrow passes. Whole regiments might here be raked down, after they had conquered thee outer walls. But the "chances of war"are numerous; and one imperfection in the greatest power (if otherwise perfect) may render it inapplicable, and perhaps ridiculous. On arriving at their inner batteries, we found the guns in a wretched condition. They were better than a Chinese effect "calculated"to strike terror into his mind. But one may imagine how very angry the subtle architect of this formidable castle would have been, could we have seen his excellent arrangements for the safe and nearly certain destruction of the assailants thus rendered abortive.

"We now descended a very wide and steep flight of stone stairs which led down into the grand castle square, or little town, as one might call it. --We entered at the bottom through some gateways, [the architect had never passed an opportunity for giving besieged protection in retreating, and time to rally] and then found ourselves in a large open square, enclosed on all sides by very lofty walls, the lower part of which displayed the doors and entrances into the barracks, guard houses, and shops ofvarious kinds for the sale of such articles as a garrison would need. The governor's house is at the farther end. -- It was a genuine soldier's lodgement, and very bare of ornament, except for that of war, for it was riddled all over with the marks of shot and shell. Its strong covered balcony, intended to serve as a protection both from the broiling sun and from the fall of missels, was in many places torn in long gaps. All the towers and buildings of any elevation had alsobeen knocked about and defaced by the shot and shells from Vera Cruz, previous to the surrender of the castle. But the mutilations and destruction did not materially affect the strength of the place. Very few of the guns had been dislodged; even the outer batteries were not injured so as to render them ineffective, with the exception of a gap of ruins in one or two places. There is about a mile's breadth of sea running between San Juan d'Ulloa and the town of Vera Cruz.

"How strongly and skilfully this fortress is protected by art the reader has now some idea: but San Juan d'Ulloa is equally protected by nature; for while the defences of art which I have briefly described are chiefly devoted to the side and angle facing town, those angles which face the main ocean on the opposite side, or back of the castle, are protected by a long succession of rocky reefs, utterly defying the approach of any vessels of war. Many black and rotting wrecks visible even at high water, attested some of the natural 'terrors of the place. ' -But in these days it is generally understood by all military men that no place is impregnable, and that thorough soldiers, well officered and led, can, and will, and do, take any place. At what cost, is not the question. The thing can be done."
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NNR 71.133 October 31, 1846 Sir George Francis Seymour, in the Collingwood, arrives in California

Extract of a letter from an officer on board the United States frigate Savannah, dated

AT SEA, July 31, 1846

"On the 7th June, the commodore received information at Mazatlan, that the Mexican troops, six or seven thousand strong, had by order of the Mexican government, invaded the territory of the United States north of the Rio Grande, and had attacked the forces under Gen. Taylor, and that the squadron of the United States was blockading the coast of Mexico on the Gulf.

"These hostilities, he considered, would justify commencing offensive operations of the west coast.—He therefore sailed on the 8th, in the Savannah, for the coast of California, leaving the Warren at Mazatlan, to bring any dispatches or important information that might reach there. We arrived at Monterey on the 2d on July, where we found the Cyane and Levant, and learned that the Portsmouth was at San Francisco.

"On the morning of the 7th, having previously examined the defenses and localities of the town, the commodore sent Captain Mervine, with a summons to the military commandment of Monterey, requiring him to surrender the place forthwith to the forces of the United States. In reply, he stated that he was not authorized to surrender the place, and referred the commodore to the commanding general of California, Don Jose Castro.

"Every arrangement having been made the day previous, the commodore immediately embarked the necessary force (about two hundred and fifty seamen and marines) in the boats of the squadron, which landed at ten o’clock, under cover of the guns of the ships, with great promptitude and good order, under the immediate command of Capt. Wm. Mervine, assisted by Commander H.N. Page as second.

"The forces were immediately formed and marched to the custom-house, where commodore Sloat’s proclamation to the inhabitants of California was read, the standard of the U. States hoisted, amid three hearty cheers by the troops and foreigners present, and a salute of twenty-one guns fired by all ships. Immediately afterwards the proclamation, both in English and Spanish, was posted up about the town, and two justices of the peace appointed to preserve order and punish delinquencies,-the alcaldes declining to serve.

"Previous to landing a ‘general order,’ was read to the crews of all the ships for their guidance under the new circumstances in which they were placed. We feel confident that the inhabitants of Monterey and all other places where our forces were, have been safe from the least depredation or the slightest insult.

"Immediately after taking possession of Monterey Com. Sloat dispatched a courier to General Castro, the military commandment of California, with a letter and a copy of his proclamation, to which he received a reply. On the 9th, he despatched a letter b courier to Sr. Pio Pico, the governor of Santa Barbara.

"On the 6th of July he dispatched orders by sea to Com. Montgomery to take immediate possession of the bay of San Francisco; &c. and at 7 a.m. of the 9th, that officer hoisted the flag at San Francisco-read and posted up commodore Sloat’s proclamation, and took possession of that part of the country in the name of the U. States.

On the 13th, at the request of the foreigners at the Pueblo of San Jose, the commodore furnished a flag to be furnished at that place-about 70 miles interior from Monterey, and appointed a justice of the peace to preserve order in the town—the alcaldes declining to serve. The flag was hoisted on the 16th.

On the 8th, Commodore Sloat selected Purser D. Fauntleroy to organize a company of 35 dragoons from volunteers from the ships, and citizens on shore to reconnoitre the country—kep the communication between Monterey and San Francisco, and to prevent the people of the country from being robbed &., &c., and directed him to purchase the necessary horses and equipment to mount them.

Passed midshipman Louis McLane having also volunteered for that service, he appointed him first lieutenant of that company. On the 17th, Fauntleroy was directed to reconnoiter the country with his command as far as the mission of St. Johns—to take possession of that place—hoist the flag, and to recover ten brass guns said to have been buried there by Gen. Castro when he retreated from that place. On his arrival there, Mr. Fauntleroy found that place had been taken possession of an hour or two previous by Capt. Fremont, with whom he returned to Monterey on the 19th. He was subsequently sent to garrisen the place, dig up, mount the guns, and recover a large quantity of powder and shot, said to have been secreted there; all of which he accomplished before we sailed for Monterey; between which—the Pueblo of San Jose and San Francisco, a perfectly free communication was maintained.

On the Afternoon of the 15th July the Congress arrived with Commodore Stockton.

On the 16th, the British Admiral, Sir George F. Seymour, arrived in the Collingwood, 80. An officer was immediately sent by Commodore Sloat to tender him the usual courtesies and the facilities of the port. He was subsequently furnished topgallant masts and other spars for his ship, and sailed on the 22d for the Sandwich islands.

The visit of the admiral, I have no doubt was very serviceable to our cause in California, as the inhabitants fully believed he would take part with them, and that we would b e obliged to abandon our conquest; but when they saw the friendly intercourse subsisting between the two commanders, and found that he could not interfere on their behalf, they abandoned all hope of ever seeing the Mexican flag fly in California again.

On the 23d Commodore Sloat directed Commodore Stockton to assume command of the forces and operations on shore, and on the 29th, having determined to return to the United States via Panama, he hoisted his broad pendant on board the Levant, and sailed for Mazatlan and Panama, leaving the remainder of the squadron under his command.

At the time of our leaving Monterey, the United States were in quiet possession of all ‘Alta California’ north of Santa Barbarra.

The Cyane sailed for St. Diego on the 26th to carry down Captain Fremont, with about 150 riflemen, (Americans,) to take possession there, and to cut off General Castro’s retreat to Lower California or Mexico. The Congress was to sail on the 30th for San Pedro, to take possession there. That place is 27 miles from the city of Angelos, where General Castro and Governor Pico then were; and it was believed that immediately on their arrival they would surrender, which would put an end to all opposition to the United States in the Californias."
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NNR 71.133 October 31, 1846 California ports taken by Com. John Drake Sloat

The Philadelphia U.S. Gazette has also the following letter, dated-

U.S. flagship Savannah,
Monterey, Territory of California, July 27, 1846

SIR: I send you this by the sloop of war Levant, which is bound to Panama, Commodore John D. Sloat, who comes home by that way, and send you all the news I am in possession of. We left Mazatlan on the 9th of June and arrived at this place on the 2d of July, all well. On entering the bay we found lying at anchor the sloops of war Levant and Cyane, and on the 15th of July the frigate Congress, Commodore R.F. Stockton, arrived-all well.

On the 7th of July, 1846 at half past 10 o’clock, we sent our boats ashore, armed, under the command of Captain Mervine, took the place, hoisted the American ensign and saluted it with twenty one guns, and ever since we have had a strong guard on shore to protect the place. From all appearances the inhabitants are well satisfied. On Sunday, 19th of July, Col. Fremont, and his party arrived here. A nobler looking set of men I never saw. Full of health and vigor. They have a Delaware Indian chief with them, and some Indians of the same tribe.

We have had the pleasure of a visit from Col. Fremont. We have received official information that the flag of the United States is now flying at Yerba Bueno, St. Johns, Sutas fort on the Sacremento, Lavritliti, Somona, and Bodega, and that the forces of the United States have quiet possession of the Bay of San Francisco, and all the country within one hundred miles around, to the manifest satisfaction of the inhabitants, many of whom have enrolled themselves under the flag and officers for protection.—In taking possession of these places, many fine pieces of brass ordinance have been acquired. The sloop of war Portsmouth Captain Montgomery, is lying at San Francisco, taking care of that part of the country.

As Commodore Sloat leaves us, we shall be under the command of Com. R.F. Stockton, and Captain Mervine takes command of our ship and Capt. Dupont of the sloop of war Cyane. We expect to leave this place in two or three months for home. I think it is most time, for next October we have been out three years, and by the time we get home it will make our cruise three years and six months. We are all well, and our ship is in beautiful order. We are very sorry to lose our commodore, for he is very popular with us. The barque Sterling of Boston, is here at anchor, and on the 4th of July the barque Angola left this place of Oahu and the East Indies:
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NNR 71.133 October 31, 1846 Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna inspires new vigor amongst the Mexicans, assembles a formidable force at San Luis Potosi, orders Monterey and Saltillo to be evacuated before the attack, but not in time to reach before the former was besieged

GULF SQUADRON

Mexican Movements.

Extract of a letter from an officer in the squadron, dated

"Off Vera Cruz, Sept. 22.

The files of the El Indicator and other journals contain intelligence of passing events, with nearly all the decrees issued since the information of the new cabinet, but for the increase of the military force, and regulation of other branches of the government.—The national guard in being organized: and from the statements in the public papers, the measure would seem to be a popular one, as the citizens are said to offer themselves freely to be enrolled. The decree embraces every citizen from the age of sixteen to fifty. The citizens of Puebla have armed and equipped a force of one thousand men, at their own expense, for the service of the government. General Santa Anna entered the city of Mexico on the 14th inst. with a great parade. In his letter, written to the minister of war on the occasion, he states his intention of proceeding immediately to assume the command of the army on the northern frontier, and disclaims any design of accepting the supreme power, if his services are required in the field.

The report which was previously mentioned of his having given orders to the army at Monterey to fall back on San Luis Potosi, is contradicted by Gen. Mejia, in the dispatch dated at Monterey, Aug. 24.—He states that a force of eight thousand men will soon be assembled there, and he will defend the place to the last extremity. It is said that our army is in possession of Santa Fe.

The present government has manifested in great activity since its accession to power, and adopted every measure for a vigorous prosecution of the war.—Detachments of troops from the city and other parts of Mexico, with thirty pieces of artillery, have been lately dispatched from the north, and by the end of the month it is not unlikely they will have a force of 15,000 men – or perhaps more, in the neighborhood of Monterey. It is difficult to say how this large force is to be kept in the field, as it is well known the public treasury is empty. The only money received by the government, within our knowledge, are the small sums contributed by private individuals, not sufficient to maintain a regiment for a month."
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NNR 71.133--10/31/1846 Mexican Movements, Gulf Squadron

"Off Vera Cruz, Sept. 22."

"The files of the El Indicator and other journals contain intelligence of passing events, with nearly all the decrees issued since the formation of the new cabinet, for the increase of the military force, and regulation of the other branches of the governement."The national guard is being organized; and from the statements in the public papers, the measure would seem to be a popular one, as the citizens are said to offer themselves freely to be enrolled. The decree embraces every citizen from the age of sixteen to fifty. The citizens of Puebla have armed and equipped a force of one thousand men, at their own expense, for the service of the government. General Santa Anna entered the city of Mexico on the 14th inst. with great parade. In his letter, written to the minister of war on the occasion, he states his intention of proceeding immediately to assume the command of the army on the northern frontier, and disclaims any design of accepting the supreme power, if his services are required in the field.

"The report which was previously mentioned of his having given orders to the army at the Monterey to fall back on San Luis Potosi, is contradicted by Gen, Mejia, in a despatch dated at Monterey, Aug. 24. He states that a force of eight thousand men will soon be assembled there, and that he will defend the place to the last extremity. It is said that our army is in possession of Santa Fe."

"The present government has manifested great activity since its accession to power, and adopted every measure for a vigorous persecution of the war. Detachments of troops from the city and other parts of Mexico, with thirty pieces of artillery, have been lately despatched to the north, and by the end of the month it is not unlikely they will have a force of 15 000 men - or perhaps more, in the neighborhood of Monterey. It is difficult to say how this large force is to be kept in the field, as it is well known the public treasury is empty. The only money received by the government, within our knowledge, are the small sums contributed by private individuals, not sufficient to maintain a regiment for a month."
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70. 133 -10/31/1846 The Flagship; loss of Bonita

There is a report that Com. Stewart us to have the command of the naval force in the gulf, and that the big ship, the Pennsylvania, which is now being fitted out at Norfolk, will be his flagship.

The U. S. schooner Bonita, command by Lient. BENHAM, Passed midshipmen THOMPSON and COLBY, and Midshipman PHELPS, was cruising at the entrance of the harbor of Vera Cruz where the recent gale commenced, since which nothing has been seen of her. It is probably she was lost.
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NNR 71.133-10/31/1846 THE SQUADRON IN THE PACIFIC - CALIFORNIA TAKEN POSSESSION OF

Capture of a Mexican brig of war. From a letter published in the city of Mexico, it appears that the Mexican brig of war Malek-Adhel was captured in the ports of Mazatlan by one of our vessels, supposed to be the sloop of war Warren. The Warren being outside, despatched five launches, well armed, to capture the Mexican then at anchor in the bay. The officers and crew on board the brig, unprepared for an attack, took to their boats in great confusion on the appearance of the Americans. Two officers named Zerega and Cililio, and several sailors, were taken prisoners. The moment the "Yankees"found themselves masters of the vessel, they cut her cables and made sail for the frigate.
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NNR 71.134-10/31/1846 Stockton's Proclamation

To all whom it may concern. I, J. R. Stockton, commodore, and commander in chief of the United States naval forces in the Pacific Ocean, and governor and commander in chief of the territory of California, do, by the authority of the president and congress of the United States of America, hereby declare all the ports, harbors, bays, outlets, and inlets on the west coast of Mexico, south of San Diego, to be in a state of vigorous blockade, which will be made absolute except against armed vessels of neutral nations.

All neutral merchant vessels found in any of the bays and harbors on said coast on arrival of the blockading force, will be allowed twenty days to leave.

Given under my hand and seal, this nineteenth day of August, A. D. one thousand eight hundred and forty six, at the government house in the "Ciuoad de los Angelos,"the capital of California.

[Signed] J. R. STOCKTON
Commodore and commander in chief of the naval forces of the U. S. in the Pacific ocean, and governor and commander in chief of the territory of California.

A letter dated Tepic, Sept. 12, 1846, says--

Commodore Stockton has declared the whole of the coast of Mexico in a state of blockade. He has established himself governor in the capital of Upper California, It is reported that the ports of Lower California are to be taken possession of, and San Blas made a rendezvous for the squadron and their prizes.

The Cyane arrived off San Blas on the 2d of this month and sent the notification of the blockade to the authorities. She is cruising off the coast, occasionally anchors in the bay, and has seized a couple of coasting vessels. Another vessel has also arrived off Mazatian, and has cut out of that harbor a coasting vessel.
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NNR 71.134--10/31/1846 Commodore Sloat

Commodore Sloat Returning Home--arrived at Havana on the 7th inst. - accompanied by five or six of his officers, having left at Monterey Pacific, U. S. frigate Congress, bearing the broad pendant of Commodore Stockton. The officers and crew of the squadron were all in excellent health. Commodore Sloat hoisted his pennant at Havana on the 10thinst. on board the U S. brig Perry, and would sail for Norfolk or Charleston in a few days.
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NNR 71.134 October 31, 1846 Gen. Castro employed to revolutionize California

The Philadelphia North American has the following interesting letter, dated

U.S. frigate Congress,
Monterey, California, July 26, 1846

We proceed from Callao to the Sandwich Islands; we made the passage in 28 days, though it covers about six thousand miles. We landed Mr. Van Eyk, our new commissioner, and Mr. Turrell, our new consul at Honolulu under appropriate salutes, and commodore Stockton introduced the new commissioner to the king; we found the missionaries in good health, actively employed, and received from them many kind attentions. We visited all their schools and were highly gratified. In these are educated those on whom the destiny of these islands depends. Nothing struck me here with so much force as the huge volcanoes, which threw up these islands to the light of heaven, which ages became extinct, but which still lift their towering cones, which look out in savage grandeur on the seas.

We sailed from Honolulu on the 22d of June, and arrived here after a passage of 28 days. We found all Monterey in a state of revolution and the American flag flying over Monterey. There has been but little fighting as yet, as Gen. Castro with his forces has retired to the south. Commodore Stockton had dispatched the Cyane, with Capt. Fremont and his two hundred riflemen to cut off his retreat, and the commodore, with marines of the squadron, is to engage him as he wheels about to the north. He is a savage military chieftain- a usurper who has covered this country for years with rapine and blood.—He massacred in the most brutal manner, but a few days since three American residents here. His overthrow will be hailed by the natives as well as foreigners. He is held as an outlaw by both.

This revolution commenced in an attempt to drive all of foreign birth, who had settled here and were not Roman Catholics, out of the country. The proscribed party took up arms, appointed Mr. Ide, of the United States, their leader, declared California free of Mexican rule, and avowed their determination to make her an independent republic.

They took Sonoma, an important town, the inhabitants joined them, fortified the place, and repelled successfully, every force sent against them. When Monterey was taken by our squadron, they immediately put up the American flag. On the arrival of Captain Fremont from the west the joined him and came here; Captain Fremont took up arms in consequence of having been assaulted, while engaged in his surveys, by the forces of General Castro. He is a man of great coolness and resolution. His original force consisted of thirty, but since he espoused the republican cause his force has increased, by volunteers, to three hundred: but they are now all under the command of Commodore Stockton. They will debark from Cyane, when she reaches her destination, mount fresh horses, and take the field with their rifles, revolving pistols, and rapiers, glistening in light over their buckskins.

We have taken the harbor of San Francisco, and our flag floats over the bright beauties of the Sacramento. All California will, in a few months, be under its protection. The natives, disgusted by the sway of military chieftains, are flying to it for repose, for hope, and blessings of a republican government. Our government cannot pull it down if they wanted, or make it stay down. The people will run it up again: are determined to establish anew state and connect themselves with our Union.—Mexico cannot prevent this. She has had but very little to do with California for years, and has abandoned her to the cruel sway of bloody usurpers, till the people have at last risen in arms. We are going to aid them, and if you cannot find the defense of our conduct in the let-alone policy, then look into the obligations of humanity, which rests on nations as on individuals. Having established a free representative government, extending its protection alike to all classes, we expect to withdraw. But the government will stand, for its foundations will be laid in the allections and confidence of the nation.

Our squadron consists of the Congress, Savannah, Cyane, Portsmouth, Warren, Levant, and schooner Shark. The Columbus is expected here in a few days from the East Indies. The Savannah, Warren, and Levant have been out here three years and ought to return, but will be detained until difficulties are settled, or they are relieved, except the Levant—she leaves for home and lands Commodore Sloat at Panama, when he will cross the isthmus and reach the United States by West India steamers. The officers and crew are in general god health. As spirit of cheerfulness and activity pervades all ranks. We are patrolling streets under arms, building forts, and administering law and justice.
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NNR 71.138-71.140 October 31, 1846;
71.157-71.159 November 7; 1846,
71.174-71.175 November 14, 1846: Lt. William Helmsley Emory’s journal of Gen. Stephen watts Kearney’s march to Santa Fe.

GENERAL KEARNEY AND THE ARMY OF THE WEST

We have been favored with the following extract of an unofficial journal of 1st Lieut. Emory, of the corps of Topographical Engineers. Lieut. Emory is Chief of the Engineer staff of General Kearney’s command. We are pleased with the opportunity of laying before our readers such scenes as are here described, with so much novelty and freshness around them. The author of the journal, Lieutenant Emory, is distinguished for his superior intelligence as an officer and a man.

EXTRACTS FROM THE JOURNAL.

August 2d, 1846. I looked in the direction of Bent’s Fort, and saw a large United States flag flowing to the breeze, and straining every fiber of an ash pole that was planted over the center of the gateway, with no very mathematical regard to centering or perpendicularity. The reason of this display was soon explained by a column of dust to the east, advancing with the velocity of a fast-walking horse. It was the "Army of the West." I ordered my horse hitched up, and as the column passed, took my place with the staff."

"The river was forded without difficulty, opposite the fort, being paved with well-rounded pebbles of primitive rock.

We advanced five miles along the river, where its bed slides over a black carbonaceous shale, which has been mistaken for coal, and induced the Bents to dig for it.

Here we turn to the left and pursue our course over an arid and elevated plain for twenty miles, without water, and when we reach the Timpas, find the water in puddles, and the grass bad.

Colonial Doniphan was ordered to pursue the Arkansas to near the mouth of the Timpas, and join the army, following the bead of that stream.

Near where we left the Arkansas, found on the side of the slope several singular demi-spheriods protruded from the ground, about the size of an umbrella, coated with a singular substance, (specimen 22) in pyramidal crystals.

The growth along this part of the Arkansas consists of mean grass and few cottonwoods; on the plains very short grass, burned to a cinder; artemesia in abundance. The only animals seen were one black-tail rabbit, and one antelope-both killed.

Our march 26, that of the army 37 miles. The last twenty miles without water. The artillery did not get up until 11 P.M.; horses and men parched with thirst. The teamsters, who had to encounter the dust suffered extensively; when water was near, they sprang from their seats, and ran for it like madmen. Two horses sunk under the march.

August 3d.—Ascended the Timpas 6 miles, and halted for the day, near running water; the grass was all burned dry, not a green sprig to be seen; passed three buttes of singular appearance, composed of limestone, and (specimens 23 and 24) evidently of ingenious origin: saw more of the nodules described yesterday; passed the dry bed of a river, with bottom paved with argiltaceous limestone, containing now and then the impression of shells, very distinct. The valley in which we are now encamped presents the appearance of a crater being surrounded with buttes capped with stunted cedar. The stratification, however, appears regular.

Growth-an evergreen (see specimen) which Fitzpatrick says is the Fremont. A beautiful cactus three feet high, with round limbs, shaped like a rope, three and a half inches in diameter. It is said the Mexicans make hedges out of it.

Doniphan’s regiment passed our camp about four P.M. Water saltish. Went to the top of one of the adjacent hills. Formation distinct. Limestone 10 feet; hard sandstone with impression of shells; and then blue marl. Gendes, with crystallized limestone on top, and the interior of serpentine. The ground covered with a great many detached pieces of ferruginous sandstone.

Growth-cedar, very stunted Missouri flax, some wild gooseberries, a very stunted growth of plums; moss, cactus in great variety, one or two new plants.

Our march only 6 2/3 miles.

August 4th.- Road runs along the valley of the Timpas, and the dust was overpowering; soil impregnated with lime which makes the dust distressing. Stunted cedar on each side; strata on each side of the valley the same as that described yesterday. Iron nodules very frequent. March 13 miles, to the crossing of Timpas: The only water hole 40 feet in diameter, into which the volunteers rushed, pell-mell, and soon destroyed it. March 9 miles further, to the ‘Hole in the Rock;"a large hole, with plenty of pretty good stagnant water. Saw antelopes, rabbits, wild horses, two jackdaws, ( magpies,) larks, king birds, and robins. The grass is so bad the Col. Kearney thinks of marching 16 miles further, to the "Hole in the Prairie,"where there is no water, but some little dry grass. We passed a dead horse black with crows, a wolf in the midst, quietly feeding on the carcass.

March at 5 P.M., with the staff, to the "Hole in the Prairie,"and reach there at 10; distance 14½ miles. Find grass, as we expected, and were agreeably surprised to find water also. All slept in the open air, the colonel setting the example. Found infantry encamped here. Total distance to-day 36 miles. What we call good grass, is grass burned as dry as cinder. Horses falling away in alarming manner. Mules seem to require the stimulus of distention, and nothing else; this the dry grass affords. The people of the country to whom we apply for information, he without mercy; when they tell you there is fine grass for an army of 2,000, your may find grass for a small party of 10-15.

On the march, Nattah-Yah, (twin hills,) rose suddenly to view, about 75N.; and soon Pike’s Peak, 20 or 30 further to the north. The dim outline of the great western parallel of the Astek chain began to show itself. We were now crossing the divide between the waters of the Timpas and those of the Purgatory, or Rio de los Animos, of the Spaniards.

August 5th-Descended 11½ miles and reached the valley of the Purgatory; a swift running stream, a few yards in width. No grass of any amount at the crossing. Large trees, for many miles along its course, all dead, cause is not apparent. Growth of the bottom, which is very narrow, locust, the everlasting cottonwood, red willow (kinikinck) wild gooseberry, plum, and grape. No fruit on the bushes. March 5 ½ miles farther, and encamped on the bed of a stream tributary to the Purgatory which comes down from the north side of the Raton, or Mouse, which is the name given to a chain of low ragged looking mountains, that strikes the course of the Purgatory nearly at right angles, and separates the waters of the Arkansas from those of the Canadian. The banks of the Purgatory now begin to assume something of a mountainous aspect; different from scenery in the states. The hills are bare of vegetation, except a few stunted cedars, and look less the work of God than the hills at home. In this valley, ‘tis said, we have the grisly bear, turkeys, and antelope.

Passed the rear wagons of the infantry-the horses almost done. Trotting in the wake were 3 wolves. Many a horse of the army of the west, must this night, I think, give up the ghost.

Captain Cook, sent ahead day before yesterday to Armijo. The day before, Lieffendorfer, a trader, married to a Santa Fe woman, sent in the direction of Taos, with two Puebla Indians, to feel the pulse of the Pueblas and the Mexican people, and probably to but wheat, if any, and distribute the proclamation of the colonel commanding. Yesterday Wm. Bent and six others, forming a spy guard, sent forward to reconnoiter the mountain passes.

August 6th.-Col. Kearney left Col. Doniphan’s regiment and Clark’s artillery at our old camp ground of last night, and scattered Sumner’s dragoons three or four-miles up the creek. This done, we commenced the ascent of Raton, and, after marching seventeen miles, halted, with the infantry and general staff, within a half mile of the summit of the pass. Strong parties were sent forward to repair the road, which winds through a picturesque valley, with the Raton towering to the left. Pine trees, which here attain a respectable size, lined the valley through the whole’s day’s march; a few oaks, big enough for axles, were found near the halting place of to-night. When we first left the camp this morning, we saw a few clumps of the pines which much resemble the common pine, stunted. It bears a resinous nut, eaten by Mexicans and Indian. We found, also, the samita in great abundance. It resembles the wild gooseberry. It grows to the height of several feet, and bears a red berry, which is gathered, dried, pounded and then mixed with sugar and water, making a delicious drink, resembling our current shrub.

Niether this plant, nor the pinon, nor plum, nor any of the grapevines, had any food on them, which is attributable to the excessive drought. The stream, whish last year was a dashing torrent, is this year dry and in pools. Several beautiful flowers. Turned over the charge of botany to Lt. Peck, this day. Spanish bayonets, soap plant, in great abundance.

The view from our camp transcendently beautiful and singular, reminding me of the pictures I have seen of some parts of Palestine. Rocks chiefly a light colored sandstone. A great deal of stone of (specimen 24) volcanic appearance; color purplish brown, porous, and melts over a slow fire. The road is well located, and the general appearance of the scenery something like the summit of Boston and Albany railroad, but the scenery bolder, and more oriental in appearance.

Express arrived from the spy guard, reporting all clear in front; Cook and Lieffendorfer have only reached the Canadian.

At Captain Sumner’s camp, about seven miles above our camp of last night, and twelve from the summit, there is an immense seam of coal cropping out, thirty feet deep. Grass and water good at camp 35.

August 7th camp 36 – Commenced the ascent of the Raton, which we reach with ease with our wagons; in about two miles observed the barometer, and determined the elevation to be about 7,000 feet above the sea. From the summit we had a beautiful view of Pike’s Peak, the Nattah-Yah, and the chain of mountains running south. Saw several large white masses near the summit, which we at first look for snow, but which, on examination with the telescope, I determined was the [ . . . ] limestone of which we see so much in this country.

The near view was no less imposing. To the east rose the Raton, which appeared still as high as from the camp 1,500 feet below. There is singular formation on the top of the Raton giving the appearance of a succession of castles. [ . . . ] would be required to visit it, I was obliged to forego that [ . . . ] sure, and examine it with the glass. The mountain appeared to be formed chiefly, of sandstones disposed in horizontal strata, dipping gently to the east, until you reach near the summit, when the castle, like appearance commences—the ides become perpendicular, the seams vertical. The valley is strewed with pebbles and fragment of trap rock and the fusible stone described yesterday.

There is said to be a lake about 10 miles to the east of the summit, where immense hordes of deer, antelope, and buffalo congregate; but of this I have my doubts. I would certainly test the matter if I could dispose of my own time.

The descent is much more rapid then the ascent; and for the first few miles, through a valley of good burned grass and stagnant water, containing many beautiful flowers, specimens of which were collected. But presently you come, to a place where a stream, a branch of the Canadian, has worked its way through the mountains, and the road has to ascend and then descend a rugged spur. Here is where the real difficulties commence, and the road, for three or four miles, is just passable for a wagon. Many of the train were broken in the passage. A few thousand dollars, judiciously expended here, would be an immense saving to the government, if the Santa Fe country is to be permanently occupied.

After 10 miles from the summit, we reached a wide valley, where the mountains open out, and the rugged and inhospitable looking hills recede to a respectable distance to the right and left. Sixteen from camp 36, brought us to the main branch of the Canadian, a slow running stream, discharging a volume of water to the thickness of a mans waist; found here Bent’s camp. Dismounted under the shade of cottonwood, near an anthill and saw something black, which had been thrown out by these busy little insects; and, on examination, found it to be bituminous coal. I crossed the river, and proceeded about 1½ miles, and found the colonel, from whom I had become separated, encamped on the river, with a plentiful supply of grass, wood, and water. After crossing the river, found the plain strewn with lumps of bituminous coal.

Growth on to-day’s march-pinion, in small quantities, scrub oak, scrub pine, a few samita bushes, and, on the Canadian, a few cotton wood trees.—Grass, except at the camp little or [ . . . ] rain this evening , but the clouds passed away, and I had a good night for observing. No rain since we left our creeks twenty-seven days ago. And yet this a country that some men talk of one day being settled-this sun-burnt country, that produces no vegetation except on the very edges of the few and far between streams.

We are now in the Paradise of that part between Bent’s Fort and San Miguel and yet he who leaves the edge of the Canadian must make a good day’s march to find wood, water, or grass.

There may be mineral wealth in these mountains, but that must be left to some explorer not tied to the staff of an army, marching for life into an enemy’s country. I say for life, for we are from day to-day, on half rations bread, and, although we have meat enough to prevent anything like immediate starvation, we are sufficiently hard pressed to make it expedient to pounce on Santa Fe, - and its stock of provisions, as soon as possible.

August 8th.- Remained in camp all day to allow Doniphan’s regiment and the artillery to come up.- Observed at night for the latitude and time, and found our chronometers preserving their rates admirably. Light hurricanes of wind, and clouds discharging rain to the west. Captain Sumner drilled his three squadrons of dragoons, and made quite an imposing show.

August 9th.- At 2 broke up camp, and marched with the colonel’s staff and the 1st dragoons 10½ miles, encamped under the mountains on the western side of the Canadian river, on the banks of a small stream, a tributary of the Canadian. Grass, short but good; water-in small quantities and in puddles. Here found a trap dyke, course N. 3. W. which shows itself also on the Canadian, about four miles distant, in the same course. Six miles from last nights camp the road forks: one running near the mountains to the west, but nearly parallel with the old road, and never distant from it more than four miles, and almost all of the time in sight of it:-The army is here divided: the artillery, infantry, and wagon train ordered to take the lower road, Missouri volunteers and 1st dragoons the upper.—The valley here opens out into an extensive plain, slightly rolling flanked on each side by ranges of perpendicular hills covered with stunted cedar and the pinion. In this extensive valley or plains me be traced, from any of the neighboring heights, the valleys of the Canadian and its tributaries- the Vermijo, the Poinel, the Crimaron, the Rajado, and the Ocate. Saw great quantities of antelope, deer, &c. cactus in great abundance, and a plant which my friend Dr. DeCamp. Pointed out as being highly balsamic: he collected quantities of it in his campaign to the Rocky Mountains, and tested its efficacy with entire success as a substitute for balsamic coparva.

Observed a great many insects at the camp to night, the first of any number since leaving the Arkansas. Scarcely a bird, however, to be seen, the cow bird always excepted, which has been in great numbers on the whole route and very tame, often lighting by your horse. The horned frog is also numerous and has been the whole distance from here to beyond Bent’s Fort.

August 10th.- Col. Kearney, dissatisfied with the upper road, determined to strike for the old, which we did. After reaching the Vermijo, 9½, miles in a diagonal line, and reaching the road at the Cimaron, where we found the infantry encamped; total distance 20 ½ miles; grass good, and water plenty, though not flowing. Another trap dyke parallel nearly to the last, and 3 miles distant from the last; both strewed with fragments of ferruginous sandstone, and crystallized carbonate of lime. A Mexican came into camp from Bent’s Fort; reported Lieut. Abert much better. Colonel Kearney, allowed him to pass to Taos; for which place, 60 miles distant, by a brittle path, he set out to reach to-night. The Colonel sent by him copies of his proclamation, letters to the alcalde, padre, &c.

Five Mexicans were captured by Bent’s spy company; who had been sent out to reconnoiter us, with orders to retain all persons passing out of New Mexico. They were mounted on diminutive asses, and cut a ridiculous figure, along side the thumping big men and horses of the 1st dragoons. Fitzpatrick, our guide, who seldom laughs, became almost convulsed when he turned his well practiced eye upon them.

Tonne, an American citizen, came to headquarters, when at the Vermijo, and reported himself just escaped from Taos: He reports that the proclamation of Governor Armijo reached there calling the citizens to arms, and placing the whole country under martial law. He stated that Armijo had assembled all the Puebla Indians, above 2,000; all the citizens capable of bearing arms; that 300 Mexican dragoons arrived in Santa Fe the day Armijo’s proclamation was issued; and that 1,200 more are hourly expected. That the Spanish Mexicans to a man, are anxious for a fight, but that about half the Puebla Indians are indifferent on this subject, but will be made to fight.

A succession of thunderstorms passed yesterday to the north and west of us, but nothing reached us. The ground showed recent rain and so does the grass which looks as it does in the spring, just sprouting.

The hills of the left are, as near as I can judge, the same as in the Raton, of different colored sandstone, regularly stratified, and dipping gently to the east.

The growth, on the mountains, pinion and cedar; on the plain, scarcely a tree can be seen, and those along the edges of the streams. Observed at night for latitude and time.

August 11th.- Made a long march to-day, with the advanced guard-the 1st dragoons, to the Ocate, 31 miles. The road approaches the Ocate at the foot of a high bluff, to the north, and runs through a canon, making it accessible to horses. We followed it four or five miles. Where the road crosses the river from the road, and found good grass and running water.

The scenery to-day was very pretty, sometimes approaching to the grand. The road passes through a succession of valleys and crossed numerous divides of the Rayado and Ocate. The Rayado is a limpid running stream, 10 miles from the Cimaron, and although we have been in the midst of mountains for some days past, this is the first stream that has any thing the look of a mountain stream. The grass, however, is not good. Two and a half miles further on, at the foot of the mountain, there are springs. At the last place they halted. About five miles before reaching the Ocate, the road descends into a valley overlined by confused and rugged cliffs, which give promise of grass and water; but ongoing down, we found it had no outlet, and that this beautiful valley, terminated in a salt lake, which is now dry, and the bed encrusted with a thin coat of a white substance, (see specimen.)

Here the road is indistinct, and takes a sudden turn to the left, at this moment we discovered, coming towards us, at full speed, Bent’s spy guard. All though they had met the enemy, I rode forward to meet him, followed by Fitzpatrick and two dragoons. It turned out to be a false alarm. Like a set of silly fellows-or as Fitz called them, d----d fools—they got off the road, which we were not aware of, and were now galloping back to it in full speed.

The hills are composed of what I take to be trap and a porous volcanic stone, very hard, with a metallic fracture and luster. It is underlayed by sandstone. From the uniform height of those hills, one would think they originally formed the table land, and that the valleys had been washed, and their limits determined by the existence or non-existence of the hard crust.

Things are now becoming very interesting. Five or six Mexicans were captured last night, and on their persons were found the proclamation of the protect of Taos, based on that of Armijo, calling the citizens to arms to repeal the Americans, who were coming to invade their soil, and destroy their property and liberties; ordering an enrollment of all citizens over 15 and under 45, and list of arms and ammunitions. It is decidedly less [ . . . ] than any Mexican paper which I have yet seen. Colonel Kearney assembled three prisoners together, some ten or a dozen; made an admirable speech to them, and ordered, that when the rear guard of the army have passed, that they be released. In his speech he informed them that he considered New Mexico a part of the United States; that he intended to extend our laws over it, and substitute laws for the arbitrary will of one man; that he came as the friend of the people, that he would protect them in the exercise of their religion, and of their property, that he would defend the weak against the strong, and the poor against the rich. This brightened their faces, as far as such poor, down cast, unmeaning faces could be brightened. They were mounted on little donkeys, or jennies, and guided by clubs instead of bridles; the whole turn out contrasting in a way with our large, well mounted dragoons that was very ludicrous.—The colonel said to me, "Emory, if I have to fire a round of grape into such men, I shall think of it with remorse all of my life."

To-night two more Mexicans were captured; or rather came into our camp, who were severely cross-questioned by the colonel. Their story was, that they came out by order of the alcalde of the More-town to look for their standing enemies the Eataws, who were reported in the neighborhood; that they had heard of our coming some time since. They believed us at the Rayado, twenty two miles back, but seeing our wagons, and having faith in the Americans, they rode with out hesitation to our camp.—When they said they had faith in us, the Colonel, with great quickness, ordered them to shake hands with him. He then told them pretty much the same that he told the Mexicans this morning. These men appeared to be of a higher class, and listened with profound attention. The Colonel had told them, in conclusion, that he must keep them for a day or two; for it was quite evident to all of us that they were spies, who had come too suddenly into the ravine into which we were camped.

They appeared well satisfied. One of them, with the guard, turned back, and presented the colonel with a fresh cream cheese.

Collected a great variety of new and beautiful flowers. The hills sparsely covered with cedar and pinon. Antelope and horned frogs in abundance; no other animals seen.

August 12th.- The Colonel discharged the oldest Mexican, giving him two proclamations-one for the alcalde, another for the people of the town. He sent a message to the alcalde to meet him at the crossing of the Moro with several of his head men.-The other Mexican was detained as a guide. About 12 o’clock, the advance was sounded, and the Colonel, with Sumner’s command marched twenty miles, and halted in a beautiful valley of fine grass and good pools of cool water. The stream, when flowing, is a tributary of the Moro. From the drift wood, &c., found in its wide, well grassed bed, I infer it is subject to great freshets. In crossing the Ocate to the valley of the Moro, the mountains became more rolling, and as we approach the Moro the valley opens out, and the whole country becomes more tame in appearance. Ten miles up the Moro is the Moro town, containing, as the Mexican informed me last night, 200 houses. It is off the lower road, but a tolerable wagon road leads to it from our camp of last night.

The plans were strewed with a red porous lava-like substance (See specimen 30.) The plains are almost destitute of vegetation-the hills covered with a stunted growth of pinon and red cedar. Rains have fallen here recently, and the grass in the bottom is good. The gamma now constantly appears, but very thinly scattered over the ground. Saw, to-day, some prairie dogs, with stripes on their sides, resembling the common prairie dog in every thing else. A flight of birds to the south, but too far to distinguish them. Antelope and horned frogs as usual. Attracted to the left by an object supposed to be an Indian; on reaching found it a sandstone block, three feet long, standing on end, and topped by another, shorter. A mountain man, who was along, said it was in commemoration of a talk and friendly smoke between some two bands of Indians.

August 13th.-At 12 o’clock, as the rear column came in sight, the call of "boots and saddles"were sounded, and in twenty minutes we were off. We had not advanced more than one mile when Bent, of the spy guard, came up with four prisoners. They represented themselves to be an ensign and three privates of the Mexican army, sent forward to reconnoiter and ascertain our forces. They said 600 men were at the Vegas to receive us, and give us battle, or treat us as friends, according to our intentions towards them. They told a great many different stories, and finally delivered up a paper being an order from Captain Gonsales, to the ensign, to go forward on the Bent road, and ascertain our position and numbers. They were severally cross questioned by the Colonel, and told very much the same the all the rest have told. They were retained for the present as prisoners.

As soon as we commenced descending into the valley of the Moro creek, Col. Kearney’s orderly, who carried his telescope, reported a company of Mexicans at the crossing. Col. K. ordered me to go forward with 12 dragoons, and reconnoiter the party, and if they attempted to fly, to pursue and capture as many as we could. As we approached this company, it seemed wondrous and still motionless; but a few steps dispelled the illusion, and showed the pine stakes of a corral. The dragoons were sadly disappointed, they evidently expected a fight or chase. A few minutes brought us to the first settlement we had yet seen in 775 miles. The first object I saw, was a pretty Mexican woman, with clean white stockings, who came to me, very cordially shook hands, and asked for tobacco. Fitzpatrick said I was singled out for my large red whiskers; but I was at the head of the party, and that was the reason of honor done me.

The next house, and out popped a live American, and soon after, his wife. This was Mr. Bonny, who has lived here for some time, owns a large number of catile and horses, which he keeps in defiance of wolves, Indians, and Mexicans. He is a perfect specimen of a generous, open-hearted adventurer, and is in appearance what I have supposed Daniel Boon to have been. He drove his herd of cattle into camp, and picked out the largest and fattest, which he presented to the army.

Below, about 2 miles, at the junction of the Moro and Sapilla, is another American-Mr. Yells, of North Carolina. He has been here but six months, and from his gay dress may have been taken for a sergeant of dragoons, with his blue pantaloons with broad gold stripes on the sides, and his jacket trimmed with lace. I bought butter of him at 4 bits the pound.

We halted at Sapilla, distance 9 ½ , miles from our last night’s encampment, in a tremendous shower.—Grass indifferent, having been eaten up by the cattle from the ranchos. Wood and water plenty. At this place an American came into camp from Santa Fe, on foot, with scarcely anything on his back; escaped from there night before last at Mr. Houston’s request; to inform Col. Kearney that Armijo’s forces were assembling to the number of 8,000 or 12,000, and that he might expect vigorous resistance; and that a place called the Canon, 15 miles from Santa Fe, where I had before predicted the battle would be fought, was being fortified, and advising the colonel to go around it.

The canon is a narrow defile, easily defended, and of which we have heard a great deal. A conflict now "is inevitable,"and the advantages of ground and numbers will, no doubt, enable the Mexicans to make a stiff fight.

Miserable grass, and the camp ground inundated by the shower of to-day, which was quite a rarity with us, although we understood the rainy season had commenced ten days before, farther in the mountains.

August 13th.-The order of march to-day was the order of battle. After proceeding a few miles, we met a queer cavalcade, which at first we thought was the looked for cavalcade from Moro town; but it turned out a messenger from Armijo. A lieutenant, one sergeant, and two privates, of Mexican lancers. The men were good looking enough, and evidently dressed in their best bib and tucker. The creases in their pantaloons were quite distinct. Their horses were mean in the extreme, and the contempt with which our dragoons were filled was evident.

The messenger was the bearer of a letter from a Armijo, in answer to the colonel’s. The army was on tip-toe to know the contents of the letter. The colonel communicated it to but a few, myself amongst the number. It was a sensible, straightforward letter, and written by an American, or by an Englishman, would have meant this: "You have notified me that you intend to take possession of the country I govern. The people of the country have risen in mass to my defense. If you get the country, it will be because you prove the strongest in battle. I suggest you stop at the Sapilla, and I will march to the Vegas. We will meet, and negotiate on the plains between them."

The artillery were detained a great while in passing the Sapilla. This kept us stewing in the plains for four hours, but it gave the colonel time to reflect on the message with which he should dismiss the lancers. There were apprehensions that Cook was detained, and this made their discharge a matter of reflection. Sixteen miles brought us in sight of the Vegas, a village on the stream of that name. A halt was made at this place, and the colonel called the lieutenant and lancers, and said to them: "The road to Santa Fe is now as free to you as it is to myself; say to my friend General Armijo, I shall soon meet him, and I hope it will be as friends. I come here as the friend of the whole Mexican people, and not as their enemy. My Government considers New Mexico a part of the United States, and I intend to extend her laws over it. All who obey me, and do not resist, I will respect, and make secure in their property, their persons, and their religion. All who take up arms against me, I will treat as enemies."

A great deal more was said, but the conversations which followed with other people were so much more significant, that I will not repeat what passed. At parting, the lieutenant embraced the colonel, Captain Turner, and myself; this was the first man hug that I ever encountered, and if God spares me, it shall be the last.

The country to-day was a rolling, almost mountainous prairie; the grass on the hills beginning to show a little. The soil was good enough, apparently, but vegetation was little or nothing, from the want of rain. As we emerged from the hills into the valley of the Vegas, our eyes saluted, for the first time, with waving corn. The stream was full, and the little drains, by which the fields were irrigated, full to the brim. The dry soil seemed to drink it with the avidity of our thirsty horses.

The village, at a short distance, looked like an extensive brick-kiln; On approaching it, its outline presented a square, with some arrangements for defense. Into this square they are sometimes compelled to retreat with all their stock, to avoid the attacks of the Eutaws and Navajos, who pounce upon them, and carry off their women, children and cattle. But a few days since, they made a descent upon the town, and carried off 120 sheep, and other stock. As Captain Cook passed through the town some ten days since, a murder had just been committed on these helpless people. Our camp extended for a mile down the valley. On one side was the stream, and on the other the corn-fields, with no fence or hedge interposing. What a tantalizing prospect for our hungry and jaded nags.

The water was free, but the colonel posted a chain of sentinels to protect the corn, and gave strict orders that it should not be disturbed. Captain Turner was sent to the village to inform the alcade that the colonel wished to see him and the head men of the town. In a short time, down came the Alcalde, two captains of militia, with numerous servants, prancing and careering their little nags into camp.—The colonel stated to them that he was ordered by his government to take possession of the country, and annex it to the United States – to extend over it the protection of her troops. He hoped to effect this object peaceably; but if need be, he had the power, and would do it forcibly. That he had no doubt of his ability to do it peaceably, if the people of the country could be bought within the sound of his voice, and made to understand the advantages they would derive, in the protection of their lives and property from the savages, and in the just administration of the laws. That he desired the alcalde to assemble all his people in the laza, where he would address them at 8 o’clock the next morning.

All went smoothly, except with one of the captains of the militia, who was very surly, and said he always understood the Arkansas was the boundary of the United States, and soon after rode off abruptly, leaving the party. The old alcalde was very confidential, begged the colonel, in a whisper, to allow no trespass on the corn. The colonel pointed to him his chain of sentiniels. The old man hen pulled out a bottle of vile Taos whiskey, and requested us to drink with him. The dose was bitter, but taken with passable grace.


71.157-159, 7 November 1846 Lt. Emory's Journal

August 15th.- Twelve o’clock last night the colonel (General Kearney) was awakened up, and informed that six hundred men had collected at the posts of the Vegos, two miles distant, and were to oppose his march. In the morning, ordered were given to prepare to meet the enemy. At seven the army moved and just as we made the road leading through the town, Major Swords, of the 3d, Mr. Dupat joined us from Fort Leavenworth, and presented Colonel Kearney with is commission as brigadier general in the army of the United States. At eight o’clock precisely, the general was in the public square, where he was met by the alcalde and people, many of whom were on horseback, (for these people live on horseback.) The General pointed to the top of one of their houses, which are all of one story high, and flat roofed; and suggested to the alcalde, that if he would go to that place he and his staff would follow, and from that point, where all could hear and see him, he would say to them what he had to say.

This was a wise precaution. He was thus enabled to speak so that all could hear and see, and we were placed out of reach of difficulty, of which there might have been some danger, as we were pressed closely in a dense mass of people, the disposition of none of which we then knew.

The colonel (now Brig. Gen’l Kearney) then addressed the multitude, nearly as follows:

"Mr. Alcalde and the people of New Mexico: I have come amongst you by the orders of my government, to take possession of your country, and extend over it the laws of the United States. We come among you as friends, not as enemies; we come to you as protectors, not conquerors; we come among you for your benefit, not for your injury.

Henceforth I absolve you of all allegiance to the Mexican government, and from all obedience to Gen. Armijo. He is no longer your governor, [great sensation,] I am your governor.

I shall not expect you to take up arms and follow me, to fight your own people, who may be in arms against me; but I tell you that those who remain peaceably at home, attending their crops and herds, shall be protected by me in their property, their persons, and their religion; and not a pepper or an onion shall be disturbed or taken by my troops, without pay, or without the consent of the owner.-But listen! He who is found in arms against me, I will hang.

From the Mexican government you have never received any protection. The Apaches and the Navajo come down from the mountains and carry off your sheep and your women whenever they please.—My government will correct al this. They will keep off the Indians, protect you in your persons and property, and I repeat again, will protect you in your religion. I know you are all good Catholics, and that some of your priests have told you all sorts of stories; that we would pollute your women, and brand them upon the cheek as you do your mules upon the hip. It is false. My government respects your religion as much as the protestant religion, and allows each man to worship his Creator as his heart tells him best. Her laws protect the Catholic as well as the Protestant, the weak as well as the strong, the poor as well as the rich. I am not a Catholic myself; I was not brought up in that faith; but at least one-third of my army are Catholics. And I respect a good Catholic as much as a good Protestant.—There goes my army! You see but a small part of it. There are many more behind. Resistance is useless.

Mr. Alcalde, and you two captains of militia, the laws of my country require that all men who hold office under it, shall take the oath of allegiance. I do not wish for the present, until things get settled, to disturb your mode of government. If you are prepared to take the oath of allegiance, I shall continue you in office and support your authority."

This was a bitter pill, but swallowed, the discontented captain looking close down to his toes. The general remarked to him, in hearing all of the people: "Captain look me in the face, while you repeat the oath of office." The hint was understood; the oath administered, the general pronounced the alcalde and two captains still in office, and I called upon all the citizens to obey the alcalde, &c. The people grinned, and exchanged looks of satisfaction; but seemed not to have the boldness to express what they evidently felt, that their burdens if not relieved, were at least shifted to some ungalled part of the body.

We descended by the same rickety ladder by which we climbed to the top of the houses, mounted our horses, and rode briskly forward to encounter our 600 Mexicans in the gorge of the mountains, two miles distant. The sun shone with dazzling brightness, the guidons and colors of each squadron, regiment, and battalion were, for the first time, unfurled.

The drooping horses seemed to take pluck from the gay array, the trumpeters sounded "to horse"with unusual spirit, and the hills multiplied and reechoed the call. All looked like a gala day; and as we approached the gorge where the fun was expected, the general broke into a brisk trot, then into a full gallop, preceded by a squadron of horse. He kept close to their heels. The gorge was passed, but no 600 Mexicans were there! One by one the guidons were furled, the men looked disappointed, and a few minutes found us dragging our "slow length along"with the usual indifference to envoy subject except that of overcoming space.

Two miles farther brought us to another pass as formidable as the first; and the entire intermediate country was broken, and covered with a dense growth of pine, pinon, and cedar. The mountains now begin to rise to the height of a thousand feet above the road.

Nine miles brought us to Selcolate, where we met the alcalue and people in the cool and spacious apartments of the forum, where a repetition of the drama was again enacted. This was graced by the presence of women, with their bare ankles and slippered feet. –Marched ten miles further to Vernal springs; halted at the upper spring, and observed for time and latitude bout 500 feet south of the upper spring.

August 16th-Marhced to San Miguel, where the general assembled the people, and gave them much the same harangue as at the Vegos; but in swearing the old alcalde there was great diffculty. His honor hesitated, faltered, looked at the priest, who held down his head and refused to respond to his enquiring looks. But it had to go down:the general was pertinacious.

As we were ascending the ladder, the priest-a famous man in this country; famous for his love of cards, women and wine-stopped the general to engage him in a discussion on the merits of the question of invasion. He said a great deal that was exceedingly silly and out of place. The general told him so very sharply before all his people, Sinner as he is his hold upon his flock is firm and unyielding.

The repartee of the general floored him completely, and made some of his poor deluded flock look aghast. He had previously invited the general to his quarters. Being in our route we halted. The general told him that he and all his brotherhood were laboring under a great mistake with regard to the intentions of the American government in respect to his religion; that there was not the least intention of disturbing it, or any of its rights and privileges; but if he found any of them stirring up the people to rebellion, he would not let the priests robe stand between the offender and the rope. This, by the way, he mentioned in his speech to the people, while the priest was made to stand by him in full view of the mass below.

His reverence saw the sort of person he had to deal with, and disclaimed any mischievous intentions. This through, he displayed his Taos brandy, which we drank. The general cracked several jokes with him, and finally took leave, by a cordial embrace and a mutual assurance of friendship.

Reports now meet us at every step, that the people were rising, and that Armijo was collecting a formidable force to oppose our march, at the celebrated pass of the canon, fifteen miles from Santa Fe. About the middle of the day’s march, two Puebla Indians, previously sent to sound the chief men of that formidable tribe, were seen in the distance, at full speed, with arms and legs both thumping into the side of their mules, at every stride.—Something was now n the wind for certain.

The smartest and foremost of the two, dashed up to the general, his face radiant with joy, and exclaimed:--"They are in the canon, my brave! Pluck up your courage, and push them out." His extravagant delight at seeing the prospect of a fight, and the pleasure of communicating it, by and by subsided, and he then gave the general a pretty accurate idea of Armijo’s force and his position. He further told him that the Pueblas were with the army there, by Armijo’s orders; that they came voluntarily, and he might rely on their assurance that at first fire, every Puebla would throw down his rifle, his bow, arrows, and sling, and come over to him, (General Kearney).

The general told him that that was all very well; but that he should like to see, that night, some of the head chiefs, and he wished him to go back and bring them out. The brave little fellow at once assented, but his comrade refused, from fear that Armijo would catch and hang him.

The road passed over to-day was good, but the face of the country exceedingly rugged and broken; covered with pinon and cedar. To the left, at one or two miles distant, towers a wall nearly perpendicular, 20 feet high, apparently level on the top, and showing, as near as I could judge, from the road, an immense stratum of red sandstone, capped by puddingstone and limestone. The road was red with disintegrated sandstone. We turned from the road to the creek where there were a few ranchos to encamp, at which place we passed an uncomfortable night; the water being hard to reach and the grazing very bad.

August 17th.—The picket-guard, stationed on the road, captured the son of Salazar, who, it is said, is to play the part in this country that Zraalacaraguay[?] did in Spain. The son was at San Miguel yesterday, and heard from a concealed place, the general’s bar rangue. It is supposed, at this time, he was explaining the position, strength &c. of our army, to report it to his father.

A rumor has reached camp that 4,000 Mexicans assembled in the canon, have quarreled among themselves; that Armijo, taking advantage of the dissensions, fled with is dragoons and artillery to the south. He was long suspected of wishing an excuse to fly. It was known he was averse to a battle, but some of his people threatened his life if he failed to fight. He has been-for some days- more in fear of his own people than the American army. He sees what they have failed to see, -the hopelessness of resistance. Every assurance has been given him by the general, if he quietly surrendered, he would protect him in his person and property; but it is quite evident he fears the penalty of his long misgovernment.

As we approached the ruins of the ancient town of Pecos, a large fat fellow came towards us at full swing, and exceeding his hand to the general, congratulated him on the arrival of himself and army. He said, with a roar of laughter:--"Armijo and his troops have all gone to hell, and the canon is all clear!"–This was the alcalde of the settlement, two miles up the Pecos from the ruins, where we encamped—15 ¾ miles from our last camp, and 2 miles from the road.

Pecos, once a fortified town, is built on a promontory of rock, something in the shape of a fort. Here burned, until within the last seven years, the eternal fire of Montezuma; and the remains of the architecture exhibit, in a pointed manner, the engraftment of the Catholic Church upon the crest religion of the country. At the end of the short spire forming the [ . . . ] of the promontory, are the remains of the stuffa, with all its parts distinct; at the other, are the remains of the Catholic church. Both showing the distinctive marks and emblems particular to the two religions. The tires from the stuffa burned and sent and incense through the same alters from which was preached the religion of Christ. Two religions so utterly different in theory, were here, as in all Mexico, blended in harmonious practice, until, about a century since, the town was sacked by the Nava-hoe band of Indians.

Amidst all the havoc of plundering the city the faithful Aztek managed to keep his fire going in the stuffa, and it was continued until a few years since, the band became almost extinct. Their devotions rapidly diminished their numbers, until they became so few as to be unable to keep going their immense stuffa, forty feet in diameter, when they abandoned the place, and joined a tribe of the original Montezuma race, over the mountains, about sixty miles south. There to this day; it is said, they keep their fire; which has never yet been extinguished.

The labor and watchfulness, and the exposure to heat required, is fast diminishing this regiment of the Montezuma race; and a few years will see the end of this interesting people.

The sketches will give a much more accurate description than can be written of the remains of the modern church, with its crosses, its cells, in dark mysterious corners and niches, where many a maid signed out her confessions. The architecture of the present day in New Mexico; that of the Aztek part of the ruins presents many peculiarities worthy of notice.

Both are constructed of the same materials: the walls of sun dried brick, the rafters of well hewn timber, which could never have been hewn by the miserable axes now used by the Mexicans, which resemble, in shape, and size, the wedges used by our farmers for splitting rails. The corners and drops of the architecture, in the modern church, are elaborately carved with a knife.

To-night we found excellent grass on the Rio Pecos, abreast of the ruins. Here is situated the modern village of Pecos, with a very inconsiderable population. To-night there is a fandango, a mile and a half from camp; but as anxious as I am to see this dance, the threatening appearance of rain deterred me from going.

August 18.—We are this morning 29 miles from Santa Fe. Reliable information from four or five different sources, reached camp yesterday, and the day before that dissensions had arisen in Armijo’s camp, and that his army was dispersed, and himself fled to the south, carrying with him his artillery and 100 dragoons. Not a hostile rifle or arrow was now between the army and Santa Fe, the capital of New Mexico; and the general determined to make the march in one day, and raise the United States flag over the place before sun down.

New horses and mules were ordered for the artillery, and everything was braced up for a forced march. The distance was not great, but the road was bad, and the horses on their last legs.

A small detachment was sent ahead at day break, and at six the army followed. Four or five miles from old Pecos from old Pecos the road leads into a canon, with hills on each side, from 1,000 – 2,000 feet above the road, and in all cases within cannon, and in many cases, point blank musket shot, which continues until within 12 or 15 miles of Santa Fe.

The scenery is wild, but the geological formation is much the same as before described, until you begin to fall towards the Del Norte, when the primitive rocks, granite, &c., are densely crowded wherever the rock affords a crevice. Fifteen miles from Santa Fe, we came upon the position deserted by Armijo. The topographical sketch will give a much more accurate idea of it then a written description. It is a gate way, which, in the hands of a skilled enemy and 100 resolute men, would be perfectly impregnable.

Had the position been defended with any decency, the general would have turned it by a road which branches to the south, six miles from Pecos, by the way of Gulisteo.

Armijo’s arrangements for defense were very defective. His abattis was placed behind the gorge, some 100 yards, by which it is evident he intended that the gorge should be passed before his fires were opened. This done, his batteries would have been carried without difficulty.

Before we reached the canon, the noon halt was made, in a valley covered with the native potato. It was in full bloom. The fruit was not quite so large as a wren’s egg. As we approached the town, a few straggling Mexicans came out, all opening their eyes wide, in search for the general, who, with his staff, was clad so plainly, that they passed us. Another officer and myself were sent down to explore the by road, for a short distance, by which, Armijo fled.—On our return to the main road we saw two Mexicans, one the acting Secretary of State, in search of the general. They had allowed him to pass unobserved. When we pointed the way they broke off in full run, their hands and feet keeping time to the pace of their nags. We followed, in a sharp trot, and, as we though, at a respectable distance. Our astonishment was great, to find as they wound through the ravine, and through the open well-grown pine tree forest, that they did not leave us perceptibly." Certainly they are in full run, and as certainly, we are only in a trot, "we both exclaimed. I supposed we were under some delusion, and turned to my servant to see the pace at which he was going-and, said he, "them Mexican horses make a mighty great doing to no purpose." That was the fact. With their large cruel bitts, they harass their horses into a gait which enables them to gallop very long without losing sight of the starting place.

The acting secretary brought a letter from the lieutenant governor, informing the general of Armijo’s flight, and of his readiness to receive him in Santa Fe, and extend to him the hospitalities of the city. He was quite a youth, and dressed in the hasion of the Americans.

Here, all persons from the United States are called Americanos, and the name is extended to no other race on the continent.

To-day’s march was very tedious and vexatious.—Wishing to enter Santa Fe in an imposing form, frequent halts were made to allow the artillery to come up. Their horses were on their last legs; and during the day, mule after mule was placed before the guns, until scarcely a horse was left.

The head of the column arrived in sight of the town about three:-it was six before the van came up. Vigil, the lieutenant governor, and twenty or thirty of the people of the town, received us at the Palace. The general addressed them in a speech little different in substance, but much in manner, which was conversational, as at the Vegas and San Miguel. We were then asked to partake of wine and brandy, of domestic manufacture. It was from the Passo del Norte. We were too thirsty to judge of its merits. Anything liquid and cool was palatable. During the repast, and as the sun was setting, the United States flag was hoisted on the palace, and a salute of thirteen guns fired from the artillery that was left on an eminence overlooking the town.

The ceremony ended; the general and his staff were invited to supper at Capt. Hortises, a Mexican gentleman, once in the army. The supper was served very much after the manner of a French dinner, one dish succeeding another, in endless succession. A bottle of good wine from the Passo del Norte, and a loaf of bread were placed near each plate. We had been from five in the morning without eating, and endless as were the dishes, more endless still were our appetites.

We retuned to the palace, where we found Mr. Thurston, an American with an invitation to another supper, at the celebrated Madame Tula’s. This is a lady who has amassed a large fortune here and at Chihuahua, by gambling and other accomplishments. A few of us went down. We found the lady a little passee, but by far the most vivacious and intelligent Mexican we had yet seen. I wished to make observations; and, after gratifying my curiosity by a survey of her spacious and well furnished halls, I returned to my quarters where I found my people all so much fagged, that I determined to follow their example and go to bed. The room assigned to me was very close and disagreeable, and I had my blankets moved to the plaza, where I slept till the sun was high in the heavens, and the horses, mules, and men, had been trampling around about me some hours.

August 19th.—Received an order to make a reconnaissance of the town , and select a site for a fort, assisted by Lieut. Gilmer of the engineers. This occupied me diligently on the 19th and 20th, and on the 21st the general was furnished with the map, a copy of which is sent to the adjutant general, and another to the topographical bureau.

The site selected, and marked on the maps, is within 600 yards of the heart of the town, and is 60 to one hundred feet above it. The contour of the ground is unfavorable for the trace of a regular work; but being the only point which commands the entire town, and which is itself commanded by no other, we did not hesitate to recommend it. The recommendation was approved by the general, who viewed it in person. On the 22d we submitted a complete plan of the work, which was also approved, and a copy of which will hereafter be forwarded to the department. It is computed for a garrison of 280 men. It’s regular shape is the natural consequence of the ground; and, estimating its merits, due considerations must be given to the objects in erecting it. It is to be a magazine of ammunition, and a citadel in case of extremities, into which a few troops can retreat, and hold at bay, until help arrives, a large number of opposing force.

But the chief which is imposing position will doubtless achieve is the moral effect over a feeble and distracted race, who are now, since our capture of their artillery, without a single gun. Their own guns will be chiefly used to garrison the fort; and with them every house in Santa Fe could be leveled on the least appearance of revolt. On the 23d the work was commenced with a small force, and on the 27th, the requisition being complied with, 1 set to work 100 laborers, detailed from the soldiers of the army, and on the 31st thirty one Mexican brick masons were added, which will form the permanent force until the work is completed.

It is being determined to send an express to the states, on the 25th instant, I recommended to project and place my maps of the route of the army of the west, that the government might have at once the benefit of my labors. This was a bold undertaking—to compass in a few days the work of months. My astronomical observations were brought up from day to day as we progressed on the march, without which the undertaking would have been impracticable. We all worked day and night, and with the assistance of several gentlemen of the volunteers I succeeded in accomplishing the undertaking, not, however, in a very satisfactory way, as the accompanying letter to General Kearney, forwarded by him with the express, will show. Should this journal ever appear, that letter will form part of it, and explain what I have stated here more fully. I am now preparing, at more ease and with more care, another trave of my maps, which, together with my additional observations for the position of Santa Fe, the lunar observations at Bent’s Fort, which confirm, in the most satisfactory manner, my chronometric determinations, and the latitude of each camp and place of note, will be forwarded direct to the bureau by an express which leaved here on the 5th or 6th of September.

Events at the same place now begin to crowd upon each other in quick succession; but my duties keep me so constantly occupied in my office and in the field, they will not be chronicled in regular order, or in much detail.

On the morning of the 19th the general assembled all the people at the palace, and addressed them in about the same language as at Vegas; the principal difference being, that he notified all those who were dissatisfied with the new order of things, they had full liberty to quit the country without molestation. The next morning the chiefs and head men of the Puebla Indians in to give their adhesion, and to express their great satisfaction of his arrival. This large and formidable band are amongst the best and most peaceable citizens of New Mexico. They, early after the conquest, embraced the forms of religion and like manners and customs of their then more civilized masters- the Spaniards. Their interview was long and interesting. They expressed what was a tradition with them that the white man would come from the far east, and release them from the bonds and shackles which the Spaniards have imposed, not in the name, but in a worse form than slavery.

They, and the numerous half-breeds, in whose veins flow their blood, are our fast friends now and forever. Three hundred years of oppression and injustice have failed to extinguish in this race the recollection that they were once the peaceable and inoffensive masters of the country. The day of retribution has now come, and they have their revenge.

The same afternoon, just as twilight had closed, the vicar of the department, a huge lump of fat, who had fled with Armijo, came puffing into town, and soon presented himself to the general. The interview was amusing. His holiness was accompanied by two young priests; one of whom showed the highest state of alarm and agitation. The vicar assured the general he had been persuaded to run off by the women of his family. The general told him, sharply, he thought it would have been much more in keeping with his holy office to stand by his flock, and not desert them in the hour of trouble, than listen to the unreasonable fears of two women. He then told the general that at another time he would give him the real reason for running away on the approach of the American army.]

A message was received the same night from Armijo, asking on what terms he would be received by the general, but this turned out only to be a ruse, on his part, to gain time in his flight to the south. It is now quite certain he had in the canon with him 4,000 men, tolerably armed, and six pieces of artillery. Had he been any sort of a general, he would have been able to give us infinite trouble. A priest arrived last night (the 29th) and gave the certain intelligence, that at the moment of Armijo’s flight, Ogarte, a colonel of the regular service, was on his march this side of the Passo del Norte, with 500 men to support him; that he would have been enabled to rouse the whole southern district, which is by far the most wealthiest and most populous.

Mr. McGriffin, an American, says that the night Armijo’s messenger returned from Gen. Kearney with the news that the latter had refused to stop, but was still advancing, he (Armijo) was thrown into the greatest trepidation; that he sent for him, (Mr. McGriffin,) embraced him, and asked him for God’s sake to go out and use his influence with General Kearney, to stop him. When Mr. McGriffin told him that was impossible, he gave away to the most uncontrollable despair.

In the course of the week, various deputations have come in from Taos, giving their allegiances, and asking for protection from the Indians. That portion is the best disposed to war is the United States. You can tell a Taos man at once by the cordiality of his salutation.

A band of Navahoes, naked, thin, and devilish looking, dropped in on the general while I was present. He told them to tell their chiefs and people that he was aware that they had, for a long time, subsisted by plundering the Mexicans, that hereafter, if they committed these acts he would hang the offenders by the neck until they were dead.—He also sent a message, that he had some presents to give them, which he would distribute in a few days.

Various rumors reached us from the south that troops are marching on Santa Fe, and that the people are rising, &c. To quiet them, the general has determined on an expedition down the river, 150 miles, to start on Wednesday, 1st of September.—The order is already out to prepare to march for California no time to lose.

September 30th – To-day we went to church, in great state. The governor’s seat, a large well stuffed chair, covered with crimson, was occupied by the general. The house was crowded with an attentive audience, of men and women; but not a word was uttered from the pulpit by the priest, who kept his back to the audience, the whole time uttering prayers. The band-the identical one used at the fandango-played the same tunes as at the dance, without intermission. Except the governor’s, and one row of benches, there were no seats in the church. Each woman dropped on her knees, on the bare floor, as she entered; and only changed this position for that on her seat, at long intervals, announced by the tinkle of a small bell.

The interior of the church is decorated with some fifty crosses, a great number of the most miserable paintings, and wax figures and looking glasses, trimmed with pieces of tinsel. The priest who was a very grave, respectable looking person, of fair complexion, commenced the services by sprinkling holy water over the congregation. When abreast of the general, he extended his silver waterspout, and gave him a handful.

Though not a word was uttered, the whole service was grave and impressive; and I thought it was the very religion for the people present; and much more decent and worthy of God’s temple, than many of the ranting, howling discourses we have at home.

All appeared to have just left work to come to church. There was no fine dressing or personal display, that will not be seen on weekdays. Indeed, on returning from church we found all the stores open, and the market women selling their melon and plums, as usual.

The fruit of this place-muskmelons, apples, and plums-is very indifferent, and would scarcely be eaten in the states. To this I must except the apricot, which grows in perfection.

Leaving the narrow valley of the Santa Fe, which various from a thousand feet to a mile or two in width, you reach barren hills, utterly incapable, from soil and climate, of producing anything.

The valley is entirely cultivated by irrigation, and is, as you will see on the sketch, now covered with corn.

The population of Santa Fe if from 2,000 to 4,000; and they are, it is said, the poorest people of any town in the province.

The houses are of mud bricks, in the Spanish style, generally of one story and built on a square. The interior of the square is an open court, and the principal rooms open into it. They are forbidding in appearance, from the outside, but once in, and nothing can exceed their comfort and convenience. The thick walls make them cool in the summer, and they say, warm in the winter.

The better class of people are all provided with excellent beds, and have furniture, and have furniture; but the lower class, who are in fact but serfs, are very destitute, and sleep chiefly on skins untanned.

The women here, as in all other parts of the world, appear to be much before the men in refinement, intelligence, and knowledge of useful arts. The better class dress like American women, except they wear, instead of a bonnet, a scarf over the head. This they wear asleep or awake, in the house, or out.

He dress of the lower class of women, is a simple petticoat, with arms and shoulders bare, except what might be covered by the reboso.

The men who have means to do so, dress after our fashion; but by far the greater number, when they dress at all wear leather breeches, tight round the hips, and open from the knee down; and shirt and blanket takes the place of our coat and vest.

The city is dependant on the distant hills for wood, and at all hours of the day may be seen jackasses coming laden with wood, which is sold at 2 bits, or 25 cents per load. They are the most diminutive little creatures, and generally mounted from behind, after the fashion of a leap frog. It is the only animal that can subsist in this barren region with out the greatest expense. Our horses are all sent to distance, 12, 15, and 20 miles to grass.

Grain was very high when we first entered the town, selling freely ay $5 and $6 the fanegan (140 pounds.) As our wagons draw near, and the crops of wheat are being gathered, it is generally falling to four dollars the fanegan.

Milk sells at six cents the quart. Eggs, too, for the same sum; sugar 35 cents per pound, and coffee 75 cents. The Sugar made in the country is principally made from the cornstalk.

A great reduction must now take place in the price of dry goods and groceries—20 per cent, at least, for this was about the rate of duty charged by Armijo, which is now, of course, taken off. He collected annually some 50,000 or 60,000 dollars, principally, indeed entirely, on goods imported over land from the wagon load, without regard to the contents of the wagon.

Mr. Alvarez, our respectable consul here, informed me, that the impression from the United States, through New Mexico, varied vary much; but that he thought they would average about a half million nearly, and no more. Many of the wagons go on to Chihuahua without breaking their loads.

New Mexico contains, according to the last census made a few years ago, 100,000 inhabitants. It is divided into three departments-the northern, the middle, and the southeastern. These are again subdivided into counties, and the counties into towns.—The lower, or southern, is comparably the richest, containing 48,000 inhabitants, many of whom are rich, in the possession of farms, stocks, and gold dust.

The statistics and resources of this whole country I will difer entering into until my return from the south.

This country, although poor and barren, unless the gold mines should be more extensively developed, is of great interest to the United States, and all important for her to possess. The road from here to Fort Leavenworth presents no obstacle for a railway, and if it continues as good to the Pacific, will be the route over which the U. States will pass immense quantities of merchandise into what will, at one day become the rich and populous state of Sonora, Durango, and Southern California.

As a military possession, it is important and necessary. Its mountain fortresses have long been the retreating place of the warlike parties of the Indians and robbers that sally out to intercept our caravans, moving on the different line of travel to the Pacific.

Another event of the day I must not omit to mention—the ball given at the palace by the general on Thursday night. It was well attended by all the principal people in town, Madam Tula included, and kept up to a late hour. The American cotillion was danced once or twice, but soon gave way to the rocha, the boleso, and the Italian. Every variety of figure was introduced in the dance; but the waltz was the basis of all, except the boleso which, as danced here resembles our Negro jig. My friend Lieut. Cribbon, of the artillery, has noted some of the music, which may be that of the time of the conquest. I send a few of the airs, some of which are pretty, and when I get back to Washington, hope to find them in vogue.

August 31st—Lieutenant Warner arrived to-day, with the wagon train of ordinance stores; but the general cannot yet relieve him from the duty. To-morrow a small expedition goes to Taos; but Lieutenant Peck being sick, I have not an officer to send with it.

To-day, pretty well authenticated accounts have arrived that Armijo, having met Ugarie advancing up the Del Norte with 500 regulars and several pieces of artillery, returned with, and is now rallying his forces in the lower country to the amount of four or five thousand; and it is said that numbers are joining him from the upper towns. In consequence, the general has strengthened the army with which is to meet him, with all his disposable force.

We march day after to-morrow; and I shall turn over the construction of the fort to Lieutenant Gilmer, and leave Lieut. Peck to assist him, as he is still unable to ride.


NNR 71.140 October 31, 1846 Gen. Stephen Watts Kearney’s proclamation organizing territorial government in New Mexico

The most of the papers we find regard the following as a hoax. The Union is silent on the subject:--

Another Proclamation from Gen. Kearney

From the New York Express.

The Pittsburg American has a letter from Santa Fe, dated September 12, enclosing another proclamation by General Kearney, summoning the citizens of New Mexico to hold an election on the 25thof October, to elect a delegate to the Congress of the Untied States, and members of a Territorial Legislature, the latter to assemble in Santa Fe on the second Monday of December next. The Senate to consist of 13 and the House of 35 members. Two candidates for delegates to Congress announced, Don Manuel Linosa, Secretary of the Territory, and Mr. Magoffin, a merchant of Santa Fe connected with the house of P. Harmony & Nephews, of New York. It is supposed two or three other candidates would take the field. (The first we have seen of this proclamation is in the Cleveland Herald.)

"The proclamation called on the alcades and all other magistrates to superintend the polls’ count the ballots, make returns, and preserve order; and commands all officers, soldiers, and followers of the army to abstain from all interference in said elections, and to be vigilant in securing the peaceable and undisturbed enjoyment of the good citizens of the Territory in the exercise of their valuable privileges authorized by this proclamation."
[MJK]


NNR 71.144 October 31, 1846 Gen. Pedro Ampudia’s evacuation of Monterey, occupation by American forces

EVACUATION OF MONTEREY

Monterey, Mexico, Sept. 29, 1846

Gentlemen-We are at length in quiet possession of this place, the last division of Ampudia’s army having marched out yesterday morning. The 1st division marched our on the 26th, the 2d on the 27th, and the balance on the 28th. I saw the two last and was able to form a tolerable good idea of the number of men in them. There could not have been fewer than 2500 in each division, of regular soldiers, well armed and equipped. Add to these some two thousand horsemen who left the city in small parties, during the four days flight, and at least 5000 citizens of the town who took up arms in its defense, and you have a pretty strong force for the defense of a place which nature and art have combined to render as strong as any in the world.

How such an army thus situated, could ever allow itself to be conquered by a force of less than 7000 men, will always appear strange to me. The cowardice of Ampudia is now established beyond a doubt. So careful was he of his person, that it is said he never once left his house when any firing was going on.

I felt perfectly satisfied, when I saw the Mexican troops pass out of town, with the arrangements which Gen. Taylor had made with them. To have taken all these men prisoners would have been useless. Their arms we did not want; their horses were worthless with a few exceptions, and it would have been very expensive and troublesome to feed and guard so many men. And moreover, it would have cost many a valuable life to have carried the city at the point of the bayonet.

I rode out with the head of the column day before yesterday, when their second division left town. That scene alone would almost have remunerated one for the long journey to Monterey. At the head of the column rode the commander of the division, with his staff, accompanied by Maj. Scott, of the 5th infantry, with his Adjutant (Lieut. Deas) and Lieuts. Hanson, Robinson, and McLaws. Col. Peyton rode by the side of the chief, and received a very affectionate embrace from him as we turned out to let the column march on, when the head had reached Palace Hill.

And now was presented a scene that I can never forget. Two regiments of infantry led off with colors flying, drums beating, and trumpeters blowing with all their might. The fifers made all the noise they could.—The men were all well armed, and the whole division seemed to be well appointed, with the exception of shoes, in lieu of which, most of the men wore sandals. Three pieces of artillery were in the center of the column, one six, one nine, and one twelve pounder. The line, marching four abreast about one mile.

The army was accompanied by a great many females; officers wives on horseback, their faces muffled, and with hats on; soldiers wives mounted on donkeys or on foot, some of them carrying burdens that I would scarcely think of packing upon mules; young women with short petticoats, and hats, tripping lightly along; young girls trudging along with their little valuables in their arms.

Yesterday morning the last division was drawn out in the plaza next to the Cathedral-that is, all the plaza could hold- and Captain Miles, who is stationed there with his regiment, (7th infantry,) drew up his command and saluted the regiments as they passed him.

The 1st division is encamped in the grove, three miles east of town-one of the loveliest spots in the world, shaded by large pecan and live oak trees. This grove seems to be the only woodland in the region, and is resorted to by the citizens of Monterey, as a place for holding pic-nic parties. The 3d, a volunteer division, is also encamped in the grove. Gen. Worth’s division occupies the town. The citizens are beginning to return in great numbers, and appear to feel glad that the Mexican army has left them.
[MJK]


NNR 71.144 October 31, 1844 troops to leave Fort Moultrie for Mexico

The Charleston Courier says that 260 U.S. troops were to leave Fort Moultrie on the 27th instant in the ship South Carolina for Mexico.
[MJK]


NNR 71.144-10/31/1846 Gen. Stephen Watts Keran'y excursion south and return to Santa Fe

Santa Fe. -Latest- An express arrived at Fort Leavenworth on the evening of the 17th October, with intelligence from Santa Fe to the 17th ult. Brig. General Kearney had returned from the south, after a very successful tour. The inhabitants all hailed the stars and stripes with joy, and none expressed dissatisfaction but the rich. The middle and lower classes looked upon General K. as their deliverer. Orders had been issued to have the dragoons and 100 of Fischer's command, in readiness to march to California by the 25th September, at which time the Mormons were expected to arrive. --Gen. Kearney will command this expedition in person.
[SCM]


NNR 71.144- 10/31/1846 Col. Canales at San Fernando

CANALES- We learn that this notorious Mexican colonel was at San Fernando at last accounts. He is supposed to have commanded the men who cut off Dr. Alsbury and party. He will be likely to keep on the Mexican side of the lines hereafter. One of Gen. Patterson's orders is aimed at just such scamps as he.
[SCM]


NNR 71.144-10/31/1846 Military and Naval Movement

Military and Naval Movement. - U. States steamship Massachusetts went to sea on Monday, from New York, with troops for our army in Mexico, which she will land at Brazos. They have been enlisted for the 4th, 5th, 6th, and 8th infantry, and are under orders of officers most of whom were engaged at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma.
[SCM]


NNR 70.337 Aug 1, 1846 Gen. Mariano Paredes y Arillaga requests permission, which is granted, to place himself in command of the Army in the North, arrangements with regard to other Mexican commanders

Paredes Elected President.  Shortly after the meeting of the Mexican congress, that body proceeded to organize the executive power, by a decree that it should be deposited provisionally in a magistrate elected by a plurality of the votes of congress, and that a vice president should be elected at the same time to act in the absence of the president.  This decree was passed on the 10th of June, and on the 12th the election was help.  Gen. Paredes was elected president, receiving 58 out of 83 votes.  Ben. Bravo received 13 votes, and Gen. Herrera 7 votes.  Gen. Bravo was then elected vice president, receiving 48 out of 82 votes.  The highest opposing candidate was D. Luis G. Cuevas, who received 17 votes.

Gen. Paredes took the oaths of office on the 13th as provisional president, and at the same time pronounced another discourse, in the most notable passage of which he expresses his confidence that congress will grant all the supplies and make every effort necessary to defend the national cause.  He reviews at length the wrongs which Mexico has endured at the hands of the United States, and concludes with desiring permission to assume of Senor Bustamente, who was ill, Dr. D. Louis Gonzaga Gordoa presided over congress.  He replied to the president in substance, that every question of domestic policy shrunk into insignificance compared with the invasion of the country on the Rio Bravo; that the Mexican who should think of aught else than the injustice and treachery with which their soild was trampled, and the necessity of avenging their outraged honor, had no right to claim a share in their patriotic devotion.

On the 18th permission was granted to Paredes to place himself at the head of troops, and proceed to join the army of the North.  Gonzalez Arevalo was to leave the capital on the 19th in command of the advance of the forces of Paredes.  Gen. Mejia was in the actual command of the army of the North, Arista having been ordered to Mexico, and Ampudia to remain at San Luis Potosi. [A paper of the 27th ult. says that Gen. Arevalo, instead of proceeding to the frontier, had marched for Guadalajara to put down the insurrection.]

Gen. Bravo left Vera Cruz for the city of Mexico on the 24th, to discharge the functions of president in the absence of Paredes
[RCG]


NNR 70.337-338 Aug 1, 1846 consideration by the Mexican Congress of a declaration of war against the United States

Declaration of War Proposed.  The committee of congress upon foreign relations and upon war made a joint report upon the 16th upon that part of the message of Paredes relating to the United States.  The reports recommends the passage of a bill declaring Mexico to be in a state of war with the United States.  We do not find that the bill had actually been passed.  Bocanegra and Valencia were among the members of this committee.  After a short report upon the circumstances of the case, the committee proposed the following:

Project DE LA Loi.  The extraordinary national congress of the Mexican republic considering:

That the republic of the United States of America, with notorious violation of all right, has instigated and protected openly and perseveringly the insurrection of the colonists of Texas against the nation which had admitted them upon its territory and generously shielded them with the protection of its laws:

That is has incorporated the same territory of Texas into in union by an act of its congress, notwithstanding it has always belonged by undisputed right to the Mexican nation, has been recognized as such by the United States themselves, as appears by the boundary treaties of 1832 and 1835:

That is has not maintained the solemn assurances and reservations in regard to the rights of the Mexican republic, which by means of its agents it had made conformity with whose treaties:

That is has also invaded the department of Tamaulipas, introducing an army upon the left bank of the Rio Bravo, giving occasion and origin to the battles of the 8th and 9th of May of the present year:

That in time of profound peace, and during established relations of amity, between the two countries, it has invaded by land and sea that territories of the Cali:

That it has blockaded the ports of Matamoros, Vera Cruz, and Tampico of Tamaulipas, opening its fire upon the defenses of the latter:

That it has authorized a levy of troops against Mexico:

That it has declared war against the republic under the pretext that the said states had been invaded, when in fact they made the invasion:

And lastly, considering that the nationality of the Mexicans is seriously compromised by the power and the spirit of usurpation, flagrantly manifested by the neighboring nation of the United States.
[RCG]


NNR 70.341-342 Aug 1, 1846 letter from "The Corporal"with the Army of Occupation at Matamoros

"THE CORPORAL,"whose exceedingly lively and well written articles, communicated to the New Orleans Bee, keep the public well posted up as to the affairs on the Rio Grande, writes from

Matamoros, July 4th, 1846

I was in conversation with Mr. De Grey, who has returned here from Chihuahua, near two hours this morning.  He says that he left San Antonio with others about two months ago with good on a trading expedition to Chihuahua, and proceeded on the route unmolested until he had reached Santa Clova, where they were stopped by the guard stationed on the river and their goods taken from them, in the name of the revenue laws of Mexico.  Mr. De G. then left his party and traveled down the east bank of the Rio Grande, for a few days, when he crossed over and went to Saltillo, where he was advised of the bloody battle of the 9th, by its citizens, who stated to him that they would never go against the Americans again, and that it was a generally expressed thing at every place they had heard of.  He says he was stopped by Arista, who was at his rancho, near Monterey, for two days, and although the general had quit the Mexican army forever, he still though it his duty to detain and would likely have kept him had he not managed to escape and get into Monterey.  This place he found dull and "heavy"and not one Mexican soldier in it--the people damning Paredes and the government, saying the soldiers had eat them out of every thing and then left them for the Americans to prey upon, whom they were looking for with much anxiety.  They told him at this place that there was much eagerness displayed by the inhabitants of Caohuila and the upper part of Tamaulipas before the news of the fight reached them, but all operations in military affairs ceased after it, and patriotism was sunk.  The remnant of the army--not 500--have gone to Lenares, and were in a pitiful condition, and lessening the number daily by desertion.  They had recruited a little whilst there, and fortified several points, but the citizens said it was labor thrown away.  He heard that 600 men volunteered at Monclova, and were "eager for the fray;"but the startling news from the Rio Grande gave them a lick back; they mutinied, and 500 of them left sans ceremony.  They had been made to believe that our pockets were lined with gold.  (How they would have been so sucked had they got into the pockets of some folks I wot of.)  He saw General Cannales near Reynosa, who told him that he commanded but 125 men at the time.  Carabajal, his cher ami, gave De Grey, a passport to protect him from the band. 

I am happy to inform you that the present swell in the river has had the good effect of clearing a channel at the mouth, by washing away the sand, and leaving it open for vessels of 5 or 6 feet water.  The vessels at the mouth have gone out and several steamers have come in laden with military stores.

Several rows have occurred in this place during the last few days, which have compelled General Taylor to resume strict measures again.  Several Mexicans have been killed and others wounded.  Those of our men who engage in these broils are bad men--who come to town and remain here about during the day, in connection with some rangers of similar character, but I am proud to say, for the honor of the service, they are few in number.

There are, and have been for ten days, a set of mountebanks here performing on the tight rope and cutting "fantastic tricks before high heaven." About half an hour before the commencement of their performances they mount each a mustang, and proceeded by a base drum and charionets, parade through the principle streets--dressed in their performing costumes, and followed by all the juveniles of the town. They are natives, and style themselves, "Compania del Norte." I have not had the courage to visit them.
[RCG]


NNR 70.342 Aug 1, 1846 visit of British naval officers to Gen. Zachary Taylor

"Curiosity runs high"to know the object of a visit of two British naval officers to General Taylor, who arrived here in a vessel of war from Tampico.  Communication being cut off, they sent their dispatches by mail to their consul at Matamoros, to be laid by him before the consul general. Nous verrons.

Appearances indicate a move of the army into the interior as soon as the waters subside.

Report says Gen. Paredes has sent a proclamation to the people of Matamoros, calling upon them to treat our regulars with every kindness and consideration, because of the unparalleled kindness and attention to the wounded, as well as prisoners and citizens.  He takes occasion to score the Texans, &c.  If this be true, it argues more favorable than otherwise.
[RCG]


NNR 70.343 August 1, 1846, Court of Inquiry, charges against General Gaines, Library for the Army of Occupation, Volunteers

The Court of Inquiry ordered to assemble at Fortress Monroe, (Old Point), for the investigation of the charges against General Gaines, met on the 21st, and organized for the transaction of business. - The Court sat with closed doors of course.  All the members had not arrived.  Gen. Gaines was, upon his arrival at Fortress Monroe, received by Col. Walbach, commandant, and saluted with 13 guns, together with the honors due to his high rank.

A LIBRARY FOR THE ARMY OF OCCUPATION. - Presuming, probably, that the army would have leisure for study, the following publishers in New York have contributed a very excellent library for the army on the Rio Grande: - Harper & Brothers; Burgess, Stringer & Co.; Wiley & Putnam; Saxton & Miles; Mark H. Newman; W. Taylor & Co.; J. & G.A. Langley; Baker & Seribner; M.W. Dodd; Darius Mead; J.S. Redfield; Fowler & Wells; C.S. Francis & Co.; Wood & Son, and Stanford & Swords.  The idea was suggested by the Rev. Mr. Marshall, of Vicksburgh, Miss., at present in New York on a visit.

The government is buying mules in Tennessee, at $100 apiece.

Lieut. DEAS, who, it was reported at the time, had been attracted by some Mexican damsel, on the banks of the Rio Grande, opposite Fort Brown, but who in reality had swam the river in search of the lamented Col. Cross, and was captured by the enemy, has been restored to his company.

DESERTERS. - The two Sergeants who deserted from Capt. Deas's company of Alabama volunteers on the Rio Grande, were arrested in Mobile, and were about to be sent back to be tried by a military court, when a writ of habeas corpus was taken out for their detention, and the examination of their case before a civil court.  After hearing the case, the judge decided that they should be returned to the camp for trial by court martial.  From this decision an appeal was taken to the court of appeals, where the matter now lies

DEATH OF C. J. McNULTY. - Capt. Hicks, of the New Era, arrived yesterday from New Orleans, reports the death of C. J. McNulty, on his way to the seat of war. He died just below Memphis.  He was a private in the Knox county volunteers, and formerly well known as the clerk of the house of representatives.

GEORGIA VOLUNTEERS. - Two men were drowned - Farrar and McNier - in the Alabama river, while on their way to Mobile.  They jumped overboard from the steamer in a fright.

The Mobile papers gives the particulars of an affair, on the wharf in that city, connected with a corps of volunteers from Georgia.  Some of the men undertook to torment some negroes fishing at the wharf. Two were knocked into the river and one of them drowned.  Excitement followed, and the troops were for hurrying off the boat on which they were embarked - but the mayor ordered their detention, and three men were arrested and taken before the mayor.  Two were, after examination, discharged, and the third sent to prison to answer for his crime.

SOUTH CAROLINA VOLUNTEERS. - The secretary of war has informed the governor of S. Carolina that there is no necessity at present for calling the regiment of that state into service.

EXPEDITION AGAINST CHIHUAHUA. - The company of U. States dragoons that have for some time been at Austin, Texas, left there on the 16th June, for San Antonio.

Capt. R. M. Snell, of the Texan volunteers, has arrived at Galveston for the purpose of raising three or four companies of foot, for what service is not stated.

THE SANTA FE EXPEDITION. - Col. Price's regiment.  A letter from Lexington, Mo., dated the 2d, says - "Col. Price has been informed by Col. Kearney, that his regiment will be received, provided he raises eight hundred infantry - more cavalry not being wanted in the expedition.  Col. Price, it is said, objects to this arrangement, and a doubt exists whether he will be able to succeed in raising the number of men." There can be no doubt that Col. Kearney has more mounted men with him than is necessary for the expedition, and we are surprised at the opposition which Col. Price makes, to the new service with which Col. Kearney desires to invest him.  He ought not to hesitate about obeying Col. Kearney's requisition, more especially as it may conduce to the safety of the expedition, and to the promptness with which his men may be brought into the field.
[GLP]


NNR 70.343 Aug 1, 1846 arrival of the first, second, and third regiments of Ohio volunteers at New Orleans

Ohio Volunteers.  The first regiment of Ohio volunteers, commanded by Col. Mitchell, and Lieut. Col. Weller, arrived at New Orleans on the 8th of July, by steamers New World and Carolina, from Cincinnati, and encamped at the battle ground blow the barracks.

The 3rd regiment, under the command of Col. S. R. Curtis, Lieut. Col. McCook, and Adj. Eaton, arrived on the 9th.

Two steamboats arrived at New Orleans on the 16th with the 2d regiment.
[RCG]


NNR 70.343 Aug 1, 1846 arrival of five companies of Indiana volunteers at New Orleans

Indiana Volunteers.  A steamboat arrived at N. Orleans on the 16th of July, with five companies of the 2d regiment of the Indiana volunteers.
[RCG]


NNR 70.343 August 1, 1846 Full Complement of NY Volunteers

New York Volunteers. We learn that the full complement of seven regiments of volunteers required from this state, for service in the war against Mexico, has already been obtained, and all the line officers commissioned.  It is expected that the field officers will also receive their commissions in the course of twelve or fourteen days, when the whole force will be complete, awaiting orders from the war department.  An excess, nearly sufficient for another regiment, we understand, has been reported to the adjutant general's office.
[RCG]


NNR 70.343 Aug 1, 1846 account of traders, emigrants, and soldiers setting out for Santa Fe, Oregon, and California

Trade to Sante Fe, California, and Oregon.

Dr. J. Gregg, the author of "Commerce of the Prairies,"in a letter to the editors of the Boonslick (Missouri) Times, gives the following important statements.

Independence, June 30th, 1846.

The traders having left this place in detached parties, as each proprietor finished his preliminary arrangements and got his goods and chattles, freight and cattle ready for starting, it is difficult to form a correct estimate of their numbers or quantity, unless one had taken the pains of stationing himself upon the borders at the opening of the navigation, in the spring, and counted them when passing.  I have, however, by minute and frequent inquiries ascertained that there are "en masse"upon the Santa Fe trail, 216 wagons. 

Still behind to start during the summer, principally belonging to Mexicans, say, Small carriages, buggies, &c., 150 "        50"    416

--having on board, as near as I can estimate it, an amount of merchandise, costing a fraction over one million of dollars, which in more than treble that of any previous season.

These vehicles, of various sorts, are accompanied by people as various--compromising traders and wagoners, loungers, on and connoisseur travelers, loafers and loungers, amounting to about one thousand men.

The Oregon and California emigration, (much the larger part of which is for the latter country,) amounts to , men, women, and children, about two thousand persons, and in all probability, I think, at least 400 wagons of all descriptions.

Then, there is our army, the number of which is quite uncertain, although, including dragoons and volunteers, infantry, and cavalry, it will, from present indications, amount to about three thousand men accompanied by two hundred and fifty wagons.

Thus, we have about six thousand souls, with one thousand wagons, moving westward, across the great prairies, during the present summer, from this part of our frontier,  How many may put off from other portions of our western border, I know no more than you; but report says that a large number of troops will leave Arkansas next month for our southwestern frontier and Mexico.

Your Friend,
Josiah Gregg.

[RCG]


NNR 70.344 Aug 1, 1846 mustering of the New York regiment destined for California, complaints of favoritism to Col. John D. Stevenson

The expedition to the Pacific.  -- The regiment under the command of Col. Stenvenson, destined for California, was mustered and inspected at the New York arsenal yard on the 21st ult.  It is said they intend to encamp on Bedloe's Island, and pass the time previous to their departure in active drill.

The Mechanics' Journal says. -- "Very just complaints are made of the favoritism of the administration in allowing John D. Stevenson to raise a regiment for immediate service, while volunteers are enrolled in New York and waiting to be ordered into survive, waiting without pay, and even without any provision for their maintenance.  A son of Mr. Marcy is to be paymaster of this regiment, for the administration has long since assumed the right of appointing the officers of the militia, though in direct defiance of the constitution, which reserves that right to the states respectively.  Sir Robert Peel, with the immense patronage in his power, made it a rule never to appoint a relative to office.  With all the admiration which this administration exhibits for British examples, this is a precedent which there appears no disposition to follow."
[RCG]


NNR 70.352 August 1, 1846, Steamer Princeton detached for Pensacola

THE PRINCETON, U.S. STEAMER, which has been exceedingly useful in maintaining the blockade of Vera Cruz, performing what no other vessel in the navy was as capable of doing, has suddenly been detached by Commodore CONNER, in order to bring despatches, with which she arrived at Pensacola, on the 20th , in five days from Vera Cruz.  The despatches are said to be from our Pacific squadron.  Of their purport nothing has transpired.
[GLP]


NNR 70.352  August 1, 1846,  "ARMY OF OCCUPATION."

Our latest dates from the Rio Grande left the army still waiting for means of transportation and for supplies to enable them to progress.  Gen. Taylor is now encamped with four regiments, (Colonels Walton's, Davie's, Dankin's and Mark's,) with the Alabamians, under Capt. Desha, at Buena Vista, on the borders of a lake, seventeen miles northwest of Matamoros.  The health of the volunteers here, with Gen. Taylor, had much improved, owing to the fine air they enjoyed and splendid encamping grounds they occupied.

The roads were perfectly impassable for wheeled vehicles, owing to the swampy soil, occasioned by the immense falls of rain which had recently taken place. - The steamer Mercer arrived at the mouth of the Rio Grande, all safe, on the 17 th inst.  There were no signs of Mexican soldiery in the vicinity of Camargo.

Capt. Walker had returned from his expedition to Monterey, and delivered a report which is said to be an exceedingly interesting one of the state of the country through which he passed, halting places, &c. &c. - There is no probability of an opposition being made to the advance of the American troops between Camargo and Monterey, and from what could be collected, the Mexican force concentrated at the latter point, is extremely insignificant. Nothing regarding the reported approach of Paredes, with the army of reserve, of an authentic nature has been ascertained at headquarters, although  ??? are out in some numbers for that purpose.  Everything, however, seems to announce that the possession of Monterey will be fiercely disputed, as it is by nature and art, one of the most powerful strongholds in Mexico.  The inhabitants and soldiers are daily employed in improving its defences.

Our informant states that it was reported by the Rangers that they had penetrated to the precipitous cliffs that overhang Monterey, when a trooper, a very adventurous soldier, named Cummins, reached a point overhanging the Bishop's Palace, which commanded a view of the whole city.  The utmost activity seemed to prevail among the Mexicans, who were busily employed in repairing the old fortifications and erecting new ones. - The number of troops was not ascertained, but from the movements observable, it was evident they were preparing every means of defence.

The crops it is feared, are almost irreparably injured.  The cotton harvest is annihilated; as for the corn much will be saved, although greatly deteriorated.

The Mexican peasantry are employed very diligently in cutting wood and piling it on the banks of the river, for the steamboats.  They receive $2.50 a cord.  It is muskeet wood, and burns very well.  Gen. Taylor put it to them, whether they would cut it and get paid, or oblige him to have it cut by his own men, when they would lose the price of labor. Wood, however, he added, must be had.

  Business is very brisk at Matamoros.  Fine weather had again assumed a permanent aspect; the waters were every where falling, and the whole of the military were joyfully preparing for the opening campaign.
[GLP]


NNR 70.352 Aug 1, 1846 mounted riflemen and Mormon infantry for California

"Army of the West"

We find the above designation fully assumed in an official order from Col. Kearney, 1st U S. dragoons, dated "Headquarters, Army of the West, Fort Leavenworth, June 19th, 1846,"directed to Capt. Allen, of said regiment, which together with Capt. Allen's "circular to the Mormons,"dated "Camp of the Mormons, Mount Pisgah, June 26th,"are published in the St. Louis Republican, of the 24th, as taken from the Nauvoo Eagle, of the 17th June.  The overture to the Mormons in the orders and circular are very comprehensive.  Gen. Kearny distinctly point to California as his place of destination, and that he stipulates for the discharge of the Mormons from service in that country.  He asks for five companies of infantry.  The Mormons are eager to embrace the overture.  The Republican adds: "We learn from the same source that Gen. Kearny in consideration of their having placed five hundred men at the disposal of the government, has emigrating Mormons, and that they shall have the use of "any of the Indian lands they may think proper to select,"until they are ready to cross the mountains.  The Mormons have, in accordance with this arrangement, selected Grand Island, on the Platt river, for their temporary residence.  It is a large tract and has a salt spring upon it.  There they will winter, and collect the entire Mormon population of the west, preparatory to their march to California next spring.  They propose to push forward from this point as rapidly as possible, and, after reaching in, to send back from five hundred to one thousand wagons, for the purpose of helping along those who may yet be in Illinois, Iowa, or Missouri.  This is to be done with all possible expedition.  Grand Island is stated to be between one hundred and two hundred miles west of COuncil BLuffs.  At the last dates the requisition of Gen. Kearny was rapidly filling up; and on the 17th, the United States officers gave the Mormons a splendid fete or ball, which is said to have been a fine affair."

A letter from an officer date --Camp at Cotton Wood, July 10th, published in the National Intelligencer, of the 30th, states that the detachment crossed Kansas on the 2d, and were 180 miles from Fort Leavenworth, without meeting with any accident.  They had no intelligence as yet from the detachment sent under Captain Moore to overtake the Santa Fe expedition.

The companies of Mormon infantry and Col. Price's regiment of mounted Missourians, are expected to join general Kearny at Bent's Ford, at which place he halts for them to come up.  Including these he will have about 3 200 men with which to invade Mexico and Santa Fe.
[RCG]


NNR 70.368 August 8, 1846 Nashville "Union's"correspondence on the campaign, move toward Monterey anticipated


NNR 70.368 Aug 8, 1846 Camargo taken

Camargo was taken possession of by the advance corps, without a shadow of opposition.
[RCG]


NNR 70.368 Aug 8, 1846 wagons purchase and contracted for in Atlantic states

The U.S. Quartermaster at Baltimore, a few days since, advertised that he would purchase as number of wagons for the U.S. army.  The notice came to a ready market.  The way his quarters were beset forthwith, and the crowd of wagons that were ready for Uncle Sam's cash, was a caution.  We have heard of persons obtaining $150 for second hand wagons, that cost when now $90; and again we have heard of persons who had their eyes open for a speculation, realizing $600 in a single day by purchasing up wagons, and selling them to the government -- all scandal, perhaps.  Yesterday's American contained a laconic notice from the Quartermaster, that he had "wagons enough, and would purchase no more."
[RCG]


NNR 70.368 Aug 8, 1846 expenses of the war

Expenses of the War.  The St. Louis Republican of a recent date has the following:

"It is only by ascertaining the actual cost of particular items that the expenses of the war with Mexico can be estimated.  The government agents, a few days since, purchased five hundred barrels mess pork for the "use of the army of the West."   This pork is to be transported to Santa Fe.  It cost $10 per barrel.  Three or hour years ago supplies were needed for an expedition on the same route, and contracts were made with Bent & St. Vrain, for transportation.  They were paid 8 cents per lb., from Independence to Bent's Fort.  The government, of course, paid the transportation to Independence.  It is alleged that the contract to which we have alluded was a losing concern, and that no one will undertake it for less than ten cents per pound.  A barrel of pork will average 320 pounds.  The cost of its transportation from Fort Leavenworth, to which point all public stores are shipped to Bent's Fort, will then be thirty-two dollars.  But this is not all.  It has there to be wagoned to Santa Fe, and it is a very moderate calculation to say that the additional cost, with the transportation from St. Louis to Fort Leavenworth, will increase the cost to $40 per barrel.  Add the original cost and it makes the actual expense of the barrel of pork, on its delivery at Santa Fe, fifty dollars.  In other words, the government pays $25,00 for the 500 barrels of pork. 

"The cost of all other freight must be charged in the same way -- by the pound-- and the expense cannot be much less than we have estimated."
[RCG]


NNR 70.368 August 8, 1846, move toward Monterey anticipated

"It is now understood that we will move towards Monteray, a beatiful town at the head of the San Juan (river), about two hundred miles distant.  I think it is probable that in two weeks more the mounted force, viz. the Texas mounted riflemen and the United States dragoons will be on their march thither.  If we can get the needful transportation, we will overrun and occupy, before the end of summer, all that part of Mexico lying on this side of the Auahuae mountains. This I imagine will be the end of our operations in this direction.  If the war continues, the main blow must be stricken through Vera Cruz.  The means of reaching that point by water are always abundant, and we are taken at once into the heart of the enemy. where every blow will count.  To approach the city of Mexico by Monterey will require immense transportation of provisions and forage, over an uninhabited desert of a thousand miles, with roads through mountains and defiles.
We hear but little of the enemy. The rumor is, and has been for some weeks, that they are fortifying the pass this side of Monterey.  It is said to be a strong place.  Yet we will pass it, if we try."
[GLP] 


NNR 70.368 August 8, 1846, CAMP, ON THE BATTLE-FIELD

MAY 10TH, 1846.

SIR, - In compliance with your request, I have the honor to report that, in the deployment of the 4th Infantry, I found myself in command of companies B, D, and K, on the left of the road as we entered, and having been ordered to cross to the right abd advance, did so.  After crossing the pond, I had with me Lieuts. Hays and Woods and about twenty men of different regiments, mostly however, of the 4 th.  Upon deploying my men on the crest of the hill, I discovered one of the enemy's pieces about fifty yards in my front which was defended by about 150 Infantry.  I charged and took the piece and attempted to spike it, but not being able to do so, took it back to a place of safety. - The enemy had a breast-work in  my rear, and opened a heavy fire on me, with about ten men, I dislodged him and drove him across the road. Too much credit cannot be given to Lieuts. Hays and Wooda, of the 4 th.  They were among the very first to reach the piece, and to them belongs the credit of its capture. - Whilst I was engaged in driving the enemy from his breast-work, these officers, with their men, repulsed a party that charged them in order to recapture the piece.  I cannot refrain from calling your attention to Sergeant Major Maloney and Corporal Farrall, who behaved with remarkable coolness and gallantry. - Everybody did his duty nobly, as becomes American soldiers.

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant.
ROBERT C. BUCHANAN, Capt. 4th Infantry

To Maj. G. W. ALLEN, Command'g 4 th Inf'y.
[GLP]


NNR 70.368 August 8, 1846, Death of Lieut. Blake, deaths at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma

LIEUT. BLAKE. A letter from Gen. Worth, dated New Orleans, May 18, 1846, says. - You will probably by mail, hear of the loss of that gallant ornament and devoted member of your corps, my warmly cherished friend, Blake.  The manner adds poignancy to our sorrows.  Had he fallen in the conflict, in which by all accounts, he had especially distinguished himself, regrets would have been turned into envy.  After the battle, on casting aside his weapons, one of his pistols accidently discharged, and gave him a mortal wound.  Knowing and valueing him as I did, you will readily conceive how I deplore his loss, both as a gallant and true hearted friend, and accomplished comrade. He has left no better soldier behind." -

"Our troops hav ebehaved with great intrepidity. - Every man has done his duty. My own gallant regiment speaks for itself in the list of the killed and wounded - verified by the colors of the crack Mexican regiment, that of Tobasco.  Would to God I could have been with them; but a sad fate ordered otherwise. There is time yet; it is but the beginning of the end.  I sail to-morrow, and, with God's blessing will be in line by the 21st.
(Lieut. Blake served with Gen. Worth throughout his operations in Florida.)

THE MORTALLY WOUNDED.  The Surgeon General of the Army on the Rio Grande has sent to the editor of the Washington Union a list of the private soldiers who were mortally wounded in the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, and who expired on the days of the battles, or have since died of their wounds.  It is as follows:

William Atherton, Lewis H. Tucker, George Bates, Charles Wilson, Frederick Papae, James Manning, Thomas Cantwell, - Martin, - Eichler, Owen Hawkins, James Morgan, William B. Fuller, John Forsyth, Matthew Niddy, Charles Marsland, George Chisholm, Philip Lee, Orlando Pierce, Robt. Mathews, Daniel Mc-Dardie, - Eldridge, James Stockley, - Albertson, - Shermaher, Weigart Horace, - Francis, - Anthony, - Fisher, - Mullen, - Hunt, - Hart, - Wallace, - Farrell, - Lewis, - Murray, - Waldron, - Patton, - Haddock.

The names of the men who were killed outright, or who did not come under the observation of the surgeons, have not been reported to the Surgeon General's Office.
[GLP]


NNR 70.371 Aug 15, 1846 volunteers return to New Orleans

The brig Empresario, the steamer New York, and the schooner Native, all reached New Orleans on the 1st from Galveston and the seat of war -- bringing a number of volunteers that had been discharged under orders from government.  Among the passengers by the New York and Col. Morgan, Capt. Holton, and Lieut. Alvord, of the U. States army; Col. Narks, Adj. Hunter, Lieut. Harris, of the Andrew Jackson regiment, Louisiana volunteers; Col. Dakin, Maj. McCall, Capts. Fowles and Clark, and Lieut. Mace, of Dakin's regiment; and Col. Walton, Lieut. Col. Forno, Maj. Breedlove, and Dr. Wilson, of the Washington.

The Empresario brought back Capt. Desha's company of Alabama volunteers, who have been ordered to New Orleans, to be mustered out of the service, in compliance with the instructions of the war department.  Six additional companies of Alabama volunteers and the St. Louis Legion are to be disbanded.  The regiment of Cols. Peyton and Featherston are not recognized by the department as attached to the service.  Not a single company, and very few of the men had accepted the alternative offered to them by the department, of enlisting twelve months.
[RCG]


NNR 70.371 Aug 15, 1846 various items

A number of fine artillery companies arrived at the Brazos before the departure of the Empresario.  Gen. Smith, with the 3d and 4th regiments U.S. Infantry, had proceeded to Camargo.  Brig. Gen. Hamer was to be left in command at Matamoros, with a regiment of volunteers and a supply of artillery to garrison the ports.  Gov. Henderson, at the last accounts, was lying dangerously ill at Matamoros, little hope was entertained of his revovery.
[RCG]


NNR 70.372, August 15, 1846, War with Mexico, Volunteers, Navy

The brig Empresario,the steamer New York, and the schooner Nutwe, all reached New Orleans on the 1st from Galveston and the seat of war - bringing a number of volunteers that had been discharged under orders from government.  Among the passengers by the New York are Col. Morgan, Capt. Holton, and Lieut. Alvord, of the U.States army; Col. Narks, Adj. Hunter, Lieut. Harris, of the Andrew Jackson regiment, Louisiana volunteers; Col. Dakin, Maj. McCall, Capts. Fowles and Clark, and Lieut. Mace, of Dakins regiment; and Col. Walton, Lieut. Col. Forno, Maj. Breedlove, and Dr. Wilson, of the Washington.

The Empresario brought back Capt. Desha's company of Alabama volunteers, who have been ordered to New Orleans, to be mustered out of the service, in compliance with the instuctions of the war department.  Six additional companies of Alabama volunteers and the St. Louis Legion are to be disbanded.  The regiment of Cols. Peyton and Featherston are not recognized by the department as attached to the service.  Not a single company, and very few of the men had accepted the alternative offered to them by the department, of enlisting for twelve months.

A number of fine artillery companies arrived at the Brazos before the departure of the Empresario.  Gen. Smith, with the 3d and 4th regiments U. S. Infantry, had proceeded to Camargo.  Brig. Gen. Hamer was to be left in command at Matamoros, with a regiment of volunteers and a supply of artillery to garrison the ports.  Gov. Henderson, at the last accounts, was lying dangerously ill at Matamoros, little hope was entertained of his recovery.

The propeller Massachusetts arrived at the Brazos on the 26th ult.  The brig Crusoe struck on Brazos bar in going over, and upon making the landing she unfortunately sunk.  The clerk of the New York reports that he saw on the 29 ththe bark Lazan, hence for Brazos Santiago, ashore ten miles to the east of the Brazos.  The troops on board were all saved. - Her cargo consisted of government stores which were all saved; the vessel was a total loss.

Nothing was known of the movements of the Mexican forces.  Letters from the city of Mexico stated that Paredes was to leave the capital to join the army on the 29th ult.

INCIDENTS OF THE BATTLE FIELD.

The Maryland Line.  A letter from Point Isabel on the 2d inst., says:  "There were four gentlemen from Baltimore in the battle of Palo Alto: the gallant and ill-fated Ringgold, who fell at the close of a long fight, in which he did incalculable damage to the enemy; Capt. Magruder, who, when the Mexican army charged upon the square of the artillery battalion, then unsupported by any other battalion, seized a musket which had fallen from the hands of a man killed near him, and fighting with the soldiers in the ranks, assisted in repelling the charge; Lieut. Randolph Ridgely, who, commanding two pieces, dashed to the assistance of the fifth infantry in the square, when charged by the Mexican Red Lancers, and in the most gallant manner assisted that regiment in repulsing it; and lastly, Mr. Lloyd Tilganan, a gentleman amateur, who graduated at West Point and resigned; but who, upon this occasion, reconnoitered the enemy's whole line before the battle, and, as a volunteer aid to Gen. Taylor, exposed his person every where, and was always in the hottest part of the field."

THE VETERAN OF NAPOLEON.  As Churchill's battalion of artillery were advancing to take their position in the second line of battalion on the 8th, a private in the 4 th regiment was come up to, who lay upon the battle field with both his legs shot off. He was one of the first that fell after the cannonade commenced, and was a veteran in Napoleon's wars.  After having escaped in the terrible conflicts of Austrelitz and Wagnam, and in the retreat from Moscow, and the battle of Waterloo, he lived to fall on the Palo Alto, by a cannon shot from a Mexican battery. As his fellow soldiers passed him and noticed at every pulsation of his heart, that the blood flowed from his wounds, they stopped an instant to sympathise with him, the noble hearted fellow, as his eyes were glazing in death, waved them on, and with his last breath, said, "Go comrades, I have only got what a soldier enlists for."

A private, on the 9th, who had followed Lieut. Dobbins through the thickest of the fight, raised his musket at a Mexican, and would have blown him through if the poor fellow had not most petiously cried out amigo, amigo, at the same time dropping his weapon; the private did the same and advanced towards the Mexican to take him prisoner, the Mexican then perfidiously raised his piece and instantly killed the generous American.  This so enraged Lieut. Dobbins, that he drew his bowie knife and at a bound reached the coward and literally split his head in twain.
[GLP]


NNR 70.373 Aug 15, 1846 notice of the departure of Maj. E. Kirby for the war 

Major E. Kirby.  Among the distinguished officers of the army that embarked on board the steamship Alabama, on Saturday evening bound for the seat of war, we noticed Major E. Kirby, of the regular army.  Major Kirby, has rendered his country much service in his time, having served in the last war, and in the Black Hawk and Florida campaigns.  He belongs to the Cincinnatus school of soldiers; for when his country needs not his services in the field, he may be found tilling the soil on his farm near Brownsville, Jefferson county, N.Y., formerly the residence of his distinguished father-in-law, the late Major Ge. Jacob Brown.  It was the good fortune of the writer of this to meet Major K. last September, at the exhibition of the New York State Agriculture Society, at Utica, and well could he descant upon the beauties of a Burham, a Decon, and a Hereford.  Major K. has gone out as paymaster general, and took with him $100,000 for the pay of soldiers--and it may be safely ventured that he is shipper of Mexican dollars to Mexico. [N. Orleans Tropic.
[RCG]


NNR 70.373 Aug 15, 1846 Account of the Heroine of Fort Brown

THE HEROINE OF FORT BROWN.  The N. Orleans Picayune has a letter from Matamoros which furnishes some interesting particulars respecting the heroine of Fort Brown, who is generally known in the army of the south as "The Great Western." - The writer says: -

"She was first brought to the notice of the public in a few remarks by Lieut. Bragg, at the collation given by the army to the Louisiana delegation at Gen. Arista's headquarters in Matamoros. He mentioned her gallant conduct and noble bearing during the whole of the bombardment. A few of the incidents ofthe life of this extraordinary woman, which I have been able to pick up in camp, will be read with some interest; they prove that the sex has not been unrepresented in the soul-stirring and bloody scenes on the Rio Grande.

The Great Western belong to a class known and recognized in the organization of the army as "Laundresses,"three of whom are allowed to draw rations in each company, and are required to wash for the soldiers thereof, at a price regulated by a council of officers. She arrived at Corpus Christi last autumn with the 7th infantry, to one of the companies of which her husband was attached. Up to the time the army marched for the Rio Grande, she performed all her appropriate duties, and in addition, kept a "mess"for the young officers of the regiment.

When the army took up its line of march for the Rio Grande, the women, with a few rare exceptions, were left behind to come by sea. A very few procured ponies and followed thier husbands on their tedious and arduous march. Not so with "The Great Western." Her husband was sent by water, whether on duty or for disability I am unable to learn; but she, true to her character, declaring that "the boys"(young officers of her mess) "must have somebody to take care of them,"purchased a mule and a cart, packed her luggage, cooking utensils, and supplies, mounted behind her donkey, with whip in hand, and displayed upon the whole route qualities and attainments which the best teamster in the train might have envied. During the whole journey she kept up the "mess,"a relief from the burdens of which is the greatest boon to an officer on the march. The brigade to which she was attached arrived upon the banks of the Sal Colorado as Gen. Taylor was preparing to cross with the dragoons and the 1st brigade of infantry. The Mexicans upon the opposite bank were making great demonstrations by blowing bugles, &c., &c. After calmly surveying the scene from her cart, she remarked, with great coolness and determination, that "if the general would give her a good strong pair of tongs, whe would wade that river, and whip every scoundrel that dare show himself!"It may be imagined that the men were not backward in crossing after that.

When Gen. Taylor marched to Point Isabel with his army, on the 1st May, the 7th infantry, and of course, The Great Western, remained to garrison Fort Brown. How that noble regiment and the two companies of artillery left in this work sustained themselves, is already known, but nothing will more gratify them than to have justice done their gallant heroine, of whom they speak in the warmest terms. She, with all the other women left behind, some eight or ten, moved into the fort, where her mess was soon put in operation, the position of her tent and fire being near the centre of the fort. The enemy's fire opened on the 3d, just as she was commenceing her arrangements for the "boys"breakfast. Every security that could possibly be provided was offered to the women, to whom the gallant soldier always gives his first attention. The magazines were the only "bomb proofs"in the fort, and as the government had sent no amuninition to fill them, the next most inflammable material - the women - found perfect security in them. These women, however, be it said to the honor of the sex, were not idle. - Most nobly did they ply the needle in preparing sand bags out of the officers' and soldiers' tents, wherewith to strengthen the work, and protect the artillerymen when serving their guns. The Great Western, true to herself again, declined participating in this protection of sewing, and continued her labors at the fire, in the open air. From the firing of the first gun all hands were at their posts, Lowd's and Bragg's artillery speaking in tones of thunder the indignation they felt at being thus saluted on a bright May morining.

When the hour arrived for breakfast, but few expected the luxury which awaited them. The mess was as well attended to as if nothing but a morning drill with blank cartridges had come off, and in addition a large supply of delicious hot coffee was awaiting the thristy, who had but to call and partake, without distinction of rank. To some of the artillerymen, who were unable to leave thier guns, the beverage was carried by this 'ministering angel,' and, as may readily be believed, no belle of Orleans, as much as she might be admired and beloved, ever met a more gracious reception. The fire of the artillery was kept up almost incessantly until dinner hour - a soldier's dinner hour is 1 o'clock - when the good and generous woman again provided for those who were almost utterly exhausted and worn out, a delicious dish of bean soup - this bean soup is declared by the Mexicans to be the foundation of that invincible spirit which they have seen so strikingly displayed by the Yankee soldiers. This she distributed again, without money and without price. Thus did she continue to discharge her duties during the seven days that the enemy kept up an incessant cannonade and bombardment. She was ever to be found at her post; her meals were always ready at the hour, "and always of the best the market afforded."

When the despatches were made up for General Taylor on the evening of the 4th, a number of officers and others had written to their friends at Point Isabel, and among them "The Great Western"had found time to communicate with her husband; and I have frequently heard it said by those who saw her letter, for it was loudly called for and made public, that her description, if not the most accurate, was certainly the most grapic which was given of the events of the 3d and 4th May. She expressed her full confidence in the ability of the garrison to sustain itself, and only regretted the absence of her husband. To supply his place, however, I am told that she applied, early in the action, for a musket and ammunition, which she received and put in a secure place, expressing her determination to have full satisfaction whenever the enemy should dare approach within range of her piece. This they never did, and our heroine must rest contented with the refelction that she nobly performed her own duty and will long be remembered by the besieged garrison of Fort Brown.

She is probably as celebrated for her personal appearance as she is for her deeds. With an erect and majestic carriage, she glories in a height - six feet - which fully entitles her to a place in the grenadier, any soldier of which might well envy her athletic but graceful form. But her reputation, the dearest of all things to a woman, is what she prides herself on. The tongue of slander has never yet dared to attack her well earned and well sustained character. With virtue as a basis, and such heroic coduct to build with, she never need fear the necessity of exercising her extraordinary physical ability in defence of that reputation. But if attacked, the gallant defenders of Fort Brown will, I doubt not, be found pressing forward in her defence, and woe be to the dastard who receives a discharge of artillery from such gunners."
[LA]


NNR 70.384 Aug 15, 1846 the Mormon infantry at Fort Leavenworth

Mormon Volunteers.  Capt. (now Lieut. Col.) Allen has reached Fort Leavenworth with 500 Mormon volunteer infantry.  They proceed forthwith to join Gen. Kearny in his expedition against Santa Fe.
[RCG]


NNR 70.385 Aug 22, 1846 rumor of Mexican request that Great Britain and France mediate the end of the war with the United States

The Offer To Negotiate For Peace

President Polk's overtures to Mexico, to send or to receive a minister plenipotentiary with powers to settle the existing controversy and terminate the war, will not only meet the cordial approbation of the people of this country, but will also elicit the plaudits of all the Christian powers.  This proposition of the president, it will be observed, was not at all dependant upon the success of his application to congress for the two millions of dollars which he asked that body for, with a view to aid him in the negotiation.  The letter from the secretary of state, Mr. Buchanan, to the Mexican minister of foreign relations, proposing negotiation, was dated the 27th of July, 1846, and was winging its way towards "the Halls of the Montasumas,"a full week before the president, in confidential message to the senate, apprised that body of his having any such design.  The confidential message was sent to the senate on the 4th of August--informing that body of the step he had taken, and asking money to aid him in negotiation a peace.--That the Mexican government will be constrained to accept this overture of our governments under which they are laboring, will now be added beyond doubt--the earnest advice of the British legation, and the offer of that governments to mediate for a peace between the United States and Mexico.  England might have been disposed to promote a dispute between Mexico and the United States, very naturally, so long as she had a quarrel of her own with the latter, which there was a probability would terminate in war, but having now settled all disputes of her own, she has such obvious interests to sub serve by a restoration of peace in Mexico--her commerce and her capitalists have so much to loose by Mexico being blockaded, invaded, overrun, and dismembered, that there can be no doubt of the sincerity of their interposition.
[RCG]


NNR 70.385 Aug 22, 1846 comments on the offer to negotiate for peace

To the influence of the British diplomatic agents at Mexico, it is probable will soon be added that of a new French minister, with whom a frigate was about to proceed to the gulf with, when the last steamer left Europe.  No potentate of Europe is more anxious to maintain a general peace amoungst the Christian powers, that Louis Philippe.  The continuance of a war between the United States and Mexico, would soon embrace other powers in the conflict.
[RCG]


NNR 70.386 Aug 22, 1846 promotion and appointments for distinguished services in the campaign

Military Appointments

The following brevet appointments have been made in the army by the President, and confirmed by the Senate:--

In Executive Session.

  Senate of the United States, August 8, 1846.

Resolved. That the Senate advise and consent to the following promotions in the army and brevet for gallant and distinguished services in the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, in Texas, on the 8th and 9th of May, 1846, and in the defense of Fort Brown, Texas, during its bombardment from the 3d to the 9th of May, 1846, agreeably to their nominations respectively, viz:

Lieutenant Colonel James S. Mc-Intosh, of the 5th regiment of infantry, to be colonel by breet, to date from the 9th of May, 1846.
Lieut. Colonel Matthew M. Payne, of the 4th regiment of artillery, to be colonel by brevet, to date from the 9th of May, 1846.
Brevet Lieut. Colonel William G. Belknap, major of the 8th infantry, to be colonel by breet, to date from the 9th of May, 1846.
Captain Edgar S. Hawkins, of the 7th regiment of infantry, to be major by brevet,  to date from the 9th of May, 1846.
Capt. George A. Mc-Call, of the 4th regiment of infantry, to be major by brevet,  to date from the 9th of May, 1846.
Capt. Joseph B. F. Mansfield, of the corps of engineers, to be major brevet,  to date from the 9th of May, 1846.
Capt. Alexander S. Hooe, of the 5th regiment of infantry, to be major by brevet,  to date from the 9th of May, 1846.
Capt. Robert C. Buchanan, of the 4th regiment of infantry, to be major by brevet,  to date from the 9th of May, 1846.
Capt. Charles A. May, of the 2d regiment of dragoons, to be major by brevet,  to date from the 8th of May, 1846.
Capt. P. W. Barbour, of the 3d regiment of infantry, to be major by brevet,  to date from the 9th of May, 1846.
Capt. James Duncan, of the 2d regiment of artillery, to be major by brevet,  to date from the 8th of May, 1846.
First Lieutenant Randolph Ridgely, of the 3d regiment of artillery, to be captain by brevet,  to date from the 9th of May, 1846.
 First Lieutenant William H. Churchill, of the 3d regiment of artillery, to be captain by brevet,  to date from the 9th of May, 1846.
Second Lieut. James S. Woods, of the 4th regiment of infantry, to be first lieutenant by brevet, to date from the 9th of May, 1846.
Second Lieut. Alexander Hays, of the 4th regiment of infantry, to be first lieutenant by brevet, to date from the 9th of May, 1846.
Captain James Duncan, 2d artillery, to be lieutenant colonel by brevet, for gallant and highly distinguished conduct in the battle at Resaca de la Palma, to date from the 9th of May, 1846.
Captain Charles A. May, 2d dragoons, to be lieutenant colonel by brevet, for gallant and highly distinguished conduct during the battle of Resaca de la Palma, to date from the 9th of May, 1846.

Subsequently to the nomination of the above, which was on Saturday, a list of names for brevet appointments was received from Gen. Taylor, containing the following in addition to the above.  These additional names were submitted to the Senate yesterday morning; but as that body did not go into Executive session before its final adjournment at 12 o'clock, the list lays over for the future action:

Lieutenant Colonel Childs, 3d artillery.
Captain C.F. Smith, 2d artillery.
Capt. J.B. Scott, 4th artillery.
Captain Lewis N. Morris, 3d infantry.
Lieutenant Colonel J. Garland, 4th infantry.
Brevet Major George Allen, 4th infantry.
Major T. Staniford, 5th infantry.
Captain M. Scott, 5th infantry.
Captain Montgomery, 8th infantry.
Lieutenant C. R. Gates, 8th infantry.
Lieutenant G. Lincoln, 8th infantry.
Lieutenant C. D. Jordan, 8th infantry.
Captain A. Lowe, 2d artillery.
Lieutenant B. Bragg, 3d artillery.
Captian D. S. Miles 7th infantry.
Lieutenant F.N. Page, 7th infantry.

Colonel Twiggs, who is on General Taylor's list, having recently (since the battles of the 8th and 9th of May) been appointed a brigadier general in the army, his name for brevet of that grade was not included in the list submitted to the Senate.  About twenty more officers were presented as deserving brevets, if it should not be deemed proper to extend the number beyond the first class, but this was not done.  As the list now is, it is believed to be large beyond any former precedent


NNR 70.386 Aug. 22, 1846 General Gains, Court of Inquiry, Col. Thornton acquitted

General Gains-- The Military Court of Inquiry, at old Point, concluded their task, and on the 11th ist., sealed and despatched their verdict to the war department. The conducing part of the gallant old general's defence occupies four columns of the Norfolk Beacon.

Col. Thornton.  It is stated that the Court Martial has honorably acquitted the brave officer.
[AEK]


NNR 70.386 Aug. 22, 1846 Capt. Thornton's defense

The trial of Capt. Thornton, 2d dragoons, on the charges preferred against him by the commanding general, for the loss of his squadron of dragoons, captured on the 25th April last, terminated on Wednesday.  It is a long established custom, we believe, in both the army and navy, to bring to trial the commander of and expedition, whenever unfortunate; and this however, unfortunate to individuals, appears but just to the accused and the country--truth is vindicated, and the community learns whether her intersects are committed to safe hands. Capt. Thornton was assisted, in the management of his case, by Capt. Barbour, 3d infantry, and Lieut. Bragg, 3d artillery; and at 10 o'clock, on Wednesday, his written defence was made to the court by Mr. Bragg.

Several members of the court, veterans who had stormed the breach, could not restrain a tear of sympathy--and many a moist eye was to be seen in the large audience which attended to hear the vindication of this gallant and universally popular officer.

We regret that we are not able to lay before our readers the whole of the admirable defense of the gallant captain.   He commenced by stating that a long established principle of his profession, and a stern sense of duty on the part of his accusers, had brought him before the court in his present position.  Success, he was aware, was, with military men, often the best of merit: yet he hoped to be able to show, even if he were not successful in his expedition, his failure was not owing to the omission of necessary precaution.

On the night of the 24th of April, with a command of three commissioned officers and fifty rank and file, he was ordered to reconnoitre a country some 27 miles in extent, and to bring information, whether the enemy had crossed the Rio Bravo, his numbers, and his position; and he had also further vested orders from the commanding general, to ascertain, if possible, whether he had crossed his artillery, and to report by the next day at 12 o'clock.  He referred to the testimony of Capt. Hardee and Lieut. Cane, for the manner in which he executed these instruction.  He regretted that he could not lay before the court the testimony of Lieut. Mason, but regarded his loss as nothing, compared with that of the friends and relations of the gallant young officer, who fell as he had lived, in the discharge of his duty.

From the recapitulation of the testimony of Capt. Hardee and Lieut. Cane, in the defense, it appears that every precaution was used to guard against surprise--that an advance guard was thrown out, that flanks were impassible for the most part, from the nature of the country it being a perfect defile, admitting at times a single horseman with difficulty, that when Captain Thornton halted his squadron to rest his men and horses, which was extremely necessary, a sentinel was placed at both ends of the road, so that no one could approach without his knowledge.  About daylight next morning the command proceeded toward the river, and to the constant inquiries made of every one that was met, "whether the enemy had crossed,"the reply was "he had,"but all spoke from rumor--this Capt. Thornton believed to be unreliable authority upon which he could not base a report, and he referred as an evidence of this, to the numerous false rumors with which the American camp had abounded for a month previous.  Captain T. alluded to the suspicious confidelity; and subsequent events, he though, proved to lead him into a position from which retreat was impossible.  Subsequent information upon which he could rely, satisfied him that his return to camp had been cut off, that the enemy was in his rear with a force of 500 cavalry and a party of Indians.  Upon the receipt of this information, he redoubled his precautions--he increased his advance guard and placed it under the command of Lieut. Mason, with minute instructions to keep ahead and be vigilant, but not to fire upon the enemy unless forced to do so.  From this time, Captain Thornton proceeded without a guide, Chapito having deserted him.  Captain Thornton here argued, and we think conclusively proved that an attempt to return would have been more disastrous than his move forward; he also contended that a "rear guard,"with such a small force, owl have been untactical, and, in his opinion, unnecessary; and, further, that it was not prescribed. The rear was assigned to Captain Hardee, and he never left it without being ordered back by Capt. Thornton. He went on further to state, that if the command had obeyed his instructions, they would not have entered the field in which they were afterwards captured; but, he remarked, "no precaution from myself, or any one else, could have altered the result, our fate was sealed long before entering the field."

Captain Thornton, here summoned up the facts of the case, as shown by the testimony, from which it appeared that he had too responsible and somewhat variant duties to perform, that of commander of the squadron, and reconnoitering officer.  For a guide, a Mexican of doubtful fidelity; a country of twenty seven miles in extent, with which he was totally unacquainted, and fifteen hours, and eight of them in the night, to perform this duty in.  In the opinion of his officers, his rear could have been gained by day without his being able to know it. Spies were upon his actions from the time of his leaving the army, until his capture.  Ordered to keep an attitude of peace, until the first blow should be struck.  The following portion of this manly and soldier like defense, struck us so forcibly, that we believe that we can repeat it verbatim.  "It was my misfortune,"said Captain Thornton, "to secure that first blow, upon my devoted head, but it had to be secured, and why not by me?"Captain Thornton, here contended, that the information he obtained was important; that by means of his capture Gen. Taylor was able to understand his real position, that he was no longer on debated ground, and as an evidence of this, referred to the immediate call for reinforcements, the industry in the completion of Fort Brown and the march to Point Isabel for provisions.  But for the loss of his squadron probably, the thanks of a grateful people would not now be showered upon the heroes of the battles of the Rio Grande, but instead, the tears of widows and orphans might have been met with the usual indifference, by the national legislature.  Capt. Thornton, reminded, that to prevent this he would be willing again to hide in his bosom, the only bleeding heart amid the rejoicings of a victorious army.--Capt. Thornton, here remarked if he neglected any of the usual precautions, it was from want of knowledge, and begged the court to acquit him of {?} and to find a verdict, if necessary, against him in incapacity. He then referred to his services in Florida, and thought the manner in which he discharged his duties there, well known to some of the court would enable him to defy such an imputation. Capt. Thornton concluded by saying, that his honor and military reputation, were in the hands of the ocuts that the country had found her's safe in their hands, and with confidence he submitted his to them. 
[AEK]


NNR 70.386 Aug 22, 1846 account of the Kentucky mounted regiment

Volunteer Army. --The Kentucky mounted men left Memphis about the 21st July.  The Tennessee regiment left there on the 26th July, both en route for Mexico.  The former are designated as,--

"The Hunters of Kentucky." -- The Calvary regiment of Col. Humphrey Marshall, mustering 100 strong, are represented as a body of martial men. They are generally athletic young men, riding splendid horses, and their picturesque dress imparts to them a romantic appearance.  The hat particularly is very fanciful. It is a drab beaver with a broad brim, ornamented with several gold stars, and looped up with gold lace in the three cornered fashion of the Revolution.  They all wear their beards unshorn(t) with boots over the legs of their trousers, reaching above the knee, armed with huge spurs on the head and faced with red morocco.
[RCG]


NNR 70.386 Aug 22, 1846 distrust of the members of the California expedition of the government's promises

The California Volunteers.  The U. States Gazette says--It appears that the volunteers of California, who are at present encamped on Governor Island, are not quite as willing to go further than they have gone--at least upon the faith of the promise which the government has made to them.  It was the general impression that after the term of their enlistment expired, they were to receive grants of land in California, as a reward for their services.  Of course, this intention implied that California was to be made an integral part of the union
[RCG]


NNR 70.387 Aug 22, 1846 baggage wagons being made for the Army

Baggage Wagons.  We understand that 6 or 700 baggage wagons, and about as many sets of harness, for the U.S. army, are making in this city and the neighboring towns, and an unusual activity, for the season [ . . .] prevails therefore in those branches of trade.
[RCG]


NNR 70.400 Aug 22, 1846 "Army of Occupation."

We have nothing from General Taylor's corps, to report this week.  The discharge of Louisiana and Alabama volunteers, and their return home, occupies the southern papers for the time being, --and much dissatisfaction is expressed on all hands.

The difficulties with which this whole system of volunteer forces is surrounded, can hardly be appreciated by those that have not had an opportunity of observing how it works, and how it will not work.  The embarrassment which government would have to encounter in the instances of these very men, was distinctly foreshadowed in remarks which we submitted at the time they were being embodied.  The secretary of war is now heavily censured, and the treasury of the Union severely taxed, --the gallant troops that waited for nothing but to ascertain that the army of the nation was surrounded with difficulties, and threatened with destruction, to induce them to seize their arms and report to the scene of danger, after spending just sufficient time to completely organize, discipline, and fit them for action--no a day too much for that--are now discharged, without having seen an enemy. 

The secretary of war had difficulties to encounter, take what course he would.  To discharge those forces must have been unpleasant to him.  But the organization of the army was imperative.  The twelve months volunteers were crowding toward Gen. Taylor' lines, already incommoded with more troops than he had the means of transporting or of provisioning, in an enemy's country, beyond the margin of navigation.  Other officers, proud of their distinction, lead these new levies.  It will take as long, at least, to organize, discipline, and fit these forces for efficient service in the field, as was expeded upon the volunteers now discharged.

Gen. Taylor at the last dates, was urging on the supplies towards Camargo as expeditiously as he had it in his power.  the roads had been impassable, and by the river, he had as yet and inadequate supply of light draught steamers to get his troops and munitions to that place. 

The following are the latest we have from the Rio Grande.

"Camargo, (Mexico) July 23--We are furnishing transportation for the army, and securing supplies of forage on the route to Monterey. We have contracted for 1,000 to 2,000 mules,"(another letter fixes it positively at (1,500) "with the packing equipment's complete; and these, with the 500 wagons expected here, will be ample for the marching columns.  A large portion of the 19.000 men of this corps d'armes will be left at the different depots and entrepots, from Brazos Santiago to China, about 60 miles from this place on the route to Monterey.

"The troops are now fast arriving here in our steamboats; and the General will, in all probability, move forward from here about the middle of the next month,-- (August).  Now comes the commencement of those operations which will require all the capacity, skill, and energy of our General to accomplish.  The great difficulties of an army invading Mexico begin here.  So far, everything has favored Gen. Taylor, and he has acquired not only a most enviable reputation, but his good fortune has become a proverb.  I hope, of course, for his further success; but in order to secure it, the most careful combinations of every kind, preparatory to the march, are absolutely necessary.  Too much haste may prove as great and evil as a faulty tardiness.  It takes time for the requisite arrangements for the transportation required for so many men, suddenly collected here.  Meantime, the General is impatient of the least delay, and the officers of our department are incessantly occupied in preparations.
[AEK]


NNR 70.400 Aug. 22, 1846 Yellow Fever.

The British steamer Vesuvius, reached Bermuda on the 11the inst., having twenty-seven cases of yellow fever on board, besides losing ten of her crew with the disease, on her passage from Vera Cruz.  The captain reports that the fever had broken out on board the American squadron and the British frigate Endymion, off Vera Cruz.
[AEK]


NNR 70.400 Aug 22, 1846 additional regiment of volunteers for Santa Fe organized, artillery expected

Expedition against Santa Fe.  The last accounts we have from Fort Leavenworth are up to the 9th inst. Seven companies had arrived at the fort, and three more were expected, to complete the regiment.  The seven companies had voted for field officers, and Sterling Price, ex-member of Congress had been elected Colonel of the regiment, by the unanimous vote of the companies present.  The companies to arrive could not, of course, although privileged to vote, change the result.  The St. Louis Republican states that the election of Col. P. was forced upon the regiment by an unmistakable imitation that it would be disbanded if he was not chosed.  A private in one of the companies named Allen was elected Lieut. Colonel over D.D. Mitchell, Esq., of St Louis, the person designated by President Polk for the office, by a majority of 90 votes.  Four of the companies were to leave the fort, on their line of march, on the 10th inst.; the others were to follow as soon after as they could be furnished with transportation for provisions, &c.

Four companies, composing a separate battalion of artillery, were also daily expected at the fort.

Lieut. Col. Allen, of the U.S. Army, in command of the five hundred Mormon volunteers, was still at the fort.  There was much bad feeling between this corps and the other volunteers.  Liet. Colonel A. and his command were to take up the line of march on the 12th inst.

Still later accounts from Fort Leavenworth are up to the 11th inst.  About one thousand more Mormons had arrived at the fort, in hopes of being mustered into the United States service.  Two of the additional companies of volunteers had arrived at the fort, and Colonel Price's regiment marched out on the 10th inst.
[RCG]


NNR 70.400 Aug 22, 1846 Mormon volunteers reach Fort Leavenworth

Still later accounts from Fort Leavenworth are up to the 11th inst.  About one thousand more Mormons had arrived at the fort, in hopes of being mustered into the United States service.  Two of the additional companies of volunteers had arrived at the fort, and Colonel Price’s regiment marched out on the 10th inst.
[RCG]


NNR 70.401 Aug 29, 1846 decree relative to the powers of the extraordinary Congress in Mexico

Mexico, July 7th. The following decree, sanctioned by the army, is published:

"The present extraordinary congress of the national powers conferred upon the chambers of the national congress by articles 76, 77, and 78 of the organic bases."
[RCG]


NNR 70.401 Aug 29, 1846 Indian threat to Chihuahua, approach of the vanguard of the American Army

Chihuahua, July 7.  Our enemies on the East are the four tribes of Camanches, with their allies, the Cahiguas and others; on the North, the Apachas, subdivided into nine tribes, more numerous in population than the Camanches.  On the same side also, are the Anglo-Americans, rocked in the cradle of the Indian whom he abhors, and nurtured with the blood and sweat of the negro whom he despises.
[RCG]


NNR 70.401 Aug 29, 1846 movements of Mexican troops for San Luis Potosi

Mexico, July 21.  The Diario del Govierno says --"Two brigades completely equipped, have already left this capital for San Luis Potosi and in a short time the Provisional President (Paredes) will depart with the remainder of the army of reserve.
[RCG]


NNR 70.401 Aug 29, 1846 Mexican arrangements to use the interior resources of Mexico to sustain the war with the United States

Thus the nation will see that the government has not made use of the extraordinary powers conferred upon it by congress for providing means to carry on the war.  Our unjust invaders, who in the delirium of their ambition, have proclaimed that out want of resources would make us slaves without a conflict, will find that the Mexican nation has great resources in the interior, and that they will be sufficient in any event--for the administrative order and moral power of the government increase them.  The government of the United States, with little reflection, will perceive that the war which it wages against us, is not to be terminated by a conquest of our country, but by honorable propositions of peace.
[RCG]


NNR 70.401 Aug 29, 1846 departure of Mexican troops from the capital

July 22.  Left the capital for the interior, the 2d brigade, of 1,200 men, of all arms, with seven pieces of artillery, 500 horse, 400 mules, with ammunition and warlike stores.  The 1st brigade had left on the 18th, in the direction of Matamoros, under command of Gen. Garcia Conde.
[RCG]


NNR 70.401 Aug 29, 1846 Assassinations by the insurgents of Guadalajara, dismay over the deplorable state of Mexico

The insurgents of Guadalajara by a surprise assassinated the troops of General Arevalo; but the papers state nothing positive as to the fate of the General himself.  (The commander of the steamer says he was killed.  Letters from Mexico also state that he lost his life.)
[RCG]


NNR 70.401 Aug 29, 1846 American troops reported leaving Camargo for Monterey

Mexico July 28.  An express has just arrived, announcing that the United States troops to the number of 8,000 men have left Camargo on their way to Monterey.  Last night the secretaries of departments withdrew, and to-day at 1 o’clock P.M. Gen. Bravo took possession of the presidency.
[RCG]


NNR 70.401 Aug 29, 1846 Gen. Nicolas Bravo assumes the presidency of Mexico, resignation of the ministers

Letters of Marque.  A decree has been issued by the Supreme Government, in respect to cruises which may be made by privateers against the commerce of the U. States.

On the 28th, the Vice President, Gen. Bravo, assumed the reins of government in the Mexican capital.  It was stated that the Paredes ministry continued in the exercise of its functions until that day.  Gen. Bravo was about to appoint a new ministry.
[RCG]


NNR 70.401 Aug 29, 1846 Mexican Army assembles at San Luis Potosi

According to the statements of the Mexican Diario Official, the army assembled at San Luis Potosi, numbered 10,000 men, and when this force and that under Gen. Azpeitia consisting of two regiments of infantry, a squadron of lancers, and a section of engineers with three 12 pounders, numbering in all 2,000 men, which was to leave the capital on the 24th, would join Mejia, the army in the field would number from 12,000 to 15,000 men.  But 1,500 men were left to garrison the capital.  Mejia who succeeded Arista in the command of the army on the frontier, reports on the 9th that he was about to march for Monterey with his column.
[RCG]


NNR 70.401 Aug 29, 1846 "pronunciamento"in favor of Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna at Veracruz, he embarks from Cuba

Revolution in Favor of Santa Anna.

Jalapa, July 21, A pronunciamento was made on the 20th instant, in the town of Coatepec.  We are ignorant of its object.
[RCG]


NNR 70.401 Aug 29, 1846 steamer Princeton dispatched express for Pensacola

It is a remarkable coincidence, that just as the steamer Princeton was demonstrated to be of all the vessels of the squadron the most efficient in blockading the port of Vera Cruz, and was performing prodiges in that service, all at once she was detached by Commodore Conner, and arrives at Pensacola with important despatches for our government.  The British steamer Dee must have left for Vera Cruz very speedily after the Princeton.  The messenger dispatched by President Polk with instructions to Commodore Conner respecting the propositions to the Mexican government to send a minister to negotiate for peace, if he has good luck, will reach Vera Cruz about the same time that Santa Anna calculated to arrive there.  We say if he has good luck, for the N. Orleands Picayune furnishes rather an unfavorable account of his progress.
[RCG]


NNR 70.401 Aug 29, 1846 progress of the messenger bearing President James Knox Polk's overtures to Mexico

The messenger dispatched by President Polk with instructions to Commodore Conner respecting the propositions to the Mexican government to send a minister to negotiate for peace, if he has good luck, will reach Vera Cruz about the same time that Santa Anna calculated to arrive there.  We say if he has good luck, for the N. Orleans Picayune furnishes rather an unfavorable account of his progress. That paper says--

"We stated in the Picayune a few days since that a bearer of dispatches for Com. Conner had arrived at Pensacola, and that the Wolcott, revenue cutter, Capt. Fatio, had received orders to proceed to the Gulf with him.  She went to sea on Monday last but the captain fearing the approach of a storm, put back and Mr. Habersham, U.S. navy, the bearer of the dispatches, proceeded at once to this city, where he arrived yesterday.  He will proceed to the Brazos to-day, and from thence proceed in one of the revenue cutters at that point to Vera Cruz."
[RCG]


NNR 70.401 Aug 29, 1846 John Slidell's mission to Cuba

There was a report widely circulated some time since, that Mr. Slidell, a connection of the late minister to Mexico, had been dispatched to the Island of Cuba by our government, and it was inferred that his object was to ascertain the views of the illustratious Mexican exiles there, in relation to affairs between Mexico and the United States.  The Washington Union promptly and emphatically contradicted the insinuation at the time. 

But to return to the news from Mexico, furnished by this arrival of the Dee, at Havana.  The following are the prominent items:

[RCG]


NNR 70.401 Aug 29, 1846 Mexican decree authorizes privateers

Letters of Marque. A decree has been issued by the Supreme Government, in respect to cruises which may be made by privateers against the commerce of the U. States.
[RCG]


NNR 70.401-402 Aug 29, 1846 description of Camargo

Route to Mexico

Camargo. --As the army of occupation has commenced its advance upon the interior of Mexico, by pursuing the Rio Grande up as high as Camargo, both by land and water, and as this will be the place where a permanent depot will be established, and from which the advancing army will leave the Rio Grande when it takes up its general march upon Monterey, it will naturally hold a conspicuous place in the estimation of the American people.  The Matamoros "Flag"furnishes the following:

Camargo is situated immediately upon the banks of the San Juan river, three miles from its junction with the Rio Grande.  It is a small rudely constructed village, with some few stone building, many built of mud bricks dried in the sun, some constructed by driving stakes into the ground, and then plastering them with much, and others formed of cane and platered in like manner.  The number of inhabitants will not exceed two thousand; but as the Mexican government has never thought her population worthy of enumeration, no possible statement can be made of the population of any of their towns.  The late extraordinary rse of the Rio Grande has caused the San Juan to back up and literally inundate Camargo, to the great damage of houses and property; also to the sacrifice of several lives.

Camargo may be considered the head of navigation, as above here the bed of the river is so filled up with rocks that its navigation higher up has never been attempted.  The road upon leaving Camargo and crossing the San Juan, becomes higher and less obstructed by swamp grounds. and it then becomes an important inquiry what other obstacles may present themselves in the distance between this place and Monterey, which is 210 miles.  The road passes through a level country, thickly set with a small underwood, the largest timber being ebony and the mesquite, neither of which grow to the height of more than 12 or 15 feet, and 12 or 14 inches in diameter.  So dense is this undergrowth, armies of 10,000 men each might march for half a day within a mile of each other without the vicinity of one to the other being unknown.
[RCG]


NNR 70.402 Aug 29, 1846 description of Monterey and Caiderete

Monterey. -- The literal meaning of Monterey is the king's woods; but to those who have been raised in a heavily timbered country, it would seem more appropriate to call it a grove of brush.  It is a common saying with Texans who have traveled through the forest that "it's so d--d which you can't shove a bowie knife through it."   And what may appear somewhat singular, every bush and shrub is armed with thorns curved in the shape of fish-hooks, and the hold they take upon the clothes and skin of travelers is not easily shaken off, as the jackets of the soldiery will testify to before they reach Monterey.

The whole distance is well watered from August until March, plenty of wood, reasonable pasture, many herds of cattle, numerous flocks of sheep and goats, now and then a small village-- which all have the appearance of decay.  Scattered along the road are miserable huts, singularly picturesque from their original construction, not quite equal to rail-pen stables built in the backwoods of Arkansas and Texas for scrub ponies.  Yet nature, in her mighty formations, has formed some positions on this road, which, if taken advantage of by a skilful and daring enemy, would prove a second Thermopylae to those might have the temerity to tread these formidable passes.  The American army will no doubt look ahead before entering these dangerous and shady pavilions.  The mazes of the labyrinth are beautifully pictured out by meandering paths and conflicting cross-roads, leading to some farmer's hut, some watering place, or the wily lure of some Mexican bandit.

Caiderete.--When within fifteen leagues of Monterey the village of Caiderete presents itself, enjoying the most lovely situation, standing upon a perfectly level plain, surrounded with green groves, presenting everlasting summer; the fields blesses with natural fertility.  The beholder involuntarily exclaims, Why should a Mexican toil or labor?
[RCG]


NNR 70.402 Aug 29, 1846 difficulty over supplying Gen. Steven Watts Kearny's expedition to Santa Fe, reports of alarm in New Mexico

Provisions must of necessity also be vary hard to get, and unless some other means of securing them be found out than such as was anticipated previous to their departure, they will be in a very bad way this winter.  It was pretty certainly known before they left, that there would not be even a show of fight on the part of the Mexicans, unless a very small force was sent along at first, for the assertion of the governor was made, and word sent to General Kearney by our informants to that effect; and he further says that if a respectable force comes upon him, he shall immediately abandon the country, and remove south of the Rio del Norte.
[RCG]


NNR 70.402 Aug 29, 1846 engineer corps at West Point being readied for Mexico

VOLUNTEERS.

West Point.  An extra exertion is making at West Point to get the Engineer Corps ready to start for Mexico.  Out of 67 men and 20 are from Philadelphia, and chiefly mechanics, fine fellows, "and to the marror bone."   The officers have been assigned, Capt. Swift and Lieuts. Smith and McClellan.  As fast as the recruits are perfect in the infantry drill, they are put into another squad and drilled as engineers, in which they are fast learning the rudiments.

The rubber "ponton"train has been tried, and succeeds well.  Two of the boats sustained 67 men, two horses, and two pieces ordnance, and the corps think they can bridge the river at West Point in an hour and a half strong enough to take a whole army over.  All at West Point betokens that strict discipline that has given us such a gallant set of officers that will give as an effective army, with such good material as we have in our volunteers.
[RCG]


NNR 70.402 Aug 29, 1846 disorder among the New York troops gather for the California expedition

"It is said that the recruits for California now encamped on Governor's Island, are not behaving with the propriety which is becoming.  It is said that the "regulars"were called out upon a day or two since."


NNR 70.402-403 Aug 29, 1846 letter from A. Moses of the Ohio regiment

The Ohio State Journal publishes the following letter from one of the Ohio volunteers in the army in Mexico:

Dear Brother:

Be not the least surprised if you should see me in Cincinnati in the course of six weeks.  When I volunteered it was to fight, and not to be idle for a year.  But I now find the regulars are to be able to defend any post of danger.  Gen. Taylor says that one regular is worth five volunteers, and that he only wants volunteers for a stand-by.  It would seem that we are kept merely to do the drudgery; and such is the case.

We had quite an affair a short time since.  Colonel Mitchell as commandant of this post, ordered a volunteer from Baltimore to bring him something.  The volunteer pained no attention to his order.  Our colonel then commanded him a second time to perform the service.  The volunteer turned upon his heel, and replied that "he would see him d--d first."   I was close by doing duty, when Col. M. ordered me and five other cadets to arrest the Baltimorean.  He immediately placed himself in a defensive position, and drew a knife, swearing at the same time that he would cut the first man that dared to come near him.  Lieut. Col. Weller then approached and ordered us to "stand back"when all party got to fighting.  So you see we have had one fight at least.

Our whole regiment and the Baltimore regiment were then all ordered out.  But as we had but sic men on the ground, and as the colonel's tent was about two miles from our encampment, out colonel was disarmed and carried to the ground by a superior number of stout fellows, where they laid him down.  Two of them were about to stab him, when I backed by our boys, jumped into the melee and released our commander from the ruffians.  By this time the field was full of soldiers and the Baltimoreans left.  I presume the case will undergo investigation.

 Affectionately your brother,>
A. Moss

[RCG]


NNR 70.403 Aug 29, 1846 Account of mosquitoes on the Rio Grande

A volunteer, writing to Louisville from the Rio Grande, says that the mosquitoes there "can stand flat footed upon the ground, and without difficulty drink water out of a pint tin cup."
[RCG]


NNR 70.403 Aug 29, 1846 Gen. John Ellis Wool's force, supplies, wagons

ARMY JOURNAL.

Illinois Volunteers.  Gen. Wool, accompanied by his aides, and a large portion of the Illinois volunteers, reached New Orleans on the 23d ultimo.  These troops, it is stated, are destined for San Antonio de Bexar.

Troops for Chihuahua.  Light company  B, of the 4th regiment of U.S. artillery, under the command of Capt. J.M. Washington on the 18th ultimo. Capt. W. furnished the editor of the Sentinel with a statement of the forve which is to proceed to the Mexican state of Chihuahua, by the way of San Antonio, as follows:

Light Company 4th artillery 112 men.
2 companies 6th regiment infantry 200  "
Squadron 2d regiment dragoons 150 "
2 regiments Illinois infantry 1,554 "
1 regiment Arkansas horse 777 "
1 battalion Arkansas foot 388 "
1 regiment Texas horse 777 "
1 regiment Texas foot 777 "
Total 4,734 "

This force, it is stated, constitutes an independent command, which will be under Gen. Butler.  It is to strike into the province of Chihuahua, between Santa Fe and Gen. Taylor's position; and it will no doubt interrupt the retreat of the forces which will fall back from General Kearney at Santa Fe.  It will take the Santa Fe route to Mexico, and there cooperate with General Taylor.  Its route is through the most healthy and richest parts of Northern Mexico.
[RCG]


NNR 70.403 Aug 29, 1846 Col. Churchill departs New Orleans for Texas

Col. Churchill, Inspector General, has left New Orleans for Texas.  This indefatigable and veteran officer has, within the last six months, traveled over twelve thousand miles, inspected last spring on and near the Gulf of Mexico and in Florida, mustered into service all the volunteers in Indiana and Illinois and now goes to join Gen. Wool as chief of his staff, on the march to Chihuahua, in Mexico.  The good wishes and the prayers of his numerous friends and the country attend him.
[RCG]


NNR 70.403 Aug 29, 1846 complaint about the manner of buying and treating wagons for the Army

Wagons for the Army.  New Orleans dates of August 7, says -- "A large ship from Philadelphia brought a cargo of these wagons, which were landed some time since, and after laying exposed to out tropical sun on the Levee for eight or ten days, splitting and cracking, with their wheels and springs, the same ship is chartered to reload them for the Rio Grande, at a greight double that from Philadelphia--at least doubt what it ought to be from thence, though I think it probable there, as well as here, the government pay at least double what individuals would.  It is really enough to disgust any bosy to see the manner the whole affair is being conducted; and the way they are going on, the treasury, even after issuing the ten-millions of teasury notes, will be bankrupt before congress again meets."
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NNR 70.406-408 Aug 29, 1846 proceedings and decision of the court of inquiry on Gen. Edmund Pendleton Gaine's efforts to raise volunteers

GENERAL GAINES.

1. The court of inquiry, whereof Brevet Brigadier General H. Brady is president, instituted by "General Orders," No 23, of June 30th, to investigate certain transactions therein set forth on the part of Brevet Major General E.P. Gaines, commanding the western division of the army, and which convened at Fort Monroe, Virginia, on the 20th day of July, 1846, has reported the following fasts and opinion:

"FACTS."

"General Gaines learned at New Orleans, about the 1st May, 1846, that a Mexican army, of superior force to the army under General Taylor was advancing to invade Texas, and that actual war was impending.  He was informed officially from General Taylor of his situation, and what auxiliary force of volunteers he had called from the states, viz: four regiments from Louisiana, and four regiments from Texas and he was requesting by General Taylor to aid the governor of Louisiana in equipping and forwarding the troops of that state."

"On the receipt of this information, Gen. Gaines wrote to the governors of Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, and Missouri, advising them to anticipate a call from the president of the U. States for volunteers, and to make preparations to raise the troops.  It was not, however, in form, a requisition on them to send forward troops before they were called for by the president.

"On the 3d May, General Gaines sent an officer to Mobile to raise volunteers for Taylor's army.  On the 4th, one company was raised and embarked for New Orleans.  The whole volunteer force to be raised at Mobile, Gen. Gaines limited by order of May 6, no to exceed two regiments of twenty companies.

"About the 4th May, the governor of Missouri, being at New Orleans, tendered to General-Gaines a regiment, which offer General Gaines accepted.

"On the 8th May, General Gaines authorized Col. Crane, commanding at Pensacola, whence General Gaines had withdrawn the garrison of regulars to send to Texas, to muster into the service one or more volunteer companies; also, informing Col. Crane that he had requested the governor of Alabama to send there two volunteer companies; making three or more companies called out, or authorized to be called out, for the protection of Pensacola.

"On the 9th May, he authorized A. M. Dunn to raise a company of 100 men to guard the arsenal at Baton Rouge.

"On the 12th May, he authorized A. Rust to raise a regiment of mounted gunmen-from five to ten companies; each company to number from 60 to 100 men; thereby authorizing the levy of 300, or 500, or 600, or 1,000 men.

"May 12th. He authorized W. B. Lewis to raise a regiment of mounted gunmen- five to ten companies of 70 to 100 men - amounting to 350, or 500, or 700, or 1,000 men.

"May 13th. He authorized Balie Peyton to raise a regiment of ten companies- each 60 to 100 - amounting to 600 or 1,000 men.

"May 14th.  He authorized F. Buisson to raise a battalion of two companies - each 60 to 100 - amounting to 120 or 200 men, to garrison forts Jackson and St. Philip till firther orders.

"May 16th. He authorized I. S. Gilbert to raise a regiment of mounted gunmen- five or ten companies; each compnay to be 60 to 100 men- amounting to 300,500,600, or 1,000 men.

"May 20. He authorized E. Fetherston, W. M. Fulton, W.S. Hays, J. R. Creecy, and E. L. Tracy, to raise each one regiment of ten companies, each 60 to 100 men.  The whole amounting to 1,500, 2,500, 3,000, or 5,000.

"May 22d.  He accepted the offer of the governor of Mississippi to furnish 2,000 volunteers- including the regiment to be raised by P.B. Starke.

"May 31st.  He issued orders to complete the muster of two regiments of volunteers from Alabama- only three companies having been at this time raised on his previous requisitions.

"In the latter part of May, General Gaines raised and mustered into service Gally's battalion of light artillery- three companies- 286 strong.  The precise date of this levy does not appear in any document before the court, and it is not remembered by the witness, examined to this point- Gen. Gaines assistant Adjutant General.

"The court find further, that in consequence of General Gains' communication to the governor of Kentucky, about the 1st or 4th of May, representing the situation of General Taylor's army, the governor raised and sent forward a regiment from Louisville; which on its arrival at New Orleans, about the latter part of the month, General Gaines accepted and mustered into the service of the United States.

"The foregoing statement shows all the troops raised or called for by General Gaines.  It appears, however, that the only troops actually raised and brought into service by him on these calls, were the St. Louis Legion, of Missouri, the Louisville Legion, of Kentucky, Peyton's and Featherston's regiments of Louisiana volunteers, and Gally's battalion of light artillery, and three companies of Alabama volunteers, raised at Mobile.

"The court find further, that when General Gaines was relieved from command of the Western Division, and ordered to repair to Washington City, and in excecution of said order, had arrived at Mobile on the 12th June, he was then and there informed by the governor of Alabama that much disorder prevailed among the regiments of volunteers assembled at that point by the president of the United States; for which reason the governor applied to General Gaines to receive into the service of the U. States, for the proper government of those volunteers, Brigadier Gen. Smith, whom the governor had commissioned to command them, and his staff.  Whereupon Gen. Gaines did receive and muster into service:

Walter Smith, as Brigadier General. Thomas Caey, Assistant AdjutantGeneral.
John J. Walker, Assistant Inspector General.
William P. Brown,  Brigade Quartermaster.
Henry K. Zettyplace, Paymaster.
Charles B. Sandford, Aid-de-camp.
Richard Lee Feam, Brigade Surgeon.

"The order of General Gaines published in this case, directed that it should remain in force till final instructions should be received from the proper authorities at Washington; and further directed Gen. Smith to organize the volunteers, and as soon as the said organization should be completed, to proceed with them without delay to the seat of war.

"The appointment by General Gaines of certain volunteers and others to staff offices, as shown in the official documents sent as evidence to the court, not being stated in the order appointing the court, as one of the matters into which it is directed to inquire, it is not considered in this statement of facts, nor in the opinion of the court.  The facts and circumstances, however, are set forth in the evidence for the information of the department of war.

"In regard to issues of public stores by order of Gen. Gaines, the court find that he ordered the issue of ordinance and ordnance stores to arm and equip all the volunteers called out by him; also, when necessary, for those called out by Gen. Taylor; also, that he ordered the quartermaster's supplies; also, he ordered the commissaries to furnish subsistence to all volunteers arriving at the general rendezvous for muster, and to issue to them previous to the muster.

"The court also find an issue by order of General Gaines of two pieces of field artillery, and twenty five rounds of ammunition to two private gentlemen and planters in the parish of West Baton Rouge, for the protection of the parish against the slave population, on condition of the return of the guns when called for.

"In regard to orders by General Gaines to staff officers to issue or pay public money, the court find only two such payments indicated in the documentary evidence. 1st. He ordered that quartermaster to pay $2,500 to Major Gally's battalion for commutation in advance of clothing; and 21.  He ordered the ordinance officer to pay accounts contracted by Maj. Hally for ammunition for his batteries, amounting to $1467()50. Both of which sums and accounts were paid accordingly.  And further, the court find that he ordered the quartermaster's department to pay in advance to all volunteers’ commutation of six month's clothing.  That any payments were made under this order does not appear by any evidence sent to this court.

"And upon the foregoing findings of the facts in the case, the courts submitted the following

OPINION.

"It is contended by General Gaines that he acted in accordance with his instructions from the war department.   The court find that these instructions were as follows:

"1st.  August 28th, 1845.  The secretary of war wrote to General Gaines: 'It cannot be necessary to apprise you that the authority to make a requisition upon the governors of the respective states for the militia thereof, to be employed in the service of the United States, is vested only in the president, and limited in its exercise to two or three specified cases.  The emergency which would tolerate or excuse the assumption of this authority by a military officer in command at a distance from the seat of government, in anticipation of the president's action, must be one indicating great and imminent peril to the country--a peril so great and so imminent as to leave no reasonable doubt that the president, with a full knowledge of all the circumstances of the case, would have felt it his duty to resort to such aid.  The assumption of this authority by an officer so situation, should be under circumstances which would be sure to command his subsequent ratification of it."

"2d.  On the 13th September, 1845, the secretary of war wrote to General Gaines:  'You misunderstand your position in regard to the commanding general in Texas.  His command is wholly independent of you; the orders and instructions for his conduct emanate only from the government here; and you are directed to abstain from all interference with him.'

"3d.  And again, on the 30th September, 1845: 'The power which you have exercised could only be resorted to in cases of extreme public peril.  An error of judgment, with such motives as the president has with pleasure conceded to have governed your conduct in this case, cannot be regarded as a crime, or an offence subjecting the officer to trial."

"The court find further instructions to General Gaines from the office of the adjutant general, of date May18, 1846, from which the following is extracted:

'The volunteer force called into the service from Louisiana and Alabama, &c.. and which you have previously reported, meets the approval of the department.'"

"In the opinion of the court this approval ratifies the call and orders of General Gaines to raise two regiments at Mobile, and three of more companies at Pensacola.

"The court also deem it unnecessary to consider the case of the St. Louis Legion received into service by General Gaines; as he was informed from the adjutant general's office, May 22d, that 'the said regiment had been accepted, and would be regarded as a portion of the force called out by the president.'"

"In regard to the Louisville Legion, it appears from the statement of General Gaines, and testimony of Lieut Calhoun, to have been raised without a direct call from General Gaines; though accepted by him into service before he had received special authority from the war department.  It was, however, subsequently accepted by the department-- by instructions to General Gaines of May 28th-- in which instructions, however, written on the supposition that he called on the governor for the troops, he is informed of the disapproval of the department, and then the call was without authority of law.

"The court cannot find that General Gaines, at the time he received this legion into service, (about the last of May) had authority to do so under his instructions.  But as the regiment was already sent forward he felt himself, on its arrival at New Orleans, under the necessity to receive it, and to trust to the subsequent ratification of the department.

"In regard to the other calls made by General Gaines, before the 17th May to raise troops for Taylor's army, the court are of opinion, that, under the previous instructions of the war department, and in the situation of Taylor's army, and upon ascertaining the slow progress of the enrolment of the Louisiana volunteers, and upon ascertaining further that General Taylor could not receive more than a small portion of the force which he had called from Texas -- that under these circumstances General Gaines was justified in endeavoring to supply Gen. Taylor to the amount of auxiliary force could not be obtained from the states to which General Taylor had applied, then General Gaines was justified in applying to the other states.  The court do not extend this approval to the requisitions for mounted gun-men.  The four regiments of this description of force, amounting to 4,000 men, which he authorized to be raised before the 17th May, destined to march overland to the army, however useful Gen. Gaines may have considered them for the future operation of the way, not being required or intended for the immediate emergency, were not authorized by his instructions or by law.

"It is proper in this connection to bring to the favorable native of the war department the prompt recall, by Gen Gaines, of all his requisitions for mounted gun-men on receiving orders to that effect; and that the government incurred no expense on account of these calls.

"For the calls made by General Gaines for volunteers, after the 16th May when he knew of the victories of Taylor, the court cannot find any necessity at the time, any authority in his instructions, or any warrant of law.  These calls authorized the levy of 7,000 men, besides Gally's battalion of artillery.  It does not appear, however, that any, except the artillery, were raised before the calls were countermanded.

"Two of the requisitions made by Gen. Gaines for volunteers appear to the court to be of a special character, viz: to raise a garrison of volunteers for Forts Jackson and St. Phillip, and for the arsenal at Baton Rouge.  As the government had withdrawn the garrison from the arsenal, and had not seen fit to garrison the forts, the court are of opinion, that General Gaines ought to have felt himself specially restrained from raising volunteer garrisons without authority.

"In regard to the authorities given by General Gaines to certain individuals to raise troops, it appears to have been his motive to avail himself, under what he felt as the pressure of the emergency, of the supposed influence of these individuals.  In Louisiana, where troops were actually raised under such powers, it was with the sanction and concurrence of the governor of the state, who commissioned the officers and organized the troops according to the state laws.  It does not appear in any case to have been the intention of General Gaines to act independently of the state authorities.

"In General Gaines' proceedings at Mobile, on 12th May, [June,] in mustering into service General Smith, and his staff, after he was relieved from his command, and instructed by the war department, to 'cease his independent action in these matters, and to confine himself to carrying out the orders and views of the president, so far as they might be communicated to him from that department--the court are of opinion that he transcended his authority, and violated his orders, particularly in appointing such a staff officer as an inspector general, after the recent and emphatic instruction to him by the secretary of war, that 'such appointments would not be recognized or confirmed, and that the president himself had no authority under existing laws to make such appointments."

"yet the court are satisfied that Gen. Gaines had not the intention to act in defiance or in disregard of his instructions.  He though that the disorganized state of the volunteers assembled at Mobile made it a matter of very urgent importance that a commander should be appointed over them.  He acted, too, at the special application of the governor of the state; and the court, therefore, recommend his conduct to the favorable construction of the president.

"the issue of rations to volunteers before muster is not provided in the regulations of laws.  But the court present to the consideration of the department, the necessity of the case, when the volunteers had arrived at the rendezvous, and were absolutely without means of subsistence.

"Such issues, as of the two pieces of field artillery and ammunition to planters of Baton Rouge parish are not provided for by the regulations of the army.  But under the circumstances, being required for the security of the parish, and issued to responsible persons, on condition of their safe return whenever demanded, the court are of opinion that is ought to be approved.

"In the absence of certain official information on the subject, the court suppose it to be the practice of the government to make advances to the militia called into service, in commutation of clothing; and that the orders of General Gaines on this subject did not introduce a new practice.  Of the correctness of the particular account of $2,500, which General Gaines ordered to be paid to Gally's battalion, the court have not the means of judging, and therefore leave it as an account to be settled, according to law and regulations in the auditing offices of the treasury.

"The court cannot approve General Gaines' order to Captain Whitley to pay Major Gally's bill of $1,467 50, for ammunition, as it does not appear that whatever ammunition was required might not have been furnished from Baton Rouge arsenal, or otherwise procured by the ordnance officer.

"The court have not considered, as connected with the issues of stores and payments of funds before mentioned, whether the persons or troops to whom, or on account of whom, the issues and payments were made, were legally in the service of the United States, inasmuch as the act of congress of the last session has since provided for the settlement of such accounts.  Of the lawful authority of General Gaines to raise the troops, the have expressed their opinion in the several cases.

"Having now reported their finding and opinion, the court recommend to the favorable consideration of the president the good and patriotic motives, and the public seal, by which, as the court believe, Gen. Gaines was actuated in all these transactions, and therefore they recommend that no further proceedings be had in this case."

II. The proceedings of the court of inquiry in the foregoing case having been duly submitted, the following are the orders thereon--

War department, August 18, 1846

The proceedings of the court of inquiry in the foregoing case have been laid before the president, and carefully examined.

It is seen that the court have found that several of the acts of Brevet Major General Gaines "were not authorized by his instructions or by law; and that he has violated orders,"

That for the calls made by him "for volunteers after the 16th of May, when he knew of the victories of [General] Taylor, the court cannot find any necessity at the time-- and authority in his instructions, or any warrant of law."

That in mustering into service at Mobile certain general and staff officers, after he was relieved from his command by instructions from the war department, "the court are of opinion that he transcended his authority, and violated his orders."

The president views with deep regret the exercise of this assumed authority on the part of the late commander of the western division; and while he is disposed to give every consideration to the circumstances which may tend to qualify or mitigate his conduct he can see nothing in them which would justify him for withholding the expression of his decided disapprobation of the irregular and unauthorized proceedings of that officer.  But in consideration of the recommendation of the court and concurring with them in their opinion of the "good and patriotic motives and the public zeal by which he was actuated,"the president directs that further proceedings in the case of Brevet Major General Gaines be dispensed with.

The president cannot dismiss the case without inviting the serious attention of the army to the grave subject which has been presented for his consideration and decision.  The officers belonging to the military service zeal, gallantry, and skill have long been established.  The country duly appreciates their value, but unremitted care should be taken to abstain from any act which may tend to impair their high character.  And what so likely to derogate from this as the assumption of important executive or ministerial authority by a military commander, or the disregard of his orders?

The exercise of authority not possessed nor delegated--the non observance of instructions, or the expenditure of the public treasure, not warranted by law nor justified by imperious necessity, cannot be disregarded.  A just responsibility of all in authority makes it a public duty of imperative obligation to observe and strictly enforce the law and the rules of the service.

By order of the President,
W.L. Marcy
Secretary of War.

III.  The court of inquiry, of which Brevet Brigadier General H. Brady is president, is hereby dissolved.

By order,
R. Jones, Adjutant General.

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NNR 70.416 Aug 29, 1846 Gen.  Stephen Watts Kearny arrives at Santa Fe, friendly reception

The Santa Fe Expedition. -- An express from Gen. Kearney reached Fort Leavenworth on the 14th instant.  The general with several companies United States dragoons, the 1st regiment Missouri volunteers under Col. Domphan, and Major Clarke's battalion of volunteer artillery left Bents' Fort for Santa Fe, on the 1st of August, all in fine health and spirits.  They had information that so far from a resistance, the Mexicans were anxious for the arrival of the Americans.  The ladies of Santa Fe were making extensive preparations for a fandango dance and other sports to welcome their reception, and some of them expressed a desire to accompany the expedition to California.  Captain Moore, United States dragoons, had captured three spies, sent by the Mexicans to look out.  They were taken to camp, and there told to examine every thing and make what enquiries they please, and were then dismissed.  Gen. Kearney would remain at Santa Fe till Colonel Price's regiment arrived, and then proceed to California.

Col. Allen with 500 Mexican infantry was progressing rapidly and would probably reach Bents' Fort before Col. Price's mounted men.  A great member of traders and a large quantity of goods were met on their way out.
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NNR 70.416 Aug 29, 1846 unsuccessful attack on Alvarado

A demonstration, by order of Com. Conner, was made against Alvarado, on the 8th inst., in which the Mississippi participated.  The difficulty of passing the bar and the appearances of an approaching storm, induced a signal to haul off, after some shots had been exchanged, without injury on our side.
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NNR 70.416 Aug 29, 1846 chartering of ships for the California expedition, charges of malfeasance by Thomas Jefferson Sutherland against Col. John D. Stevenson in connection with outfitting the California expedition

The California Expedition. -- We learn that Col. Stanton has chartered the ships Susan Drew, T.H. Perkins, and Loo Choo, to convey the California expedition to their place of destination.  These vessels are all of the best class of ships and of about 700 tons custom house measure--well ventilated and admiraly calculated for transports.

We are please to learn, that while millions of dollars have been squandered in extravagant charter parties at the south, these vessels have all been taken up at what would be considered reasonable terms if engaged by individuals.  The gross amount paid to the three ships is only $65,000.  Those who are acquainted with Col. Stanton will not be surprised at this, while the public will of course be prepared to learn that certain friends of the administration were anxious to do the work for double the sum!

For ourselves we have never believed that this expedition would sail under the command of J.D. Stevenson; and warrant for such an opinion, may be found in the well known Glentworth affair.  A man who has ever found it necessary to be an alias, should never be entrusted with a military command or made the associate and companion of gentlemen.  How Governor Marcy can justify it to his conscience and the country for having recommended Stevenson for this highly important command, we can not conjecture.

We have now lying on our table a paper, signed Thos. Jefferson Sutherland making many grave charges against Stevenson which he pledges to prove before a court of enquiry if an opportunity be afforded him.  Of course we know nothing of their truth; but whether true or false, the government will not be held excused by the people, if the expedition be permitted to sail under the command of Stevenson without an investigation into these charges.

We copy the following iron this paper, which has been handed us by Sutherland who is himself a captain of volunteers.

4th.  That he has purposed a fraud upon the members of his regiment by procuring a large quantity of clothing, not American in its fashion nor suited to the climate of California, which he designs to compel his men to purchase from him at prices far above the real value; his son-in-law being the pretended contractor.

5th.  That he reported company rolls to the governor of this state as complete according to the requisitions of the war department, when in fact the companies did not contain the men protessed to have been enrolled, and thus procured commissions for favorites to the exclusion of competent men and good officers who had reported perfect rolls of companies, whose ranks were filled with respectable men.

6th.  That he has used his influence to exclude from the corps of officers of his regiment all men of capacity and experience, and those who would be most likely to be directed by a nice regard for the interest and honor of their country, and to constitute it a body of weak, or very young and unexperiences  men, who must needs be his suppliant underlyings.

7th.  That he has publicly declared that if he was sent out by the government in a convoy, he would run away from the naval commander; and that after he had landed in California he would no longer obey the President of the United States nor any other authority of the government.

8th That he has practiced duplicity on the President, the Governor, and other persons in office in this state, unbecoming an officer and a soldier.

These are grave charges which concur not me alone, but the whole country, and they are now declared with the fullest sense and understanding that I endorse their truth with the commission which I myself hold, and a time and imprisonment on an indictment for libel, if the charges should prove to be such- and with this I am content.
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NNR 70.416 Aug 29, 1846 Gen. Zachary Taylor leaves Matamoros for Camargo

Gen. Taylor left Matamoros on the 5th August, in the steamer Whiteville, for Camargo, accompanied by about one half the Texan regiment of infantry and a few regulars.
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NNR 70.416 Aug 29, 1846 order barring spirituous liquors from Matamoros

"General Order, No. 94.  No spirituous liquors will be permitted to enter the river or the city of Matamoros for the purposes of barter or traffic on the account of any person whatever, whether sutler in the army or private dealers.  Any liquors found in violation of this order will be confiscated and sent to the quartermaster in N. Orleans to be sold--one half of the proceeds for the benefit of the informant, the other half to be applied to the support of the hospital department.

The merchants at Matamoros will be permitted to vend the liquors they may actually have on hand but to receive no new supplies.

The commanding general issues this order under the sanction of the general government, and calls upon all officers to give their aid in executing its provisions.  The quartermaster's department and Col. Clark will take the necessary measures to have it communicated to the persons interested, particularly to the dealers in Matamoros, and the masters of all public transports or other vessels in the river.  Any steamboat captains or other hired persons that are found violating it, will be at once dismissed from the service."

We judge from the numerous articles in the Matamoros papers, that the above order has occasioned no little excitement.  How far it is possible to evade its provisions, is the question.  "Spirituous liquors?"  says the sulter, and the government wines and malt liquors they insist are included in the prohibition.
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NNR 70.416 Aug 29, 1846 probability of reaching Monterey in September

By the close of September this column will reach Monterey, where the chances of a battle are sufficiently uncertain  to make it a matter of daily doubt and speculation.  The very air is rite with rumors.  It is said that Wool is now in command; if so, and he continues there, it is a guarantee of hard knocks."
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NNR 70.416 Aug 29, 1846 health of the army

The health of the regular army is represented to be good.  The volunteers are suffering considerably, mainly from indiscretions, to which want of strict discipline renders them liable.
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NNR 70.416 Aug 29, 1846 Col. Archibald Yell's letter about the lack of equipment for Arkansas volunteers

LETTER FROM COL. YELL, OF THE ARKANSAS VOLUNTEERS.
Headquarters, Shreveport, La. July 28.

MY DEAR SIR: I have only a moment to write to you.  We reached this place on yesterday at 11 o'clock A.M. and by 10 P.M. we crossed the river, and will take up the line of march for San Antonio.  I regret that we have been disappointed in receiving our public arms and camp equipage.  There has been inexcusable negligence somewhere, and I shall make the report to the proper department; and if that negligence should be continued, and we reach San Antonio without finding our arms, I shall make a final and direct report of the case to the secretary of war, and in he does not correct such inattention he will deserve to be removed from his present position.  I hope, however, all will yet be satisfactorily explained, and that we shall be furnished on our arrival at our point of destination.

I am pleased to say that our troops are remarkably healthy yet, and in good spirits.  They will, when an opportunity offers, give a good account of themselves.--

In haste, yours,    A. YELL
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