The Mexican-American War and the Media, 1845-1848

logo
London Times | Martinsburg Gazette | Niles' Register | Richmond Enquirer | Richmond Whig | Related Links
VT Image Montage | VT Digital Archives | Carl Nebel prints | Sam Chamberlain water colors | Maps | The Aztec Club of 1847
Descendants of Mexican War Veterans | U.S. Army Chronology | PBS Timeline | U.S. Army History
Chronological | Memoirs | U.S. Army Center | The Naval War | Intelligence Activities
Lt. Emory's Journal | Foreign Policy | Presidential speeches | Congressional Debates | DMWV Documents | Historical Text Archive
Transcription Teams | Project Specialists
Site Map
Search

NILES' NATIONAL REGISTER
Index entries for Niles' Register are drawn from Niles' Register: Cumulative Index, 1811-1849, (c) 1995 by W.H. Earle.
An updated version of this index is available online at http://www.nilesregister.com

Vols. 66-70, July 1844-April 1846

July 1844-April 1846 May-July 1846 August-October 1846 November-December 1846 January-February 1847 March-April 1847
May-June 1847 July-August 1847 September-October 1847 November-December 1847 January-March & July December 1848
Index

NR 66.305 Jul 1844 two war steamers in the US

66.307 Jul 1844 steam frigates refitting at New York

NR 66.353 Aug 1844 list of ships

NR 67.002 Sept 1844 Army units and loan for invasion of Texas

NR 67.018 Sept 1844 Mexican steam frigates repairing at New York, difficulties encountered by officers

NR 67.208 Nov 1944: steamers sail from New York

NR 67.210 Dec 1844 steamer Montezuma arrives at Norfolk

NR 67.225 Dec 1844 steamers sail from Norfolk

NR 67.337 Feb 1845 veto of a bill to return the capital to Austin on grounds of a possible Mexican invasion

NR 68.032-68.034 March,1845: Mexican indemnity

68.032-4 March 1845: Mexican government embarrassed by mutiny in Army, new cabinet selected

NR 68.035 Mar1845 comments of the Richmond "Compiler" on British efforts to frustrate Mexican recognition of Texian independence unless Texas had agreed not to be annexed to the US

68.082 April 1845 Mexican proposal to unite with Texas against the Comanches

NR 68.112 April 1845 rumor that Mexico has agreed to acknowledge independence of Texas if Texas rejects annexation by the US

NR 68.112 April 1845 proposals before Mexican Congress to abrogate treaty, close Mexican ports to US vessels, denounce annexation of Texas

NR 68.116 April 1845 Luis G. Cuevas, minister of foreign affairs, addresses a note to Wilson Shannon closing diplomatic relations, and to other foreign ministers protesting against the annexation of Texas, war spirit, consideration of measures to be taken

NR 68.117 Apr 1845 reaction in Mexico to news of annexation of Texas by the US

NR 68.128 Apr 1845 denunciation of the annexation of Texas by the US, threat of war

NR 68.129 May 1845 earthquakes

NR 68.129 May 1845 people of Chihuahua refuse paying taxes because of Apache depredations

NR 68.129 May 1845 Gen. Manuel Micheltoreno and troops return to Mexico

NR 68.133-68.135 May 1845 official announcement of annexation of Texas by the US, note of Luis G. Cuevas to Ambassador Wilson Shannon, Shannon's reply

NR 68.135 May 1845 Luis G. Cuevas' circular to the English, French, and Spanish ministers protesting the American annexation

NR 68.135 May 1845 remarks of the Mexican press on the annexation of Texas by the US

NR 68.144 May 1845 receipt of Mexican proposals to treat with Texas on the basis of independence

NR 68.146 May 1845 benefits to be derived by Mexico from the American annexation of Texas
68.146 May 1845 Mexico, population

NR 68.151 May 1845 projects recommended by the Mexican Congress on the annexation of Texas by the US
68.151 May 1845 remarks of the Mexican press on the annexation of Texas by the US

NR 68.160 May 1845 earthquakes

NR 68.178 May 1845 Texas boundary defined and independence guaranteed by convention among Mexico, Great Britain, and France

NR 68.176 May 1845 further accounts of controversy over annexation of Texas by the US

NR 68.176 May 1845 excitement over arrival of American squadron at Veracruz

NR 68.193 May 1845 little excitement in New Mexico over the American annexation of Texas

NR 68.193 May 1845 Mexican maneuvering, under European tutelage, to prevent annexation of Texas by the US

NR 68.195 May 1845 the Stockton squadron arrives at Vera Cruz

NR 68.204-68.205 May 1845 notice of negotiations for Mexican recognition of the independence of Texas on the condition that Texas reject proposals from the US regarding the annexation of Texas

NR 68.208 May 1845 insurrection in California against Gen. Manuel Micheltoreno

NR 68.210-68.212 June 1845 history of negotiations for acquisition of California

NR 68.211-68.212 June 1845 history of negotiations for acquisition of California

NR 68.212 June 1845 Wilson Shannon leaves Mexico

NR 68.212 June 1845 bill to raise three million for war, but war unlikely

NR 68.212 June 1845 salutary influence of the US squadron at Veracruz

NR 68.212 June 1845 Mexican Army, number of officers and men

NR 68.226 June 1845 letter about the capabilities of Mexican forces on the Texas frontier

NR 68.226 June 1845 contradictory accounts from Mexico about the government's attitude toward the American annexation of Texas

NR 68.226 June 1845 explanation of the mystery about the Mexican indemnity

NR 68.225 June 1845 posture of relations between the two countries

NR 68.226 June 1845 Mexican press on annexation of Texas

NR 68.235 June 1845 revolution in California

NR 68.256 Mexico, Indians, notice of an ethnological article by Albert Gallatin

NR 68.257 hostile feeling toward the US

NR 68.274 July 1845 Texas, annexation to the United States, meeting of Congress, submission of the Mexican treaty, its rejection, resolutions approving annexation by the United States adopted, notice of various resolutions related to annexation

NR 68.275 July 1845 expectation that Mexico will declare war, denial that an American minister would be favorably received

NR 68.305 July 1845 people quiet, not alarmed by war cries
68.305 July 1845 proclamation upon receiving intelligence of Texas deciding to annex to the US

NR 68.306 July 1845 will Mexico declare war?

NR 68.313-68.314 July 1845 Mexico, aboriginal population

NR 68.315-68.316 July 1845 British involvement in the negotiation for Mexican recognition of Texian independence

NR 68.315-68.316 July 1845 Texas, annexation to the United States, notice of negotiations for Mexican recognition of the independence of Texas on the condition that Texas reject proposals from the United States regarding the annexation of Texas

NR 68.323 July 1845 rumors of war between Mexico and the US

NR 68.324 July 1845 state of the ships

NR 68.336 July 1845 fear of an embargo of American ships, calls for declaration of war

NR 68.352 Aug 1845 Mexican determination to declare war when US troops possess Texas, Congress to assemble, preparations for war

NR 68.372 Aug 1845 expectation of war with the US over the annexation of Texas

NR 68.384 Aug 1845 warlike statement of Cuevas to Congress, quotas for Army requisitioned

NR 68.388 Aug 1845 Mexico - Congress - Mexican preparations for war with the US

NR 68.401 Aug 1845 propositions for war, &c.

NR 68.402 Aug845: disposition of the government forces

NR 69.003 Sep 1845 interest in Santa Fe in the annexation of Texas to the US

NR 69.003 Sep 1845 war loan, orders to troops to position themselves in advance of the Rio Bravo

NR 69.003 Jun 1845 news of the declaration of war reaches the Army in Texas, Gen. Zachary Taylor established on the Nueces

NR 69.004 Sep 1845 notice of Gen. Zachary Taylor and dragoons on the Nueces

NR 69.005 Sep 1845 party of Mexican soldiers approach Castroville, but flee

NR 69.005 Sep 1845 news of the Mexican forces at Matamoros

NR 69.005 Sep 1845 comments of the New York "Morning News" on the possibility of avoiding a war

NR 69.006 Sep 1845 operations at Pensacola to transport troops to Texas

NR 69.006 Sep 1845 payment for three of the six vessels built for Mexico at New York

NR 69.018 Sep 1845 rumor of movements of Mexican troops toward Texas

NR 69.018 Sep 1845 Gen. Mariano Arista's address and call for forces

NR 69.019 Sep 1845 comments on the inability of Mexico to wage war over Texas without the backing of England

NR 69.020 Sep 1845 news of Mexican forces at Matamoros and of reinforcements, their intentions

NR 69.020 Sep 1845 expectation that Mexico would assault Texas rather than declare war on the US

NR 69.020 Sep1845 question of whether the troops in Texas constitute an Army of Observation or the Army of Occupation, notice of their position, forces arriving

NR 69.020 Sep 1845 departure of infantry from Pensacola for Texas
69.020 Sep1845 complaints about lack of artillery with Gen. Zachary Taylor

NR 69.020 Sep 1845 rumors of the movements of Gen. Mariano Arista

NR 69.021 Sep 1845 attempts to raise troops in Missouri to march against New Mexico

NR 69.020-69.021 Sep 1845 complaints about Gen. Edmund Pendleton Gaines' efforts to enlist volunteers

NR 69.021 Sep 1845 Gen. Zachary Taylor's plan to post troops on the Rio Grande

NR 69.034 Sep 1845 question in Mexico whether to declare or to make war

NR 69.034-69.035 Sep 1845 Gen. Anastasio Bustamente appointed commander of the Army of Texas, history of the revolution which banished him

NR 69.035 Sep 1846 news from the Army of Observation at Corpus Christi

NR 69.036 Sep 1845 position of the Army of Observation at Corpus Christi

NR 69.048 Sep 1845 Army of Observation in good health and spirits

NR 69.051 Sep1845 regiment of volunteers for service in Mexico being raised at Saint Louis

NR 69.065-69.066 Oct 1845 more troops for Texas, speculations on the destination of the Army of Observation

NR 69.066-69.067 Oct 1845 Texian volunteers and Rangers to enter US service or cooperate with US forces

NR 69.073-69.074 Oct 1845 intercourse with Mexico, news of Gen. Mariano Paredes y Arillaga and his forces
NNR 69.074 Oct 1845 Gen. Anastasio Bustamente not appointed Mexican commander, preparations of bodies of troops under Gen. Mariano Paredes y Arillaga and Gen. Mariano Arista
NNR 69.074 Oct 1845 troops at the castle of San Juan de Ulloa
NNR 69.074 Oct 1845 position of ships of the Mexican Navy
NNR 69.074 Oct 1845 difficult financial position of the Mexican government despite the bill for the fifteen million loan
NNR 69.074 Oct 1845 effort of the British minister to prevent Mexico from going to war
NNR 69.074 Oct 1845 no Mexican preparations for defense at Tampico, Mexican letters of marque issued
NNR 69.074 Oct 1845 American troops rumored moving on Matamoros

NR 69.083 Oct 1845 proclamation of Gen. Mariano Paredes y Arillaga on the call to defend Mexican territory

NR 69.086 Oct 1845 dragoons from Fort Jesup to join the Army of Observation

NR 69.091 Oct 1845 Mexico - population

NR 69.100 Oct 1845 more troops for the Army of Observation

NR 69.130-69.131 Nov 1845 examination of the state of the Army, account of Gen. Mariano Paredes y Arillaga's supposed rebellion

NR 69.132-69.133 Nov 1845 dragoons from Fort Jesup to join the Army of Observation

NR 69.133 Nov 1845 artillery reaches Aransas for the Army of Observation

NR 69.147-69.148 Nov 1845 hypothecation of California to Great Britain in payment for the debt of Mexico

NR 69.147 Nov 1845 high price of provisions in Texas because of presence of Army troops

NR 69.160 Nov 1845 dispatches to the US via Navy steamers

NR 69.161 Nov 1845 expedition of Rangers to the Rio Grande

NR 69.161 Nov 1845 discussion of relations with Mexico, news of a messenger from Mexico City indicating difficulties with Mexico are at an end

NR 69.176 Nov 1845 suggestions from Mexico on terms for resuming diplomatic relations and negotiating differences

NR 68.178 Nov 1845 items pertaining to the Army of Observation at Corpus Christi

NR 69.203-69.204 Nov 1845 letter describing the situation with regard to cession of California to Great Britain or the US and the governance of the province by Mexico

NR 69.209 Nov 1845 announcement of dispatch of a minister to Mexico, news received of Mexican agreement to open negotiations

NR 69.240 Dec 1845 debate on negotiations with the US

69.244 Dec 1845 Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's statement on payment of the Mexican indemnity

NR 69.244 Dec 1845 expectation of a successful result to the negotiation with Mexico

NR 69.256 Dec 1845 Gen. Mariano Arista's appointment to treat with the US on Texas boundary and other matters

NR 69.258 Dec 1845 relations with Mexico take an unfavorable turn, remarks

NR 68.273 Jan 1846 letter from an officer at Corpus Christi

NR 69.291 Jan 1846 relations with Mexico take an unfavorable turn, remarks

NR 69.304 Jan 1846 John Slidell not recognized, quits the city

NR 69.304 Jan 1846 relations with Mexico take an unfavorable turn, remarks

NR 69.304 Jan 1846 Mexico, departments assaulted by Indians

NR 69.305 Jan 1846 gloomy reports from Mexico about the reception of John Slidell and the possibility of a movement by Gen. Mariano Paredes y Arillaga against the government of Jose Joaquin Herrera on the basis of declaring war against the US over the annexation of Texas

NR 69.320 Jan 1846 Gen. Mariano Paredes y Arillaga approaches Mexico

NR 69.320 Jan 1846 unpleasant rumors of sickness, &c., among US troops

NR 69.323 Jan 1846 Gen. Mariano Paredes y Arillaga approaches Mexico
NNR 69.323 Jan 1846 cabinet declines to recognize John Slidell, who retires to Jalapa
NNR 69.323 Jan 1846 Jose Joaquin Herrera's circular to the provinces

NR 69.350 Jan 1846 reference to relations with Mexico by Gov. Silas Wright of New York

NR 69.352 Feb 1846 uncertainty about attitude of the new Mexican government toward the US

NR 69.353 Feb 1846 affairs with the US more gloomy, various reports about the reception or rejection of the American minister

NR 69.371 Feb 1846 strength of the Army of Occupation

NR 69.384 Feb 1846 notice of American ships of war off the coast of California

NR 69.384 Feb 1846 difficulties in the advance of the Army of Occupation to the Rio del Norte

NR 69.416 Feb 1846 Army of Occupation ordered to the Rio del Norte

NR 70.018 Mar 1846 number of ships, men, guns, etc.

NR 70.050 Mar 1846 Army of Occupation quits Corpus Christi and advances to the Rio Grande

NR 70.050-70.051 Mar 1846 Gen. Zachary Taylor's general order on respecting the rights of Mexicans

NR 70.051 Mar 1846 Gen. Jose Antonio Mejia returns to Matamoros

NR 70.096 Apr 1846 Mexican efforts to protect Point Isabel

NR 70.096 Apr 1846 suggestion that Mexico cede Texas, New Mexico, and California to the US

NR 70.098 Apr 1846 comments on the failure of John Slidell's mission

NR 70.112 Apr 1846 Army of Occupation takes post on the Rio Grande
NNR 70.112 Apr 1846 numbers and position of Mexican forces


July 1844

66.305 13Jul1844: two war steamers in the US

While President Tyler was concentrating a squadron in the Gulf of Mexico, with orders to cruise off Vera Cruz, and intercept any naval movement from thence towards Texas, -- the Mexican war steamers, the Montezuma, and Guadaloupe, arrived at Charleston, S.C. on their way to N. York, having touched there for fuel. They are now at New York refitting. [BAH]


NR 66.307 13Jul1844: steam frigates refitting at New York

The Mexican war steamers, now at New York, are to undergo a thorough repair at the Sectional Dry Sock company's yard. One of them, the Guadaloupe, is built of iron. [BAH]


August 1844

NR 66.353    03Aug1844:  list of ships

The Mexican Navy at present consists of, the steamer Guadaloupe, 4 guns - cost 225,069; the steamer Montezuma, 8 guns, [costs] 414,602.

Those two steamers were built and fitted in England for the Mexicans, and are now refitting for them at New York.

The remaining part of the navy consists of the following vessels:

Steamer Regenerador

7 guns

Brig Gen. Santa Anna

9    "

Brig Mexico

15  "

Brig Tempoalteca

7    "

Schooner Aguila

7    "

Schooner Libertad

4    "

Pilot boat Morales

2    "

In all 63 guns.

The government has contracted for some floating batteries, in the United States, which are to be used for the defense of the castle of Ulloa.   [BAH]


September 1844

NR 67.002   07Sept1844:  Army units and loan for invasion of Texas

The contingent of thirty thousand men for the invasion of Texas is appointed among the different departments of Mexico as follows:-- Mexico 8,200; Jalisco 4,000; Puebla 3,800; Guanajuato 3,000; St. Luis Potosi 1,800; Zacatecas 1,600; Queretaro 600; Oajaca 2,000; Mechoacan 1, Sinaloa 580; Aguascalientes 280. Total,-- 30,000 men.

            Two gentlemen who arrived at New Orleans on the 26th ult. From Mexico, informed the editors of the Bee, that from 16,000 to 18,000 Mexican troops had assembled at San Louis de Potosi, and were on their way to begin the contemplated invasion of Texas. They were well provided with artillery and cavalry.

            Mexican dates to the 3d ult. Have been received. The vote of four millions of dollars for the invasion of Texas had been granted, but up to that date the plan for levying the money was still under discussion in the chambers. The Galveston Civilian, of the 17th August, says; "by last accounts over land, from Rio Grande, there was no indication of preparations t invade our territory. If Mexico really intends to make war, upon which point we are skeptical, she can have make but little progress as yet in getting ready."   [BAH]


NR 67.018   14Sept1844:  Mexican steam frigates repairing at New York, difficulties encountered by officers

Outrageous. It appears by a card from the Mexican consul general in New York, (Mr. Granja) that the officers of the two Mexican frigates have been harassed by lawsuits, and subject to much vexation in prosecuting their duties, from the prejudices excited among the people with whom they have to deal, by the Texas question. The sailors have been tempted to desert, and then to institute suits against officers on frivolous pretences, and condition of the crews. The courtesy of the U.S. officers, however, is gratefully acknowledged.   [BAH]


NR 67.208  30 November, 1944:  steamers sail from New York

Naval. The U.S. sloop of war Saratoga, commander Tutnall, reached Hampton Roads on the 23d, in 21 days from Prot Praya, coast of Africa - All well. - The S. left at Prot Praya the U.S. frigate Macedonian, com. Perry.

          The U.S. ship Decatur was daily expected at Port Prava. She had been absent four months.

          The U.S. war steamer Princeton left New York for Norfolk where she will remain ten days. She will proceed thence to Liverpool, and be absent about four months.

          The Mexican war steamers Montezuma and Guadeloupe and brig-of -war Santa Anna left new York on the 24th - destination unknown, but supposed to be Vera Cruz.

            Commodore Kearney, U.S. navy, and Capt. Talcott, of the U.S. engineer corps reached Norfolk on the 24th en route to Pensacola, to join the commissioners associated with them to select a site for a dry dock at the naval station.   [BAH]


December 1844

NR 67.210   07Dec1844:  steamer Montezuma arrives at Norfolk

The U.S. frigate Raritan:  A letter dated on board, Oct. 12th says:  "We leave in a few days with Mr. Brent, our charge on board, for Buenos Ayres, and expect to be gone about two months. We shall then return to this port.

The congress, Boston and Brainbridge are now at the river. Since my arrival on the coast I have made but one short cruise to St. Salvador and back. It is quite tedious lying so long in port, and injurious to the discipline of a new ship.

When we went to sea in August last, the congress was in company, for the purpose of comparing speed, and so was the United States. This ship was out of trim, being just filled up with her stores and provisions. The United States was light, and she left us before we got in trim.

The first day we beat the Congress by the wind, and Captain Voorhees acknowledged it, attributing the circumstance to his trim. Having put his ship in trim, he beat us two days, the winds being light; although this vessel having been put in trim also, we beat the Congress handsomely in a good breeze. All our sailing was by the wind.

Com. Turner has written home requesting to return which he desires to do in the Congress."

The U.S. ship Falmouth, Com'r. Sands, sailed from Pensecola on the 18th ult.

The U.S. ship Lexington, commodore F.B. Ellison, leaves N. York in a few days for Fort Mahon.

The U.S. frigate Potomac, Cap. Gwynn, dropped down from Norfolk on the 1st instant, to Hampton Roads, bound for the Pacific. The Hon. Wm. Crump, of Virginia, U. States charged, affairs to Chili, his son Richard Crump, his private secretary; the Hon. J.H. Bryan, of Ohio, U. States charged, affairs to Peru, and his son Richard Bryan, his private secretary, go out as passengers in the Potomac.

It is stated that commodore Kearney is to succeed commodore Jones, as commander of the New York station.

The Mexican war steamer Montezuma arrived at Norfolk on Saturday from New York.   [BAH]


NR 67.225   14Dec1844:  steamers sail from Norfolk

            The U.S. steamer Princeton, Captain Stockton, was docked at Gosport Navy Yard Last week on the 8th instant, she left Norfolk for Philadelphia, where she now is.

            The U.S. frigate Potomac, Com. Conner, went to sea from Norfolk last Sunday on a cruise.

            The Mexican steamer Guadaloupe, Com. Espins, left Norfolk on Saturday for Vera Cruz via Havana.

            The U.S. frigate Cumberland arrived at Port Mahon, on the 25th October, rom Malta.

            The Plymouth, Com. Henry, was daily expected at Mahon from Marselles.

            The U.S. brig Oregon, Lieut A. Sinclair, commander, put into Kingston, Jam on the 17th ult. for provisions. All well. She was to have sailed on the 19th ult. For Carthagena, to await the arrival of Mr. Blackford, our minister at Bogotá, who is to return in the Oregon to the United States.

            A letter from an officer on board the United States ship Decantur, dated Benguila, Africa, September 25th,1844. Our Ship arrived here to day from a cruise. Off. Loango spoke H.B.M. Star, on a cruise, having within a few days captured two Spanish brigs full of slaves and a large amount of spedie, and sent them to Ascension, which is the English admiral's rendezvous. We are all well and now bound to Windward.

            The U.S. Erie sailed from Brooklyn on the 9th for the coast of Africa.

            The U.S. schooner Shark, from Guayaquil, was at Callao on the 21st of August.

            The U.S. frigate Savannah sailed from Callao on the 13th of August for the Sandwich Islands.

            The U.S. store ship Relief sailed on the 16th, from the same port for Valparaiso.

            The U.S. ship Sratoga towed into Norfolk navy yard on the 6th instant, to be fitted for sea.   [BAH]


February 1845

NR 67.337   01Feb1845:  veto of a bill to return the capital to Austin on grounds of a possible Mexican invasion

Texas. Galveston dates to the 18th January are received. Their congress expected to adjourn the last of January. Their tariff was under discussion in both houses. The financial committees of each house had reported against the "free trade" measures, and in favor of some very slight alterations in the tariff. The bill to prevent further issues of exchequer bills had not become a law. A bill to extend further time to A. Fisher to introduce emigrants had passed the house, and a bill was reported for changing the constitution in regard to naturalization. President Jones had vetoed the bill for the return of the seat of government to Austin, and assigns amongst his reasons, that it would be in danger there from Mexican invasions, the government of Mexico having just undergone a revolution, Santa Anna having been displaced mainly for the same reason he had assumed for displacing Bustamente, -- that is, "for not having pursued with sufficient vigor the war against Texas."

By proclamation dated 31December, President Jones revokes the exquatur previously granted to Duff Green as consul of the United States for Galveston. Three dars afterwards Mr. Green published a card in the Houston Telegraph, insinuating against "the combined [sic]"   [BAH]


March 1845

NR 68.032-68.034 22March,1845: Mexican indemnity

           Mexican Indemnity. Among the appropriations make by the late congress, was hat of $275,000 to pay claimants under the treaty of indemnity, which it would appear that the Mexican government had paid to our agent for receiving it at the city of Mexico, and held his receipt therefore. What has become of the money?  Some enquirers were made in congress, but among the explanations we have seen is the following, when we extract from the Richmond Enquirer -

           "Here are the circumstances of the case, as they were told me today, by a gentleman upon whom I can rely. The firm of Hanzous & co., in Vera Cruz and New York, and Voss & Co., in Mexico are agents of our government for receiving the money already stipulated to be paid by Mexico to the Untied States. Trigueros, Santa Anna's late secretary of the treasury, is a principal partner of these firms with one hand, as Santa Anna's fiscal agent, he paid the last installment ($275,00) into the other, with which he wrote the receipt as agent of the United States government. The money found its way into his own pocket, and he has absquatulated along with he rest of his mater's ministers, whose heads are not safe on their own shoulders if caught within the republic of Mexico. Santa Anna's robberies of the treasure of his own government, furnished him with an illustrious precedent for this robbery of ours. - Our treasury suffers by this financial "operation;" for you will remember he was sufficiently patriotic to give his own government a receipt of the money as United States agent. Thus congress will be forced to appropriate the sum stolen, the United States being responsible for it to the claimants."

           The Buffalo Advertiser, after quoting the above, says:

           "The explanation has a very suspicious look. If the facts are as stated, why have they not been communicated to the country through the proper channels, instead of finding their way to the public through the medium of an anonymous letter in a newspaper?  The suspicious of falsity, which this statement is calculated to excite, are confirmed by the following from the Journal of Commerce, a paper very likely to be correctly informed.   It says:

           "Trigueros, we are assured, has no connection with the house of Hargous & Co., and never did have. No part of the money ever came into the hands of that firm."

           Now, is it not true that the money was paid as is alleged by the Mexican minister, and then embezzled - we know no other word to characterize the transaction - by our government, and used by American agents to purchase the acquiescence of Santa Anna to the scheme of Texas annexation?  That it went into the hands of Santa Anna's fiscal agent, as the letter in the Enquirer says, is altogether probable, but that he was a partner in certain Vera Cruz housed the Journal of Commerce show to be false.

           The honor and reputation of the country for fair dealing demand a full explanation, and the people should have it that hey may know some of the means used by the Texas conspirators to carry their points. Let us know whether the money of the north and west paid into the national treasury is used in bringing Mexico to assent to annexation.   [BAH]


NR 68.035   22Mar1845:  comments of the Richmond "Compiler" on British efforts to frustrate Mexican recognition of Texian independence unless Texas had agreed not to be annexed to the US

            Relations with Texas. The Richmond Enquirer publishes the following letter, written nearly a year ago by the British envoy to Mr. Jones, then secretary of state, now president of Texas, and lately communicated by him along with other documents to the congress of that republic, with his annual message. The Enquirer introduces the article with a column of editorial, which we omit, because it appears to us that nothing is developed in this letter of Mr. Ellott, but what the whole country was aware of long since. That the English government would prefer that Texas should remain independent of the United States, no one we presume ever doubted. That President Houston, and Mr., now President Jones, when Mr. Tyler make the application to the Texian government to relinquish sovereignty and seek a subordinate station, were at first averse to the proposition, we also all knew. That there would be a corresponding understanding between those parties, who could doubt?  The relative weight of influence which England and the United States have with the Texians is too manifest to give us any uneasiness.

Mr. Elliott, British Envoy, to Mr. Jones, Secretary of states. Galveston, March 22d,1844.

            The undersigned, her Britannic majesty's charge d'affaires to the republic of Texas, has lately had the honor to acquaint Mr. Jones, that her Majesty's government was engaged in continued efforts to induce the government of Mexico to acknowledge the independence of Texas; and he has now the gratification to add that renewed communications have taken place between the government of her majesty and that of the king og the French, and that his majesty has expressed his concurrence in the purposes of the French minister in Mexico, to join his continued friendly assistance to that of her majesty's representative.

            But adverting to the proposals of the government of the United States, respecting annexation, to the recent mission of distinguished citizens fo Texas to Washington on the Potomac, and to the impression as general in Texas, that negotiations having that object in view, are either in progress or in contemplation, the undersigned finds it his duty to express the hope, that the government of Texas will furnish him with explanations on the subject, for transmission to her majesty's government. He is sure that they will be made in that spirit of frank and friendly unreserved which has always characterized the intercourse of the two governments.

            It must be unnecessary to say, that the undersigned is perfectly aware of the president's personal opinions on the subject, and he has not failed, agreeably to the president's wish, to communicate to her majesty's government his excellency's determination to sustain the independence of the republic, and his excellency's confident hope that the people will uphold him in that course. Indeed, referring to the conference, which the undersigned had the honor to have with the president and Mr. Jones at Galvestion, during last autumn, he can suppose that the mission to Washington of the gentlemen in question, has been dictated by a wise desire to avoid any cause of offence or irritation to the government of the United States, and to explain with frankness, that the government of Texas could not entertain the subject at all, even if all other obstacles were removed, after the former rejection of such an arrangement by the government of the United States, and wholly with our reason, to know that the senate of the United States will ratify if now, or in future.

            The congress of Texas, however, has met and separated since the date of the communication to her majesty's government, to which the undersigned has referred, and the president will feel with force, that it is just and necessary, in the present appearance of circumstances, that there should be no room for the least uncertainty on the part of the governments engaged on the behalf of Texas at Mexico; for, it is not to be supposed that they could continue to press the government of Mexico to settle upon one basis, whilst there was nay reason to surmise that negotiations were either in actual existence, or in contemplation, proposing a cohabitation or a totally different and prosperity of Texas.

            The undersigned takes this occasion to renew to Mr. Jones, the expression to the sentiments of regard and distinguished consideration with which he has the honor to remains, His faithful and most obedient servant, CHARLES ELLIOTT.   [BAH]


NR 68.082   12 April 1845:  Mexican proposal to unite with Texas against the Comanches

           We learn from the Houston Star that when the news of the Annexation resolutions reached that city, it was hailed with a burst of enthusiasm by the citizen that has never been exceeded. The news of the victorious battle of San Jacinto scarcely excited such general hand enthusiastic rejoicing. The sound of the drum and other musical instruments, the roar of cannon, the load shouts of the multitude, resounding long after midnight, indicated the ardent longing of the people to retune once more under the glorious Egis of the American Union.

           Amid the sounds of joy, there are heard the mutterings of discounted - not so loud, but sufficiently distinct to lead us to infer that there will be considerable opposition to he measure. We do not, however, apprehend the defeat of annexation from the other side of the Sabine.

           In respect to the disposition of President Jones upon the question, it is thought a favorable indication that he should have appointed the Hon. David S. Kaufman, an ardent friend of annexation as Charged'Afffaires to the United States. The Houston Telegraph, in speaking to this point, says:

           "we find that an impression is gaining ground that President Jones is opposed to annexation, and the Washington Register is regarded as uttering his sentiments upon this subject. We, however, have reason to believe that the articles in the Register are published entirely independent of him and without his assent or dissent, as he troubles himself very little about the affairs of either of the editors at Washington. We have "information on which we can rely" that he is a warm friend of annexation, disposed to make any honorable sacrifices to obtain it.

           The news of the abolition of duties upon cotton imported in England, will take away the main prop of the anti-annexationists, as it was the hope of obtaining an advantage over the united States in this particular that furnished the staple argument of the opposition.

           Aside from this matter of annexation, we find little that is interesting to our readers in our Texas files. The citizens of Milam and Montgomery counties have evinced a spirit of insubordination in the way of resisting the tax collector.

           President Jones has vetoed the act of congress reducing eh duties on imported goods.

           The Galveston News says that Gen. Arista has sent dispatches to the Texas government by way of Corpus Christi. The purport of these dispatches is said to be an invitation to the Texan government to join the Mexican General in an expedition against the Comanche Indians that have become the pest of the Rio Grande settlements.

           The Galveston Civilian says;

           The revenue cutter Alert, Capt. Sympton, arrive on Monday from Corpus Christi. We learn that they party of Indians, of whose passage down the country e have before had intelligence, are encamped within fifteen or twenty miles of Corpus Christi, and are pronounced to be a body of Comanches, men, women, and children, and numbering in all perhaps 2000 or 2500. Capt. Hays, with his company was at the ranch when the cutter sailed, the whole force numbering about one hundred and seventy men. Monday last was the day set to go out to give the Indians battle. Should our people receive no material reinforcement, a hard fight may be expected, as there are probably some four hundred warriors among the Indians, while he squaws and young ones are not backward in lending a nod in an emergency.

           The Texans were armed with Colt's repeaters, and were expected to give a good account of themselves.

           Three Wacoes were recently killed near Bastrop. They are supposed to have belonged to a large party that recently make a foray upon that section of the country.

           Corn was selling in Houston on the 12th inst., at $1 per bushel.

           The whooping cough was prevalent in many part of the country.

           Just before the New York left Galveston, a British man of war entered that port, bearing dispatches of Capt. Elliott, British Envoy, from this government. - It was said that this vessel had a vast amount of money on board, and that the dispatches contained instructions to Capt. Elliott to offer to guaranty they national independence of Texas, provided the annexation resolutions are rejected. It was further reported that the French government had also offered the same guarantee on the same conditions. Private advices assure us that when these propositions were made know in Galveston, the people snapped their fingers, saying "the foreigners were too late."

            Capt. Elliott set out for the capital immediately after receiving his dispatches - M. Saligny, the French Charge, was already there.   [BAH]


NR 68.129   3May, 1845:  people of Chihuahua refuse paying taxes because of Apache depredations

            The people of the department of Chihuahua refuse positively to pay all direct taxes levied by the government, upon the ground hat the irruptions of the Apache Indians have reduced them to extreme want, and that they need succor from the government, instead of being compelled to contribute to its support.

           The celebrated criminal Uruera, condemned to the galleys or 10 years, escaped from the prison at Mazatlan an the 16th ult. His evasion is ascribed to the neglect of the authorities.

           Gen. Woll of the army of the North arrived at Mexico on the 23d ult. having resigned the command of his troops to Gen. Arista.   [BAH]


April 1845

NR 68.112 26Apr1845:  rumor that Mexico has agreed to acknowledge independence of Texas if Texas rejects annexation by the US

Mexico. El Siglo,(of the city of Mexico), of the 29th ultimo contains a letter from the minister of foreign affairs, (Cuevas) to Mr. Shannon, United States minister at Mexico, informing him that the government was in possession of the knowledge of the passage of the annexation resolutions, and that diplomatic relations between the two countries were suspended on that account. The same day a note was addressed by the Mexican cabinet to the ministers of Spain, France, and England, protesting against the proceedings of the United States in relation to Texas. National Intelligencer April 22.

            A correspondent of the New Orleans Jeffersonian, writing from Vera Cruz, says:

"The news of the final action of the senate on the Texas resolution was received here three days since, and caused much surprise among foreigners and excitement among natives. An express was immediately sent by the commandant general of this place to Mexico, communication this intelligence to government, and consequently considerable anxiety is felt here to know what course will be adopted by congress in the matter. The more I reflect upon the subject, the less able do I find myself to give an opinion as to what will be the course pursued by Mexico in this case. One thing is most certain, that she finds herself I the most awkward position that can be imagined. She is not in a situation to keep her head above water in time of peace, and where she to get funds from to support a war?  The actual government, by not declaring war against the United States, would be placing a terrible engine in the hands of the recently fallen party, to be used against itself in such a manner as to jeopardize greatly its existence. It is impossible to say what will be done; but I think government must declare war to save itself. In a very few days we shall know something certain, and perhaps even before the sailing of this vessel."   [BAH]


NR 68.112 26Apr1845:  proposals before Mexican Congress to abrogate treaty, close Mexican ports to US vessels, denounce annexation of Texas

"Vera Cruz March 29,1845

Congress has been in session on the subject of the Texan resolutions ever since the news of their passage by the U. States congress was received. A great many propositions have been discussed, such as war, non-intercourse, expulsion of Americans, confiscation of American property and vessels. But nothing of the kind has even decreed yet; and, when the first impression is over, they will no doubt go mildly to work, as what can they expect with high-handed measures against their powerful neighbors?"            [BAH]


NR 68.116 26 April, 1845: Luis G. Cuevas, minister of foreign affairs, addresses a note to Wilson Shannon closing diplomatic relations, and to other foreign ministers protesting against the annexation of Texas, war spirit, consideration of measures to be taken

           Mexico. El Siglo, (of the city of Mexico), of the 29th ultimo contains a letter from the minister of foreign affairs, (Cuevas) to Mr. Shannon, United States minister at Mexico, informing him that the government was in possession of the knowledge of the passage of the annexation resolutions, and hat diplomatic relations between the two countries were suspended on that account. The same day a note was addressed by the Mexican cabinet to the ministers of Spain, France, and England, protesting against the proceedings of the United States in relation to Texas.      [National Intelligencer April 22.

           A correspondent of the New Orleans Jeffersonian, writing from Vera Cruz, says:

           "The news of the final action of the senate on the Texas resolution was received here three days since, and caused much surprise among foreigners and excitement among natives. An express was immediately sent by the commandant general of this place to Mexico, communication this intelligence to government, and consequently considerable anxiety is felt here to know what course will be adopted by congress in this matter. The more I reflect upon the subject, the less able to I find myself to give an opinion as to what will be the course pursued by Mexico in this case. One thing is most certain, that she finds herself in the most awkward position that can be imagined. She is not in a situation to keep her head above water in time of peace, and where is she to get funds from to support a war?  The actual government, by not declaring war against the United States, would be placing a terrible engine in the hands of the recently fallen party, to be used against itself in such a manner as to jeopardize greatly its existence. It is impossible to say what will beyond; but I think government just declare war to save itself. In a very few days we shall know something certain, and perhaps even before the sailing of this vessel."

           The following is an extract of a letter received by a gentleman in the city of Baltimore, dated   "Vera Cruz, March 29, 1845.

           Congress has been in session on the subject of the Texan resolutions ever since the news of heir passage by the United States congress was received. A great many propositions have been discussed, such as war non-intercourse, expulsion of Americans, confiscation of American property and vessels. But nothing of the kind has been decreed yet; and when the first impression is over, they will no doubt go mildly to work, as what can they expect with high-handed measures against their powerful neighbors?"   [BAH]


NR 68.117  26 Apr 1845:   reaction in Mexico to news of annexation of Texas by the US

            Galveston papers have been received at New Orleans to the 9th instant. They contain little news and are mainly occupied with the subject of annexation. The Galveston Daily News discusses at some length the mode in which the people of Texas can constitutionally act upon the joint resolutions. On the one hand, it has been said that president Jones has no constitutional power to entertain propositions which go to the overthrow of the present government; and on the other that there is no provision in the laws or constitution empowering the executive or congress to call a convention of the people. Under these circumstances, the editor suggests that the people themselves form a convention and proceed to draught a state constitution, in conformity with the article I the present fundamental law of Texas, conferring upon them "an inalienable right at all times to alter the government as they may think proper."

            The New Orleans Bee says:-- "We have received verbal information that major A.J. Donnellson, charge to Texas, had been two days at Washington, but had not laid his dispatches before the executive. Mr. Jones had not expressed an opinion either way, but was generally supposed to be opposed to annexation."

            Mr. De Saligny, the French charge to Texas came passenger in the New York to New Orleans. Mr. Elliot, the British charge, had sailed from Galveston on the 3d for Charleston, in the English sloop of war Electra, where also he expects to meet his family.

            The hon. Ashbel Smith, secretary of state of the republic of Texas, had arrived at New Orleans, and was to leave that city on the 14th instant for Washington. On an important mission to this gevernment.

            The New Orleans Picayune of the 14th says - Mr. Saligny and the hon. Ashbel Smith, secretary of state, came passengers in the New York. Our private information leads us to infer that these gentlemen have come to the United State upon business connected with annexation. We have been informed that such was the eagerness of the French charge to read the city, that when the New York stopped a few miles below to take wood, he procured a horse, set out immediately, and arrived in town on Saturday night. We have been told that Mr. Salingy asserted, in terms rather more preemptory than are usually employed by diplomatic agents, that annexation will not (shall not) take place.

            The plan of operations at present adopted seems to be, to create an impression throughout Texas that the United States congress will not sanction the admission of Texas upon the resolution adopted.

            The president and cabinet left the capital shortly after captain Elliot and Mr. Saligny got through with their business. This step was taken, it is shrewdly suspected, to escape an interview with Mr. Donelson, United States charge. Mr. Smith's mission hither, too, is thought to be a mere ruse, to give the government excuse for delay.

            We have two private letters before us, a day later that those published above, and which were written at the latest hour to be in readiness foe the steamer, from which we learn that president Jones had returned to Washington, and that the United States minister, major Donelson, Had been treated so cavalierly by him and his cabinet, that he spoke of withdrawing from the seat of government to Galveston. This intelligence is from sources so direct as to leave no room to doubt its accuracy. From all that we learn we are constrained to believe, that if a rupture with Major Donelson would assist in procrastination action with the acquiescence of the people, president Jones would edify the nations with another exequatur proclamation.

            It seems to be agreed that proclamations have been issued to fill vacancies I congress, so as to house the citizens with a few elections. None has been issued convening congress-nor will there be, we apprehend, until there is a general rising of the country.

            It is further stated that the custom house officers on either bank of the Sabine, have discontinued the collection of the custom duties, the question of annexation, in their opinion, being already settled.

            Meetings in favor of annexation continue to be held. One at St. Augustine was a very large gathering, and was attended by the vice president of Texas, gen. Henderson, major Kaufman and other leading men of the country. IN Nacogdoches, out of 100 voters, it is stated, there are not twenty opposed to the measure.

            The Picayune gives the following intelligence from Mexico, received by the Alabama, from Havana-

            We subjoin such particulars of Mexican affairs as we find our Havana exchanges. They are of great importance, and are nearly a week later than we have received direct. Gen. Almonte's communication of the passage of the measure of annexation, though not unexpected, produced very considerable excitement in the capital. ON the 22d of March, Senor Cuevas, the present minister of foreign relations, addressed a circular to the governors of the different departments, in which he announces this intelligence. He goes on to say that the executive government and the chambers are occupied with the discussion the grave interests involved in the question. He appeals to the patriotism of the authorities of the departments and all their citizens, to forget all divisions, and to stand by the president, and co-operate with him in defense of the rights and the honor of the nation. He promises to communicate promptly to the different departments the measures, which may be resolved upon at the capital.

            Upon the reception of official notification of the passage of the annexation resolutions, a very stormy session was held in the house of deputies, during which propositions of a hostile character were submitted and canvasses, without, however, and decisive vote being taken thereon. The policy of issuing letters of marquee was brought up in this debate.   [BAH]


NR 68.128   26Apr1845:  denunciation of the annexation of Texas by the US, threat of war

            Mexico. Latest dates are to the 4th by the Guadabete, at N. Orleans; official letters have been addressed to our minister, and published, closing all diplomatic relations. Also letters to the ministers of England, France and Spain. They announce, that in opposition to the contemplated measure of annexation:  "the Mexican Republic will employ her power and her resources, and, trusting in the justice of her cause, does not fear to give assurance, that whatever may be the result, she will preserve the honor which at any cost she ought to defend in the grave matter under consideration."

            A letter addressed to the New Orleans Jeffersonian says: "I have just received my letters from Mexico, and copy the following from one: In congress today a proposition has passed to a second reading, by a large majority, making it high treason if any person who should make proposal for the recognition of the independence of Texas to the cession of that country to the United States. I believe a large majority of congress will not agree to declare war against the United States, but will send a large force to Texas with the object of conquering it, by this means forcing the United States to declare war, if she wishes to protect Texas."   [BAH]


May 1845

NR 68.129   3May1845:  earthquakes

            An awful earthquake, visited the city of Mexico on the 7th April.

            At the moment we write, says the Siglo, (of the city of Mexico) of the 8th, the inhabitants of the capitol of the republic are still under the influence of the horrors excited by the earthquake of yesterday, the disastrous effects of which we are still imperfectly acquainted with.

            Yesterday at 52 minutes past 3 o'clock P.M., the oscillations began, slight at first and then stronger - The direction of the motion appeared to be north and south. It lasted about two minutes. The shocks were terrible; nothing like them was ever experienced before, and the condition of the buildings too surely proves the absence of all exaggeration.

            We were by chance upon the great square at the time, and we witnessed a spectacle not easily forgotten. In an instant the multitude, but a moment previous tranquil and listless, were upon their knew, praying to the Almighty and counting with anxiety the shocks which threatened to convert the most beautiful city in the New World into a vast theatre of ruins   [BAH]


NR 68.129   3May, 1845:  people of Chihuahua refuse paying taxes because of Apache depredations

            The people of the department of Chihuahua refuse positively to pay all direct taxes levied by the government, upon the ground hat the irruptions of the Apache Indians have reduced them to extreme want, and that they need succor from the government, instead of being compelled to contribute to its support.

           The celebrated criminal Uruera, condemned to the galleys or 10 years, escaped from the prison at Mazatlan an the 16th ult. His evasion is ascribed to the neglect of the authorities.

           Gen. Woll of the army of the North arrived at Mexico on the 23d ult. having resigned the command of his troops to Gen. Arista.   [BAH]


NR 68.129   3May, 1845: Gen. Manuel Micheltoreno and troops return to Mexico

A letter from Mazatlan, dated the 19th march, says, "By a vessel which arrived here yesterday from Upper California, we learn that Gen. Micheltorena with 200 troops, is on this way to these port, having been compelled to leave that country, by the terms of the capitulation."

           The Vera Cruz papers speak of a horrible murder committed at Puebla by a priest, in consequences of a criminal passion. The particulars are not mentioned.

            Senor Echeverria has resigned the office of minister of finance, on account of ill health, and Senor Luis de la Rosa has been appointed in his stead.    [BAH]


NR 68.133-68.135   03May1845:  official announcement of annexation of Texas by the US, note of Luis G. Cuevas to Ambassador Wilson Shannon, Shannon's reply

            Diplomatic Relations Discontinued - Official Correspondence. The following important notes are translations, for the New Orleans Picayune, from the official, published at the city of Mexico .

Mexico, 22d March, 1845

            The Supreme Government has received official notice of the approval of the congress of the United States of American of the annexation of Texas to their union, on the terms which are expressed in the communication of Don Juan M. Almonte, a copy of which you will find in one of the Journals accompanying this.

            The houses of legislation and the Supreme government are at present occupied in the consideration of this serous affair, and take this method of informing you of the means they are adopting in relation to it. And in order to ensure perfect co-operation, we have tot inform you that His Excellency, the president, depends upon the well-known and tired patriotism of yourself and the assistance of all the inhabitants of your department, and that the good feeling heretofore existing between them and the government may be more particularly sustained at this moment when it is so necessary to maintain the rights and fair name of the nation.

(Signed)
CUEVAS

            The following are given as translations of a note from the Mexican Foreign Minister to Mr. Shannon, dated March 28, and of a circular addressed by the same functionary to the European Ministers which are as follows:

To His Excellency Wilson Shannon,
Envoy Extraordinary, &c.

National Palace, Mexico, March 28, 1845

            The undersigned, minister of foreign relations in addressing himself, for the last time, to his excellency, Mr./ Wilson Shannon, minister plenipotentiary from the United States, desires to inform him, that as both houses of the United States Congress have sanctioned the law in relation to the annexation of Texas to the territory of the United States, and as the minister from Mexico has withdrawn from his mission at Washington, and protested against the act of congress and the government of the United Sates, diplomatic relations between the two countries cannot be continued.

            What can the undersigned add to what has already been said by his government upon the grave offence offered Mexico by the United States, usurping a portion of Mexican territory and violation the terms of treaties of friendship, which the republic of Mexico has observed on her part as long as her honor and the desire to avoid a rupture with the United States have permitted?  Nothing more than to lament that two nations, free and republican, congruous (vicinos) and worthy of fraternal union, founded upon mutual interests and a common and honorable loyalty, should have cut short their friendly relations, and by an act as offensive to Mexico as it is derogatory to the honor of the American Union.

            The undersigned renews to his Excellency Mr. Shannon, the protest already directed against annexation; and, moreover, would add, that the Mexican republic will oppose the measure with all the decision due to her own honor and sovereignty, and hat the government ardently desires that considerations of loyalty and justice should yet outweigh with the citizens of the United States designs for extending their territory at the expense of a friendly republic, which, in the midst o fits misfortunes, (disgracias), seeks to preserve an unspotted name, and thereby the rank to which its destinies cal it.

            The undersigned has the honor to offer to his Excellency, Mr. Shannon, his personal respect, and to assure him of his very distinguished consideration.

Luis G. Cuevas.

            United Sates Legation, March 31, 1845.

            The undersigned, envoy extraordinary, &c. of the United States, has the honor of acknowledging he receipt of his excellency's, Senor Cuevas, minister of foreign relations, &c., note of the 28th of March, announcing that the congress of the United States has sanctioned the annexation of Texas to its territory; that the Mexican minister at Washington had terminated his official relations and protested against the said act of the congress and government of the United States; and that diplomatic relations between the two counties could not be continued.

            The liberal and honorable sentiments entertained by the actual government of Mexico had induced the undersigned to hope that the differences which exist between the governments could be arranged amicably, upon terms just and honorable to both. It would appear, however, from the note of his Excellency Senor Cuevas that Mexico declines to adjust thee differences in this manner, and thus preserve the peace of the two counties.

            The undersigned can assure his excellency Senor Cuevas that his (MR. Shannon's) government entertains the liveliest desire to cultivate amicable relations with that of Mexico; and here he will  improve this opportunity to repeat that which he had before communicated to the government of Mexico, to wit, that the United States has not adopted the measure of annexation in any spirit of hostility towards Mexico, and that the United States are anxious to settle all questions which may grow out of this measure, including that of boundaries, in terms the most just and liberal.

            Having offered the olive branch of peace, and manifested a sincere desire to arrange these questions amicably, and upon principles just and honorable to both governments, the United States have done whatever is in their power to preserve the friendly relations between them, and it now remains for Mexico to decide whether they shall be continued, or whether the peace of the two countries shall be broken by a conflict equally injurious to both, and which can give satisfaction only to the enemies of civil liberty and republican institutions.

            The undersigned will pass over in silence the charge makes against his government of having violated the treaty of friendship with Mexico. The right of Texas to cede the whole or a part of her territory to the United States, and the right of the United States to accept such cession, have already been amply vindicated repeatedly.

            The undersigned has received no official communication as to the action of his government in regards to the annexation of Texas to the Union; nevertheless he cannot doubt, from the tenor of his personal correspondence, that the measure has been passed by congress and approved by the president. He expected daily dispatches from his government, with special instruction upon this subject, and, before any further steps has resolved to await their arrival.

            The undersigned has the honor, &c.

Wilson Shannon

            National Palace, Mexico, April 2, 1845.

            The undersigned, minister of foreign relations, had the honor to communicate to his Excellency, Mr. Shannon, minister, &c., in reply to the note of his Excellency of the 31st March, that the government of Mexico cannot continue diplomatic relations with the United States upon the presumption that such relations are reconcilable with the law which the president of the United States has approved in regard to the annexation of the department of Texas, to the American Union; that this determination is founded upon the necessity which Mexico is under of maintaining no friendship with a republic which has violated her obligations usurped a portion of territory which belongs to Mexico by a right which she will maintain at whatever cost; that the relations between the two counties cannot be re-established before a complete reparation of that injury, (agravio) such as is demanded by good faith, justice to Mexico, and the honor of the United States, is made.

            Moreover, the undersigned will take the liberty to say to his Excellency Mr. Shannon, that if the United States government thinks that it entertained friendly sentiments towards Mexico that he time of giving such offence, and when attacking the integrity of the republic of Mexico, this government (Mexico) is very far from entertaining the same views, or of acquiescing in the assurances which his excellency Mr. Shannon has given, whatever may be its sentiments towards his excellency personally.

            The undersigned, in making this announcement to his Excellency Mr. Shannon, doing so by he order of he president of mexico - cutting short a new discussion which the interrupting of the relations of the two countries will not permit, and because nothing can be added to what this department has already said - has the honor to renew the assurances of his very distinguished consideration.

Luis G. Cuevas


NR 68.135   03May1845:  Luis G. Cuevas' circular to the English, French, and Spanish ministers protesting the American annexation

Senor Cuevas has also addressed a general circular to the ministers plenipotentiary of England, France, and Spain , which is translated as follows:

            The undersigned, minister of foreign relations, has the honor to transmit to his excellency the minister of --- the following circular, being impelled to employ this means of transmitting to his [your] government, in this note, the solemn and formal protest of the Mexican republic, suggested by an act which, wounding to the last degree the rights and honor of Mexico, is equally destructive to the universal principles of justice, to the respect due free and intelligent nations, and the good faith which civilization has fixed as the basis of international intercourse, (international politica.)  His excellency Senor - will understand that the undersigned has reference to the law passed by the congress of the United States, and sanctioned by the executive, for the annexation of the department of Texas to the American Union.

            To present, in all its deformity, this act of the congress and government of the United States, the alarming consequences of its conduct towards the Mexican republic, would be a useless labor, inasmuch as this note is addressed to the representative of a nation as illustrious as it is powerful, which sustaining nobly the rank which it occupies in the world, respects the laws of comity (buena amistad) between foreign nations, and founds its glory upon the immutable titles of morality and justice. The government of the undersigned has no occasion to exhibit all the grounds upon which it relies for its resistance to this measure of annexation, as they are obvious and known to all, and as the feeling excited among friendly nations, and even those which have no official relations with Mexico, will be profound upon learning of a measure so injurious and offensive to Mexico, and so utterly unworthy the honor (buen nombre) of the United States.

            But the undersigned will take occasion to observe to his excellency Senor - that the American government having been the first to acknowledge the independence of the republic of Mexico, showing itself a zealous partisan of liberty, has been the only one which has endeavored to usurp a portion of her territory. He would also add that, as it appears from recent declarations, the designs of the United States have been as old as the friendship which it was sought to confirm, first, by a treaty of amity, and by another for the adjustment of boundaries, which has now been completely violated. In aiding Texas to sever herself from the republic, the United States were wanting in good faith; but in aiding to incorporate Texas with the American confederation, and declaring that this has been her policy for twenty years, she has pursued a course which has no paralleled in the history of civilized nations.

           Mexico, to avoid differences which, for the most part had no foundation in justice, [as against her,] has submitted to serious compromises; she has over looked provocations and injuries, and has preserved her loyalty with such fidelity as to give her more right - if the right she possesses can be increased - to speak out and protest, as the undersigned now does, against the annexation of Texas to the United States, and against all its consequences. The Mexican republic will employ in opposition to this measure her whatever may be the result, she will preserve the honor which at any cost she ought to defend in the very grave matter under consideration. With this view the undersigned requests his excellency Senor --- to give this protest its proper direction, and at the same time to accept the assurances of his most distinguished consideration.

With this view the undersigned requests his Excellency Senor - to give this protest its proper direction, and at the same time to accept the assurances of his most distinguished consideration.

Luis G. Cuevas

   [BAH]


NR 68.135   03May1845:  remarks of the Mexican press on the annexation of Texas by the US

Advices from Vera Cruz up to the 12th instant have been received at New Orleans.

            Mr. Shannon, the American minister, was at Tacubaya. Letters have been received from him at Vera Cruz, stating that he would leave for the U. States in a few days.

            Santa Anna's trial was slowly progressing. His health is represented as being very indifferent.

            The British frigate Eurydices arrived at Vera Cruz on the morning of the 12th inst. from Galveston with dispatches, which were immediately forwarded to the capital.

            The papers of the city of Mexico and of Vera Cruz continued to be occupied almost exclusively with the subject of annexation. The official paper, El Diario del Gobierno, of the 3d inst. announces that it is in possession of certain movements on the part of the government of a warlike character, which it is constrained to withhold from the public, as secrecy is the soul of military operations; but expresses a hope that the speedy and successful issue of these operations will soon relieve the public curiosity in regard to them.

            The Mexican papers comment freely upon the correspondence and state of affairs with the U. States.

            The Diario recommends peace and internal tranquility as the sole means of "recovering the territory usurped by the North Americans."  The Monitor is astonished at the backwardness of the government, in not making an immediate declaration of war upon the United States. It adds that it has been informed that troops have already gone towards Texas, and advises the government to furnish them with resources for the campaign. The Minerva censures the ministry for explanations with respect to the departure of an English frigate from Galveston with overtures to the government of Texas. The Voz del Pueblo assails the ministry, accusing them of incapacity, and declaring that before undertaking a war upon Texas, they should employ proper measures for saving the Californias from the anarchy, which threatens to destroy and ruin that rich and vast portion of the republic.

            The papers literally teem with articles upon Texas, showing that the public mind in that quarter is deeply excited upon the subject, and probably ripe for extreme measures. The Diaro de Vera Cruz is one of the few moderate prints in the republic, and that journal observes that though sincerely and ardently desiring peace, it can scarcely see how it is to be preserved.   [BAH]


NR 68.144   03May1845:  receipt of Mexican proposals to treat with Texas on the basis of independence

            TEXAS-Latest. The steamer John S. McKim, a New Orleans, left Galveston the 21st ult. President Jones had issued his proclamation for congress to meet on the 16th of June. The proclamation announces that the government of the United States had selected the 1st and 2d sections of the resolutions, (Milton Brown's) as the basis for consummating the proposed union.

            A meeting had been held in Washington, (Texas) at which resolutions were passed unanimously, in favor of immediate annexation, "without reference to the wishes or concurrence of any foreign or European power," calling on the president to convene congress immediately, and recommending to the citizens of the republic, in case he did not, to meet in convention and ratify the resolutions and form a state constitution. The next day the proclamation was issued. Some objection was urged by the attorney general, Mr. Allen at the meeting against the tone of the resolutions. Mr. Scurry, in reply, intimated that the citizens might become much more impatient, and adopt measures much more violent than those recommended.

            The National Register, says: "The object of the president, (Jones) is, to take such steps as shall not only ascertain the will of the people, but if they shall so require place us in a position for admission into the for admission in the Union, at the next session of the American congress."

            A meeting held at Brenham, on the 11th, adopted resolutions similar to those adopted at Washington.

            It was believed that government had received communications from Gen. Arista, overland, conveying assurances that Mexico was disposed to treat with Texas, upon the basis of independence and that dispatches to the same effect had arrived from Vera Cruz, to which the Huston Star, of the 19th says, government had sent a reply b y a British vessel.

            It would appear that Mr. Smith, late secretary of state, has gone as charge de affairs of the Texian republic to England and France, and that EBENZER ALLEN, late attorney general, is to succeed him as secretary.   [BAH]


NR 68.146   10May1845:  benefits to be derived by Mexico from the American annexation of Texas[
68.146   10May1845:  Mexico, population

            Mexico. We recently made some remarks on the probable influence that annexation will exercise upon the trade between the United States and Texas. When we consider the condition of Mexico itself, the inefficiency of its government, the prohibitive and oppressive nature of the laws it attempts to enforce, the demoralized condition of the people and of public integrity, in connection with the wants of the people, we become struck with the important results which must necessarily grow out of the advance of the United States' citizens with ample supplies of goods to the Mexican frontier. The so-called handful of men who control about 7,000,000 of people. According to the best recent authorities, the inhabitants are classed as follows:

1793

1842

Indians

2,319,741

4,500,000

Europeans

7,994

 

White Creoles

677,458

1,000,000

Mestizos and other classes

1,478,426

1,515,500

4,483,529

7,015,500

           The last estimate was that made by the government. Now, of these 7,015,500 persons who occupy Mexico, it is known that 80,000 only of all the classes, except whites, can ead and write; of the 1,000,000 whites one half are males, and of these the highest estimates make one-fifth who can read and write. - Here, then, out of a population of 7,000,000 there are only 1000,000 who are in any respect fitted to take part in the public affairs. This small class is directed by a few military men, and they call the whole a "republic."  The exports from Mexico for 1841 were as follows:

Specie,
$18,500,000
Other articles,
1,500,000
Total
$20,000,000
The imports were -
England,
4,500,000
France,
3,000,000
Hamburg
1,500,000
United States,
800,000
Other places,
3,500,000
Total,
12,3000,000
Excess exports,
$7,700,000

           This indicates the extent to which smuggling is carried on under the absurdly oppressive laws "to protect her home industry. The duties collected on the imports were $5,287,097. or about 45 per cent. Average. The corruption of the government officers is proverbial, and, consequently, large quantifies of goods are entered, even now, without paying duties, even when carried across the Prairies from the United States to Santa Fe. Some details of this trade for the last year will be found under the commercial head. The consumption of cotton goods is very extensive in Mexico, and the import of cotton twists is prohibited by the provident government, ostensibly to encourage "home manufactures," but really to raise money by selling permits for its introduction to English merchants. There are in Mexico fifty-three factories, having 131,280 spindles, which consume about 3,000,000 pounds of cotton per annum, while the growth of Mexico, is about five thousand hand looms in Mexico, which work up all the spun yarn into cotton cloth, the rice of which will average twenty-five cents, for an article wroth ten cents in the United States. The benefits which the Mexicans derive form paying the makers of this cloth the extra fifteen cents, are "untold."  Now, the Mexican frontier adjoining the state of Texas is about three thousand miles in length, with no means, if the officers had the will, to prevent the smuggling of sufficient goods to supply all Mexico. This process has hitherto been dept in check only by barren waste of eight hundred miles to be traveled before reaching her cities from the United States, and its demoralizing influence is the legitimate result of the absurd notions of "protection," which in Mexico is more openly adopted than in the United States, as a direct means of extorting money from the people.

           The "national debt" of this oppressed race is as follows:

Internal debt
$18,550,000
English debt
60,000,000
United States claims
2,4000,000
Other claims
3,2000,000
Total
$84,150,000

           The customs were solemnly pledged for the payment of the first time, but the highly respectable late dictator seized them for his won use. The whole revenue of Mexico for 1840 was $12,744,157, derived from most ruthless extortions. The natural effect of the misgovernment in Mexico will now have the same effect in Texas, as does that of Spain in the frontier towns of France, Viz: the formation of extensive depots for goods to run into Mexico in all directions. This in France is a regular organized trade, having extensive insurance arrangements to cover goods almost to any point in the interior of Spain. Chihuahua alone consumes some $3,000,000 of goods, at prices ranging 100 percent about those in the United States, for "the protection" of the consumers, of course. With the advancement of the United States population, this premium and smuggling will daily become more tempting, and the result may probably work out a more civilized system of commercial policy, although our own laws present similar barbarisms.   [BAH]


NR 68.151   10May1845:  projects recommended by the Mexican Congress on the annexation of Texas by the US
68.151   10May1845:  remarks of the Mexican press on the annexation of Texas by the US

            The joint committee of the Mexican congress, to which had been referred the subject of Texas, reported at length on the 7th ult., they recommend two projects as follows:

            The First is preceded by a preamble, declaring that, whereas, the United States have resolved to annex the territory of Texas; and, whereas, such a mode of appropriating foreign territory to which other nations lay claim, is a monstrous innovation upon the peace of the world and the sovereignty of other powers; and, whereas, this act had long been in preparation, even while the United States were professing peace and friendship for Mexico, an insult to her dignity as a sovereign nation, and menaces her independence and political existence; therefore,

            The congress of the Mexican republic solemnly declare, that the law of the United States for the annexation of Texas to the American Union, in no respect impairs the rights which Mexico possess, and will maintain, to that department.

            Furthermore, that the United States having disregarded the principles upon which are based treaties of amity, commerce and navigation, and more especially of boundary, congress considers them violated by the United States.

            And finally, that the unjust usurpation of which it is sought to make Mexico the victim, makes it her duty to take up arms in her defense, to oppose such usurpation and with the full and rightful determination to use all her resources and power to prevent the annexation decree by the United States.

            The second project consists of four articles, as follows:

            First --- The Mexican nation calls upon her sons to defend their national independence, threatened by the usurpation of the territory of Texas, which is sought to be consummated by a decree passed by the congress and sanctioned by the president of the United States.

            Second --- Therefore the government will consider itself at liberty (prodra poner) to call forth its entire, permanent, and active military force, agreeably to the authority given to it by existing laws.

            Third --- For the preservation of public order, and the maintenance of her institutions, and if necessary, as a reserve for the army, the government in virtue of the power granted to it on the 8th of December, 1844, may levy the troops to which said decree refers under the name of Defenders of Independence and the Laws.

            Fourth --- With a view to the efficient maintenance of the rights of the republic, the government is authorized to procure all extraordinary resources, which may be deemed necessary, making known to congress the necessary steps to be taken, conformably to the constitution.

            No action was had by the Mexican congress on these projects. The N. Orleans Bee remarks:

            "The public journals are still excessively bellicose, and, from what we can perceive, there is a very strong indisposition on the part of the government to surrender Texas. Still, though Mexico may bluster, and even declare war, it will be mere child's play. --- She is utterly destitute of resources --- without a dollar in her treasury --- with a disaffected and discontented population ripe for another revolution --- and a disorderly soldiery ill paid, ill fed, and ill clad, who have already, we are credibly informed, at Monterey and elsewhere, exhibited strong symptoms of mutiny. We published, therefore, the above pugnacious manifesto, rather as a part of the history of the times, than because we apprehended anything very serious from its high sounding phraseology. The only way in which Mexico can annoy us is by crippling our commerce in the Gulf, and for this it behooves our government to be prepared."   [BAH]


NR 68.160  10 May 1845:  earthquakes

Earthquakes, at Mexico. A brief account of dreadful effects of an earthquake experienced on the April, at the city of Mexico, was given in our last report. Another occurred there at 10 A.M. on the 10th of April which lasted 40 seconds, prostrating many buildings which had escaped the previous visitation, and coming the ruin of many that were then injured. The freighted inhabitants fled to the open fields as the safest sort. The 'Hesperia" of the 12th states that the earthquake of the 10th completed the destruction of the pola of Santa Teresa, and increased the damage to the churches of Santo Domingo and San Francisco. But for the shortness of its duration, the entire city has been laid in ruins. Mexico did not suffer all. The shock was felt in a number of towns and well within a radius of several hundred miles. At Puerto Rico the earthquake was experienced on the 7th, about 4 o'clock, P.M. but its effects were comparatively slighted. Several churches were injured, and many private were greatly damaged; though none were absolutely destroyed. At Acuarthio and Toluco the effects of shock were more considerable. At Guadalajara, Milia, and Vera Cruz, the earthquake was experienced on the 7th and 10th, but on neither occasion was damage very serious.   [BAH]


NR 68.178   24May1845:  Texas boundary defined and independence guaranteed by convention among Mexico, Great Britain, and France

            The N.Y. Journal of Commerce of Tuesday, has the following intelligence from Mexico:

            "We learn from Captain Baker, of the bark Falmouth which left Matanzas, May 9th, that the English mail steamer from Vera Cruz arrived at Havana 7th instant, with dispatches for Mr. Crawford, the British consul, advising him that the boundary line of Texas had been defined and settled, and her independence guarantied by a convention between England, France, and Mexico. Accounts by the same arrival state that Santa Anna has been reduced to the alternative of ten years' banishment, or a trial for maladministration.

            The above intelligence must have left Vera Cruz on the 2d or 3d inst., which is ten days later than our previous advices.

            This joint guarantee of Texas Independence, with a specification of boundaries, is a more definite form of the proposition sent to Texas from Mexico some weeks since, per British frigate Eurydice. The Texan government objections were obviated, and a liberal boundary specified, the proposition would be presented to the people for adoption or rejection, simultaneously with the annexation project. We presume the line has been placed pretty far West, in the hope of inducing the Texans to acquiesce; but it will be in vain, --- they are almost unanimous for annexation, and annexation will be the result."   [BAH]


NR 68.176   17May1845:  further accounts of controversy over annexation of Texas by the US

Senor Boves, on the 15th ult. Offered a protest, in the chambers, against the report of the minister of foreign affairs, in relation to Texas, and in his speech attacked Senor Cuevas, and his policy, and insisted that Texas was irretrievably lost. On the question being taken Boves stood "solitary and alone."  A motion to expel him was spoken of.   [BAH]


NR 68.176   17May1845:  excitement over arrival of American squadron at Veracruz

Commodore Conner with the four United States ships constituting his squadron, reached Vera Cruz at the same time that General Almonte landed there from New York. Though the appearance of the squadron is said to have created much excitement, yet the usual cavities and salutes were exchanged, and offers of services were tendered by the Mexican commanders.   [BAH]


NR 68.193   31May, 1845: little excitement in New Mexico over the American annexation of Texas

Santa Fe. The St. Louis Republican has news from Santa Fe to the 14th April, at which time everything was quiet, but a bad feeling existed between the governor and a number of the Mexicans, on account of coercive measure having been resorted to by the former in order to collect he forced loan, which many refused to pay. News of the passage of the Texas resolutions by the congress of the United States, reached Santa Fe on the 13th of April, but it created no excitement of popular feeling. The governor issued a proclamation, desiring such of the foreigners as were so disposed, to meet at a place designated, and receive their protection papers. Very little attention, however, was paid to the proclamation, as no apprehensions were entertained of any immediate difficulties.

           The Indians were becoming bolder daily, and the Eutaws had commenced their war against them, having killed many Indians in the neighborhood of Taos. The Apache Indians were also very daring. Stealing mules and killing hem daily. The traders who had gone to Chihuahua will reach Independence in about a month, the roads being good and the prairie beautiful. Mr. Speyer, who sustained such a loss by the Apache Indians, had got back from them about one-half of mules, and they had promised to deliver most of the others - he paying hem a trilling sum per head. Goods were scarce in Chihuahua and the lower counties, and no doubt, as Mr. Speyer had just arrived here, he would reap a very handsome profit - he having all the goods that were for sale, by wholesale, in that place.

            The Mexican traders had given up all idea of becoming to the states this spring, and it is very doubtful if they will venture in the fall.   [BAH]


NR 68.193   31May1845:  Mexican maneuvering, under European tutelage, to prevent annexation of Texas by the US

Foreign Relations. Our government have received dispatches from Commodore Conner, off Vera Cruz, as late as the 10th, by brig. Somers, dispatched to Pensacola. After a warm debate which lasted three days, the resolution sent by the secretary of foreign affairs, authorizing a treaty, acknowledging the independence of Texas, passed the chambers of deputies at Mexico on the 3d inst. by the vote of 41 to 13. The senate was to take the question up on the 8th inst. It was supposed they would pass it by a numerous vote. Mr. Elliot, the British charge, and a confidential commissioner from Texas, stantly with the proposition to Galveston, in the British frigate which they come from there in.

The posture of affairs between the United States and Mexico, has become serious. The fact is ascertained that the administration of Texas had made overtures to Mexico, under the countenance of European diplomatists, with the view of obtaining an acknowledgement of their independence and a peace with Mexico. Whether this movement was designed as a means of using its influence to ensure the passage of annexation measures by the United States congress; whether with a view of obtaining better terms of the United States, than the resolutions adopted by congress offered them; whether with a view of making the most of their market, and inducing Europe, the United States, and Mexico, to bid for the "Lone Star;" or whether the movement was induced by a determination to hold on to a separate national existence, and to the powers and perquisites of office, which few persons are found willing to resign; whichever of these motives may have influenced the movement, it is one of somewhat serious import. It appears to us to imply, that the European backers of Mexico will be called upon to take up the broad question, whether the United States shall be arrested in their territorial projects, provided their interference can prevent it?

That England has many and powerful inducements to avoid a war with the United States, is obvious. --- That she would go to war about a remote section of the sterile northwest, may be questioned, notwithstanding the parliamentary array lately exhibited upon the subject. But apprehensions may be entertained by her in relation to nearer and more interesting territory and trade, which she may consider compromised by what she doubtless regards as a spirit of grasping and aggrandizement on our part, and may make the question of peace or war, one of much broader aspect than otherwise it would be. --- When such a state of affairs exists, a small matter may give the die a fatal cast. Mexico in all probability will have the sympathies of the European governments on her side. European governments may adventure a step too far in attempting to sustain Mexico in resisting annexation, and there by make a general war inevitable.

The people of Texas are nearly unanimous for instant annexation with the Union at all hazards.  So overwhelming is public opinion there upon the subject, that the Texan executive has had to yield to it, and now any negotiation for independence is too late.

The United States stands comp omitted to Texas, and annexation, to all appearance, is inevitable.

That Mexico will declare war, so soon as this country takes possession of Texas, is certainly to be appearance of things.

We shall await the result of the hasty mission of Mr. Smith, the Texan minister to England, with some anxiety, and should have preferred that de had tarried long enough to carry with him the decided expression in relation to annexation which the people of Texas have uttered since he left home.   [BAH]


NR 68.195   31May1845:  the Stockton squadron arrives at Vera Cruz

The Stockton Squadron. The United States squadron, consisting of the steamer Princeton and other vessels, under the command of Commodore Stockton, had arrived at Vera Cruz a few days before the sailing of the Eugenia. The usual friendly salutes were exchanged between the squadron and the Mexican fortifications.   [BAH]


NR 68.204-68.205   31May1845:  notice of negotiations for Mexican recognition of the independence of Texas on the condition that Texas reject proposals from the US regarding the annexation of Texas

            The schooner Titi reached New Orleans on the 19th from Havanna, which place she left on the 6th with Mexican papers to the 26th, and Vera Cruz papers to the 30th April.

            The fact that the Mexican and Texan governments are in consultation with a view to an adjustment of the difficulties existing between them, and that the administration of the former now disposed to acknowledge the independence of the latter upon condition that Texas shall refuse the proposition of the United States congress to annex the Republic to the Union, is officially announced in the following-

IMPORTANT COMMUNICATION

            Sent to the Chamber of Deputies on the 21st April, by the Mexican minister of foreign affairs-

            Gentlemen- The affairs of Texas being of such deep importance as to claim the first consideration of the congress and executive, the government cannot, without assuming a special responsibility, defer the resolution that must be taken to bring them to an issue compatible with the honor and interest of the Republic. The government having assembled a considerable body of troops upon that frontier, and employed all its resources to accomplish the proposed end, and having considered of those asked of the legislative bodies, sees no other course to pursue than to carry our the plan proposed to sustain the Republic in all the dignity due to its honor and good name.

            Circumstances have transpired which render it both necessary and roper to enter upon negotiations that will prevent the annexation of Texas to the United States; such an event would inevitably deal to a war with the American Republic-for Mexico would not agree to annexation-however deplorable such a conflict might be. Texas had taken the initiative in proposing a settlement, and his excellency, the president ad interim, well understanding its importance and the necessity of taking a resolution in relation to it, is also persuaded that the executive cannot proceed in the matter without being first authorized to do so by the chambers; that in the case before him he should not exercise that powers conferred by the constitution for conduction negotiations with foreign powers.

            The Government-always faithful to its duty, and desirous of submitting its acts to free discussion, and considering that national questions should be disposed of with patriotic spirit, and a conscientiousness superior to assaults and above prejudices of every character-cannot decline the proffered negotiation without, in his opinion, violating his duty by deciding so delicate a question before submitting it to congress. If he could make and arrangement, honorable in itself and such as would satisfy the national honor, he would submit it with great pleasure to congress; and f such could not be achieved, The same government which is so desirous of a peace conformable to the dignity of Republic, would be the first to decide in favor of war, which would be more just after all efforts to avert it had failed.

            The preliminary propositions of Texas are to a character honorable and fair towards the Republic, and the government, with out deciding upon them, had not double about accepting them as the initiative to the arrangement sought by Texas. Not to have accepted it, would have been to establish the annexation of Texas to the Unites States, and congress will perceive that a step so ill-advised would have been a terrible charge to the present administration. To refuse to hear proposals of peace that may lead to a satisfactory result would have been and extreme measure the least profitable to the Republic, however it might at first flatter a justly irritated patriotism; but this ins not what the nation expects from its supreme government, which is obligated to foresee and with the evils of a long costly war, and to avoid them as long as its honor can be maintained, as in the present case.

            If the government had acted solely upon its impulses as soon as the law of annexation passed the congress of the United States, the chambers well know what its conduct would have been, and what its firmness in resisting all other propositions than war, which the patriotism of all Mexicans would have sustained with glory. His excellency the president ad interim as well as his ministers, make a great sacrifice in asking the authorization of the end of this message; but it is make upon mature deliberation, and from an ardent desire for the prosperity of the Republic, and with the conviction that if war should ensue after making every effort to preserve peace, it will end in the glory of the national arms, and in accordance with the public justice as regards those who provoke it.

            Therefore his excellency, the president ad interim, in ministerial council, and with the unanimous advice of his cabinet, has directed me to present for your deliberation the following resolution-

            "The government is authorized to receive the propositions made by Texas, and to proceed to the formation of a treaty that if it deems honorable to the Republic; to be laid before congress for its examination and approbation."

            With the highest consideration, &c.

Luis G. Cuevas.

GOD AND LIBERTY

Mexico, April 21st , 1845.

           The above document establishes the fact, that president Jones and the Texian administration had make overtures to Mexico, with the view to the admission by the latter, of Texian independence.

           It seems to be understood, that in case of the failure of the proposed recognition with Texas, from any cause, Mexico will, even by war, resist annexation. The administration have asked congress to authorize a loan of three million of dollars, to provide for such a contingency. Authority is likewise asked for the settlement of the foreign debt.

           Two projects are before congress, growing out of the executive message signed by Cuevas.

           The first, considers that it has violated the treaties between the two countries especially that in relation to boundaries; and the Mexico ought to arm herself and repel the threatened invasion by force.

           The other project calls all Mexicans to arms, and authorizes the government to arm the permanent and active militia, an gives the administrative powers to the necessary means from all sources.

           The Mexican journals are said to be very hostile to any negotiation to based upon the re-union of Texas with Mexico. A formidable military force is concentrating on the borders of Texas.

           Gen. Almonte had arrived in the city of Mexico.

           The papers till speak of the disastrous effects of the earthquakes of the 7th and 10th April. A letter from Guanajuato states that the village called "Valle de Rio Blanco" has almost ceased to exist, as considerable part of its small population was engulfed during the earthquake, in a yawning abyss 38 yards long and 13 wide. More than sixty persons were swallowed up.

           Various projects have been submitted to congress or a general amnesty of the military chiefs, against whom prosecution has been commenced, and some have proposed that the amnesty should be extended to all the political criminals, with the restriction that Santa Anna and Canalizo, and the four ministers who signed the decree of the 29th November, should quite the country for ten years, or submit to the continuation of their trail. The latter proposition, slightly modified, was adopted by the chamber of deputies on the 16th. Santa Anna, Canalizo, and the four ministers are allowed eight-day s to determine whether they will choose and expatriation of ten years, or the continuation of their trials. Breaches of trust in pecuniary matters from an exception to this general pardon, and Santa Anna's abdication of the presidency is accepted.   [BAH]


NR 68.208   31May1845:  insurrection in California against Gen. Manuel Micheltoreno

            California. A letter from Mazatlan, published in a late Vera Cruz paper, says --- "The insurrection in California against General Michel Toreno has succeeded --- the holy cause of liberty is triumphant, we are independent."   [BAH]


June 1845

NR 68.210-68.212   7June, 1845:  history of negotiations for acquisition of California

           The London Times, in reference to the design of the United States, to make themselves masters of the Californians, states hat in "1835, Mr. Forsyth offered to the Mexican government five millions of dollars for the port of San Francisco - one of the finest naval positions n the world."  The Times is probably mistaken as to the date, and the extont of the proposition.

           The credit of this proposition is due to John Quincy Adams. Mr. Adams make an offer to the Mexican government, during his administration, through Mr. Poinsett, of, perhaps, five millions of dollars for Texas. Subsequently, Mr. Adams repeated the offer for the purchases of Texas, and of that part of California lying north of latitude 37, so as to give us the Bay of San Francisco. This offer was again repeated and urged, through Mr. Anthony Butler. - The Mexican government always refused to consider it, and it never came to be a matter of negotiation.

           At that time, Mexico was reveling in an unlimited credit with English capitalists and bankers, and for the sake of a few millions, would not entertain a project for dismembering her empire. The Times is quite right in the statement that the "United States have already make several attempts to obtain possession of the great harbors on the coast of California."  The attempt has not been confined tone party, nor one administration. It is the natural and necessary policy of the United States. If the only check to its accomplishment is to be sound as the Times suggests, in the establishment of another energetic and independent power to share the dominion of North America with us, then, it is perfectly safe to predict that it will be accomplished.

           The hold hat Mexico has on the Californians is merely nominal. Since the governor of Monterey abandoned his post and "sloped," there has been no regular government there. They have no communications with Mexico, and are in fact, independent of her. There will soon be more Yankees than Mexicans there, and they will, most likely, establish a government of their own, entirely independent of Mexico. What great harm is to befall the world from the settlement of this fine country by enterprising, intelligent and free citizens of the United States, who will rapidly develop its resources in commerce and agriculture, does not appear. It may prevent Great Britain from possessing it, and hence, perhaps, the apprehensions of the "Times."

           A company of British subjects, who had claims on the Mexican government, were at on e time, very nearly successful in obtaining a cession of the island in the bay of San Francisco. Had the enterprise succeeded, it would have afforded a pretext of a claim on the part of Great Britain to the territory, and the settlement of it by British subjects would have afforded the means necessary to enable her to maintain her possession. Mr. Pakenham was minister in Mexico at the time when this negotiation was pending, and he aided in it, but did not bring the authority of his government to bear upon it, for the reason hat the claims thus proposed to be provided for, were for advances make to Mexico before her government was established, and in the face of the proclamation of the British government, warning its subjects not to look to it for protection in cases where they made contracts with insurgent colonies. The enterprise, therefore, failed.   [BAH]


NR 68.211-68.212      07Jun1845:  history of negotiations for acquisition of California

We mentioned a day or two ago, without having any knowledge of the circumstances which led to it, than an insurrection in California against the governor of the Province, general Manuel Micheltorena, had succeeded. A letter from Monterey, published in the Washington Union, places us in possession of the facts.

            About eight years ago Don Juan B. Alvarado, Don Jose Castro, and others, Californians by birth, aided by several foreigners, took possession of the town of Monterey, the archives and government property, chartered an English vessel, and sent the Mexican general, his officers and their families, to Lower California, and left them there, to fine their way to Mexico as they could. The Californians than proceeded to take possession of ever part of California, with the different missions, and the many cattle belonging to the missions, and the different offices of honor and profit within these department. The Mexicans remaining in the country make an effort to put them down, but failed. The Californians marched tow or three times up and down the coast, continuing a part of the foreigners under high pay. Bustamente, the president of Mexico, the second year after this revolution, confirmed the Californians in the different employments. During the time they held command, they ordered almost every Englishman and American, (their former confederates) to be arrested. Over one hundred were imprisoned in Monterey at one time-over fifty of these in a low, damp room, less than 20 feet square without floor or windows. In May, the same year, many of the men were chained, six and eight to a bar, put into the hold a vessel, and sent to San Blas. Fifteen months afterwards the government of Mexico sent part of them back to Monterey-several dying from fatigue and privations. In the year 1843 general Manuel Micheltorena arrived in California with some three or four hundred officers and soldiers, and by order of president Santo Anna took command-putting our of office some of the Californians. Last November, Senors Castro, Alvarado, and many of their countrymen, again rose with the determination of sending out of their country the Mexican troops. The tow parties met and make a treaty. Within a month, however, they each denied the treaty and again took up arms. Gen. Micheltorena had in his service tow hundred foreigners, English, Germans and Americans, who had taken up the government cause to put down the rebellion; and several of them were the same who helped to put the Californians into office eight years before, and were, some years afterwards, imprisoned and shipped in irons without any trial. A large portion of the foreigners who entered the service of the Mexican government arrived in California towards the close of the last year over the Rocky Mountains from our Western States. These were marched with the Mexican troops, but had their own officers chosen from among themselves, captain John A. utter, a Swiss officer, (formerly of Charles X's guard in Paris), being their commander and leader, and a Capt. Gant, or Grant, (it is said,) formerly of the United States army, their captain.

            Hostilities were kept up between the two parties until the 21st of February last, when the Californians succeeded in their efforts against the government of the regular governor and commander general, Don Manuel Micheltorena. After a final battle a treaty was make, by which it was agreed that every person on either side might go where he wished-the soldiers to go to San Blas or remain citizens of California. The Mexican officers who wish to remain will continue to hold their commissions and pay. Micheltorena was to go to San Blas. Don Pico has become governor, as he is the leading member of the house of deputies or state legislature; and Don Jose Castro had become commandant general of California. California, from Bodega to San Diego, is once more under its own command-the Russians having left Bodego, which now belongs to captains S. Smith said to belong to Baltimore, who is a naturalized citizen of California. [Baltimore American. Correspondence of the Journal of Commerce. Washington, May 21st.]

            The London Times, in reference to the design of the United States, to make themselves masters of the Californians, states hat in "1835, Mr. Forsyth offered to the Mexican government five millions of dollars for the port of San Francisco-one of the finest naval positions in their world."  The Times is probably mistaken as to the date, and the extont of the proposition.

            The credit of this proposition is due to John Quincy Adams. Mr. Adams made an offer to the Mexican government, during his administration, through Mr. Poinsett, of, perhaps, five millions of dollars for Texans. Subsequently, Mr. Adams repeated the offer for the purchase of Texas, and of that part of California lying north of latitude 37, so as to give us the Bay of San Francisco. This offer was again repeated and urged, through Mr. Anthony Butler. The Mexican government always refused to consider it, and it never came to be a matter of negotiation.

            At that time, Mexico was reveling in an unlimited credit with English capitalists and bankers, and for the sake of a few millions, would not entertain a project for dismembering her empire. The Times is quite right in the statement that the "United States have already make several attempts to obtain possession of the great harbors on the coast of California."  The attempt has not been confined to one party, nor one administration. It is the natural and necessary policy of the United States. If the only check to its accomplishment is to be found the Times suggests, in the establishment of another energetic and independent power to share the dominion of North America with us, then it is perfectly safe to predict that it will be accomplished.

            The hold that Mexico has on the Californians is merely nominal. Since the governor of Monterey abandoned his post and "sloped," there has been no regular government there. They have no communication with Mexico, and are, in fact, independent of her.  There will soon be more Yankees than Mexicans there, and they will, most likely, establish a government of their own, entirely independent of Mexico. What great harm is to befall the world from the settlement of this fine country by enterprising, intelligent and free citizens of the United States, who will rapidly develop its resources in commerce and agriculture, does, not appear. It may prevent Great Britain from possessing it, and hence, perhaps, the apprehensions of the "Times."

            A company of British subjects, who had claims on the Mexican government, were, at one time, very nearly successful in obtaining a cession of the island in the bay of San Francisco. Had the enterprise succeeded, it would have afforded a pretext of a claim on the part of Great Britain to the territory, and the settlement of it by British subjects would have afforded the means necessary to enable her to maintain her possession. Mr. Pakenham was minister in Mexico at the times when this negotiation was pending, and he aided in it, bud did not bring the authority of this government to bear upon it, for the reason that the claims thus proposed to be provided for, were for advances made to Mexico before her government was established, and in the face of the proclamation f the British government, warning its subjects not to look to it for protection in cases where they made contacts with insurgent colonies. The enterprise, therefore, failed.   [BAH]


NR 68.212   07Jun1845:  Wilson Shannon leaves Mexico

Of Mr. Shannon we hear this much:

            "Mr. Shannon, late American vessel, and would sail about the 15th instant, for New York. It does not appear that he possessed any knowledge of the political affairs of the capital of Mexico, and he is not considered in any other light than an obscure American citizen, whose name is never alluded to as one at all connected with the important transactions of the day."   [BAH]


NR 68.212   07Jun1845:  bill to raise three million for war, but war unlikely

It is thought by a great many that the present government cannot sustain itself much longer, and the idea of its declaring war against the United States has been abandoned by all sensible men. Congress, to be sure, has passed a bill to raise $3,000,000 to prepare for a war about to take place; but we are informed that the opinion is pretty general that the money cannot be obtained, and that it was not designed for that purpose, as they would not venture, under existing circumstances to collect together any considerable number of troops.   [BAH]


NR 68.212   07Jun1845:  salutary influence of the US squadron at Veracruz

In regard to the American squadron at Vera Cruz, we have the following information.

"The arrival of our squadron at Vera Cruz created a great excitement, and also in the city of Mexico, where it was represented to consist of twenty-one wail of men-of-war?  The unexpected presence of this squadron had, no doubt, a salutary influence, and possibly might have caused the mission, so privately determined upon, the United States."   [BAH]


NR 68.212   07Jun1845:  Mexican Army,  number of officers and men

The present army of Mexico is said to consist of 21,000 officers, and less than 20,000 men!   [BAH]


NR 68.226   14Jun1845:  letter about the capabilities of Mexican forces on the Texas frontier 

Foreign Relations- Annexation. The position of affairs at the present moment may be regarded as exceedingly interesting. A very few weeks will probably determine definitely whether this country is to be involved in a foreign war, in consequence of the proposed extension of the limits of our confederation so as to include Texas as a part and parcel of the republic, or not. The Texian congress agreeably to the proclamation issued by President Jones, will assemble on Monday, next, the 16th instant to consider the question of annexation or independence.- And the 4th of July, less than three weeks thereafter, assembles a convention which we presume is intended to represent the essential sovereignty of the people, as above all existing law or constitution, and with powers to dispense with all authority, and to direct the operations, or to terminate the existence of the existing government of Texas, as they may think proper.

Of the disposition with which both those bodies will assemble, we presume there is no longer a reasonable doubt. Of the determination of the people upon the question of annexation whenever it might be fairly proposed to them, upon equitable and honorable terms, we have never had a doubt; and that they would in any event, be disposed to from alliances with European powers, adverse to the tree American interests or feelings, we have never for one moment indulged an apprehension. The Texian people and the Texian interests in all their leading characteristics are too obviously similar to, if not identified with our own, to allow us to imagine that their people would in any form, come subservient to so suicidal a policy as that of adopting a European, Anti-American dependence, or seeking for British protection or British alliance, as against the interests or policy of the United States.

Free from every such apprehension, we have deplored that feverish impetuosity which we fear had buried on a result, that might have been, and we believe would have been attained, by a more deliberate course, with far less risk to the country, and without compromising either its peace or its character or its constitution.

We speak of precipitance in this respect, because it must be obvious to all hat besides its hurrying on the Texians to a course which violates all existing authorities of that government, without leaving them time to teach the same result by a legal and legitimate course, it has, as it respects our country, induced a selection by the executive, of an alternative which, if more time and deliberation were supposed to be allowable, would not it is believed have been the one selected by that authority as their choice of the two alternatives which the act of congress left to their selection without a full persuasion that the other alternative would have been selected, it is probable that the measure would not and could not have obtained, at the last session, a majority of votes in the United States senate. The alternative alluded to, we believe would have been greatly preferable to that adopted by the executive; would have been as certain of ultimately accomplishing annexation, and of accomplishing it upon a basis for a better for the Union, for Texas, and for the harmony of the world. When the information that President Tyler had negotiated a treaty with Texas for annexations, first reached us, we indulged an expression of opinion upon the subject, which elaborate discussion and subsequent events have but tended to confirm. The question of annexing Texas was a great national question, involving so many considerations, the new one of amalgamating a foreign state into the confederacy, one of them, that cool deliberation, and the utmost precaution seemed to us to be required in the premises, not only as to the ultimate shall we or not, but as to the wisest and best make by which we shall, if so decided. Instead of that cool deliberation, it has been throughout a series of measures hurried on by feverish impetuosity, avowedly alarmed for fear delay to look and think and choose alarmed for fear delay to look and think and choose wisely would render all hopeless. "Now or never" - was the incessant cry. European intrigue, was the great bugbear that was to hurry both Texas and the United States into, perhaps, nay probably, an ill adjusted union, which one or both for centuries to come may have cause to regret that they had not taken more time to adjust, as it might have been and ought to have been adjusted - carefully and wisely. To adduce proof of this is not necessary. The whole subject is so full and pregnant with what is now to be left to the future, that we much fear the present will be - much ensured for a want of due precaution.

So much as to the parties to annexation.

But the foreign aspect, whether we shall or shall not have a foreign war, in consequence of assuming this new dominion and of taking possession of this additional territory, a few weeks will now determine. All eyes are earnestly directed towards the movements of Mexico. The British, the French, (and the Texian) agents near that government, are all represented as "endeavoring to move heaven and earth" to prevent annexation, and induce Texas to maintain her INDEPENDENCE. We regard the operations of the English and French agents in that direction as a matter of course. The interests of their government would be most promoted by Texas keeping our of our Union, and perhaps they have just as much right to urge the interests and views of their governments in the premises, as our agents have to urge the claims of our government. - Which will be successful, is no longer a matter of doubt.

But how comes the question; - annexation will be consummated, unless a war con prevent - will England and France, or England alone, urge Mexico to a war?

Our notion is, that she will not, unless the English ministry upon a review of the whole that will be staked upon the issue, shall decide that it is to the interest of Great Britain to incur a war with the United States rather than allow her thus to commence enlarging the "area of freedom" by a process which may lead on to the loss of her own colonies on this continent, and to the building up of a rival for the trade of the world, which had already become so formidable to her schemes of monopoly.

Is it not probable that this very question is now being deliberated upon in the cabinet of St. James, and that it forms a topic for negotiation between that and the French Court?  We have evidently arrived at the crisis. Those powers must now immediately decide to allow the United Stats to steer her own course in relation to annexation, or they must promptly interpose.

The course which Mexico herself, will decide to take upon ascertaining hat Texas is annexed to the Unites States in spite of all her remonstrance and her maneuvers to prevent it, will also soon be decided. That her government would willingly avert and would procrastinate to the very last hour, if she could not avert, a war with the United States, we have no doubt. But it seems to us hat the crisis is at band with her authorities also. She must now soon abandon the grounds she has to this time maintained throughout, or carry out her repeated threats of declaring war in case the United States assumes jurisdiction over Texas. There is no alternative,

It would undoubtedly have been better the United States to have had a minister at the city of Mexico during these eventful times, sufficiently a diplomatist to have represented and maintained our interests better than they have been represented by the minister who is now leaving here without having acquitted himself to the satisfaction of his country meant, or to the credit of the country he went there to serve. Even at this last extremity, when diplomatic intercourse is closing between them and us, how useful might an able statesman and a good man be, to represent the interests of the United Stats at the city of Mexico?  Mexico had taken one decided step since her minister closed his official duties and left this country. She has admitted the independence of Texas, upon a single condition. She has done so under the united influence of representations from the English, French, and Texan authorities. The latter, beyond doubt, have already deserted the position, which they assumed in this negotiation, - and now abandon independence and go for annexation. The British and the French agents are thereby completely non plussed, unless their respective governments decide to aid Mexico in a war not a war for the independence of Texas, - that Mexico herself would be far from waging, unless she could depend upon Texas as an ally in the contest. - but a war for Mexican dominion over Texas. This would come awkwardly from England and France, both having acknowledged the independence of Texas.

We repeat, unless those European powers determine that it is time to attempt to strangle the young republican Hercules in his cradle, even at the expense of a war, their agents will hardly be authorized to urge Mexico into an actual contest with the United States. To the very verge, they would push the interests of their own governments to prevent Texans from being incorporated into the union, - but the repose of the world hangs upon stepping beyond the Rubicon

The question remains however, whether, though England and France may not urge Mexico on, - in fact, though they now exert their utmost to restrain a popular impulse which they have no doubt aided in fomenting in Mexico against the measure of annexation, whether they may not find that they are too late, and that an impulse once fired to such a pitch, is not to be restrained in such a government as that of Mexico. They may have made war inevitable.

War once began, all the features of the present questions at issue, would change attitude in an instant. The superiority of the one party and the helpless condition of the other would be obvious to all Europe. They sympathies of the world would be with Mexico; and that to an extent, which it is doubtful if any ministry in England could withstand. Mixing up as the question inevitably would, with the Oregon dispute, the ultimate possession of California, with border squabbles, and contentions of various kinds, Mexico and the Unites States would have the contest to themselves but for a very brief period.

The new position assumed by Mexico, since her minister left this country, above alluded to, admitting the independence of Texas upon a certain condition, and the attitude which she will find herself occupying should the European powers decide to endeavor to restrain her from declaring war, would make the presence of an able American minister at the city of Mexico, of great importance to the interests of both countries, and perhaps to the peace of the world. A negotiation for the Californians, already stated to be passing from under the dominion of Mexico in the same manner Texas has passed, and settlement of the boundaries of both, might perhaps he effected at a price which would be a fair consideration to Mexico, and which the Unites States would not hesitate to make liberal rather than Mexico should longer complain of our treatment towards her.

Contrasting the relative forces of the powers arrayed in dispute, there can be no questions whether the Unites States could with self-repect, name and extraordinary minister to Mexico in the present posture of affairs. The new position, which Mexico has herself assumed, fully authorizes, nay, seems to us to call upon our government for such a measure.

The first of the steamers that arrived last week from Liverpool, brought accounts that a feverish excitement prevailed their respecting the dispute with the Unites States, and that intelligence as it reached Liverpool from this country, was hurried on at the top of steam speed by express, to the impatient authorities at London. The next steamer that arrived, which left Liverpool only three days after the first, brought a paragraph stating that the war fever had entirely subsided. Nothing had transpired in the meantime to effect a change. The difference in the statements we presume resulted from the different views entertained, or the different objects to be accomplished by the writers of the accounts alluded to.

Quite as contradictory are the late accounts, which we have from Mexico.

Private letters received from Mexico by the editors of the New Orleans Republican state it as a matter almost of certainty that before long the Mexican government will declare war against the United States. The tone of public sentiment in Mexico is said to be so hostile to this country and Texas that a new revolution in the government or a war with the United States seems inevitable. One of the letters referred to, written at Vera Cruz on the 22nd May, says:

"Captain Elliott and commissioner of Texas are at this place, waiting for the arrival of letters from Mexico, which, it is said, will arrive to-day. They will sail, direct for Galyeston in the French bring 'La Perouse.'  The 'Eurdice' will sail for your port with dispatches for the British government. In addition to the propositions make by England to both Texas and Mexico, to settle the relations of these countries to each other and o the United States in a manner agreeable to her policy, I am assured there are inducements offered of rather a tempting nature. They are as follows: England compromises herself with Mexico to pay ten millions of her national debt, and with Texas she agrees to pay the whole of hers, which is computed a t eight millions. This, if true - proves that England has some very deep laid project with regard to Texas: one much more important to her than the advantages she might derive from the simple determination of Texas to remain independent, confirmed by the consent of Mexico."    [BAH]


NR 68.226  14Jun1845:  contradictory accounts from Mexico about the government's attitude toward the American annexation of Texas

On the other hand a late letter from the city of Mexico, received by the same arrival, takes quite a pacific view of circumstances, thus:

Mexico, May 20, 1845.

"This government having been empowered by congress to enter into a treaty with the Texian commissioners, all fear of a rupture between this country and the United States on that score, is now at an end."

Our readers are quite as able to judge between those contradictory statements as we are. An American who professes to know something of the Mexicans and a southern campaign, in a letter addressed through the National Intelligencer, gives the following admonition:

From the National Intelligencer. Washington, May 24, 1845.

Messrs. Editors: As it seems to be a settled point that Texas is to be a component part of our republic, it is suggested, I observe, in one of the N. Orleans papers, that regular troops should be stationed by the United States on the Rio Grande. If that be a settled point, I coincide with him; but I must disagree with him when he says that those troops will require no commissary department. On the contrary, they will require a large and well-organized one. The provisions for this army nave all to be conveyed from New Orleans; for nowhere else can they be procured. The Mexican troops now stationed at Metamoras are, and have always been supplied from New Orleans - the only article to be procured in the neighborhood being fresh meat, stock in some abundance being procurable, but not in sufficiency for the daily supply of an army of six or ten thousand men. I have lived some years in that country, and pretend to know something of its products. I passed through Metamoras in March where there were two regiments supplied entirely from New Orleans all those articles, how much more necessary will it not be for us to supply an army in the same manner?

I think that we have calculated too lightly on the resistance, which Mexico will offer, to our occupation of Texas. Mexico has a very considerable army on the frontier, and the officer in command (Gen'l Arista) is active and brave, and can cross the intervening desert with his light cavalry and commit immense damage, and retire again, without our presenting any obstacle to his advance or his retreat. We have been induced to believe the Mexicans cowardly, &c. I am afraid that we have trusted too much to this belief. Arista had with him in Monterey in March last two thousand three hundred cavalry and a battalion of six hundred runaway Negroes from Texas, well drilled in flying artillery tactics, ready for marching.

The Mexican troops are much better calculated for campaigns I those dry hot plains than any troops we can raise. The Anglo Saxon race will do well enough so long as they have plenty of provisions and water, but no longer. I think Gen. Jackson's campaign and the Seminole war will prove this. The Mexicans will rush in upon us on their light hardy horses, and when we get ready to strike them we shall find that they are beyond our reach. Our heavy well-fed horses will starve to death on those dry plains with our corn or oats, and nothing to east but dry grass.

I should not be surprised if Mexico should now have an army of fifteen thousand cavalry and flying artillery on the river between Emargo and Monclova, as we know well that all the troops who took part with Santa Anna have been sent north by the new government while new troops (or Civicos) have taken their places in Jalapa, Orizaba, Guadalaxara, &c.

I do hope that our government will turn its attention seriously to this subject, and in time; for it would be grievous to be worsted at the commencement by so weak a government as that of Mexico. Arista is enterprising and ambitious, and is by no means ignorant of the resources of this country. He has lived for years in Cincinnati and other parts of our occupation of Texas, and I hope it may not find us unprepared. Yours; &c. C.W.D.   [BAH]


NR 68.226   14Jun1845:  explanation of the mystery about the Mexican indemnity

The Mexican indemnity. The mystery of the Mexican indemnity is thus noticed in the New York Courier des Etats Unis of the 7th instant. The facts are said to be derivedfrom a persons recently arrived from Mexico, and one intimate with Santa Anna, even to a knowledge of his tampering in stocks. - The courier, however, declines to assume any responsibility, as to the person named.

"It is known that a sum of $275,000 is in question, making the quarterly payments of April and July, 1844. This sum has never reached the government at Washington, although the Mexican government insists that it is paid, and exhibits the receipts of the representatives of the United States.  Here is the explanation, as furnished to us of this enigma. Mr. Shannon, the United States minister, Mr. Voss, the agent of the United States, to receive the money, are said to have been interested in more than one speculation. The partnership was indeed official between Mr. Voss and M. Trigueros, who belonged to the same commercial firm. M. Trigueros not having as minister, money enough - ready money to pay the amounts as they fell due, induced Mr. Shannon and Mr. Voss to accept drafts on the treasury in favor of and endorsed by an English house in Mexico, for $325,00, being $50,000 more than the amount due. In return it was agreed that M. Trigueros should accept from Mr. Shannon Mexican treasury notes in payment of the excess of the sum of $50,000, and as these were to be brought at any where at from 8 to 10 per cent. - so greatly were they depreciated; this little operation would have a profit of some forty odd thousand dollars to the American agents. In return they were to give a full and entire acquaintance to the Mexican government in terms for the payment of the two installments. Whereas they had only been liquidated. Such is said to be the secret history of this little diplomatic jobbing.

The question now is, were the drafts paid at maturity either by the Mexican treasurer or the English endorser?  This is precisely what is not known, and concerning which the official accounts at Washington are silent. However that may bee, the Mexican government considers itself discharged from all ulterior responsibility by reason of the very explicit tenor of the American receipt. On the other hand the American claimants insist upon being paid by their own government.

Such is the position of the matter, and it is certainly not a little remarkable and not at all creditable that there should be any room for such a solution of the delay as is here given we must soon know the truth now.

On the other hand, Mr. B. Green, late charge to Mexico, has published a letter in the Washington Union, in which he alleges that the Mexican installments of April and July of 1844 have not been paid. He says that the United States agent, (Mr. Voss), obtained from the minister of the Mexican Treasury drafts upon the departmental treasuries of Guadalajara, Guanaxuato, and Zacatecas. He took these drafts to the house of Tayleur, Jamison & Co. one of the best English commercial houses in Mexico, and requested them to be sent on for collection. They were sent on; and they reply was, that the drafts were good, and would be paid as soon as any revenue could be collected for that purpose. In consequence of the revolution, and the distracted state of things in Mexico since, they have not yet been paid. At the time the drafts were taken Mr. Voss was certain they would be paid, and so assured Mr. Shannon, our minister, who wrote to the secretary of the treasury that the installments had been paid.   [BAH]


NR 68.225  14Jun1845:   posture of relations between the two countries
68.226  14Jun1845:  Mexican press on annexation of Texas

FOREIGN RELATIONS. Annexation. The position of affairs at the present moment may be regarded as exceedingly interesting. A very few weeks will probably determine definitely whether this country is to be involved in a foreign war, in consequence of the propelled extensions of the limits of our confederation as to include Texas as a part and parcel of the republic, or not. The Texan congress agreeably to the proclamation issued by President Jones, will assemble on Monday next, the 16th instant to consider the question of annexation or independence.-and the 4th of July, less than three weeks thereafter, assembles a convention which we pursue is intended to represent the essential sovereignty of the people, as above all existing law or constitution, and with powers to dispense with all authority, and to direct the operations, or to terminate the existence of the existing government of Texas, as they may think proper.

Of the disposition with which both those bodies will assemble, we presume there is no longer a reasonable doubt. Of the determination of the people upon the question of annexation whenever it might be fairly proposed to them, upon equitable and honorable terms, we have never had a doubt; and that they would in any event, be deposed to form alliances with European powers, adverse to the true American interests or feelings, we have never for one moment indulged an apprehension. The Texian people and the Texian interests in all their leading characteristics are too obviously similar to, if not identified with our own, to allow us to imagine that their people would in any form, become subservient to so suicidal a policy as that of adopting a European, Anti-American dependence, or seeking for British protection or British alliance, as against the interests or policy of the United States.

Free from every such apprehension, we have deplored that feverish impetuosity which we fear has hurried a result, that might have been, and we believe would have been attained, by a more deliberate course, with far less rids to the country, and with our compromising either its peace of its character or its constitution.

We speak of precipitance in this respect, because it must be obvious to all that besides its hurry on the Texans to a course which violates all existing authorities of that government, without leaving them time to reach the same result by a legal and legitimate course, it has as it respects our country, included a selection by the executive, of an alternative which, if more time and deliberation ere supposed to be allowable, would not it is believed have been the one selected by that authority as their choice of the two alternatives which the act of congress left to their selection. Without a full persuasion that the other alternative would have been selected, it is probable that the measure would not and could not have obtained, at the last session, a majority of votes in the United States senate. The alternative alluded to, we believe would have been greatly preferable to that adopted by the executive; would have been as certain of ultimately accomplishing annexation, and of accomplishing it upon a basis far better for the Union, for Texas, and for the Harmony of the World. When the information that President Tyler had negotiated a treaty with Texas for annexation, first reached us, we indulged an expression of opinion upon the subject, which elaborate discussion and subsequent events have but tended to confirm. The question, involving so many considerations, the new one of amalgamating a foreign state into the confederacy, on of them, that call deliberation, and the utmost precaution seemed to us to be required in the premised, not only as to the ultimate shall we or not, but as to the wisest and best mode by which we shall, if so decided. Instead of that cool deliberation, it has been throughout a series of measures hurried on by feverish impetuosity, avowedly alarmed for fear delay to look and thing and choose wisely would render all hopeless. "Now or never" - was the incessant cry. European intrigue, was the great bugbear that was to hurry both Texas and the United States is not, perhaps, nay probably, an illy adjusted union, which one or both for centuries to come may have cause to regret that they had not taken more time to adjust, as it might have been and ought to have been adjusted - carefully and wisely. To adduce proof of this is not necessary. The whole subject is so full and pregnant with what is now to be left to the future, that we much fear the present will be much censured for a want of due precaution.

So much as to the parties to annexation.

But the foreign aspect, whether we shall or shall not have a foreign war, in consequence of assuming this new dominion and of taking possession of this additional territory, a few weeks will now determine. All eyes are earnestly directed toward the movements of Mexico. The British, the French, (and the Texan) agents near that government, are all represented as "endeavoring to move heaven and earth" to prevent annexation, and induce Texas to maintain her Independence. We regard the operations of the English and French agents in that direction as a matter of course. The interests of their government would be most promoted by Texas keeping out of our Union, and perhaps they have just as much fight to urge the interests and views of their governments in the premises, as out agents have urge the claims of our government. - Which will be successful, is no longer a matter of doubt.

But now comes the question; -- annexation will be consummated, unless a war can prevent it - will England and France or England alone, urge Mexico to a war?

Our notion is, that she will not, unless the English ministry upon a review of the whole that will be staked upon the issue, shall decide that is to the interest off Great Britain to incur a war with the United States rather than allow her thus to commence enlarging the "area of freedom" by a process which may lead on to the loss of her own colonies on this continent, and to the loss of her own colonies on this continent, and to the building up of a rival for the trade of the world, which has already become so formidable to her schemes of monopoly.

Is it not probable that this very question is now being deliberated upon in the cabinet of St. James, and that it forms a topic for negotiation between that and the French Court?  We have evidently arrived at the crisis. These powers must now immediately decide to allow the United States to steer her own course I relation to annexation, or they must promptly interpose.

The course which Mexico herself, will decide to take upon ascertaining that Texas is annexed to the United States in spite of all her remonstrance and her maneuvers to prevent it, will also soon be decided. That her government would willingly avert and would procrastinate to the very last hour, if she could not avert, a war with the United States, we have no doubt. But it seems to us that the crisis is at hand with her authorities also. She must now soon abandon the grounds she has to this time maintained throughout, or carry out her repeated threats of declaring war in case the United States assumes jurisdiction over Texas. There is no alternative.

It would undoubtedly have been better for the U. States to have had a minister at the city of Mexico during these eventful times, sufficiently a diplomatist to have represented and maintained our interests better than they have been represented by the minister who is now leaving there without having acquitted himself to the satisfaction of his countrymen, or to the credit of the country he went there to serve. Even at this last extremity, when diplomatic intercourse is closing between them and us, how useful might an able statesman and a good am be, to represent the interests of the U. States at the city of Mexico?  Mexico has taken one decided step since her minister closed his official duties and left this country. She has admitted the independence of Texas, upon a single condition. She has done do under the united influence of representations from the English, French and Texan authorities. The latter, beyond doubt, have already deviation, --and now abandon independence and go for annexation. The British and the French agents are thereby completely non plusses, unless their respective governments decide to aid Mexico in a war, not a war for the independence of Texas, -- that Mexico herself would be far from waging, unless she could depend upon Texas as an ally in the contest, -- but a war for Mexican dominion over Texas. This would come awkwardly from England and France, both having acknowledged the independence of Texas.

We repeat, unless those European powers determine that it is time to attempt to strangle the young republican Hercules in his cradle, even at the expense of a war, their agents will hardly be authorized to urge Mexico into an actual contest with the United States. To the very verge, they would push the interests of their own governments to prevent Texas from being incorporated into the union, -- but, the repose of the world hangs upon stepping beyond the Rubicon.

The question remains however, whether, though England and France may not urge Mexico on, -- in fact, though they may now exert their utmost to restrain a popular impulse which they have no doubt aided in fomenting in Mexico against the measure of annexation, whether they may not find that they are too late, and that an impulse once fired to such a pitch, is not to be retrained in such a government as that of Mexico. They may have made way inevitable.

War once began, all the features of the present question at issue, would change attitude in an instant. The superiority of the one party and the helpless condition of the other, would be obvious to all Europe. The sympathies of the world would be with Mexico; and that to an extent, which it is doubtful if any ministry in England could withstand. Mixing up, as the question inevitably would, with the Oregon border squabbles, and contentions of various kinds, Mexico and the United States would have the contest to themselves but for a very brief period.

The new position assumed by Mexico, since her minister left this country, above alluded to admitting the independence of Texas upon a certain condition, and the attitude which she will find herself occupying should the European powers decide to endeavor to restrain her from declaring war, would make the presence of an able American minister at the city of Mexico, of great importance to the interests of both countries, and perhaps to the peace of the world. A negotiation for the Californias, already stated to be passing from under the dominion of Mexico in the same manner Texas has passed, and a settlement of the boundaries of both, might perhaps be effected at a price which would be a fair consideration to Mexico, and which the U. States would not hesitate to make liberal rather than Mexico, and which the U. States would not hesitate to make liberal rather than Mexico should longer complain of our treatment towards her.

Contrasting eh relative forces of the powers arrayed in dispute, there can be no question whether the United States could with self respect, name an extraordinary minister to Mexico in the present posture of affairs. The new position, which Mexico has herself assumed, fully authorizes, nay, seems to us to call upon our government for such a measure.

The first of the steamers that arrived last week from Liverpool, brought accounts that a feverish excitement prevailed their respecting the dispute with the United States, and that intelligence as it reached Liverpool from this country, was hurried on at the top of steam speed by express, to the impatient authorities at London. The next steamer that arrived, which left Liverpool only three days after the first, brought a paragraph stating that the war fever had entirely subsided. Nothing had transpired in the meantime to effect a change. The difference in the statements we presume resulted from the different views entertained, or the different objects to be accomplished by the writers of the accounts alluded to.

Quite as contradictory are the late accounts, which we have from Mexico.

Private letter received from Mexico by the editors of the New Orleans Republican state it as a matter almost of certainty that before long the Mexican government will declare war against the United States. The tone of public sentiment in Mexico is said to be so hostile to this country and Texas that a new revolution in the government or a war with the United States seems inevitable. One of the letters referred to written at Vera Cruz on the 22d May, says:

"Captain Elliott and a commissioner of Texas are at this place, waiting for the arrival of letters from Mexico, which, it is said, will arrive to-day. They will sail, direct for Galveston in the French brig 'La Perouse.'  The 'Eurydice' will sail for your port with dispatches for the British government. In addition to the propositions made by England to both Texas and Mexico, to settle the relations of these countries to each other and to the United States in a manner agreeable to her policy, I am assured there are inducements offered of rather a tempting nature. They are as follows:  England compromises herself with Mexico to pay ten millions of her national debt, and with Texas she agrees to ay the whole of hers, which is computed at eight millions. This, if true - and I have got it from very good authority - proves that England has some very deep-laid project with regard to Texas: one much more important to her than the advantages she might derive from the simple determination of Texas to remain independent, confirmed by the consent of Mexico."

On the other hand a late letter from the city of Mexico, received by the same arrival, takes quite a pacific view of circumstances, thus:

Mexico, May 20, 1845

"This government having been empowered by congress to enter into a treaty with the Texian commissioners, all fear of a rupture between this country and the United States on that score, is now at an end."

Our readers are quite as able to judge between those contradictory statements as we are.

An American who professes to know something of the Mexicans and a southern campaign, in a letter addressed through the National Intelligencer, gives the following admonition:

From the National Intelligencer.

Washington, May 24, 1845   [BAH]


NR 68.235  14Jun1845:  revolution in California

Monterey, (California) January 25.

This country is again disturbed by dissension and disturbances. About eight years ago Don Juan B. Alvarado, Son Jose Castro, and others, Californians by birth, aided by several foreigners, took possession of this town, the archives and government property, chartered an English vessel, and sent the Mexican general his officers and their families, to Lower California, and left them there to find their way to Mexico as they could. The Californians then proceeded to take possession of every part of California, with the different missions, and the different offices of honor and profit within this department. The Mexicans remaining in the country, made an effort to put them down, but failed.

The Californians marched two or three times up and down the coast, continuing a part of the foreigners under high pay. President Bustamente, the second year after this revolution, confirmed the Californians in their different employments. During the time they held command, they ordered almost every Englishman and American to be arrested - Over one hundred were imprisoned in Monterey at one time - over fifty of these in a low, damp room, less than 20 feet square, without floor or windows. In May, the same year, many of the men were chained, six and eight to a bar, put into the hold of a vessel, and sent to San Blas. Fifteen months afterwards the government of Mexico sent part of them back to this port - several dying from fatigue and privisions. Had E. Barron, Esq H.B.M. consul, not been in Tepic and San Blas, I have no doubt but that every one of these men would have died in prison or on the road, as they were driven and gored like cattle.

In the year 1843, General Manuel Micheltorena arrived in California with some three or four hundred officers and soldiers, and by order of president Santa Anna took command - putting out of office some of the Californians. Last November, Senors Castro, Alvarado, and many of their countrymen, again rose with the determinations of sending out of their country the Mexican troops. The two parties met and made a treaty. Within a month they each denied the treaty and again took up arms.

These two parties are now traversing the country in hostile order, carrying away the merchants' and farmers' horses by hundreds, and destroying their cattle. General Micheltorena has over one hundred foreigners, English, German, and Americans, as riflemen with him, who have taken up the government cause to put down the rebellion. Several of the foreigners are the same who helped to put the Californians into office eight years back, and four years afterwards were imprisoned and shipped in irons without any trail. They are now in pursuit of the Californians who shipped them, with a strong desire to fight them. There are about one hundred more foreigners standing guard in Monterey, and other places, to support General Micheltorena. A large portion of the riflemen now with the general, arrived in California a few months since, (some with their families.) over the Rocky Mountains from our western states. Others of the party hold large tracts of land - some as much as twenty miles by three - on the waters of the San Francisco, having become citizens of Mexico; which can be done be simply asking for it. They marched with the Mexican troops but chose their own officers from among themselves; Captain John A. Sutter, a Swiss officer, (formerly of Charles X's guard in Paris,) being their commander and leader, and a Capt. Gant, or Grant, (it is said,) formerly of the United States army, their captain.

There is no doubt out these foreigners, and those who join them as they come in by land yearly, are going to exercise a great influence in this department. The present revolution will, in all probability, be decided by them, and perhaps all others in future, as they may choose sides.

Port of Monterey, (California,) March 22, 1845.

In addition to what I wrote you in my last, I am now enabled to inform you that the Californians have succeeded in their efforts against the government of the regular governor and commandant general Don Manuel Micheltorena. The Californians to the number of one hundred and fifty, after remaining in this vicinity for a few days, went to the town of Angles, one hundred miles north of this point, and stormed it in the night with the loss of but two men. They were soon joined by the Californians of that place. on the 10th or 12th of January, governor general Micheltorena left this town with his officers, one hundred and fifty Mexican soldiers, some citizens of old Mexico, sixty or eighty wild Indians, trained to arms by Capt. Sutter, (a Swiss settler on the Sacrament,) and one hundred foreigners; a part of whom are settled on the same river. He had also ox-carts, cannon, and baggage; had to make a road as he proceeded, over a difficult mountainous route. Sometimes he went a league a day, and then again would halt four or five days at a place without any apparent object. During all this time, the Californians, (insurgents) traveled throughout the country from ten to twenty leagues (30 to 60 miles) a day. They returned at times to the vicinity of the governor general's forces, from a long distance off and would then disappear.

After the governor general had been on the road a month, the foreigners and his soldiers began to leave him by fives and tens at a time; the former being disgusted with the slowness of his progress, and the latter left him with the hope of getting free from the service; while many of those remaining were in hopes that the Californians would be victorious and would ship them back to San Blas, where they had families or relations; they having been forced into the ranks and brought into California against their will. General Micheltorena, after having been forty days in reaching the vicinity of the town of Angels, for the third time came near the insurgents, who then offered him battle. They (the insurgents) were three or hour hundred strong, under Don Jose Castro, who had persuaded many foreigners to join his party.

On the 20th of February, the two parties (consisting of about six hundred men all together, Mexicans, Californians, foreigners, and Indians) got into action. Castro commenced the fight with cannon, firing large shot; and the governor general, on his side, returning his fire with grape. Both parties remained so far apart all that day as not to lose a man. On the next day, (the 21 st,) the battle again commenced, and was continued in what is here considered a warm and desperate contest. The governor general, however, soon surrendered; for forty or fifty foreigners having left him some time before, the remainder refused to fight against their countrymen I the insurgents' ranks. Some reports make the total loss (on both sides) amount to three or four men, while others make it as many horses. In all probability, there were not six men killed or wounded in the whole two days' fighting, although 250 cannon balls were fired. After the battle, a treaty was made, by which it was agreed that every person on either side might go where he wished - the soldiers to go to San Blas or remain citizens of California. The Mexican officers who wished to remain will continue to hold their present commissions and pay. But few of them however, will remain here. The governor general is to go by water to San Blas with all who choose to accompany him, and from thence he is to proceed to Mexico. Don Pico has become governor, as he is the leading member of the house of deputies or state legislature; and Don Jose Castro has become commandant general of California. He will, I suppose, make many changes of officers. - The revenue of the country is from eighty to one hundred thousand dollars, and is all from the customhouse.

The ground over which they (the Mexicans) forces took thirty or forty days to travel, was passed by the Californians in ten days on their return to this capital to possession of it. This mode of travel caused his ruin; but had he succeeded, the Californians would have risen again.

California, from Bodega to San Diego, is now once more under its own command - the Russians having left Bodega, which now belongs to Capt. S. Smith, of Baltimore, United States of America, who is a naturalized citizen of California. Whether the natives of this country will keep peace among themselves, or be again conquered for a year or two by Mexico, remains to be seen. If allowed to govern themselves, they acknowledge the Mexican flag, and their laws, when they please them. They pay little attention to the Mexican tariff, except to raise the amount of salaries and a few old matters. In fact, the state of California, and its wants and commerce are such that the tariff and laws of Mexico are but little applicable to the country.   [BAH]


NR 68.256   Mexico, Indians, notice of an ethnological article by Albert Gallatin

CENTRAL AMERICA. An interesting volume has recently been published by the Ethnological society of New York. Among the articles contained in it is one of great research and value, by the venerable Albert Gallatin, on the semi-Civilized nations of Mexico, Yucatan, and Centeral America. This essay is declared to be a monument of learning and philosophical saga city.   [BAH]


NR 68.257     hostile feeling toward the US

MEXICO. A degree is published, banishing Santa Anna from Mexico, forever. Canalizo and Bassadre are banished for ten years. Rejon, Baranda, Haro, and Tamariz, who fled, the government will provide for hereafter. Each of the above will receive a pension equal to one-half the pay they received from Santa Anna. This pension is lost if they change their residence to any other place than that which the government points out,-by the decree the pecuniary responsibilities of these persons is not withdrawn. Consequently, Santa Anna, Canalizo, and the four ex-ministers were obliged to satisfy all their creditors before leaving the country.

The republic is said to be in a very unsettled condition and in danger of another revolution. A hostile feeling against the United States prevailed, with a general belief that Texas would not annex.   [BAH]


July 1845

NR 68.274 05Jul1845:  Texas, annexation to the United States, meeting of Congress, submission of the Mexican treaty, its rejection, resolutions approving annexation by the United States adopted, notice of various resolutions related to annexation

Texas Annexation. The United States steamer Princeton reached Annapolis on the 3d instant, in nine days from Galveston, bringing Washington, (Texas) dates to the 21 st of June. Dr. Wright, bearer of dispatches, preceded immediately to Washington.

The Texian congress assembled on the 16th of June in compliance with the president's proclamation.

President Jones, in his message to that body, communicated the resolutions passed by the United States congress, proposing the annexation of Texas to the Union. He also submitted to the senate the treaty proposed by Mexico, for acknowledging the Independence of Texas upon three conditions, viz:

1.       Mexico consents to acknowledge the independence of Texas.

2.       Texas engages that she will stipulate in the treaty not to annex herself or become subject to any country whatever.

3.       Limits and other arrangements to be matters of agreement in the final treaty.

4.       Texas to be willing to refer the disputed points with regard to territory, and other matters, to the arbitration of umpires.

This treaty was considered in secret session of the senate on the 21st of June, and rejected by a unanimous vote.

Joint resolutions were introduced simultaneously in each house of congress, in nearly the same words, accepting the terms proposed by the United States congress for annexation. The senate by a unanimous vote passed theirs and sent them to the house on the 18th. The house laid the senate resolutions upon the table, and unanimously passed their own resolutions, and sent them to the senate next day. - There was then a scramble for the honor of paternity to the resolutions, which should finally pass. - The house at length adopted the expedient of slightly amending the resolutions from the senate, and passing them in their present form, returned them to the senate as amended, where the amendments were unanimously adopted.

The following is a copy of the resolutions as they passed both houses of the Texas congress:

Joint Resolutions,

Giving the consent of the existing government to the annexation of Texas to the United States hath proposed the following terms. Guarantees, and conditions, on which the people and territory of the republic of Texas may be erected into a new State, to be called the State of Texas, and admitted as one of the states of the American Union, to wit:

[Here follow the resolutions of the United States congress]

And whereas, by said terms, the consent of the existing government of Texas is required:  Therefore,

Sec. 1. Be it resolved by the senate and house of representatives of the republic of Texas in congress assembled, That the government of Texas doth consent that the people and territory of the republic of Texas may be erected into a new state, to be called the State of Texas, with a republican form of government, to be adopted by the people of said republic, by deputies in convention assembled, in order that the same may be admitted as one of the states of the American Union; and said consent is given on the terms, guarantees, and conditions, set forth in the preamble to this joint resolution.

Sec. 2. Be it further resolved, That the proclamation of the president of the republic of Texas, bearing date, May 5th, 1845, and the election of deputies to sit in convention at Austin on the 4th day of July next, for the adoption of a constitution for the State of Texas, had in accordance therewith, hereby receive the consent of the existing government of Texas.

Sec. 3. Be it further resolved, That the president of Texas is hereby requested immediately to furnish the government of the United States, through their accredited minister near this government, with a copy of this joint resolution; also to furnish the convention, to assemble at Austin on the 4th of July next, with a copy of the same; and the same shall take effect from and after its passage.

Dr. Wright informs the Washington "Union" that Captain Waggaman, had arrived at Washington, Texas, to select posts to be occupied by the United States troops, and to provide for their subsistence.

A resolution was introduced into both houses of congress, requiring the executive to surrender all posts, navy yards, barracks, &c. to the proper authorities of the United States.

The convention of delegates which were to assemble on the 4th of July to form a convention for the State of Texas, to be submitted to the people of Texas and to the United States congress, are no doubt now in session.

On the 18th inst. In the Senate, Mr. Greer introduced a joint resolution offering " a nation's gratitude to General Andrew Jackson; which resolution was unanimously adopted.

On the same day Major Kaufman introduced a bill setting apart a portion of the public land - lying between the Arkansas and Red Rivers - for payment of the national debt; read the first and second time, and referred to the committee on the state of the Republic.

On the 19th, in the Senate, Mr. Greer introduced a joint resolution, relative to the introduction of United States troops into Texas; read the first time.

On Tuesday, Mr. Kaufman as chairman of the committee on Foreign Relations, reported the Joint Resolution giving the consent of the existing government to the annexation of Texas to the United States;" which joint resolution was passed through its third reading on the next day, the 19th - the rule being suspended, on motion of Colonel H.L. Kianey, by a unanimous vote of the Senate.

Mr. Kauffman's bill "setting apart land for the payment of the public debt." &c. was taken up, read a second and third time and passed.

Mr. Lawrence introduced a resolution for the relief of post captain E.W. Moore; read the first time.

We are happy to state that Commodore Moore has already been restored to his command.

The Union of the 3d inst. says:  We are favored by Dr. Wright with the following memoranda, in MS, taken by himself at Washington, Texas, just before he left it for Galveston:

Memoranda of the conditions preliminary to a treaty of peace, as agreed upon by Ashbel Smith, on the part of Texas, and Mr, Cuevas, on the part of Mexico, and the accompanying papers, as submitted to the senate by President Jones.

I.                     Message of President Jones, transmitting the treaty and papers to the senate.

II.                   Letter from Baron Alleye de Cyprey, transmitting to the executive of Texas the condition signed by Ashbel Smith, and the agreement on the part of Mexico to accede to them as the bases of a formal treaty.

III.                  Conditions preliminary to a treaty of peace:

1.       Mexico consents to acknowledge the independence of Texas.

2.       Texas engages that she will stipulate in the treaty not to annex herself, or become subject of any country whatever.

3.       Limits and other arrangements to be matter of agreement in the final treaty.

4.       Texas will be willing to refer the disputed points with regard to territory, and other matters, in the arbitration of umpires.

Done at Washington (on the Brazos,) on the 27th of March, 1845

(Signed) Ashbel Smith, Secretary of State.

Certified copy of the original, presented by Captain Elliott.

(Signed) Alleye De Cyprey, Bankhead.
  [BAH]


NR 68.275  05Jul1845:  expectation that Mexico will declare war, denial that an American minister would be  favorably received

Relations with Mexico. Our latest intelligence from Vera Cruz, indicates a prevailing, or rather a universal impression there, that war will be declared by Mexico against the United States, in the event, now beyond doubt, of Texas annexing itself to the Union. The report of a formidable army, having advanced towards the Texan frontier, proved to be unfounded. An army which they profess to be concentrating for the purpose of repressing the insurrection in California, some suppose to be designed for a movement upon Texas, -- but if so, what becomes of California?

The report mentioned in our last, copied from the New York News, of Mr. Pakenham, the British minister, having intimated to our government that a minister from the Untied States would now be favorably received by the Mexican government, is contradicted by the Washington Union. The dispatching a minister to that government, however, is still thought to be a matter well worthy of the immediate and serious consideration of our government.   [BAH]


NR 68.305  19Jul1845:  people quiet, not alarmed by war cries
68.305  19Jul1845:  proclamation upon receiving intelligence of Texas deciding to annex to the US

We copy from the New Orleans Tropic of the 7th instant, the subjoined Mexican intelligence, brought by the schooner Creole, which left Vera Cruz on the 24th ultimo:

Gen. Bustamente arrived at Vera Cruz on the 17th ultimo, and offered his services to sustain the integrity of the Mexican territory and the dignity of the Republic. He was rather coolly received by the government, and it is reported that he refused the government, and it is reported that he refused the military honors tendered him on his arrival. It was believed that his return was not invited by any party, and that he had no desire to meddle in public affairs.

The people generally were quiet, and not at all alarmed, not withstanding the war cries made by the federalists and the partisans of Santa Anna, who are loud in denouncing the government for want of energy. The state of the public treasury was presumed to be pretty low, as the officers in the employ of the government found great difficulty in obtaining one-fourth of their salaries.

The acting president, general Canaliso, and ex-minister of war, gen. Basadre, not accepting the propositions make them by government, to be expatriated for ten years, have been imprisoned for the same term, the former in the castle of Perote, and the latter in that of San Juan de Ulloa.

Don Manuel Rincon, general of division and constitutional governor of the department of Mexico, ahs published the following

PRO LAMATION:

The minister of foreign affairs has communicated to me the following decree:

Jose Joaquin de Herrera, general of division and president ad interim of the Mexican Republic, to the citizens thereof.

Be it known: That the general congress has decreed, and the executive sanctioned, the following:

The national congress of the Mexican Republic, considering:

That the congress of the United States of the North has, by a decree, which its executive has sanctioned revolved to incorporate the territory of Texas with the American union;

That his manner of appropriating to itself territories upon which other nations have rights, introduces a monstrous novelty, endangering the peace of the world, and violation the sovereignty of nations;

That this usurpation, now consummated to the prejudice of Mexico, has been an insidious preparation for a long time; at the same time hat the most cordial friendship was proclaimed, and that on the part of this republic, the existing treaties between it and those states were respected scrupulously and legally;

That the said annexation of Texas to the Unites States tramples on the conservative principles of society, attacks all the rights that Mexico has to the at territory, is an insult to her dignity as a sovereign nation, and threatens her independence and political existence;

That the laws of the Unites States, in reference to the annexation of Texas to the United States, does is nowise destroy the rights that Mexico has, and will enforce, upon that department;

That the Unites States, having trampled on the principles which served as a basis to the treaties of friendship, commerce and navigation, and more especially to those of boundaries fixed with precision, even previous to 1832, they are considered as violated by that nation.

And; finally, that he unjust spoliation of which they wish to make the Mexican nation the victim, gives her the clear right to use all her resources and power to resist, to the last moment, said annexation;

IT IS DECREED:

1st. The Mexican nation calls upon all her children to the defense of their national independence, threatened by the usurpation of Texas, which is intended to be realized by the decree of annexation passed by the congress. And sanctioned by the president, of the Unites States of the north.

2. In consequence, the government will call to arms all the forces of the army, according to the authority granted it by the existing laws; and for the preservation of public order, for the support of there institutions, and in case of necessity, to serve as a reserve to the army, the government, according to the powers given to it on the 9th December, 1844 will raise the corps specified by said decree, under the name of "Defenders of the Independence and of the Laws."

Miguel Artistain.
President of the Deputies.

Francisco Calderon,
President of the senate.

Approved, and ordered to be printed and published.

Jose Joaquin de Herrera.

A.D. Luis G. Cuevas.
Palace of the National Government,
City of Mexico, June 4. 1845

[BAH]

NR 68.306  19Jul1845:  will Mexico declare war?

WILL MEXICO DECLARE WAR?- is now the leading enquiry of nearly every paper that reaches us. The period is so rapidly approaching when speculation will end, that it is useless to add to what has so often been uttered from our columns on the subject; except to say, that none of the apprehensions expressed on that point, have been dissipated. On the contrary, the idea is now certainly entertained by very many, if not by the Cabinet itself at Washington, that war will be declared by Mexico.

A letter from an American gentleman, dated Vera Cruz, June 24, 1845, published in the Baltimore American says,

"War between this country and the United States appears inevitable. My opinion is now completely changed, and from the continued and most recent news from Texas, it appears to be reduced to a certainty that, that country will be united to the States, which will be considered here tantamount to a declaration of war. This is beyond a doubt."

All the letters received at New Orleans by the latest arrivals are said to agree in tenor with the above.

A war, even with Mexico, will be a matter of deep regret to all considerate men, of all parties, in this union. A large proportion of the people entertain the opinion, that a more guarded, deliberate, and circumspect course, in relation t of the acquisition of Texas, would have accomplished that object, without incurring a war with Mexico; and there are not a few who believe that Mexico has been greatly outraged by the course that our government has adopted towards her in relation to Texas. The sympathies of most, if to of all other countries will be more or less enlisted on her idea, if for no other cause than that she will be the weaker party in the war. We still hope, though it be almost against hope, hat something ma yet intervene to prevent and issue which we have reason to fear will be anything but really or substantially glorious to our republic, let the events which such war might lead to be ever so victorious. Mexico is not such a champion, as the chivalry of the United States would expect to reap laurels in conquering.

The still graver apprehension we have expressed is, that war once declared, the whole structure of our foreign relations would be on the instant materially changed. - and that in all human probability, Mexico and the United States would not long be left to battle alone. There are other governments that are controlled by popular impulse, as well as that of Mexico.

Once more may we be allowed to deplore, that an able AMBASSADOR has not been dispatched by our government, as to the true interests of both countries, and a lost effort to prevent the disgrace of another conflict between the republics of this continent. The offer of Mexico, conditional though it was to acknowledge the independence of Texas gave our government sufficient plea to propose a renewal of negotiations. From the Unites States, as the stronger party, such proposition would be manly- and the new attitude in which the representatives of both France and England at Mexico, will have to assume, nay, no doubt have by this time assumed, cannot otherwise than dispose all considerate Mexicans to look at prospects before them, with intense anxiety, and might induce, with the aid of suitable overtures from the Unites States, a pause, and an ultimate reversion of popular feeling in that distracted country. Let the question be fairly and forcibly states, that the Unites States is anxious to adjust all difficulties, - anxious to define the boundaries which shall divide the two countries- and disposed to be liberal to the utmost price Mexico might ask for some of the possessions which Mexico now holds a very imperfect control over, and that the Unites States would cheerfully pay a price for them sufficient to relieve Mexico from her pressing pecuniary embarrassments, present these inducements, as they might be presented, on the one hand, and the alternative of a war with us- and which would they choose?

The following article, taken from a late number of the Siglo diez y nueve, printed at Vera Cruz, shows that there are Mexicans who entertain correct ideas of their position, and hesitate not to assert their opinions under the caption of "How much will Texas cost us?"  The writer continues:

"Have we sufficient men to combat, advantageously, the enemy and his allies?"

Let us suppose that fortune smiles upon us, and hat we shall give the envy a blow, and the filed remain ours; shall we be able to maintain it without the necessity of fresh troops and money?  Let it be understood that the theatre of the war is at a distance; that the expedition will be extremely difficult, dilatory, and expensive, and that by sea it will be almost impossible for us to oppose the enemy; in a work, let it be understood that we are going to carry on the war in the enemy's country, and all he territory we may possess, will be not more than what may be covered by the sole of the foot. We cannot suppose that we shall be long in peaceful possession of the country. Have we such an exuberance of population as to fill up the ranks which war and desertions will occasion?  Have our people hat adventurous spirited which urges men to seek a grave at hundreds of leagues from their homes?

The half of the republic, and precisely the most exposed to the incursions of the enemy, had for some time pat carried on a war, which is becoming every day more disadvantageous, with the numerous tribes which separate us from that enemy. The latter more skilled and more foreseeing than ourselves, excites the tribes to pillage, and exchanges for armed and ammunition the fruits of their depredations. Can we carry on these tow wars?  Will our soldiers march to conquer in the east, while the enemy lays wasted in our fields, and destroys our families in the north?

One revolution has just ended; its hatred still exists; democracy and dictation now go hand in hand they have sworn hatred to the government in signum faderis?  We have nothing to fear from a large body of troops?  Will not a liberator spring up amongst us?  The fourth of December 1829 the 28th of September 1841, and the 29th of November 1844, will be days never to be forgotten in our annals Pre omnibusnafanda dies.

In order to determine us to make war, it has been asked, how much is Texas worth?  The question is not a bad one; but in order to solve the question appropriately, it should be asked how much more will it cost?  Four millions were lost to commence it; that sum was given, and it was expended, and we shall want four million more to re-commence it.

We are now on the march; let us suppose that we have already met the enemy, and a general action has been fought; we ask how many men and how much money will the first defeat cost us?  If it were the custom in our country to make up and render accounts, we might come at the amount approximately by what the last war cost us; but as this is no longer practicable, we will follow the calculations made on the subject a year ago. Fifteen thousand troops were required in order that twelve thousand might arrived at the theatre of war, and according to the account summed up on paper, it was found that their maintenance would cost four millions of dollars annually at least. As these accounts are never practically known, we may add that just double that amount will be necessary. We, therefore, shall require, at least, five millions, in order to give the first general action. How many years will the war last?  How many men will be required to be in garrison?  How much will be the whole cost of the war?  What annual number of men shall we have to send to fill up the ranks?

The nation owes immense sums; she has an innumerable quantity of employees, whom she cannot pay, and the product of its revenue is not sufficient to pay off its ordinary expenses. Where will she obtain the extraordinary revenue, which she is about apportion?  Will she lay hands on the rents of the departments?  Will she impose new contribution?  Will she demand forced loans?  Will she augment our foreign debt?

She will necessarily have to do none of these things but in obtaining either one of them, will she gain the ends?  Ten years ago the government declared war against Texas, in order to make war upon us; under that pretext the public treasury has been emptied; army of leaders and officers has been raised the liberties of the people have been trodden under foot and by throwing off the makes, the government warned to impose the yoke of a tyrant upon us. During these then years, wrangling and disorders have been produced; corruption has stalked abroad, the priner pal fountains of our wealth have been dried up, and at length they have reduced us to this state of bankruptcy. Can we return to order, and introduce that strict economy, which our present state calls for if we involve ourselves in a foreign war?  Shall we obtain from Texas the necessary succor to carry on?  Will the war be a popular one?  It is said hat our god-mother England, or step mother France and our fratricidal brothers the United States. With response the Texan cause. Can we advantageous resist this alliance?

Such are the principal doubts which defer us from giving our opinion on the grave question of peaceful war with Texas, supposing that our doings should prove pos porous; these doubts should be cleared before giving a final resolve; the question should calmly argued by asking not what Texas is worth but what will it cost us. Offended self love and over bearing national pride are not the best counselor such cases; the public convenience, and the good the majority, is what every government should keep in view in order to arrange its operations, stopping its ears to the declamations of enthusiasm, and the censures of private interest. The assault Ptolemais is given as one of the most horrible eve in history; let our leaders and our citizen's read wise words I which M. Michaud describes the moments of the Grand Master of the Templates. Let them not lose the lesson he gives while perpetuating the generous sacrifice of the old man. My we enlighten us, and save the Republic.   [BAH]


NR 68.313-68.314  19Jul1845:  Mexico, aboriginal population

INDIANS OF AMERICA. The semi-annual report of the American Indian Mission Association, held at Forsyth, Ga., on May 17,18, and 19th ult. In its survey of the field which is opened for their labors, and after remarking upon the claims of the aboriginal race of this continent as being as fully entitled to the philanthropic and benevolent efforts of American Christendom, as the inhabitants of the eastern continents of Asia and Africa, proceeds to give an estimate of the numbers of American Indians. We extract from this report:

"The field we have entered is extensive, comprising a full quarter of the Globe. The population, it is true, is not so dense as in many other countries, but it is supposed to embrace ten or eleven millions of the original inhabitants and about the same number of others, whose condition morally is as deplorable as that of the natives, or of any heathen nation in the world; and with these races of men one, we necessarily come in contact with the other. The portion covered by the population of the United States, and the civilized parts of Canada, is an exception of but a speck compared with the whole. We have, therefore, before us a forth part of the world to work upon:  and material consisting of about twenty-two millions, or upwards; and with very partial exceptions among the Indians on our borders, this field is unoccupied by others. Other societies have sailed across the seas to Asia, Africa, and Europe, and have left America for us.

It is estimated that there are yet four millions and a half of the Aboriginals in North America, including Mexico and its dependencies. Further southeast in Central America, in Guatemala, there are supposed to be one million of Indians. One of their towns contains about 20,000 inhabitants. In the more eastern parts of the country, are large districts thinly inhabited by uncivilized Indians.

Still further southeast in New Granada, in a population of about 1,800,000, one million may be estimated as being of Indian blood. In the adjourning region of Venezuela (or Caracas) it is supposed that there are eighty three thousand Indians. Some of these, but not all, have submitted to a state of dependence and vassalage, under the Spanish and Catholic yoke. Other tribes are unsubdued, as the Goahiros, about 30,000 in number, Guaraunos, about 8,000 in number.

In Guiana, the tribes of Caribs, and Warrows adjoin the coast. The Arrowsauks and the Accawaws, reside farther in the interior. Here the European settlements do not extend far back from the sea; and in the interior are numerous tribes but little known.

Peru is said to have a known population of Indian blood, of 853,350. East of the mountains are extensive regions, chiefly Prairie, inhabited by tribes unsubdued by the Spaniards, whom we may estimate at lest, at 40,000. The extensive region of Brazil is supposed to contain 800,000 or 1,000,000 unsubdued Indians.

In Buenos Ayres, what are termed civilized Indians, because subject to the Spaniards, number about 700,000 besides those who are unsubdued in the interior.

In Chili there are, perhaps, 500,000 Indians, most of whom are submissive to the Spanards. The interior of Patagonia is inhabited by unsubdued Indians; the number not known, but probably amounting to one or two millions. In the islands of Trinidad, Margarita, and St. Vincent, it is said that a few of the original inhabitants remain; in all about 3,700. The large island of Terra del Fuego is inhabited by the Aborigines.

We must not, however, disguise a fact, which though it may be felt by some of the missionaries has, perhaps, not been well understood generally namely:  that missionary labors among the Indians are usually attended with more toil, difficulties, and obstacles, and consequently may be said to be harder to perform, than those among the heathen of other countries; but it is presumed that none are better qualified to perform difficult and hard work, than the missionaries whom this association will employ.

The prevalence of peace in the greater part of North America, and many other considerations, make the present time peculiarly favorable for carrying forward our work successfully; and even the present time peculiarly favorable for carrying forward our work successfully; and even the present political agitations in Mexico, we have good reason to believe, will result favorably for the designs of the association, and notwithstanding, in the countries further southeast, obstacles not altogether in formidable may be apprehended, we may hope that they will appear less appalling as we approach them. The South Americans have long been in a restless condition:  the gospel would insure tranquility and blessings beyond those of which they have hitherto been capable of conceiving.

Since our Divine Master has done so much for fallen man, and we have been so much favored as a nation, as Christians, as members of a benevolent association; and in view of the condition of the Aborigines, and our obligations to them, and of the inviting opportunities which now present themselves for doig them good, and the confidence of success which humble reliance upon God, must inspire us, surely there will not be one in our favored fraternity who will be unwilling to participate most zealously in this good work of "building the old wastes, of repairing the waste sites, and the desolations of many generations."  And, in behalf of all, we adopt the language of Nehemiah, "The God of heaven, he will prosper us; therefore we his servants will arise and build."

The total number of the Indian race is therefore estimated by the report at near or about 12,000,000, excluding those of mingled Spanish &c., and Indian Blood.   [BAH]


NR 68.315-68.316  19Jul1845:  British involvement in the negotiation for Mexican recognition of Texian independence

Executive Department, Washington, (Texas,) June 6, 1845.

Sir:  I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of you excellency's letter of the 20th ultimo; which, together with the official documents referred to in it, and by which Mexico has given her assent to the preliminaries of peace with Texas, upon the basis of an acknowledgement of the independence of the latter, were handed me by Mr. Elliott, charge d'affairs of her Britannic majesty near this government on the 2d instant.

For your kindness and courtesy in transmitting these interesting and important papers, as well as for your valuable services in producing the result, which they announce to me, and the offer of a continuance of the same good offices whenever they can be useful, I beg you to accept by best thanks. Should the result be the establishment of a good understanding & a lasting peace between the governments of Texas and Mexico, with the concurrence of their people, the cause of humanity will assuredly be greatly indebted to your efforts in its behalf.

I have the honor to transmit you, herewith, for such disposition as you may think proper to make of them, certified copies of the proclamation issued by me on the 4th inst, announcing to the people the agreement of Mexico to the preliminaries of peace, and the consequent cessation of hostilities between the two countries.

The congress of Texas will assemble on the 16th of the present month, and a convention of the 4th of July proximo. These bodies have been convoked to consider the propositions made by the government of the United States on the subject of annexation. The subject of our relations with Mexico will also be presented to them, and their decisions will necessarily govern my future action in reference to the same.

Accept, sir, the assurances of high consideration and respect with which I remain, your excellency's most obedient humble servant,   ANSON JONES.

To his excellence,

            The Baron Alleye de Cyprey, &c.&c.   [BAH]


NR 68.315-68.316  19Jul1845:  Texas, annexation to the United States, notice of negotiations for Mexican recognition of the independence of Texas on the condition that Texas reject proposals from the United States regarding the annexation of Texas

From the Texas National Register, June 19.

[Correspondence accompanying President Jones's message of June 16.]

MR. DONELSON TO MR. ALLEN.

            The undersigned, charged d'affairs of the Unites States has the honor to transmit herewith, to the hon. Ebenezer Allen, attorney general of the republic of Texas, and charged ad interim with the direction of the department of foreign affairs, the joint resolution which has been recently adopted by the congress of the United States, fro the annexation of Texas into the Union.

            This important measure has thus been brought to the consummation so confidently anticipated by the undersigned, his communication of the 10th December last, t this government; and he trusts that it may e received as a just response to the wished of the people of Texas, alike honorable to both countries, and worthy of the reciprocally national interests which have so long demanded it.

            It now remains for the government and people of Texas, by their acceptance and ratification of the provisions contained in this joint resolution, to finish the great work of annexation; and to assume their station as an independent, equal, and sovereign member of the American confederacy, as soon as the constitutions requirements, usual in the admission of new states, can be cemplied with.

            Anxious to execute the trust devolved upon him by the resolution referred to, in the manner best calculated to secure its objects, and with the least inconvenience and delay to Texas, the President of the United States has instructed the undersigned to inform this government that he has selected as the basis of the action yet necessary on the subject, the first and second sections of their resolution - leaving out of view the remaining or third section. This last section, as the hon. Mr. Allen is aware was added as an amendment, and leaves it optional with the president to resort to the means it creates for an adjustment of the terms of annexation on a basis different from that offered in the first and second sections, which constituted the bill as it originally came to the senate from the house of representatives. It was doubtless intended to place in the hands of the president the means of obviating such objections as Texas might possibly make to the details of the positions contained in the tow preceding sections, but, in doing so, it complicates the process, and is there wise productive of disadvantages so considerable as to induce the president not to rely upon it as the most appropriate or practicable mode of securing to Texas a speedy admission into the union.

            It is obvious that, if the discretionary power contemplated by the third section were resorted to, the action on their part of this government, which can now settle the question of annexation, would be deferred until the new negotiation, to be make by commissioners or ministers on the part of the respective governments, could be known. But this is not all. The negotiation thus make, even when ratified by Texas, would not be conclusive. It would still have to undergo a similar reference to the government of the Unites Sates, where it would again be liable to alterations or amendments; and this in its turn, necessarily referable back again to this government, might involve the subject in inextricable confusion, and could not fail to be productive of danger to the measure, and of irritation to those friendly relations in other respects which so happily prevail between the two counties.

            Such difficulties will be avoided by adhering to the proposals contained in the first and second sections. By those proposals he door is at once opened for the admission of Texas into the Union, in the manner that has been customary with the other territories of the Unites Sates, varied only by the peculiar relations which the tow republics have maintained as separate nations. If Texans now accepts those proposals, from that moment she becomes virtually a state of the union, because the faith of the Unites States will be pledged for her admission and the act of congress necessary to redeem the pledge is obliged to follow, as soon as she presents a republican form of government. All, then, that is necessary upon this basis is for this government, after expressing its assent to the proposals submitted to it, to call a convention of the people, to clothe their deputies with the power necessary to amend their constitution, and adapt the government created by it to the new circumstances under which it will placed by annexation to the Union.

            On the grounds, therefore, of more directness and simplicity in the process, whereby time and much expenditure of many will be saved, and of the entire avoidance of all further risk resulting from possible differences attending efforts to obtain terms more suitable to the separate vies of the respective governments, it has been thought best by the president of the Unites States, as before states, to the rest the question of the joint resolution as it came from the house of representatives, which contains propositions complete and ample, as an overture to Texas, and which, if adopted by her, places the reunion of the tow countries beyond the possibility of defeat.

            This great question then is in the hands of Texas. It depends upon herself whether she will be restored to the bosom of the republican family, and taking her station with the other sisters states of the confederacy, will co-operate with them in advancing the cause of free government; or whether, standing aloof from them, she is to run the hazards of a separate career at a period in the affairs of the world when the friends of a different system of government are urged by the most powerful motives, to resist the extension of the republican principle.

            The undersigned doubts not that there are objections to the terms proposed, which under ordinary circumstances, ought to be obviated before a basis which admits them is adopted. But the circumstances are not ordinary; and the objections when weighed in the scale of importance, with the magnitude of the interest involved in the success of the measure become secondary in their character, and may well be postponed until the natural course of events removes them. If annexation should now be lost it may never be recovered. A patriotic and intelligent people, in the pursuit of a measure of general utility, if they commit a partial mistake or inflict temporary injury, were never known to fail in making the proper reparation. If they have, in this instance, made proposals of union to Texas on terms which deprive her of means that should be exclusively hers, to enable her to pay the debt contracted in the war for her independence, it has been accidental, and no assurance from the undersigned can be needed to give value to the anticipation that such an error will be corrected whenever it is communicated to the government of the Unites States.

            It is objected that Texas, in surrendering her revenue from customs, parts with the ability to put into efficient organization her sate government. - This objection must result from an undue examination of the expenditures, which the United States, on the other hand, will make in the many improvements necessary on the seacoast of Texas to protect and facilitate her commerce; in the removal of obstructions in her numerous bays and rivers; and in the military organization necessary to guard her extensive frontier against the inroads of a foreign enemy. When expenditures for these and may other internal objects are drawn from the treasury of the Union, and not from the treasury of the Union, and not from that of Texas, it will be seen that the remaining means for the support of the state government will not only be as great as they now are, but rapidly increased by the influx of population, and the growing capacity resulting from the superabundance of their rich productions.

            So, also, on the part of the United States, it was objected that the cession of the unappropriated lands ought to have been make by Texas, for a fair consideration, to enable the federal government to extend her Indian policy over the various tribes within her limits. The right to extinguish the Indian title to these lands seems almost a necessary consequence of the obligation to regulate the trade and intercourse with them, and to keep them a t peace with teach other and with us; and the absence of any provision to this effect, to the terms proposed, constituted a serious obstacle in the minds of many sincerely friendly to the measure. Yet, so strong was the desire to out the question beyond the possibility of defeat, and to leave with Texas the means of discharging her national debt, that they nevertheless recorded their votes in its favor.

            But reference is make to such objections, not to ascertain their justness or unjustness on this occasion, but to remark on the part of the United States that much was conceded to obtain the passage of the resolution. And it was also believed that a like spirit would induce Texas to overlook minor considerations, relying on that high sense of honor and magnanimity which governs both the people and the representatives of the United States, to secure to her hereafter all that she can reasonably desire, to place her on the most favorable footing with the other members of the Union. It was this belief that mainly induced the President of the Unites States to give the instructions which have controlled this communication fro the undersigned, adopting, as the basis of action for finishing the work of annexation, the joint resolution as it originally passed the house of representatives.

            With these observations, the question is now submitted to the hon. Mr. Allen, under the confident hope that this government will see the necessity of prompt and decisive action, whereby the measure may obtain the constitutional sanction of Texas. And the undersigned takes this occasion t renew to Mr. Allen an expression of the distinguished consideration with which he has the honor to be his very obedient servant,

A.J. DONELSON.

[BAH]

NR 68.323   26Jul1845:  rumors of war between Mexico and the US

            RELATIONS WITH MEXICO. The New York Sun says that rumors of war with Mexico have reached that city, and that the Mexican congress have authorized hostile measures against the Unites States. - The rumor is at least premature, though our last advices from Mexico indicate such an event as being highly probable.

            The latest hints we have from the city of Washington, as well as from New York, rather favor the hope that peace may yet be reserved. This it is likely may be aided by the arrival of the Texan secretary of stat, Alhbel Smith, who it will be remembered was, by the late articles from Texas, made the scape-goat of the Texan overtures to Mexico, for which President Jones is so much censured, and who hurried off so rapidly to Europe at the same moment that Captain Elliott, "the man with the white hat" started from Galveston for the city of Mexico. Mr. Secretary Smith, no doubt found, that neither England nor France were at all disposed to risk a war with the United States in behalf of Mexico, though they both spirited that government on to the very verge, if not beyond the verge of hostilities in resistance of the annexation of Texas to the Unites States.

            Finding that tack was unavailing, Capt. Elliott quits Mexico, Texas, and the United States, by the shortest cut, and is off for England at the same moment Mr. Secretary Smith is on his way from his hasty embassy to Europe, "HOMEWARD BOUND" - and they probably intersected each other at New York, where Mr. Smith arrived on Monday in the Great Western.

            The New York Journal of Commerce, in relation to his mission, says:

            "We learn that he as accomplished the objects of his mission, which consisted neither in obtaining a loan nor in selling his country to the French, English, or Dutch, nor in procuring its independence instead of annexation to the Unites States. Texas has now no diplomatic representative in Europe, except Mr. Dangerfield, who we believe has some time since received an order of recall. A principal object of Mr. Smith's mission, as we understand it, was to prepare the way for closing the relations of Texas with European powers in a respectful and becoming manner. Those relations had been of the most friendly character, and the government of England and France especially had manifested a cordial interest in the welfare of the young republic. That they wished her to remain independent rather than be annexed to the United States, is beyond a doubt; but this is to be said to their credit, that, in any negotiations they may have had with Texas for this object, they have never, either of them , proposed to reserve any peculiar advantages themselves beyond what should be enjoyed by other nations. This further should be said to their credit, that now, when they see that annexation is the will of the Texan people, fairly expressed, they abandon all further attempts at interference. And this, still further, may be relied on, that they have and will exert themselves to restrain Mexico from the infatuation of making war upon the United States, which would only serve to complicate affairs, without the possibility of preventing annexation. Mr. Smith expresses his opinion decidedly that there will be nor war, not even with Mexico."   [BAH]


NR 68.324    26Jul1845:  state of the ships

The U.S. ship Boston, com. Pendergrast, was at Montevideo 12th May, officers and crew all well. - Lieut. Levil died on the 9th on board the B. - his disease was dissentery.

            The second trial of caption P.F. Voorhees, of the U.S. navy, was closed on the 14th instant. The first was a question of international law, as between this and foreign friendly governments; and the second, more nearly affecting the honor of the navy, in the personal conduct of its officers. In the last trial the charges were, according the Washington Union-

            Unnecessary delay in obeying an order to proceed with the Congress frigate from Annapolis to Norfolk; illegal punishment, by establishing on order fro the internal government of the shop, authorizing lieutenants to flog the men six lashes, in their discretion - in violation of law, which gives the power to punish only to commanders; and this, "scandalous conduct, tending to the destruction of good morals," in this that captain Voorhees having been ordered by he department to state his reason for not obeying an order of commodore Turder to bring the Congress into Norfolk; and, instead of doing so, proceeded to Annapolis, gave his reasons for so doing in a letter to the department of March 22d; which letter, the specification alleges, was false, in affirming that he ( captain Voorhees), had no intention of violating the order of commodore Turner, whereas he did intentionally disobey the said order, and did design to disobey it, and make preparations for disobeying it, and intimated that such was his intention before he had any knowledge of the alleged hindrances and difficulties from adverse winds and other causes, which he set forth in his letter as the reasons why he proceeded to Annapolis instead of Norfolk; and which letter was also " so written and framed as to convey to the secretary of the navy the meaning and explanation the he (captain Voorhees), was hindered by unforeseen difficulties from obeying the said order," which he did intentionally disobey.

            The last accounts from Havana state that H.B.M. sloop-of-war Eurydice was ashore near the Moro, and was discharging her guns.

            The John Adams commodore McCluney, sailed from New York on the 18th with supplies for the Gulf squadron.

            The brig Washington - on surveying duty, left Brooklyn navy yard on the 17th and sailed from New York on the 21st for the Gulf of Mexico.   [BAH]


NR 68.336   26Jul1845:  fear of an embargo of American ships, calls for declaration of war

MEXICO. - Latest. The schooner Sarah Ann, Capt. Davidson, arrived at Philadelphia, was hurried from Tampico on the 1st of July, for fear of an immediate embargo upon American shipping. Tampico papers brought by Capt. D. strongly urge an immediate declaration of war.   [BAH]


August 1845

NR 68.352   16Aug1845:  Mexican determination to declare war when US troops possess Texas, Congress to assemble, preparations for war

            Mexico. Vera Cruz dates to the 3d July, and City of Mexico dates to the 28th June, have been received at New Orleans. Nearly all the papers and letters indicate a determination on the part of Mexico to declare war on ascertaining that the Unites States troops have taken possession of Texas.

            President Herrera has by decree, summoned congress to assemble on the 17th of July. The public journals are filled with electioneering for the presidency.- The issue will be decided on the 1st of August. Gen. Bustamente reached Mexico on the 21st of June, and immediately offered his sword and services to maintain the nationals claim on Texas. Vera Cruz is being fortified; the present standing army is given at some 30, 000. The two Mexican steamships at Vera Cruz were totally unprepared for service.   [BAH]


NR 68.372   16Aug1845:  expectation of war with the US over the annexation of Texas

            RELATIONS WITH MEXICO. Government appears to be in possession of intelligence, which renders a concentration of all the disposable portion of the Unites States army on the frontier of the newly acquired possession of Texas, indispensable. In addition to the forces which proceeded from the vicinity of New Orleans as mentioned in our last, the company of Light Dragoons which has been for some time stationed at Fort McHenry, (Baltimore,) and the company which has been stationed at Fort Hamilton, have received orders to be in readiness at a moment's warning, and dispositions are making for their embarkation for the mouth of the Aransas. Arms, fixed ammunition, gun-carriages, &c., are shipping for the same direction in considerable quantities from our arsenals. General Scott, the commander-in-chief, is en route for the southwest. The Washington "Union," alluding to some erroneous statements that have been published relative to the orders issued, says: "As far as we are advised, our government are taking the necessary means to guard against the dangers which are reported to threaten the Texian frontier. The star-spangled banner is flying over that territory; and it will not abandon it. But our troops will not, unless there be the strongest reasons for the act, attack a Mexican fort, or drive off its garrison. They will stand upon the defensive as long as they honestly and properly can do so, and not provoke any hostilities even with the Mexicans. This, we presume, is the position they will take - these the instructions which we suspect have been issued."

The Mexican consul at New Orleans, Mr. Arangoiz, by the Mexican Schooner Relampago, from Vera Cruz, arrived at N. Orleans, received instructions from his government, in consequence of which his duties as consul were closed on the 6th inst., and he was to sail on the 9th inst.

Intelligence brought by the Relampago, so far as published, indicates very strongly, either a declaration of war, or an embargo upon American vessels. It was generally expected a Vera Cruz the day the Ralampago sailed, that the nest mail from Mexico would bring decisive intelligence. That war would be declared, was the general opinion, and we learn verbally that the government of Mexico is making strenuous exertions to borrow $12,000,000 to carry it on. They were landing shot and shells from the Castle of San Juan de Ullao on the wharves of the former, as was said from fear that the castle might fall into the hands of the U. States. The only American merchant vessel at Vera Cruz were the Ann Louisa, to sail for New York on the 30th ult., and the Water Witch, to sail for this port on the 26th .

There were two French, one English, and one Spanish men-of-war at Vera Cruz, no American. The Mexican steamers of war, Montezuma and Gaudaloupe, were lying in the harbor, but they were talking of moving them to some safe place.

The El Veracruzano Libre, of the 16th ult. cntains a very warm article on the subject of the Americans taking possession of Texas, one of the fairest of the Mexican provinces, -- the tenor of which may be judged of, by its concluding paragraph, which is in the following words:

"Mexicans!  To arms!  The common enemy, taking advantage of our disunion, menaces us, and is even now at the gates of the Republic. In the name of Independence, in the name of Mexican liberty, fly to inflict upon them the most exemplary chastisement, and God save the nation!"   [BAH]


NR 68.384  16Aug1845:   warlike statement of Cuevas to Congress, quotas for Army requisitioned

Postscript. This morning's mail brings further intelligence, brought by the Mexican schooner Relampago, to New Orleans, confirmatory of what is stated under the head of "Relations with Mexico," - and leaving very little doubt of a declaration of war being soon received. The schooner was reported at New Orleans on Sunday, and the news which she brought was not developed in full extent until the following Thursday, (7th inst.) on which day, the files of the Diario del Gobierno, of Mexico to the 19th ult., were furnished. Is it not odd that we should have to depend upon the Mexicans to furnish us with accounts from thence at such a moment?

The Mexican official journal of the 17th, contains a very long communication from the minister, Cuevas, to the two chambers, dated the 16th, reviewing the controversy with the United States, and indicating distinctly that a war must result. Official circulars, from the authorities, calling upon the departments, to furnish forthwith their quotas for the army, are paraded. In one of them dated 16th, Garcia Conde, says: "Mexico will not consent to give up one-half of her territory, from the base fear of losing the other."  He calls upon the citizens "to sustain her rights, violated by a nation which refuses to acknowledge them, and obliges Mexico to maintain them by force, which it most undoubtedly will, or fall in the struggle."

Rumor in N. Orleans, was busy of course. Amongst other thins, it was whispered that the declaration of war was actually brought by the Mexican schooner, but that the consul took care not to divulge it before himself and schooner should be beyond our jurisdiction.

The American naval force in the gulf at present is about ten sail, mounting an aggregate of two hundred guns. The commodore's ship, the Potomac frigate, we mentioned on undoubted authority some months since, mentioned on undoubted authority some months since, was in an unseaworthy condition. - The department, we presume, must have been in possession of similar information. She was ordered to sea not withstanding, and left Pensacola accordingly, on the 29th ult., for Vera Cruz, but she leaked so badly, that she had to "bout shop" and reached Pensacola again on the 5th inst., the commodore ordering the Saratoga towards Vera Cruz, and the Lawrence towards Galveston.   [BAH]


NR 68.388   16Aug1845:  Mexico - Congress - Mexican preparations for war with the US

RELATIONS WITH MEXICO. It is certainly remarkable, that during the delicate posture of our relations with Mexico, our government would seem to have depended upon chance to furnish intelligence of the progress of events there. We have been indebted to either British or French vessels of war for more than half of what news reaches us. The most important recent intelligence we derived from a Mexican vessel of war, the Relampago, and our editors quarrel with her because all she brought was not forthwith communicated. Our latest intelligence, prior to this morning, was by a French vessel of war at Pensacola. It is nearly a month since an American arrival has afforded any news for Mexico, until the arrival at last of the Water Witch, long looked for. She left Vera Cruz on the 5th inst., and reached Mobile on the 15th. The British brig of war Persian, reached Vera Cruz on the 27th utl. From Galveston, with intelligence of the annexation of Texas, and that a body of 4,000 Americans were expected at Galveston in a few days.

The propositions of the ministry, asking congress to declare war against the Unites States, and to raise the ways and means it would require, were still under discussion in the chambers. The difficulty no doubt, is in the latter clause.

Meantime troops are said to be on the road to the Texan frontier, to the number of 10,000 men.

The Vera Cruz correspondent of the Mobile Herald, thinks that the Mexican government is in no hurry to declare war, and that they will probably attempt to re-conquer Texas without declaring war.  That would certainly be a very strange proceeding.

The presidential election commenced on the 1st inst. Four candidates were in the field. Herrera, who now exercises the duties of president, will probably be elected. Almonte, late minister here, has offered his services in the proposed war, and is the most formidable competitor of Herrera for the presidency.

The impression expressed from the first announcement of President Tyler's project for annexing Texas, and frequently repeated since, in  the columns of the National Register, that if that project was carried out, Mexico would declare war, has never wavered. The result now is not far off, one way or the other.

By the French ship of war Mercure, arrived at Pensacola from Vera Cruz, Mexican dates to the 21st July are received.

EXECUTIVE MESSAGE PROPOSING A DECLARATON OF WAR.

          The "Diario del Gobierno."  Of the 21st July contains the following:

Report addressed by the minister of foreign affairs of Mexico, to the Chamber of Deputies. 20th July 1845.

            The supreme government, after attentively examining the affairs of Texas, and the annexation of that department to the American union - after weighing carefully all the evils which the republic may suffer therefrom, if its offended honor and the integrity of its territory, thus seriously endangered, should not be vindicated by the means and in the form established by the law of nations - has decided, with the unanimous consent of the council, upon the painful extremity of a war with the Unites States. Although this resolution resting upon clear and acknowledged justice, and provoked by a series of grievances not to be borne without disgrace, has long since been indicated, and is conformable with the repeated demands of the nation; yet the government could not but reflect upon the responsibility involved by such a measure, and on the evident circumstances that, as the election of a constitutional president. And the establishment of a new administration, are pear at hand, the chamber might consider it more natural to leave to that body the decision of a point of such transcendent importance. But the supreme government has not wished to appear, for a moment. Less decided in favor of a just and national war, than it was disposed fro a worth and honorable peace.

            The government continues to prepare the most efficient measures for recovering Texas, and for placing the nation in the attitude most proper for it. If it does not effect all that it desires, it certainly does all that it can; and the chamber should not doubt either its efforts or its patriotism. One this very day are prepared the financial measures which must, from their nature, precede the execution of the present initiatory resolution.

            The chamber will bear in mind the third part of the 34th article of the treaty of friendship, commerce and navigation with the United Sates. In the opinion of the government, it has already practiced over and above all that is therein required.

            In virtue of what is here said, and of the circumstances and documents communicated to the chamber relative to this important affair, and under the conviction that the facts to which the first article of the following resolution refers will be confirmed; his excellency the president, at a council of the ministers, and with their full assent, has been pleased to order me to address the chamber, in the following terms, as approved by the council:

            ARTICLE 1. From the moment when the supreme government shall-know that the department of Texas has annexed to the American Union, or that troops from the Union have invaded it, is shall declare the nation at war with the United States of North America.

            ARTICLE 2. The object of this war shall be to secure the integrity of the Mexican territory, according to its ancient limits, acknowledged by the United States in treaties from the year 1828 to 1836, and to insure the independence of the nation.

God and Liberty! - Mexico, July 21, 1845

Luis G. Cuevas

[BAH]


NR 68.401  30Aug1845:  propositions for war, &c.

            The papers received from Mexico and Monterey by this day's mail bring the following important times of news:

            On the 22d of July, the government submitted to congress a declaration of war against the United States - the said declaration to be make when there is news of the arrival of American troops in Texas. But the government recommends to congress to act on a bill authorizing a loan of fifteen millions of dollars previous to acting on the war bill. It appears that the loan is almost completely negotiated - at least so the official papers gives us to understand.

            By a dispatch from the Mexican consult at New Orleans, the general commanding this point has been informed of the shipment of troops and artillery at new Orleans, destined for Corpus Christi and Bexar. These troops amount to 2,000 men.

            With regard to the movements of the troops here, we know positively that all the points along the line of the river will soon be covered - Arista has about 3,000 men; General Paredes is coming to Monterey with about four or five thousand; General Gaona is coming also with 3,000, and General Bustamente goes to New Mexico. Thus for, however, notwithstanding these preparations, I believe that hostilities are not so imminent as might at first be thought. - There is no general-in-chief appointed yet - no contracts for the necessary supplies of a campaign, or a serious incursion into Texas.

            Some persons, generally well-informed, think hat the government needs money greatly and is disposed to hold up the prospect of a war, in order to get the loan approved. The hope that foreign intervention will soon put an end to the difficulties between the tow countries seems to be at the bottom of the ideas of this government, which on the other hand, if we may credit letters recently received from the capital, appears to be threatened with a new revolution.

By the next mail we shall probably have the debates of congress on the loan bill and the war, and will them be better able to see into the future.   [BAH]


NR 68.402   30Aug845:  disposition of the government forces

THE GOVERNMENT FORCES. It will be seen by the contents of this number, that government is very properly concentrating the naval and military forces at their disposal, upon the frontier that is threatened.

            General Taylor, with his "army of observation," numbered towards 2,000 men, by the last accounts from them, and he will soon have at least 5,000 regular troops. If these are concentrated, the Mexicans will probably take care to leave a fair space of neutral ground between them and many forces they are likely very soon to have in one body.

            Nearly the whole of the United States army being thus moved beyond what was recently the bounds of the Union, the government of course relies, - and very properly may do so on such an occasion, upon the armed people of the Union to attend to any defense that may be required within the old limits.

            The naval force ordered to the Gulf of Mexico, is likely to be formidable. We should regret to see distant points too much drained of a exquisite force, leaving our commerce unprotected elsewhere, in order to make an unnecessary display at this one point. The Mexican naval force is know to be already hors de combat, and seeking safety from the American force now in the gulf. An exposed point abroad would soon be ascertained by privateersmen.   [BAH]


September 1845

NR 69.003   06Sep1845:  interest in Santa Fe in the annexation of Texas to the US

            TEXAS. The ship Suviah arrived at New Orleans on the 24th ult. From the Bay Aransas. She left the anchorage at the place on the 16th. Nothing has transpired of any interest since our last accounts from that point. Previous to the vessel's sailing, the steamer Monmouth came off, and reported that war had been declared. How the news reached our force on the main land we are not informed. It may be that general Taylor had received recent intelligence to that effect from the frontier; and then, again it army have been a repletion of the menacing news received here a short time since. General Taylor, with his command, had left the neighborhood of St. Joseph's and established himself at San Patricio, on the north bank of the Nueves.

            A letter from Santa Fe, written on the 18th of July, and published in the St. Louis Era, states that much interest is felt in the at section of country in relation to the annexation of Texas. A large portion of the inhabitants are said to be anxious for annexation, and in favor of the Rio del Norte as the boundary, which would include them in the union.

            "Mr. Armstrong, on the 26th June, asked leave to introduce a bill baring certain claims, debts, judgments, &c. which he said he would read, and explain how it was connected with the subject of annexation.

            The object of the bill was to prevent the collection of claims against the inhabitants of Texas by citizens of the United States.

            Mr. Armstrong said there were many citizens in many of the counties who would be relieved by a bill of this nature. There were a great many person in this republic, he had no doubt in the world, who would oppose the measure of annexation unless they thought their rights and interest would be guarded and protected by the action of congress."

            "Mr. Smith, of Fanning, was opposed to the bill. He said: - "It proposes to do away with all just demands against those who have emigrated to this country from any of the states."  The measure of annexation, had been carried by a parcel of people who have come into the country very lately; and now they wanted to get rid of paying their honest debts.

            'Why sir, said Mrs. S. 'as I came from home on my way here, I passed through a people who were about to hand me; not three out of five or whom had been in the country long enough to take the oath of allegiance; and these people wanted to control my vote.'  Vote to exonerate us from our just debt or we will hang you.

            "Mr. Armstrong replied: ' many have come to this country under adverse and very embarrassing circumstances.'  The very idea of being again harassed is enough to terrify them, and five them into opposition to the great measure of annexation."

            "There was a good deal further debate on the bill, and it was somewhat amended, but finally carried by a vote of 22 to 17. So the Texians are pretty effectually protected against their creditors in the states."

            Mr. Ashbel Smith's letter. Mr. Ashbel Smith, late minister of the government of Texas to England and France, has addressed the following letter to he editor of a paper in Texas, and in anticipation of its appearance through that channel, has authorized its publication in the New York Journal of Commerce. As the late journey of Mr. Smith has been the subject of a good deal of curiosity, we republish his letter, although we do not perceive that it makes any important disclosures, or gives us much new light upon the history of the annexation or the negotiations relating to it.

            [Boston Advertiser. Ohio River, Steamboat Pike, August - , 1845 To H. Stuart, esq.]   [BAH]


NR 69.003   06Sep1845 war loan, orders to troops to position themselves in advance of the Rio Bravo

MEXICO.

            The following is an extract from a letter of the 2d August, which was received in Washington. Union.

            "I have the honor to inform you, that by the British express; which left Mexico the day after the amil of this morning, congress had agreed to the call of the minister for a loan of 15,000,000. The next thing is to get it.

            I deem it my duty also to state, that I have just seen a letter from the British consul, sent to his house here, wherein he observes that orders had been issued, and approved by the war committee, for the troops on the frontier to take up their position ten leagues in advance of the Rio Bravo; and if attacked, to defend themselves. &c., &c."    [BAH]


NR 69.003  21Jun1845:  news of the declaration of war reaches the Army in Texas, Gen. Zachary Taylor established on the Nueces

TEXAS. The ship Suviah arrived at New Orleans on the 24th ult. From the Bay of Aransas. She left the anchorage at that place on the 16th. Nothing has transpired of any interest since our last accounts from that point. Previous to the vessel's sailing, the steamer Monmouth came off, and reported that war had been declared. How the news reached our force on the main land we are not informed. It may be that general Taylor had received recent intelligence to that effect from the frontier; and then, again, it may have been a repetition of the menacing news received here a short time since. General Taylor, with his command, had left the neighborhood of St. Joseph's, and established himself at San Patricio, on the north bank of the Nueces.

A letter from Santa Fe, written on the 18th of July, and published in the St. Louis Era, states that much interest is felt in that section of country in relation to the annexation of Texas. A large portion of the inhabitants are said to be anxious for annexation, and in favor of the Rio del Norte and the boundary, which would include them in the union.

"Mr. Armstrong, on the 26th June, asked leave to introduce a bill baring certain claims, debts, judgments, &c. which he said he would read, and explain how it was connected with the subject of annexation.

"The object of the bill was to prevent the collection of claims against the inhabitants of Texas by citizens of the United States.

"Mr. Armstrong said there were 'many worthy citizens in many of the counties who would be relieved by a bill of this nature. There were a great many persons in this republic, he had no doubt in the would, who would oppose the measure of annexation unless they thought their rights and interests would be guarded and protected by the action of congress."   [BAH]


NR 69.004   06Sep1845:  notice of Gen. Zachary Taylor and dragoons on the Nueces

The steamer Undine left Corpus Christi on the 18th ult. Gen Taylor had succeeded in removing the 3d and 4th regiments of infantry, and a large part of his military stores to that place, and had fixed his headquarters there. A breastwork of earth had been thrown up, and nearly completed. A few pieces of ordinance, procured in that town, were brought into requisition. No certain information concerning the advance of the Mexicans had been received; but it was rumored that Arista was assembling a large force at Matamoras and along the Rio Grande.

The United States Dragoons under command of Col. Twiggs, had crossed the Colorado, and were on their march to Corpus Christi - all well. A company of Mexican traders were expected in the next day. The location of the encampment is salubrious and pleasant, being immediately upon the beach of the bay, and open to the sea breeze. The health of the camp was good.

At Aransas Bay on the 21 st the schooner Florinda, with coal, &c., from N. Orleans, had just arrived. - the wreck of the schooner Swallow, on the Aransas bar, had been stripped of her masts, sails, rigging, &c., and some of her cargo waved. A sale was to take place on the 23d inst.

The Undine arrived at Galveston on the 23d inst., replenished wood and water, and left at noon on the 24th, and was ascending the Mississippi on the 26th the steam ship John S. McKi was in port and advertised to leave at 3 o'clock that afternoon.

The convention was still in session at Austin on the 13th, but it was anticipated that their labors would close on the 23d.

The Houston Telegraph of the 20th contains the letter of E. Allen, acting secretary of state, to the Hon. Ashbel Smith, informing him of the basis of the separate independence of the republic, and telling him, that under such circumstances it is unnecessary for him any longer to continue to discharge the duties of minister to the European governments.

News of the arrival of the dragoons, under the command of Colonel Twiggs, at San Antonio had reached Galveston. They performed their march at the rate of twenty miles per day, and with very little sickness among their numbers - 450. They expected to join the army at Corpus Christi under Gen. Taylor.   [BAH]


NR 69.005   06Sep1845:  party of Mexican soldiers approach Castroville, but flee

The Houston Telegraph of the 21st instant., says that a party of about seventy Mexican soldiers approached within 16 miles of Castroville, about a fortnight ago. Captain Hays received information of their movements, and went out to attack them; but they were apprised of his approach by one of their spies, and hastily decamped. It is supposed that they intended to attack Castroville for the purpose of capturing a quantity of goods that had been deposited there by some Mexican traders. The traders reported that they were under the command of a man by the name of Platina; that they belonged to a detachment of Cartadores, that has recently been stationed at Presidio.   [BAH]


NR 69.005   06Sep1845:  news of the Mexican forces at Matamoros

            Dear sir - The steamer Creole, captain Hein arrived here yesterday morning from your city and about noon ran down to the forts, where she received on board the troops destined for Texas. Late in the evening she took her departure, accompanied with the wishes of all our citizens for her speedy and safe arrival at her port of destination.

            We have but little news here just now, but are looking quite anxiously for the arrival of the sloop of war Saratoga, daily expected from Mexico with important news. I say daily expected - and so she is by many of our citizens - but why she is expected, I cannot tell you. The last accounts we had from that portion of the gulf lead us to suppose that Mexico was about declaring war. Should such a supposition be correct, the proper station for the Saratoga, as well as Com. Conner and the squadron now lying here under his command, would be at Vera Cruz. And for my part, I cannot see the reason why the Saratoga should run from Mexico as soon as war is declared.

            My own notion is, that the whole squadron should be lying off Vera Cruz; and when information of the declaration of war is received, it should be dispatched to this country, opt by a sloop of war or frigate, but by one of the fast sailing brigs - either the Somers or Lawrence. But the idea is supremely ridiculous, to me, of a large squadron lying at anchor in one of our own parts, where they are not wanted while only on e of our sloops of war is stationed where the whole fleet is required. When war is declared of course that one ship will have to bring the news - and by the time the whole fleet can repair to the scene of action, perhaps millions of property will be destroyed by the privateering pirates of Mexico!

            It is said that the fleet will sail from here in the course of two or three days; - but as the same rumor has been current for the last week or tow, I will not vouch for its correctness. One thing I will vouch for, however, and that is, hat Com. Conner has not yet transferred his flag from the Potomac, but is still on board that vessel, tinkering away at her leak. He seems to have a mortal dread of going to sea in any other vessel than the "frigate."  [Mobile Herald.]   [BAH]


NR 69.005   06Sep1845:  comments of the New York "Morning News" on the possibility of avoiding a war

Nine-tenths of our people, caeteris paribus, would rather have a little fighting than not. The old Adam is about as rampart in our American republicanism as in any other branch of the Anglo Saxondom. - They rather prefer to do the fighting in question themselves:  as the next best thing, they like to look on and see it done by others. And, whether done by self or deputy, they like to see it done well, according to the old established laws and principles of the fighting theory. All this, we repeat, we knew perfectly well, and are therefore very far from surprised at finding our doctrine and advice in regard to this Mexican War (if Mexican war there is to be) civilly but decidedly remonstrated against at once by three of our most respectable contemporaries - the Evening Post, Albany Argus, and the Union; the last carrying multiplied weight of its representative action, which means nothing more nor less than vehement attack, with a view to put an early end to the threatened hostilities by some prompt and crushing blow; or what may be called the offensive defensive system. Be it so if so it must. Be the sin and the shame, be the crime and the disgrace - whatever of either there may be - on the heads where they may belong. We wash our hands of the blood, our shirts of the stain. If such a war is to come, we shall sing no paeans to its heroes, no Te-Deums for its victories; we shall covet none of its laurels. - Mexico has been hardly dealt with in the sole business; dealt with a weak and impotent one. She has been too much disregarded and despised. While no substantive rights, have been injured - and we have the whole law as well as the whole "profits" on our side - we have been too indifferent to her feeling, top contemptuous of those imaginary rights which have been not the less sincere for being absurd. It has been all forliter in re on our side, with none of the suaviter in modo, and the relation between the two in point of power would at least have made a little of the latter a graceful adornment of the former. Different influences unhappily ruled the hour:  perhaps after the 4th of March it was too late for change.

And now the result is, that Mexico, mean and miserable as she is - malicious, too, if you please - is about to march up to certain demolition, in a military collision with us on the simple point of honor; reluctantly as we all know - hopelessly as he herself cannot but feel; not to recover Texas - not to gain anything imaginable; but simply because she feels "concerned" in a position where an attempt at least at war seems vitally due to the defense of her national honor, the preservation of that popular pride of patriotism which it is not for our people to deny as a virtue.

It is not in human nature - not in ours, at least - to look with satisfaction upon any fight between big and little - between a lion and a rat; even though all the right may be on the former side, our own side; and all the wrong on the other, the enemy's side. If it were only a royal Bengal tiger, now or an elephant, or a hippopotamus, or any thing at least looking tolerable equal even in bulk, it might pass. But the lion to roar against a rat - the eagle to strain his great war-scream against a buzzard!  We have no stomach for the business, and never shall have.

Conciliation!  Conciliation!  Conciliation!  Between powerful and weak it is never too late for conciliation. We would have our government send a special mission of conciliation, with unusual form and solemnities, to explain and justify our right, to soothe sincere irritations, to satisfy offended scruples of pride, to deprecate endless, foolish, and criminal effusions of blood. Let there be at the same time overwhelming force concentrated at the necessary points, both for defense and for bloodlessly stringent blockade, if necessary. How gracefully would such an attitude become our country towards Mexico?  How beyond all compare superior the moral glory of a peace thus secured, to that of a submission extorted from crushed, despairing, and still hating impotence, by a thousand San Jacintos!

But such counsels will avail but little, either with our people, or, as a necessary consequence, with our people, or, as a necessary consequence, with our Government. Alas that is should be so!  So much the worse for them and for us all - for Mexico - for the poor wretches of Mexican soldiers, dragged in coffles to battles not their own; for ourselves, for our own true honor; for the cause of Christianity; for the progress of the Human race. [N.Y. Morn. News.]   [BAH]


NR 69.006   06Sep1845:  operations at Pensacola to transport troops to Texas

            The Gulf Squadron. A letter from the correspondent of the Mobile Herald, dated Pensacola 20th August, says - The John Adams came in one the 18th instant - and the steamers yesterday - officers and drew all in first rate fighting order. Our bay, just now, presents a magnificent view and a warlike appearance, not withstanding several shops of the squadron are absent in the Gulf. The frigate John Adams, steamers Princeton and Mississippi, and brig Porpoise, are riding at anchor in our bay.   [BAH]


NR 69.006   6Sep1845:  payment for three of the six vessels built for Mexico at New York

Mexican vessels of war. - About eighteen months since Messrs. Brown & Bell, extensive ship builders of this city, received an order from the Mexican government for six schooners of war, of about 80 tons burthen each. They were completed about six months since, and lay at the yard of Mess's. Brown & Bell, awaiting an order from the Mexican government accompanied with the money, which was to be paid for them. The order came, with plea of inability to pay. About two months since, however, three of them were paid for and dispatched, and the others now lie at Messrs. Brown & Bell's yard, awaiting a like demand. [New York Herald.]   [BAH]


NR 69.018   13Sep1845:  rumor of movements of Mexican troops toward Texas

            Captain Gomez, of the schooner Joaquim, who brought the foregoing news, states that there was a rumor when he sailed from Tampico that General Herrera was elected president, and that fifteen hundred troops were marching from the interior to join Gen. Paredes, who had already tow thousand; that when the junction was effected the forces would march upon Galveston by the northern route, while Gen. Arista attacked Gen. Taylor. Captain G. also says the Mexicans had dispatched emissaries to stir up the slaves in Texas.   [BAH]


NR 69.018   13Sep1845:  Gen. Mariano Arista's address and call for forces

The Cabinet. The dissolution of the cabinet was announced to Congress by the President, on the 4th August. Tose Maria Ortez Manasterio, secretary of foreign affairs of government and police was the only one that consented to remain. That officer, the 11th, officially informs congress, that "His excellency the President ad interim requests me to communicate to you, that notwithstanding the talents, the patriotism and integrity of those who, in the present difficulties have the honor to administer the departments, Viz: Luis G. Cuevas, Mariano Riva Palacio, Luis de la Rosa, and Pedro Garcia Conde, he has, with regret, found himself compelled to accept their resignation. Until a new ministry can be formed in order that the public affairs may not suffer. His Excellency therefore confers the offices of Minister of Justice and of War upon Jose Maria Duran and Juan Luis de Leon, and upon me, besides that I now administer, the office of Minister of Finance.

            In the Diario del Gobierno, of the 12th, there is a communication from the same Minister thanking those who had resigned, for the ability with which those who had resigned for the ability with which they had discharged their duties. The new Ministry was not formed at the last dates, nor will it be done before the inauguration of the new President, and who that would be was not yet certain.

            The Diario of the 12th contained tow proclamations of General Arista; on e addressed to the people of the departments of Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, and Tamaulipas, calling them to arms; the other to the troops under his command to excite their marital ardor. The last is in the following language:

            "Comrades: The Supreme Executive has sent to me by express the news that the United States, in pursuance of their ambitious view, having taken possession of the department of Texas, he had demanded a declaration of war from the congress against that unjust nation.

            The time to fight is come. We must prepare with the ardor inspired by duty and patriotism when an attack is make upon the silk, the honor, and the pride of the nation.

            I am sure, comrades, that those presumptuous Americans will be greatly disappointed, when they find that our soldiers are not so contemptible as they thought and that cannot conquer them.

            I address you under the influence of a lively enthusiasm. All fanciful doubt is vanished; the question is decided; and we are about to commence the most righteous war that we ever waged. Laurels await us!  To arms!  It is the only means of avenging our honor, insulted by a nation that boasts of its liberality and civilization.

            Arms are the only arguments to use against banditti and men without good faith. Let us hope for hat justice which is invoked by all society and the decision of the civilized world.

            Our lot will be envied by the rest of the army. - We are nearest the theatre of war; we are the first to avenge the outrages on our country, and to ravish from the usurpers the object of their rapine.

            Large bodies of troops are on their march; they will soon be here to share our dangers and repulse the enemy.

            The veterans of the north have given proofs their valor and constancy; they are accustomed to conquer this presumptuous race I know your worth. And how dearly you love to serve your country. It is for this that I am pleased to command you and to lead you the combat, in which your comrade and best friend will be prod to follow our example."   "Mariano Arista."   [BAH]


NR 69.019   13Sep1845;  comments on the inability of Mexico to wage war over Texas without the backing of England

The official journal at Washington, considers the latest news from Mexico, as "full of Fury, but signify nothing."  The Union says:  " Congress had voted a loan of fifteen millions, but where is the money to come from?  They talk of sending 25,000 troops to the frontier, but the number advancing falls far short of that. They threaten to make a rush upon Texas; but the tardiness of their troops, and the alacrity of our own, will prevent any coup de main. Gen. Taylor conceives himself to be strong enough to withstand any attack which the Mexicans at Matamoras may affect to make upon him; and as soon as he receives further reinforcements of regular troops, he is determined to send back to New Orleans the two gallant companies of volunteers who have flushed to his standard. The Mexicans talk of striking us with our any formal declaration of war; but the threat has reached us before the blow, and, "forewarned," we are now "forearmed."  We can scarcely suspect, therefore, that any blow will be armed at us. We defy all the threats, whilst we despise all their power."

"England probably holds peace or war in the palm of her hand; but she does not appear willing to assist Mexico, or to disturb the peace of the world. -The most violent journals in London, which have bitterly denounced our conduct in Texas, and grossly misrepresented our character, seem unwilling to kindle a war out of the passions of Mexico. There is nothing warlike either in the effusions of her press, or in the speeches of ministers on the eve of the adjournment of parliament. The government has literally dispersed with out any preparation to meet the events of war on this side of the Atlantic. The queen and her cortege have repaired to the continent. Lord Aberdeen has joined the pageant. Sir Robert Peel has retired to the country, to kill grouse. We see no signs, indeed, of any expected movement on the great theater of political events. But if England does not stand at the back of Mexico, and supply her with the means of war, it is not easy to imagine that she will rush into hostilities with the United States.

"The re-election of Herrera will usher in some change of counsels. It will give confidence to the measure, which he may think proper to adopt. The force of this government may silence the clamors of the mob. The country is partially recovering from the first impression and the strong excitement arising from the annexation of Texas. Things cannot long remain in the slatu in quo. The scene must shift. A new act will be introduced. If his troops at Matamoras cannot cross the Rio Grande with impunity, he will probably begin to feel the danger of doing anything, and the ridicule of doing nothing. - We are sorry to hear of the civilities, which were exchanged at Vera Cruz, between the Saratoga and the town. We are not very much surprised to hear the first whisper of a disposition, on her part, to resume the negotiation. But we shall scarcely encourage any such proposition, until we are satisfied until she be sufficiently impressed with a sense of her own inferiority - until she distinctly sees that we have no desire to make any but a permanent and honorable peace; and that no peace can be permanent and honorable which does not settle all the causes of difference between the two countries. We can scarcely enter into any negotiations until all these insulting threats, all this gasconade from Arista and others, which comes to us, has ceased."   [BAH]


NR 69.020  13Sep1845:  news of Mexican forces at Matamoros and of reinforcements, their intentions

"FROM THE ARMY OF OBSERVATION. Dispatches from Gen. Taylor, as late as the 26th of August, have reached the war department by express. The troops ordered to Texas, to compose the "army of occupation, are rapidly arriving, together with an ample supply of the munitions of war. Colonel Twiggs' regiment of dragoons were at San Patricio on the 24th, in excellent condition, having well sustained their long march, and finding, though the whole route, a plentiful supply of water, provisions, and forage. The horses are in a fine condition, and fit for immediate active service, should there be occasion to put them to it. This regiment was expected to be at Corpus Christi on the 27th. Gen. Taylor has, at no time since his arrival at Aransas Bay, felt any solicitude for the safety of his command, or the necessity of calling for auxiliary force, even from Texas. The two gallant companies of artillery, which, with such promptness and patriotic spirit volunteered to go to Texas from New Orleans, under the belief that their country stood in need of their services have arrived at general Taylor's camp.-As there has not been, and probably will not be, any emergency requiring them, they will not, probably, be long detained from their homes. It is the general's intention to discharge them as soon as a few more of the regular artillery, now on the way to Texas, shall have arrived - unless things on the Mexican side of the Rio Grande shall assume a more threatening aspect.

The most reliable accounts represent that there were near the middle of August, only about five hundred regular Mexican troops at Matamoras; and that general Arista was to leave Monterey on the 4th of that month for the former place - a distance of three hundred miles - with fifteen hundred more troops, five hundred of them cavalry; but there was no news of his arrival at Matamoras. It is not known of believed that there are regular Mexican troops at any other point on the Rio Grande. It was probably the original intention to employ these troops in carrying out the threat of Mexico to take possession of Texas; but the presence of the United States army, and the preparations in Texas to meet and repel their advance, have caused this design to be abandoned, for the present at least. The regular troops of the United States now in Texas, and those on the way there, are deemed sufficient to keep in check the Mexican forces assembled, or likely to be assembled, on the Rio Grande. Gen. Taylor's attention has not been exclusively continued to the Mexicans. He has had an eye to the Camanches, and taken measures to guard the country from they're in corrosions.

The accounts of the climate at Corpus Christi are very favorable. Generally speaking, the troops are in fine health - better, it is supposed, than they would have been at the posts from which most of them were removed.   [BAH]


NR 69.020   13Sep1845:  expectation that Mexico would assault Texas rather than declare war on the US

"From the Army of Observation. Dispatches from gen. Taylor, as late as the 26th of August, have reached the war department by express. The troops ordered to Texas, to compose the "army of occupation, are rapidly arriving, together with an ample supply of the munitions of war. Colonel Twiggs' regiment of dragoons were at San Patricio on the 24th, in excellent condition, having well sustained their long march, and finding, through the whole route, a plentiful supply of water, provisions, and forage. The horses are in a fine condition, and fit for immediate active service, should there be occasion to put them to it. This regiment was expected to be at Corpus Christi n the 27th. Gen. Taylor has, at no time since his arrival at Aransas Bay, felt any solicitude for the safety of his command, or the necessity of calling for auxiliary force, even from Texas. The two gallant companies of artillery, which, with such promptness and patriotic spirit volunteered to go to Texas from New Orleans, under the belief that their country stood in need of their services,, have arrived at general Taylor's camp. - As there has not been, and probably will not, probably, be long detained from their homes. It is the general's intention to discharge them as soon as a few more of the regular artillery, now on the way to Texas, shall have arrived - unless things on the Mexican side of the Rio Grande shall assume a more threatening aspect.

The most reliable accounts represent that there were near the middle of August, only about five hundred regular Mexican troops at Matamoras; and that general Arista was to leave Monterey on the 4th of that month for the former place - a distance of three hundred miles - with fifteen hundred more troops, five hundred of them cavalry; but there was no news of his arrival at Matamoras. It is not known or believed that there are regular Mexican troops at any other point on the Rio Grande. It was probably the original intention to employ these troops in carrying out the threat of Mexico to take possession of Texas; but the presence of the United States army, and the preparations in Texas to meet and repel their advance, have caused this design to be abandoned, for the present at least. The regular troops of the United States now in Texas, and those on the way there, are deemed sufficient to keep in check the Mexican forces assembled, or likely to be assembled, on the Rio Grande. Gen. Taylor's attention has not been exclusively confined to the Mexicans. He has had an eye to the Comanche's, and taken measures to guard the country from their incursions.

The accounts of the climate at Corpus Christi are very favorable. Generally speaking, the troops are in fine health - better, it is supposed, than they would have been at the posts from which most of them were removed.   [BAH]


NR 69.020   13Sep1845:  question of whether the troops in Texas constitute an Army of Observation or the Army of Occupation, notice of their position, forces arriving

Official. The government paper has kindly relieved one of the difficulties we were laboring under whilst scribbling the above. It is now clear that gen. Taylor commanded "The Army of Observation," at the last dates from his head quarters. Whether by this time he may not be at the head of "The Army of Occupation," or what it is that is to work the change to that appellation, we are somewhat at a loss to make out. We shall no doubt be informed in due time.   [BAH]


NR 69.020    13Sep1845:  departure of infantry from Pensacola for Texa
NNR 69.020   13Sep1845:  complaints about lack of artillery with Gen. Zachary Taylor

Latest from Mexico. - Letters from Pensacola of the 1st September contain dispatches from Vera Cruz of the 18th and 31st August. We have only time, this evening, to state the substance of the information they convey. An opinion very generally prevailed at Vera Cruz, according to the last accounts, that Mexico would not formally declare war against the United States, and that the government would be able to realize but a very small portion of the loan, if any, which had been authorized - so low was the rate of interest. It was said that, in lieu of a declaration, Mexico would carry on hostilities vigorously against Texas; and they talked of making a rush upon her with 25,000 men; but this was generally considered as a sheer fable.

The mail of the 18th had brought news from the city of Mexico of the election of general Herrera to the presidency, and the formation of a new cabinet, consisting of Mannel Pena y Pena, (Minister of Foreign Relations), Pedro Areeaya, (Minister of War), and Fernandez del Castillo, minister of the treasury.

On the 16th August, Capt. Shubrick, commander of the United States ship Saratoga, exchanged salutes with the batteries of Vera Cruz.

A detachment of the 7th Regiment of Infantry, under Major Brown, comprising companies A, E, and K, left Pensacola in the steamer Creole on he 24th August, for Aransas Bay, Texas.

The officers belonging to the command are Brevet Major G. J. Bains; Captains H.S. Miles, D.P. Whiting, 1st Lieuts. A. Montgomery, J.R. Scott; 2d Lieuts. Hayman, Earl Vandorn; Brevent 2d Lieutenats F. Gardinder, J.M. Henry. Company D Captain R. H. Ross, will join the regiment in Texas, as soon as it is relieved by company F, 1st artillery, now on its way to Pensacola.

Loud complaints were uttered against those in charge of affairs, on its being asserted that General Taylor's artillery in Texas were without guns. The U.S. artillery regiments except one company in each regiment, always have been armed and drilled as Infantry, and have not had field pieced. They are called artillery in the law, and are meant for garrisons to the sea-coast fortifications. We have four regiments of this artillery, or forty companies. Of these four companies are, by law, equipped as field artillery, with guns and horses. Four such companies have been ordered to Texas. The other twelve artillery companies sent thither are armed and instructed as infantry; and, of course, are with out "guns" - that is, "field cannon."   [BAH]


NR 69.020   13Sep1845:  rumors of the movements of Gen. Mariano Arista

Several Mexican traders had arrived at Kinney's Ranche, near Corpus Christi, bringing rumors that Arista had entirely recovered from his late illness, and had taken up his line of march, with a considerable force, to attack Gen, Taylor. Other reports, again, represent Arista as still being at Matamoras, collecting his men together.   [BAH]


NR 69.021   13Sep1845:  attempts to raise troops in Missouri to march against New Mexico

Volunteering. The St. Louis Era; of August 23, says: "Major General Lee, of this division, has made a publication, expressing his willingness to raise a force of 5,000 volunteers, to march against New Mexico as soon as he may be authorized so to do. He declares his willingness to command in person any force that may be thus raised, and is ready to enroll the names of such as are willing to engage in actual rough service, and to meet danger in any form that it may present itself. There are many brave men in our city and state who would make good officers and reliable soldiers in such an expedition. There will be no difficulty in raising an ample volunteer force, if the government will grant the authority and furnish the means and facilities, and will entrust the command of the expedition to men who will command the public confidence.   [BAH]


NR 69.020-69.021   13Sep1845:  complaints about Gen. Edmund Pendleton Gaines' efforts to enlist volunteers

General Gaines. The N. York Courier says:  We have private letters from New Orleans which give much more detailed accounts of the proceedings of Gen. Gaines, with regard to anticipated hostilities with Mexico, than have yet been spread before the public. He is unquestionably creating a great deal of trouble, involving the treasury in vast expense, disturbing the minds and destroying the business of many young men in the southern states, and in great variety of ways, doing a great amount of evil, and all without the slightest cause.

In his conversation upon the subject we are told he talks wildly. He is known to have said that unless fighting grows out of our present troubles with Mexico, he fears he shall never again see an active campaign:  and wishes, and intends, to lead 40,000 men to the city of Mexico!  This personal ardor, however admirable and praiseworthy in a veteran soldier, must not be allowed to plunge us into unnecessary war; and under the circumstances the executive could do no otherwise than to disavow his proceedings. We trust he has before this taken measures to check them and to remedy the evil they may have caused.

Another letter from New Orleans says that to hear the general talk, one would suppose he was planning another Campaign of Austerlitz. "I am daily hearing," says the writer, "of young men who have abandoned their regular situations of business, to enroll in the volunteers he has called for; and today, one who has actually given up a clerkship of $1000 per annum for the station and rank of corporal!  Yesterday he reviewed he reviewed one of these recruited or rather recruiting regiments, with a brilliant staff, and made a ridiculous speech to them. There were a number of fine and respectable young men in the ranks, whom I looked upon as regular victims to the unnecessary excitement - but the largest portion were the greatest looking loafers and rowdies, who have joined for the sake of obtaining bread and clothing. They were of all sizes and nations, and had all kinds of clothes, many without hats, shoes, stockings, coats or vests - regular Fallstaff's men - "food for powder, food for Powder, and well calculated fo full a ditch."  "I heard to day that he had written Texan government calling on them to embody 3000 volunteers for the service of the U. States!  It is so much in character and accordance with his mode of talking, and the authority I derived it from so good, that I have little doubt of the fact."

Another letter states that Gen. Gaines has ordered one of the colonels of the new regiments to go on and uniform his recruits, and that the U. States would pay for it!  The governor of Louisiana is also issuing commissions to captains and subalterns, all of who are exerting themselves to fill up their respective commands. Gen. Gaines has said positively that he had made requisitions on all the states lying on the: Mississippi, between New Orleans and the Ohio River!

The Washington union of the 11th says: "Everyday is increasing the regular force of Gen. Taylor, on the Texan frontier. He is preparing to throw his advance lines, with the dragons in front, first towards, and then upon the Rio Grande:  and though he will not interrupt any Mexican post which is now to the east of the river, yet he will prevent any reinforcements which the Mexicans may attempt to thro on this side of the river.   [BAH]


NR 69.021   13Sep1845:  Gen. Zachary Taylor's plan to post troops on the Rio Grande

The official journal at Washington, considers the latest news from Mexico, as "full of fury, but signifying nothing."  The Union says:  "Congress had voted a loan of fifteen millions, but where is the money to come from?  They talk of sending 25,000 troops to the frontier, but the number advancing falls far short of that. They threaten to make a rush upon Texas; but the tardiness of their troops, and the alacrity of our own, will prevent any coup de main. Gen. Taylor conceives himself to be strong enough to withstand any attack which the Mexicans at Matamoras may affect to make upon him; and as soon as he receives further reinforcements of regular troops, he is determined to send back to New Orleans the two gallant companies of volunteers who have rushed to his standard. The Mexicans talk of striking us without any formal declaration of war; but the threat has reached us before the blow, and, "forewarned," we are now "forearmed." We can scarcely suspect, therefore, that any blow will be aimed at us. We defy all the threats, whilst we despise all their power."

"England probably holds peace or war in the palm of her hand; but she does not appear willing to assist Mexico, or to disturb the peace of the world. - The most violent journals in London, which have bitterly denounced our conduct in Texas, and grossly misrepresented our character, seem unwilling to kindle a war out of the passions of Mexico. There is nothing warlike either in the effusions of her press, or in the speeches of ministers on the eve of the adjournment of parliament. The government has literally dispersed without any preparation to meet the events of war on this side of the Atlantic. The queen and her cortege have repaired to the continent. Lord Aberdeen has joined the pageant. Sir Robert Peel has retired to the country, to kill grouse. We see no signs, indeed, of any expected movement on the great theatre of political events. But if England does not stand at the back of Mexico, and supply her with the means of war, it is not easy to imagine that she will rush into hostilities with the United States.

  "The re-election of Herrera will usher in some change of counsels. It will give confidence to the measures which he may think proper to adopt. The force of this government may silence the clamors of the mob. The country is partially recovering from the first impression and the strong excitement arising from the annexation of Texas. Things cannot long remain in the slatu in quo. The scene must shift. A new act will be introduced. If his troops at Matamoras cannot cross the Rio Grande with impunity, he will probably begin to feel the danger of doing anything, and the ridicule of doing nothing. - we are not sorry to hear of the civilities which were exchanged at Vera Cruz, between the Saratoga and the town. We are not very much surprised to hear the first whisper of a disposition, on her part, to resume the negotiation. But we shall scarcely encourage any such proposition, until we are satisfied that Mexico cannot possibly mistake our motives - until she be sufficiently impressed with a sense of her own inferiority - until she distinctly sees that we have no desire to make any but a permanent and honorable peace; and that no peace can be permanent and honorable which does not settle all the caused of difference between the two countries. We can scarcely enter into any negotiations until all these insulting threats, all this gasconade from Arista and others, which comes to us, had ceased."   [BAH]


NR 69.034   20Sep1845:  question in Mexico whether to declare or to make war

There appears to have been a question made with the Mexican press certainly, and probably in the cabinet and in congress, whether to declare war, or to attempt the reconquest of Texas without formally declaring war. The latter expedient is probably resorted to quiet away the popular impulse. If a war comes from Mexico at all, it will no doubt be before the fever, which is, now up, has time to subside. It is possible, and we sincerely hope that it may turn out to be so, that overtures for an adjustment of the dispute and a settlement of boundaries may have struck the president of Mexico as a safer course, all things considered, that to trust to the fortunes of a war, such as was impending. - However that may be, certain it is, that congress has adjourned without declaring war.   [BAH]


NR 69.034-69.035  20Sep1845:  Gen. Anastasio Bustamente appointed commander of the Army of Texas, history of the revolution which banished him

The El Monitor, of the 22d August, announces the appointment of Gen. Bustamente, as commander in chief of the army of Texas.

It will be recollected that this officer was president of Mexico at the period of the war between that country and France in 1838. That war was managed with considerable ability on the part of the Mexicans. Afterwards when Santa Anna then president Mexico, was defeated and taken prisoner at the battle of San Jacinto, Bustamente was again called to the presidency, and retained that situation until Santa Anna availing of the spirit of disaffection gained to his cause two of the most prominent generals, Paredes and Cortazar. The former being then military chief or "commandante" of the department of Guadalaxara published a manifesto against Bustamente, and in favor of Santa Anna, and marched with all the forces he could muster for the city Mexico. At Guanajuato he was joined by Cortazar. Santa Anna, who was in command at Vera Cruz, and was there very popular, marched with the forces of that department, and being joined by the levies of Puebla, formed a junction with Paredes in the vicinity of Mexico. Bustamente had a considerable force in the city, but was exceedingly embarrassed for want of funds and probably doubtful of his officers. To avoid a sanguinary conflict probably in the streets of the city, he entered into the famous convention of Tacubaya, by which a convention to frame a new constitution was to be summoned, Santa Anna, in the mean time, having supreme authority; and Bustamente was banished to republic. From that period he was absent from the republic, until very recently. He reached Cuba from Europe and the same time that Santa Anna, now himself a banished man, arrived there. From Cuba, Bustamente proceeded to Mexico, and offered his services to his country in their contemplated war for the recovery of Texas. The offer has been accepter, and he is now at the head of the army. The military commanders generally depose and set up governments, just as the Mamelukes used to do in Turkey.   [BAH]


NR 69.035    20Sep1846:  news from the Army of Observation at Corpus Christi

THE ARMY OF OBSERVATION. The New Orleans Bee says that a gentleman who left Corpus Christi on the 29th and Aransas Bay on the 31st ult. States that Gen. Taylor and his army were still at Corpus Christi awaiting further orders. Col. Twiggs, in command of the regiment of dragoons, arrived on the 26th ult. In fine health and spirits. Three companies of Mexican traders arrived at Corpus Christi about the 26th ult. And had purchased largely of goods. They report that a regiment of Mexican troops had started from Tampico about six weeks ago, for Metamora, about 700 in number, 400 of whom had deserted or died for want of food and water. They were also deserting from every post throughout Mexico. Gen. Paredes was at Monterey with from 800 to 1,400 men, and found it impossible to keep his men from deserting."    [BAH]


NR 69.036   20Sep1845:  position of the Army of Observation at Corpus Christi

The position taken by Gen. Taylor is one of extreme beauty; and when the eye first rests upon his camp, clustered with a thousand spotless white tents, along the shelly margin of the shore of Corpus Christi Bay, irresistible bursts of admiration follow!  It is a position of security as well as beauty.

His tents are pitched on a piece of table land that reaches about a quarter of a mile to a range of hills; at the distance of half a mile from the crest of theses he has stationed, as an out-guard, a force of one hundred and twenty hardy and well trained Texans, to whose fidelity is entrusted this otherwise assailable point. Major Gally, commanding the volunteers from New Orleans, is entrusted with guarding the extreme left, whilst the extreme right is guarded by col. Twiggs, commanding the 2d dragoons. The center is composed of the 3d, 4th, and 7th regiments of infantry.

The commanding general has thrown up a field work, a wall of shells and sand, six feet thick and three hundred yards in length on his right. In case of an overpowering attack from this quarter, the troops stationed outside of this wall are to retreat behind it. The whole length of the line along the shore occupied, appears to be about one mile and a half.

It is probably one of the healthiest and pleasantest spots in the world. From the earliest dawn refreshing breeze invigorate the body, dissipate the intensity of the heat, and nerve the system to a healthful action. The cool nights invite weariness to repose disturbed neither by the promenading flea, nor the buzzing mosquito.

The only drawback to continuing this encampment is the scarcely of wood and water - the former, the troops haul about three miles, and the latter is quite brackish - though I believe there are one or two small wells in camp which supply a very fair beverage.

The officers appear to enjoy themselves amazingly - considering they were supposed to be all cut up!  They purchase Mexican ponies at from $10 to $30, and excellent nags they are to ride too. The waters abound with fish and oysters, both of a superior kind, and the prairies adjacent with rich flavored venison.

Large and fat beeves are slaughtered daily for the use of the troops; all which, with the liberal supplies, of Uncle Sam, these occupiers of an independent nation's soil can get along mighty well with.

There is a rumor in camp, to which the utmost credit is given, that fifteen hundred Mexicans have recently marched to Matamoras for its additional security. This is all the news about the movements of the enemy known here.

It is supposed gen. Taylor will act in this way, viz:  Wait for two months in his present position, to know what the Mexicans will do. If they do nothing, our government will send a commissioner to Mexico effused to receive the commissioner and blindly turns away from a peaceable settlement, then our forces will immediately occupy the mouth and borders of the Rio Grande, and establish that as the boundary, whether or no.   [BAH]


NR 69.048   20Sep1845:  Army of Observation in good health and spirits

"THE ARMY OF OBSERVATION."  Accounts to the 6th instant from Corpus Christi, left the army in health and spirits.


NR 69.051   27Sep1845:  regiment of volunteers for service in Mexico being raised at Saint Louis

            At St. Louis a regiment of volunteers, for active military service in the event of hostilities between Mexico and the United States, was being raised in hat city. Several of the regular organized corps, in that city and the adjoining counties, were moving in the matter, and notice had been given that volunteers could enroll themselves in them or form a new companies until the regiment embraced six or eight hundred men. Major gen. Lee, of the second division of Missouri militia, has published an address calling upon the division to hold themselves in readiness for a summons.   [BAH]


October 1845

NR 69.065-69.066 04Oct1845:  more troops for Texas, speculations on the destination of the Army of Observation

            More troops for Texas. A company of United States troops, from Fish River, under the command of lieut. H.D. Grafton arrived in Boston, in the steamer Penobscot, and were to embark in the brig Cocheco, from that port, for Galveston direct.

            The Baton Rouge Advocate of the 17th says: The company of U.S. troops, which was, remanded to this place by gen. Gaines for the protection of the arsenal, has received renewed orders from head quarters, for Texas. It is expected that a company of the 5th regiment will arrive soon, and be stationed here in place of the former.

"Army of Observation."

            The New Orleans Bulletin of the 22d September says - "The next advices from Corpus Christi may be awaited with interest, under the expectation of hearing something further and more definite as to the ultimate destination of our little army. We are disposed to look upon the encampment at Corpus Christies a temporary rendezvous, judiciously selected for the collection and concentration of our forces. But it certainly cannot be the intonation that the army shall stop there. The position is far in the rear of the legitimate boundary of Texas, and to make that a point of military occupation would be tantamount to a surrender of the vast territory lying between the Rio Grande and the Nueces. It was prudent to make a halt there at first. As a depot and a point for reconnaissance and preparation, none more convenient could have been selected on the coast, Its distance from the Rio Grande was a security against surprise by any hostile movement of the Mexicans, while its location on the seal shore furnished the best facilitates for the disembarking of troops and landing munitions of war. Now, however, since the place has answered all the purposes of a rendezvous, and our scattered battalions are collected into a well appointed and formidable army, it is time to move the camp. We confidently anticipate that general Taylor's division will march to the Rio Grande, with the view of occupying that rifer as the line of our western boundary. It is not at all unlikely that the movement is already being made."

            A detachment of U.S. troops - consisting of company A. 3d artillery, from fort Johnson, N.C., and company 1, 3d, artillery, from fort Moultrie, S.C., arrived at Pensacola on the 19th ult., under orders for the Bay of Aransas, Texas. The following officers are attached to these companies:

            Capt. M. Burk, 1 company 3d artillery, commanding Brev. Capt. Geo Taylor, A company, commanding.

            1st lieut. M. Gillham, A company, commanding.

            1st lieut. M. Churchill, I company, commanding.

            2d lieut. George W. Ayres, A company, commanding.

            2d lieut. J. Kilburn, I company, commanding.

            Surgeon H. Hawkins accompanies he the detachment and D. Perkins as Sutler.

            Capt. Montgomery, of the 8th infantry, and lieut. Gibson, of the 2d artillery, arrived at Pensacola 19th ult. From Tampa Bay, en route for the north.

            The St. Louis Era, of the 24th ult. says - The steamer, Cecilia, from St. Peters, bound for Jefferson barracks, with four companies of U.S. infantry on board, stopped here a short time yesterday. - These troops are from Forts Crawford, Snelling, and Atchison, and are under the command of col. H. Wilson, who has been ordered to proceed to Jefferson barracks - and the order further says, to hold himself and them in readiness for active service. - Fort Winnebago and Fort Winnebago have been abandoned. At Fort Snelling there are tow companies of Infantry, and at Fort Atchison, but one company of dragoons.   [BAH]


NR 69.066-69.067 04Oct1845:  Texian volunteers and Rangers to enter US service or cooperate with US forces

TEXAS. We have accounts from Galveston to the 16th ultimo, but no news of importance.

            The National Register, published at Washington, states hat president Jones has authorized col. Clark L. Owen to raise one thousand men by voluntary enrolment, to be ministered into the United States service under gen. Taylor. Maj. Hays, with his command, is also to co-operate with gen. Taylor. Active measures have been taken to recruit the number of men required.

            The same paper states that president Jones has this year introduced the culture of tobacco upon his farm in the neighborhood of Washington. He has six acres in cultivation, tow of which are from the Cuba seed. The experiment has succeeded well. One heavy cutting was some time since taken from the field. He expects to get three cuttings during the season. The quality of the leaf is said to be good.

            It is ascertained that the following persons have been elected to the tenth Texan congress: Archibald McNeill, for the county of Montgomery; Dr. C. McAnally, for Harris; gen. W.S. Fisher, for Galveston; J.P. Hudson , for Fayette; R. M. Williamson, for Washington; and S.W. Perkins and W.B.P. Gaines for Brazoria.

            Mr. David Taylor, a respectable citizen of La Grange, was killed a few days ago while attempting to break a wild horse, by becoming entangled in the rope attached to the horse's neck.   [BAH]


NR 69.073-69.074   04Oct1845:   intercourse with Mexico, news of Gen. Mariano Paredes y Arillaga and his forces
69.074  04Oct1845:   Gen. Anastasio Bustamente not appointed Mexican commander, preparations of bodies of troops under Gen. Mariano Paredes y Arillaga and Gen. Mariano Arista
69.074   04Oct1845:  troops at the castle of San Juan de Ulloa
69.074   04Oct1845:  position of ships of the Mexican Navy
69.074  04Oct1845:  difficult financial position of the Mexican government despite the bill for the fifteen million loan
69.074   04Oct1845:  effort of the British minister to prevent Mexico from going to war
69.074  04Oct1845:   no Mexican preparations for defense at Tampico, Mexican letters of marque issued
69.074   04Oct1845:  American troops rumored moving on Matamoros

We have it at length announced that arrangements have been make by our naval officers in the gulf, whereby regular and early intelligence of the movements in Mexico will be received, a precaution heretofore very strangely neglected.

            The first result of this arrangement is the reception by the steamer Princeton, from Vera Cruz, of dates to the 15th September.

            The following (probably from one of our naval officers) is extracted from the Washington union: - "There appears not he least reason to apprehend a declaration of war at present. A proposition to that effect was sent to congress by the executive about the same time with the loan bill, but it has not been acted upon, nor is it expected to be taken up. This is probably what government desired, as all thinking men were convinced of the folly of declaring war in the miserably unprepared state of the country. There is no doubt the government did hope to collect a force rapidly, march suddenly upon Texas, and forestall or surprise our troops. Of course they have failed in this; but their intention still is to begin hostilities in that quarter without any further declaration. In this desire the nation is certainly unanimous, nor is there shown by government, press, or people, the least disposition to negotiate with the United States.

            "General Paredes was at San Luis Potosi, tow hundred and sixty miles from Mexico, and more than four hundred from Matamoras, at the last accounts, which are up to the 1st September. He has six or seven thousand men, miserably clad and armed. A serious mutiny took place on the 9th August in one of the divisions of the army at Paresco, three leagues from San Luis. The soldiers joined by most of the officers, refused to march further until their wants were supplied. The commanding general Gaono, with twenty officers, was forced to five up the command and return to the capital, where he now demands a thorough investigation. The revolted officers have published a statement, which gives a lamentable picture of the state of the army, and the grievances, which led to the disturbance. They represent their men as without shoes, some without a single shirt, and only the clothes the have on their backs; others so destitute of clothing as not to be decent; many without even a blanket or a cloak to lie down upon, with no knapsacks or canteen, nor any means of transportation for the sick and lame. - There is no reason to suppose that the other divisions are better supplied.

            "Paredes himself is the object of the greatest interest just now. Many rumors have been and are in circulation as to his movements and intentions - It has been said that he and his troops have refused to march upon Texas until they ere paid by government; that he intended marching to Mexico, and establishing a military triumvirate, to consist of himself, Tornel, and Valencia; and that he had or would refuse to serve under Bustamente as commander-in-chief. The city of Mexico was for some time in daily expectation of a revolution; but Paredes wrote to the minister of war from San Luis, on the 26th August, that he and his troops had most implicit confidence in the government, and were ever ready to obey its orders. His good faith is very much doubted, but the fears of the people had somewhat subsided at he last accounts. Some apprehensions were yet felt that a disturbance might take place before the 16th instart, the day fixed for the inauguration of the president elect. There is much agitation in the army, also, from a suspicion that the present government is sending them to the frontiers to get rid of them; and that the levy of militia is for the purpose of dispensing with the standing army. To such an extent did this feeling spread hat government came out with a circular denying the imputations. On the whole, it may confidently be asserted that the troops of Paredes will never move towards Texas until their wants are appeased if even then. In fact, it seems physically impossible they should do so. There are no magazines prepared for them between San Luis and the frontiers, and no stores of any kind have gone to Matamoras by sea. - It was intended to send a steamer, with camp equipage and provisions, to Arista, but want of money prevented. This general is said to be at Matamoras with tow thousand men in miserable plight. He barely raises money to ay himself and officers, and his men support themselves as they can by working at trades.

            "Bustamente is talked of as commander in-chief of all the army destined from Texas; but the report of his being actually appointed wants confirmation. He is now a member of the senate.

            The two bodies of troops under Paredes and Arista are the only armies preparing for Texas - or indeed, in existence - except the three or four thousand which always compose the garrison of the capital, and small parties scattered over all the republic. The levy of 'defensores,' or militia, has entirely failed; and the governors of many of the provinces have represented the laws as faulty in several particulars, such as the enlistment being voluntary, and the exclusion of day-laborers. It is thought that congress will alter the law in these points, and thus facilitate the levy; but not much is expected from it.

            The Castle of San Juan de Ulloa has now about one hundred and twenty guns mounted, and the garrison numbers six hundred men. These, with sixty workmen, are employed still in mounting artillery. - It is said there are one thousand or twelve hundred men in Vera Cruz, and tow regiments are ordered into its vicinity - one to Santa Fe, three leagues distant; the other to Pas de Ovejas, nine leagues distant. General Landel is ordered to take command of the castle, which is well supplied with military stores, but no provisos for a siege.

            Their naval force is precisely in the same place under the walls of the castle, where they were; nor have they started an anchor in many months. It consists of two steamers, three brigs, tow schooners, and five gunboats. The steamers have coal on board, and all the vessels are considered in commission, though not half officered or manned. Government has been intending for some time to send a steamer and some gun-boats to Tabasco, but want of money prevented. It was understood there was a there was a positive order to send all the squadron up the Alvarado river, but money would be required to dispatch them even thus far; so it is most likely they will remain where they are.

            The bill for the fifteen million loans passed both houses, with several provisos, which have since been removed. The government were originally limited to six per cent interest, and not allowed to borrow in less sums that a million of dollars. They are now authorized to make the best bargain they can, first submitting the terms to a cabinet council. Much secrecy is observed in the city of Mexico as to this matter; but so far as the public is informed, not a cent has yet been raised, nor is it thought the loan will be negotiated. Everywhere government officers are unpaid, and government credit prostrate. Only one-length part of the customs remains unmortgaged: and this in the present sate of commerce is a mere nothing. Something was hoped at one time from the church; but she has not yet come forward. That important body in the Mexican state certainly looks with much alarm at he advance of the Anglo-Saxon race and its accompanying Protestantism; but the danger is not sufficiently imminent to induce voluntary aid, nor is the existing government strong enough or energetic enough to force their assistance. From English capitalists I should think little was to be expected, as Mexico is already much in arrears to them. So pressing are now the wants of government, that they have recommended the formation of societies in all the provinees for raising voluntary contributions.

            It is said that Mr. Bankhead [the British minister] is attempting, to prevent Mexico from going to war.

            The French minister has, for the last few months, been too busy with his won affairs to meddle with those of the United States. The 'auxiliar' (a civil officer,) and the officer of the army who offended him, have been tried by the proper judicial process and acquitted; but this does not satisfy the minister, who roundly accuses the government of bad faith. - Before the sailing of the September mail steamer, they had given them reason to suppose he should receive ample reparation; so he remained in the country, and wrote to that effect to France. Since then he pretends their tune is changed. He has now demanded and received his passports, given up his house in Mexico and will leave in the steamer of 1st October for Havana. Judging from the press of Mexico all has been done in the matter, which could have been reasonably expected under a constitutional government.

            The provinces appear to be generally quiet, and disposed to submit peaceably to the administration of Gen. Herrera. California is some that agitated, but by local questions only. Tabasco is still in revolt, and the insurgents are now in the ascendant. - They have acted under the pleas of federalism, but the organ of that party in Mexico disavows them and joins the rest of the press in calling on government to restore order there. He governors of provinces bordering on Texas call for aid in resisting the incursions of Indians; and the press in that quarter is urging he reinforcement of Gen. Arista.

            No defenses are in preparation at Tampico, where there are only about twenty men in a small work mounting one of two guns.

            No preparations are making at Vera Cruz to fit our privateers; but a letter from New Orleans, from a respectable source, states that offers of letters of marque have been make to the friends of the writer, both in that city and the Havana, to be used in case of war.

            On the morning of the 15th, a report arrived at Vera Cruz, by way of Mexico, that our troops were advancing on Matamoras, to the number of 3,000 regulars and 1,800 Texans. They were said to be accompanied by 18 pieces of artillery, and preceded by 700 Indians, who were not, however, considered as in league with the United States. This story caused considerable excitement, both in Mexico and Vera Cruz. The artillery arm is, I am told, particularly dreaded by the Mexican soldiery?"            [BAH]


NR 69.083   11Oct1845:  proclamation of Gen. Mariano Paredes y Arillaga on the call to defend Mexican territory

Soldiers!  The supreme government has order that the first and third divisions of the army shall constitute the army of reserve, and has been pleased to appoint me its general-in-chief. This proof of the highest confidence requires me to consecrate myself, by a new title, to a country so generous towards me.

Companions!  That same country now raises its august front for the purpose of resisting the usurpations of a neighboring power, which has believed your valor asleep, and the you are not the sons of those heroes who, in a hundred combats, manifested their courage and constancy. A rapacious and grasping race have thrown themselves that we will not defend the patrimony, which our fathers conquered with their blood. They deceive themselves!  We will fly to snatch from them the spoils, the possession of which they are impudently enjoying; and they shall learn, by dearly-bought experience, that they are not contending with the undisciplined tribes of Indians whom they robbed of their land, their heaven, and their country; and that Mexicans will ardently combat the soldiers of a nation which has sanctioned, by its laws, the most degrading slavery.

Comrades!  When the supreme government commands, we will march to avenge so many injuries, to sustain the integrity of the gallant soil which gave us birth, the religion, the adorable worship which our ancestors taught us, the laws which we have established, and that nationality which of right belongs to us.

My friends!  Your mission has also another abject that of maintaining order and peace, supporting society in its safeguards, and the citizen in all his rights. We are no more than sons of the nation, its defenders and support. I flatter myself that honor will never abandon your ranks; that you will show invariable examples of moderation; and that your ardor will be reserved for the day of battle, when you have before you the enemies of the country.

Soldiers!  My chief glory is to command you. I will show you the path in which you may achieve the renown of immortality. We will share dangers and laurels; and my highest reward will be, that you will inscribe in the annals of the republic an epoch which grateful posterity will bless. Long live the nation!  Long live the supreme government!!   [BAH]


NR 69.086  11Oct1845:  dragoons from Fort Jesup to join the Army of Observation

ARMY OF OBSERVATION. A letter from an officer of the U.S. second dragoons, describing the march of that regiment from fort Jessup, Louisiana, to Corpus Christi, Texas, says that to Liet. George Stevens, of the second dragoons, acting topographical engineer, is due the credit of surveying and measuring the entire route from fort Jessup to Corpus Christi - having with his own hands constructed a perimeter for that purpose. The distance between the two points has been thus ascertained to be 501 ½ miles. The regiment left fort Jessup on the 25th of July, and arrived at Corpus Christi on the 27th of August, having rested eight days on the march.

We learn from the same letter that the regiment when near Corpus Christi, heard continued reports in the direction of that post; which, together with the absence of gen. Taylor, who had informed col. Twiggs, of the dragoons, by express, that he would meet him that day, induced the belief that Corpus Christi had been attacked. The command to advance was instantly given, and, to the surprise of all, fifty of the men, who were sick and convalescent, and expected to remain as a guard to the train, mounted their horses and were ready for active duty. The regiment had scarcely proceeded three miles, however, before general Taylor appeared in sight.   [BAH]


NR 69.091  11Oct1845:  Mexico - population

POPULATION OF MEXICO. As Mexico threatens to declare war against the United States, and probably will do so, it is a matter of some interest to know whom we are to fight, their numbers, character, complexion, and their experience in arms. The following is the census in each province or district:

Aguascalientes

69,598

 

Puebla

661,002

Chaipas

141,600

 

Queretaro

120,560

Chihuahua

147,600

 

San Louis Potosi

321,840

Coohuila

73,340

 

Sinaloa

140,000

Durango

162,618

 

Sonora

124,000

Guanajuato

512,618

 

Tobasco

53,800

Jalisco

679,311

 

Tamaulipas

100,068

Mexico

1,389,529

 

Vera Cruz

251,380

Michoacan

497,906

 

Yucatan

580,938

Nuevo Leon

101,109

 

Zacatecas

273,575

Nuevo Mexico

57,026

     

Oajaca

500,278

 

Total

6,982,070

Of this population of Mexico, say seven millions of people, one-seventh are whites, the rest are Indians, half breeds, and Negroes. - Petersburg Intell.   [BAH]


NR 69.100   18Oct1845:  more troops for the Army of Observation

ARMY OF OBSERVATION. The Key West Gazette of the 13th inst., says:  "On Tuesday last, the schooners Gen. Worth and Walter M., with four companies of the 8th infantry, arrived here from St. Augustine, as well as the steamer Cincinnati, from Charleston, with three companies of 3d artillery, all bound to "Texas."  The steamer left the same afternoon, and on Wednesday morning the General Worth sailed for Aransas Bay via Tampa. Officers on board the Worth. Capt. Worth; Lieuts. Lee, Gates, Wood, &c.

Explorations have been already commenced in that part Texas. Known as the disputed territory. - Captain Kerr, of the dragoons, has penetrated the country fifty miles west of Corpus Christi, and he describes it as beautiful beyond description. Deer, turkies, and wild horses range over it in great numbers. Captain McLean had ascended the Nueces thirty-five miles in a steamboat. He found no obstructions in the river for light draught boats, the least depth throughout the entire distance being four feet two inches.   [BAH]


November 1845

NR 69.130-69.131  01Nov1845:  examination of the state of the Army, account of Gen. Mariano Paredes y Arillaga's supposed rebellion

[PRIVATE CORRESPONDENCE OF THE N.O. COURIER.]

Mexico, September 9,1845

Two circumstances have occupied the people of Mexico during the last few days - the demand of the French minister of his passporte and the mutiny of a division of the army of the north under the command Paredes.

I will not dwell on the fist of these events - not because it is unimportant, but because it is not completely over, and because we are not permitted to form a surmise on the conduct of the French cabinet. This important business was long ago known in the United States. It commenced at the baths Las Delicias, and its course is yet continued in the diplomatic circles. After the first representation of the French minister, Mr. Cuevas, the secretary of foreign affairs promised satisfaction in the most exact terms. A short time afterwards, the officer Oller, who arrested the Baron de Cyprey, and lodged him in the citadel, was brought before a court martial, who acquitted him.

Mons. De Cyprey then addressed new demands to the Mexican government; but a change had taken place in the ministry, and Mr. Cuevas deposited in the hands of Mr. Pena y Pena the correspondence, which had passed between him and the French minister. Mr. Pena y Pena replied to the French minister that he could receive no further satisfaction than the judgments of the court might afford him. Mr. De Cyprey again demanded his passports; and in this state the matter remained until the 29th of August, the day on which the letters destined for the English steamer left the city of Mexico. A few hours before the departure of the express, Mr. Pena y Pena called upon the British minister, Mr. Bankhead, and requested him to transmit to Mr. Cyprey the following proposition:

"Mr. Pena y Pena, accompanied by the officer Oller and the alcalde, will repair to the house of the French minister, and will there make an apology in the presence of Messrs. Bankhead and Bermedes de Castro, (the latter is the Spanish minister,) for the unfortunate occurrence at the baths of Las Deliciais."

To terminate this unhappy affair, Mr. de Cyprey accepted the proposed arrangement. The express was about to start - the apology could not be made till nest day, and Mr. de Cyprey announced to his government the new turn of the affair; the English minister did the same thing, in all probability, and Mr. Pena y Pena wrote to the Mexican minister at Paris that the dispute was finally settled.

But judge of Mr. de Cyprey's disappointment, when, after the departure of the express, new propositions were addressed to him, essentially different from those which had been offered him through the English minister. The French minister refused to hear them read by Mr. Pena y Pena; he declared the diplomatic relations broken between France and Mexico, and placed his countrymen under the protection of Mr. Bermudes de Castro.

The foregoing is a brief account of the second part of the affair of the baths of Las Delicias. I pretend not to go to the depths of the matter. I will only say, either Mr. de Cyprey was right, and then satisfaction is due to him; or he is wrong, ant in that case his demand for satisfaction ought to have been refused. But nothing can be more pitiful or ridiculous that to try to evade a promise by a subterfuge like that employed by Mr. Pena y Pena, which is a real diplomatic trick.

Nevertheless, the final settlement of this difference is not entirely despaired of. The men at the head of affairs in this country are, it is true, blind in their pretensions and rash in their actions. At all events, we may suppose that, in the present awkward state of their affairs, they will yield before a threatened rupture.

I now come to the mutiny of the division of Paredes. But first we must throw a glance upon the Mexican army, and from an estimate of its strength. In our country, you profess the utmost contempt for our braves of all arms; but here, the opinion of them is not quite so low. There are some sensible men here, who put a high value on the Mexican army, and count upon the triumphs, which it will achieve. The Mexican ex-consul at New Orleans (M. de Arrangoiz) expressed opinions of this kind on his arrival at Vera Cruz.

Since so much has been said about this army; -- since the newspapers and public opinion have covered it with ridiculous praises, let us endeavor to form a correct opinion of it. I shall not seek to raise the ghost of the victims immolated by this army at the Alamo in contravention of a capitulation, I will say nothing of the shameless defeat it suffered at San Jacinto, I will more freely forgive the capitulation of San Juan de Ullca; I do not advert to the ignorance of art it displayed in the campaigne of Yucatan.

But what has it done in the interior?  Has it maintained the influence of the government in the departments?  Has it even repulsed the attacks of the Indians?  I answer these questions, by copying literally the conclusion of the memorial of Mr. Garcia Conde, minister of war, to congress, dated the 11th and 12th of March, 1845. "In a word," says that minister, "it appears that the nation no longer possesses the territory of Texas; that the Californians have revolted, that department, and those of New Mexico, Sonora, Chihuahua, Durango, Zacatecas, New Leon, Coahuila, and Tamaulipas, are, some, ravaged, some invaded by the Indians, that they offer scenes of atrocity without an example in our annals, and that the condition of these regions was certainly better a century after the conquest; that, to put an end to these calamities, there is an army, which, notwithstanding the services and the bad treatment inflicted upon the people, amounts to more than 30,000 men, that no attempt has been made to fill the ranks of this army - whence it results that there is great disorder, and all the grades of officers are filled by incapable individuals; that the depots of clothing are in a most deplorable state; and , in spite of the immense sacrifice made by the nation to purchase arms, they too, are in a state equally bad, that, paying no respect to the laws, or to any kind of principle, they have so completely disorganized the war department, that the lapse of several years will be required to rescue it from its present condition - a condition really disastrous for the nation."

Surely Mr. Garcia Conde must have had a good deal of courage to trace so severe a picture of the Mexicans, in a capital so full of political fanaticism and national vanity. I should like to analyze, at some length, the passage of this memorial, in which the minister spoke truths at once rough and useful to his country, if I were not afraid of wandering too far from the actual state of things. It will be interesting for you to know, that, from October 13, 1841, to December 5,1844, the government of Santa Anna granted 9,983 brevets; that the number of officers in the army is countless, and much exceeds that of the private soldiers; and what will interest you still more is, that there are not in all Mexico more that 12,000 men carrying muskets - all, or nearly all, of whom are Indians. The military dispositions of the Indians have been much boasted of, without examining of what use their qualities may be in action. The Indian, it is true is endowed with a sort of stoicism, which enables him to look at danger without much emotion; and (thanks to the sobriety given him by nature!) he supports with fortitude the privations imposed upon him by the necessities of war. But this is not all. - The vivacity, the energy, which so often decides the fortunes of battle, are entirely wanting in the Indians; and, on this account, with superior force on his side and strategic considerations being equal, he will always be beaten.

There are also political and moral motives of which no estimate has been made in the different opinions, which have been formed of the Indian soldier. What interest has he in spilling his blood for the defense of his country?  The day, on which an enemy invades the territory of the republic, the Indian will retire to his forests and resume his primitive habits. The sentiment of patriotism is unknown, and the indifference he exhibits on the field of battle, shows the little value he sets upon it. On the other hand, let me ask, how does Mexico recruit her armies? Is it in this young republic, where the journals are so fond of attacking the immorality and despotism of Europe, that each citizen is called upon to defend his country? - to pay the tax of blood?  For an answer to these questions, let us again refer to the memorial of Mr. Garcia Conde.

"The system of substitution," says the minister, "practiced until now, since voluntary enlistments became insufficient, has been most immoral and most pernicious to the rights of the citizens. No, gentlemen; the Mexican is not a Russian, who take to the ranks at the mere whim of his lord; he is under the protection of liberal laws enacted by the nation; and nothing can force him but those laws and his own sense of duty."  Thus, there is a sticking resemblance in recruiting for the armies of Russia and for those of Mexico. The Indians are arrested, and conducted from brigade to brigade, to their ulterior destination. It one of them deserts on the match, the responsible officer seizes upon the first Indian he meets with, and in this manner keeps up his number of men. If this mode proves insufficient to fill the ranks, they break the chains of the convicts and other prisoners, and clothe them with a military uniform.

But after the difficulty of recruiting soldiers, comes that of keeping them to true colors. For this purpose, military posts have been established in all the chief cities of Mexico, and still there is a great difficulty in preventing desertion.

I have now said enough in respect to the private soldiers who form the active and fighting part of the army. Let us now examine the composition of the officers. We read in the memorial:  "It is melancholy to look at the history of our army since 1828!  At different periods it was the first thing to increase the number of officers, as number was conceived to be the best means of making adherents to an administration, to increase the number of employments."

Again, treating of detached officers, the minister says:  "This scheme had for its object to step over all the bounds of justice, and to open a door to all sorts of tricks, with a view of rewarding the most degrading acts of domestic life, and others which my pen refuses to record, and which the decency of any memorial rejects the mention of."

Speaking, in conclusion, of this worthless body of men, he says:  "Some officers have shown much talent and information; but they are so few, that they suffice not for the common duties in time of peace."

This is the sort of army of which the Mexican newspapers have spoken with such ridiculous exaggeration. The army, for the whole republic consists of 12,000 men at farthest, ill-clothed, half-fed, without discipline, unexercised, and poorly commanded. Such are the veteran heroes that menace the existence of your union!

Some days ago, there was a sudden change in the language of the Mexican press in relation to the soldiery. It was on the occasion of the mutiny of the division under the command of Paredes. A dubious rumor was circulated in Mexico, ascribing to Paredes, Valencia, and Tornel, a design to hurl General Herrera from the presidential chair, to form a triumvirate who were to govern the nation for their own profit. There were already inquietudes in the congress, when the deputy Boves made known to the house the intrigues of Paredes. The latter replied, from San Luis Potosi, to the accusations of Boves, in a violent letter, which excited great in the deputy. The news of the mutiny at San Luis arrived at Mexico immediately afterwards. The troops had declared themselves in the usual style, and formally refused to march until the government should furnish them with provisions, clothing, and money. The next day the newspapers cried shame! Accused the army of treason, and thundered forth denunciations against it. On the 28th of August, Mr. Boves brought forward in the house a charge as follows:

There are indications in the interior departments of a design to proclaim a plan similar to that of Tacubaya. There is a man who pretends to all the powerful functions of the fatal plan of the basis. - those who ought to maintain subordination and discipline in the army, are precisely those who have drawn the troops from their duty. The third division of the army, now at San Luis Potosi, which should be marching against Texas, instead of fighting for the existence and honor of the republic, is about to destroy the government, and proclaim an anti-national administration."

After tracing the duties of military chiefs, Mr. Boves continues:  "let us go back to Gen. Paredes - who is that exalted officer who aspires to give laws to the republic, to its representatives, and its executive; whom he has treated in a manner inconsistent with the rules of common politeness?  He has affected several bloody revolutions. What does liberty owe him?  The death of Gen. Montezuma, the dictatorship of Gen. Santa Anna, and the dissolution of the last congress, established that he and the other generals on the side of the fatal scheme of Tacubaya gave a guarantee of their word and honor - and forfeited it!  What is owing to him for the administrations, which have followed?  He betrayed that of Gen, Bustamente, who covered him with favors and marks of kindness; betrayed Santa Anna, whom he proclaimed dictator, and who was the idol of his worship; and now he attacks the administration of the 6th December, who spared his life.

The acts of the senate form his political sentence, and in them are deposited the votes he gave in compliance with the orders of the dictator, before whom he shamefully humiliated himself. The memorable 6th December drew him from deserts, from the society of wild beasts; and now he wants to arrogate to himself the glory of the day. But no! that glory belongs not to Gen. Paredes, nor to any individual - but to the nation!"

Mr. Boves finished a resolution to inquire int. the mutiny at San Luis; which resolution was rejected.

A few days afterwards the government received from Gen. Paredes the following proclamation, addressed by him to his troops on his appointment to command the army of reserve:

"Soldiers, the supreme government has ordered the 1st and 3d divisions to be formed into an army of reserve, and has condescended to name me general-in-chief. This proof of confidence imposes upon me a duty to devote myself to so generous a country.

"Companions in arms, our country raises her august front to resist the usurpation of a neighboring country, which thinks that our valor sleeps. And that you are not the sons of those heroes whose courage and constancy have shone in a hundred fights. A greedy and avaricious race has invaded our territory, and supposes that we will not defend the patrimony acquired by the blood of our fathers. Strange mistake!  We will snatch the spoils from their rash hands! And dear bought experience will teach them that they fight not with savage tribes, and that the Mexicans fight with enthusiasm against a people whose laws sanction the most degrading slavery.

"When the supreme government gives the word, we will march to avenge those insults - to defend the integrity of our native soil, the religion of our fathers, the laws which they bequeathed us and the territory which is our right.

"My friends, there is yet another duty to be performed, to preserve peace and good order, the safety of the community, and the rights of individuals. We are merely the creatures of the people - their props and defenders. I rely on your sense of honor, your moderation, and trust you will reserve your ardor for the day of battle.

"Soldiers! It is my proudest boast to command you. I will show you the road to immortality; my reward will be to have my name inscribed on the annals of the republic at an epoch, which will be blessed by a grateful posterity. Long live the supreme government.

"Mariano Paredes y Aragilla. Headquarters, San Luis Potosi, Aug. 27, 1845."   [BAH]


NR 69.132-69.133  01Nov1845:  dragoons from Fort Jesup to join the Army of Observation

March of the Second Regiment of Dragoons. A Letter dated Corpus Christi, Sept. 2d. published in the N.. Orleans Picayune says,  "For the purpose of correcting the various rumors and reports in circulation relative to the march of the second regiment of dragoons through Texas to this place, it is the request of the officers of the regiment that you publish the following:

"Anticipations and predictions of a disastrous march for the dragoons, on account of the drought and warm season, were rife among certain wiseacres; and verifications o f the same, in the shape of vague rumors of sickness and distress, were accordingly sent abroad were we had fairly started; indeed, a report reached us before we left fort Jessup that Col. Twiggs, who had proceeded the command an hour or two, was lying dangerously ill five miles on the road. This we discovered to be utterly false; on the contrary, our "gallant" colonel never flagged or wavered, notwithstanding a slight affliction at the commencement of the march, but conducted the command to this point with a rapidity, energy, and masterly ability in the highest degree creditable.

"Passing through a comparatively unsettled country, a southern clime, a six weeks' drought, the month of August, the various and contradictory reports in reference to forage, &c., with seven companies of dragons and a train of sixty wagons, might well have staggered a firmer and more practical mind. But the task, voluntarily undertaken, has been accomplished, and the regiment and train of wagons presented to the commanding general in such fine condition as to have elicited the admiration of our friends of the infantry regiments, and a complementary order from Gen. Taylor himself.

"True we encountered difficulties on the route, and obstacles that seemed insurmountable; but nothing impeded out progress. Starting at 3 o'clock in the morning, and frequently at 12, our marches of twenty-five, and sometimes thirty miles, were terminated before the heat of the day. Upon our arrival at the town and villages we were greeted by the acclamations of the multitude assembled to welcome us. Balls and parties were immediately gotten up, and committees, composed of the magi of the people, sent to solicit our attendance. The ladies, God bless them, we found always first and most enthusiastic in the expressions of their joy and gratitude.

"Our losses upon the route were principally from desertion - only three deaths having occurred on the march; on, the first day, was occasioned from overheating himself and drinking cold water; and two others from a stroke of the sun, having been obliged, on account of the soreness of their horses' backs, to walk across a prairie fifteen miles wide, on the borders of the Guadalupe. Indeed, mush of the distress and the consequent desertions, may be attributed mainly to the circumstance that during the first six days over sixty horses' backs were injured by the miserable saddle lately adopted by the government, and the riders consequently dismounted and made to walk the remainder of the way. More upon this subject anon.

"An amusing circumstance, and one that is more flattering to the regiment than any other occurrence on the route, took place at San Patricio. The regiment had made an early start, (12M.) in order to accomplish a distance of twenty-seven miles to San Patricio, and cross the Nueces by means of a raft, which had been previously constructed by a party thrown forward the night and day before. We arrived about 8 A.M. By nine every dragoon had swam the river, with his equipments. During the whole morning, and especially at this hour, had been heard what was at first supposed to be the firing of a salute at Corpus Christi. The continuation of the distant reports, however, together with the absence of Gen. Taylor, who had informed Col. Twiggs by express that he should meet him at San Patricio that day, confirmed even the most skeptical that Corpus Christi had been attacked. 'To horse' was immediately sounded; then 'the advance;' and the sick and convalescent wee ordered to remain as a guard to the train. When we had got fairly under way, however, and the stragglers were all up, the officer left in charge reported that there were no sick, the number having been suddenly reduced from 50 to 0!  We had scarcely proceeded three miles, however, before we met the General himself, and soon discovered that, instead of the enemy, we were about to meet a violent thunder-storm. We were not much vexed, as the occurrence displayed to us the alacrity with which our men would prepare to meet the enemy, and the stuff the regiment is made of. Nous Verons

"Ere I conclude, it is but just that I should inform the public that Lieut. George Stevens, of the 2d dragoons, acting topographical engineer, is due the credit of surveying and measuring the entire route from fort Jessup, Louisiana, to Corpus Christi, having with his own hands constructed a viometer for that purpose. The distance to this point has been thus ascertained to be 501 ½ miles. The regiment left fort Jessup on the 25th of July, and arrived at Corpus Christi on the 27th of August, having rested eight days on the march.

Seven companies of U.S. artillery, under command of Major Ewing, reached Aransas pass on the evening of the 4th Oct., from New York, per the U.S. store ship Lexington - all well. The Lexington left there on the 11th for Pensacola.   [BAH]


NR 69.133   01Nov1845:  artillery reaches Aransas for the Army of Observation

Seven companies of U.S. artillery, under command of Major Ewing, reached Aransas pass on the evening of the 4th Oct., from New York, per the U.S. store ship Lexington - all well. The Lexington left there on the 11th for Pensacola.   [BAH]


NR 69.147-69.148   01Nov1845:  hypothecation of California to Great Britain in payment for the debt of Mexico

From the New York Courier.

            That portion of the Pacific ocean known as California, is at present attracting an unusual share of the attention of the governments and people of this country, Great Britain, and France. It is regarded by them all as in itself one of the richest and most beautiful regions of the earth; and is destined, by its situation, its harbors, and its proximity to Asia, to influence at no distant day, the commercial and political affairs of the world. We have published from time to time, from the English and French papers, able and important speculations upon this subject: - and special attention has been excited by the passages we have given from the Mexican correspondence of the London Times, in which the possession of California by the British is held to be indispensable to check the progress in wealth and power of the United States, which is beginning to excite the jealousy and alarm of the leading nations of Europe. - The writer has repeatedly, intelligently and most zealously urged upon the British government the necessity of at once acquiring California by purchase from Mexico, insisting that thus and thus only, can the American republic be cut off from the West pacific Coast, and shut out from a most advantageous access to the trade of Asia. Substantially the same view is urged in the leading and official papers of Paris.

            In this state of things the character, condition and general relations of California become to us objects of the deepest interest. It has been generally understood that certain portions of the territory have been mortgaged to parties in England, by whom money has at various times been loaned to Mexico; and hat there is a disposition on the part of the British government, by means of this mortgage, to acquire possession and dominion of the while country. Of course no just argument in favor of such possession can be drawn from the existence of such mortgage, as the mortgage will be equally binding and acquire additional value and validity, should California become part and parcel of the United States. In that case the debt will be guaranteed by the American government; and if the solicitude of the British government extends solely to the security o these debts, it will abandon its designs, if such have been entertained, of acquiring dominion there, and allow California to assume the position which events may assign it. It seems clear, however that jealousy of the United Sates, a disposition to cheek their progress and to retard their growth in power and sway is at the root of this proposition to make California a province or dependent section of the British possessions. Such a consummation would be to the United States a most serious and important event; one which would greatly influence our relations with all the world, and cut us off forever from easy and independent access to the boundless wealth of the Asiatic commerce - a consequence to which the United States can never submit. We lay it down as an axiom - to be enforced by war if necessary - that when Mexico ceases to own California it must constitute an integral part of the American Union.   [BAH]


NR 69.147   01Nov1845:  high price of provisions in Texas because of presence of Army troops

TEXAS. Provisions. - The Houston Telegraph states that the presence of the United States army on their frontier had advanced provisions to unprecedented prices. At Corpus Christi and Aransas, corn was 1.50 per bushel - potatoes and other vegetables in proportion. The army had to depend on supplies from New Orleans, except from beef which Texas afforded in abundance and as low as 1 to 11/2 cts. Per pound.   [BAH]


NR 69.160   15Nov1845:  dispatches to the US via Navy steamers

            MEXICO. The United Stares steamer Mississippi, anchored off the navy yard, Pensacola at 10 A.M. 29th October, in five days from Vera Cruz, from which port the United States steamer Princeton sailed at the same time, with duplicate dispatches, with which both steamers were instructed to reach Pensacola with all possible dispatch. The Mississippi sent her dispatch from the navy yard to Pensacola by the United States steamer Gen. Taylor, in time to be started by the mail of the 29th to Washington. She left the Princeton out of sight, the second day from Vera Cruz.   [BAH]


NR 69.161   15Nov1845:  expedition of Rangers to the Rio Grande

            TEXAS. We have Galveston dates to the 1st. inst. The popular vote taken on the question of annexation, is not large, but very decidedly in favor of the measure, which they seem to consider as now settled, and are discussing who are to be their United States senators. Ex-governor Houston and Gen'ls Lamar and Rusk, each have advocated for the station.

            Business continued animated, Mexican traders arriving and departing freely. The Galveston News says that Major Hays and Capt. McCullough, with their companies well mounted, are now on an expedition to the Rio Grande.

            The Lagrange (Fayette county) Telegraph mentions that during the night of the 12th ult. the town of Gonzales was visited by a party of horse thieves, and twenty of the finest horses in the place were stolen. It is not known whether the party were Indians, Mexicans, or white men; but the former bear the burden of suspicion.   [BAH]


NR 69.161  15Nov1845:  discussion of relations with Mexico, news of a messenger from Mexico City indicating difficulties with Mexico are at an end

RELATIONS WITH MEXICO

            A GILMPSE AT THE Pacific. - At the period when the Mexican government so far abandoned their previous position towards Texas, under the influence of suggestions from the Texian president, Jones, and the French and English ministers to Texas and Mexico, as to offer to acknowledge Texas to be independent on the single condition, that she would not annex herself to the United States, - at that period we earnestly urged the appointment by U.S. government of some able statesman and diplomatist, as minister from this country to Mexico, under a firm persuasion that it would be in the power of such an agent so to represent the obvious interests of both Mexico and the United Sates, as neighboring republic, and as American Republics,  as to conciliate and settle, as they might easily do, all existing difficulties, and shaking hands in a friendly way, resume trade, commerce, and intercourse profitable to both, and so preferable to a disastrous and protracted war, fomented and probably participated in by the royalties of Europe, for the sake of profiting by other squabbles. As we were admitted to be the stronger of the parties disputant, to have sent a minister with ultimate overtures to the weaker power, with the express purpose of averting hostilities of possible, would have been magnanimous; humanity, respect for the peace of the world, was well as for the mutual interests of the parties, required such a demonstration. We have repeatedly expressed our anxiety hat the government at Washington would, and we sincerely rejoice to find, that they have considered the subject and taken preliminary means for sending a minister to Mexico. We notice articles in several of the southern papers brought by the last mail which state, on the authority of the bearer of the important dispatches sent by the U.S. steamer Princeton, from Vera Cruz, that a suggestions from our government, that they would be willing to send a minister extraordinary, with a view of settling the existing difficulties between the tow countries, had been well received and promptly responded to by the Mexican government. Various other authorities in private letters and conversations with person from Vera Cruz express the strongest confidence that the dispute will be amicably settled. The Mexican government may perhaps ask a withdrawal of our ships from Vera Cruz, for appearance sake, to prevent the imputation of their treating under intimidation. The important and knotty question, in relation to with what boundaries Texas is admitted into our union, may, by this process, be adjusted to the satisfaction of all parties. The honor or sensibilities of the country may be spared the imputation of attempting to take hostile and unmanly advantages of a weaker neighbor; and the Mexican government- by consolidation their energies within their well peopled provinces, instead of exhausting and squandering them in fruitless and hopeless attempts to control provinces beyond their power - will soon realize the benefit of so wholesome a change in her policy. There is no doubt that the people of the United States would cheerfully purchase the Mexican claim to California, for instance, in order to secure central ports and harbors upon the western coast of America, so essential to the trade of the Pacific and the opening trade to China and Japan. Yes, and would more willingly give ten times the millions for a peace able and honorable transfer of hat advantage, than it would cost her to obtain it by force. The Mexican government in the present condition of their treasury, and surrounded by embarrassments on every hand, - must, it appears to us, perceive the difference between accepting a consideration that would at once relieve them and their treasury, avert the requisitions of both men and money, which a war would impose, and enable their government to resume authority over the now distracted member of their confederation. The difference, we say, between this, and the alternative of attempting a war wit the United States, which at the very threshold she finds herself so manifestly inadequate to, must be conclusive.   [BAH]


NR 69.176  15Nov1845;  suggestions from Mexico on terms for resuming diplomatic relations and negotiating differences

            Mexico. The Washington correspondent of the New York Journal of Commerce writes, that the dispatches brought by M. Perrot from Mexico, to our government, are very important. He understands that Mexico proposes, that on the United States naval squadron being withdrawn from the Mexican coast, diplomatic relations shall be resumed, ministers mutually appointed, and negotiations entered into for the adjustment of al existing difficulties., the settlement of a boundary between the counties, and of the compensation which shall be paid to Mexico for the new boundary.   [BAH]


NR 68.178   15Nov1845:  items pertaining to the Army of Observation at Corpus Christi

ARMY JOURNAL

            "The army of observation," continues as heretofore reported, except that the gallant volunteer detachments of Louisiana artillery and infantry have returned to New Orleans, their services being no longer deemed essential at Corpus Christi. They were received at New Orleans with every mark of respect. Of the 200 men, of which the detachments consisted, three died during the tour of service - four joined the United States army - three concluded to remain in Texas, and some others it is said design returning thither.

            It is stated in the New Orleans Picayne that lieut. Reives, of the eighth regiment of U.S. infantry, was severely but not dangerously injured at Corpus Christi by the Rick of a horse, immediately over the region of he heart. He was still confined to bed on the 3d instant.

            The Galveston papers state that the 300 dragoons, under Major Fauntleroy had recrossed the Brasos, at Nashville, and are now probably at Austin, where they are to be stationed.

            Considerable sickness prevails among the troops at Corpus Christi, though of a light nature attributed to the bad water and the exposure of a camp life.

            Lieut. Cooke, of the United States Dragoons, who was a passenger in the steamer New York from Galveston for New Orleans, disappeared from the vessel. He was seen about 4 o'clock, A.M., of 2d instant to make to the guard of the boat, complaining of being sick, and returned again to the cabin. In the morning he was nowhere to be bound, and must have gone overboard. - Lieut. C. came up recently from the camp at Corpus Christi in consequence of ill health.

            Capt. Suarez of the schr. Josephine reports on the 27th ult, an officer of the U.S. Army was killed on board of the steam schooner Augusta, while lying alongside of a brig in Aransas Bay by the falling of a yardarm. The offer's name was not recollected.

GENERAL ORDERS, - NO. 50.

War department, Adjutant General's Office. Washington November 5, 1845.   [BAH]


NR 69.203-69.204    29Nov1845:  letter describing the situation with regard to cession of California to Great Britain or the US and the governance of the province by Mexico

Correspondence of the journal of Commerce. California, July 1845.

            By almost every newspaper from the United States and many from England, we find extras and surmises respecting the sale of this country. One month, England is the purchaser; the next month, the United States. In the mean time the progress of California is onward; and would still be more so, if Mexico would not send every few years a band of thieving soldiers.

            Should the supreme government allow the Californians to rule their own country, they would have peace and prosperity. General Don Jose Castro, a native of Monterey is now at the head of governments as commandant general; Don Pio Pico, as governor. Mexico promised General Micheltorena eight thousand dollars per month from the customhouse of Mazallan, and all the duties enduring the custom houses of California, to support this troops.

            General Castro has sent Senor Castanares to Mexico as commissioner, giving his reasons why he drove all Mexican officers and soldiers out of the country; puts himself at the disposition of President Herrera, and ask for only three thousand dollars per month from Mazatlan, promising with this sum and the resources of the custom house of Monterey, that he will maintain peace and order throughout California; and objects to any civil or military officers from Mexico. This, Castro can perform; though Herrera will not put faith in it. We have now news that Mexico is fitting out an expense to be paid by two or three English houses in Mexico, who, it is said, are responsible for the pay for eighteen months. Last December, when General Micheltorena was met in the field by the Californians about half way between Monterey and the Yerba Buena (San Francisco) he agreed to a treaty with the natives, obligating himself to send out of California, within ninety days, al his soldiers, Senor Castro in the meantime to withdraw his forces to a mission, whose resources were placed at his disposal, on the field. At the signing of the treaty, the Californian agent of the Hudson's Bay Company and his clerk were present. This gentleman resides at the Yerba Buena, where the company own land and buildings selling goods and purchasing furs and hides. Their last shipment was in April.

            Within a month after the signing of the treaty, the Californians found that General Micheltorena had sent his chief officer to Mazallan for more soldiers, and made no preparation to ship their soldiers who were with him. They therefore again collected, and on February 23d, after fighting with cannon, General Micheltorena capitulated, and was sent with all his forces to San Blas, where most of his men ran away from him.

            The business of the Hudson's Bay Company is now under the charge of the English vice consul for California, who has brought a bill against the new government of California for power, lead and lances supplied by the late agent to the natives last October and November, when they rose against the supreme government of Mexico. General Castro has promised payment for the amount demanded.

            The British government have appointed one of their subjects who formally resided in New York, (where he owns property,) vice consul of California. The salary is small, but as he can live on his rancho (farm) he has not expense in entertaining company, &c. The French consul lives in Monterey with a salary of over four thousand dollars yearly. There is not one English or French vessel doing business on this coast, nor has there been for years. These consuls there fore have nothing to do apparently. Why they are in service, their government best knows, and Uncle Sam will know to his cost.

            Almost the whole foreign trade of California is in the hands of Americans. There are now seven Boston ships and barks here. The American consul has a jurisdiction of one thousand miles of sea coast, while the nature of the trade is such hat he has barely any fees. Government allows no salary. The fees of the consulate are under to hundred dollars the year. The stationery bill bout the same; which is now allowed by the department of state.

            There are many owners of large tracts of land in California, who hold them under the idea of the country changing owners; having no present use for them, as the Indians, tame and wild, steal several thousand head of horses yearly from the ranchos. -  Most of these horses are stolen for food. The Indians cut up the meat in stripes and dry it n the sun. While this continues, grazing of cattle cannot be profitably conducted. There is no expectation that the government will find a remedy. Nothing but the fear the Indians have of the American settlers will prevent it. They steal but a few horses from foreigners, as there is too much danger of being followed. Mexico may fret and threaten as much as she pleases, but all here in California, governors and generals, give Californian land to all who apply for it; and from the nature of things they will continue to do so.

            Foreigners arriving here expect to live and in the country; - Mexican officers to remain two or three years, and then to be shopped off by force, unless they choose to marry natives, and become Californians body and soul. The parts of California, with the exception of Mazallan, are the only Mexican Pacific ports that flourish. All others are falling and falling fast. Here there is much advance in every thing and the country presents each year bolder front to the world. It must change owners. It is of no use to Mexico, but an eye-sore, a shame, a bone of contention. Here are many fine ports; the land produces wheat even to an hundred fold; cotton and hemp will grow here, and every kind of fruit there is in New England; grapes in abundance of the first quality; wine of many kinds is make, yet there is no facility of making. Much of it will pass for Port. The rivers are full of fish; the woods of game. Bears, seal, and whales can be seen from one view. The latter are often in the way of boats near the beach. Finally, there is the bay of San Francisco, with tits branched. This bay will hold all the ships in the United States. The entrance is very narrow, between town mountains, easily defended; and perhaps he most magnificent harbor in the world; and apparently of as much us to the civilized world as if it did not exist. Some day or other, this will belong to some naval power. This every native is prepared for. When Captain Armstrong called on the governor (a native) to give back the country in the name of Commodore Jones, Senor Micheltorena and officers were expected here in a mouth, to take command. The governor said he preferred Com. Ones should retain the command, rather than Gen. Micheltorena.

            Words cannot express the advantage and importance of San Francisco to a naval power. There are five hundred to one thousand American whalers, with twenty thousand American seamen, in the Pacific; half of them will be within twenty days sail of San Francisco. While the port belongs to Mexico it is a safe place for whale shops. In a war with England, France, or Russia, should one of these nations own the port, and at some future day declare war against the United States, what will be the result?  San Francisco must be obtained, or the Oregon and California must become a nation within themselves. - Time is continually bringing this into notice; and one of the two must soon be consummated. If the Oregon dispute continues, let England take eight degrees north of the Columbia, and purchases eight degrees south of forty-two, from Mexico, and exchange.

            The Oregon will never be a benefit to the United States, if England owns San Francisco. Vessels sometimes lie within the bar of the Columbia thirty or forty days waiting an opportunity to go out. - When once out, they can reach San Francisco in four days; a steamboat in less than k two days. The time will soon arrive when, by steam, a person will go from Columbia to Monterey and back in less than four days. For navigation, the Columbia is on little use. A few English ships could prevent any vessel going in, even if the wind allowed them. - Whalers from the northwest now pass the place for California.

            This letter contains many facts well known to the writer and which should be know to his countrymen. Each paragraph contains matter from much thought and reflections; and it is sent to you, because from your paper the writer has read many paragraphs respecting California. And give you this information in return.

            The settlers of the Organ anticipated the supplying of California. Under present circumstances, they may. A Californian will not work, if he can avoid it. The time will come, must come, when this country must be peopled by another race. This is fully expected here. Many children have been sent to the Oahu (Sandwich Islands) English school, to learn the English language, in order to prepare them for coming events, be the visit from John Bull or Uncle Sam. One of the two will have the country. When once this is accomplished, the place will team with a busty race. As I before observed, all frits will go here, hemp, cotton, every variety of grain, timer, from the tender willow to trees seventeen feet in diameter. The natives are now expecting troops from Acapulco to reconquer the country, and are drilling many young men in preparation intending to surround the first port the Mexicans arrive at, drive away the cattle, prevent all intercourse with the ranchos, and by this means expel the invaders from California.

            If they cannot exceed in this, they will take to the mountains and worry the invaders out. Many think these soldiers are sent by Mexico at the instigation of the English, under the pretext that the Americans are settling in California too fast, and will one day obtain possession. In the mean time the Californians do not believe the story, but give land to all that come, be they from what nation they may; and the less from Mexico the more it meets their views.   [BAH]


NR 69.209   29Nov1845:  announcement of dispatch of a minister to Mexico, news received of Mexican agreement to open negotiations

            Mexico. The barque Eugenia arrived at New York with Vera Cruz dates, to the 5th Nov. A bearer of dispatches from the Mexican government has arrived in the Eugenia. The Mexican congress had authorized the government to open negotiations with the United States for an amicable adjustment of all questions in dispute. The U.S. ship John Adams would sail from Vera Cruz on the 8th inst. for Pensacola. - It was said she was waiting to convey a Mexican minister or commissioner to the United States.

            The Indians still continue their attacks on the villages in Zacatecas and Durango. On the 17th October, in the latter place, they were attacked and routed by a detachment of soldiers.

            Our latest advices are via Havanna, bringing Vera Cruz dates to the 6th Nov., furnished by the N.Y. Sun. "The Mexican congress had before them certain propositions said to have emanated from the United States, and had also authorized the opening of negotiations, as before stated. The propositions from our government were said to be as follows: 1. The Rio del Norte to be the boundary. - 2. An indemnity of five millions of dollars. - 3. Upper California to be ceded to the United Sates, as far down as the head of the gulf; the river Gila, which empties into the Colorado of the west to e the boundary. We are assured that these propositions were discussed in the Mexican congress.   [BAH]


December 1845

NR 69.240   13Dec1845:  debate on negotiations with the US

Mexico. Vera Cruz dates to the 7th ult. are received. The Mexican government was occupied in deliberating on the negotiation with the U. States. Some of their journals denounce the president and cabinet in the severest terms for entertaining the proposition to part with Texas to the Del Norte, and call upon the army to interfere and punish the "traitors."   [BAH]


69.244   13Dec1845:  Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's statement on payment of the Mexican indemnity

           


NR 69.244   20Dec1845:  expectation of a successful result to the negotiation with Mexico

There can hardly be a doubt of a successful result to the negotiations which it is presumed are by this time in progress for a termination of all difficulties between the United States and the republic of Mexico. With earnestness from time to time we have urged the adoption of the course now pursued by the administration in relation to these difficulties and as often expressed the confidence, that if it were adopted, the obvious interests of both countries would at once lead to an amicable adjustment. We predicated upon mutual interests, too obvious to require serve peace with the United States if she can do so with honor and safety. Her government is heavily in debt to citizens of other countries as well as to the United States, and without the means to meet those obligations. The United States would be exceedingly glad to obtain suitable ports upon the Pacific for the accommodation of her shipping in that sea, and would not hesitate to give a liberal consideration for territory there, which Mexico finds it now authority over. No man can shut his eyes to the results of the current emigration for the last century, from east to west, and which no human power could have arrested, and which it would be but folly now to attempt to arrest. The Mexican government cannot fail to appreciate the progress, and would be unwise not to avail of a price now, for what in a very short time, would inevitably pass from her control, whether she would or no. That our new envoy to Mexico carried with him instructions of ample scope to embrace the transfer of the territory alluded to, and to allow a generous consideration for it, we considered beyond doubt, from the moment it was known that he had been appointed; and it is not without surprise that we find many subject, announcing that a special messenger and special instructions on the subject have been dispatched by our government to Mr. Slidell, since he left this country. We judge that Mr. S., and the administration too, must have been awake before. We find many articles like the following;

"It seems to be understood that Mr. Slidell, our new minister to Mexico, is fully authorized to arrange our boundary with that republic upon the most liberal footing. His powers in this respect are believed to be so extensive that under them he may negotiate a transfer to the United States of the right of Mexico to Upper California. This would probably be effected by making our line follow that course of the Rio Grande del Norte from the Gulf of Mexico until it reaches the thirty-second degree of north latitude, and then run westward on that parallel to the Pacific ocean."  "of course such a result will not be brought about without a handsome compensation to Mexico for her relinquishment of territory. Our claim against her for indemnification to our citizens is now very large, and no way is so likely as this to secure its full and immediate satisfaction. Indeed, so far as the consideration which we may give her is balanced by this account, it may be said to amount to nothing; for, if we give Mexico the fullest credit for good will in the premises, her detracted and poverished condition warrants but a slight hope that she will very speedily pay us in money."

If we have any doubt as to the conclusion of a treaty with Mexico, it arises from an apprehension of the interference of European powers. If either or several of those powers conclude to attempt to arrest the progress of the "republic" - or if one of them considers it an object to play for the possession of California for themselves, they would be apt to find Mexico very willing to listen to their assurances of support-and not disposed, as Texas was, to reject overtures. Let Mexico be assured that she would be backed by England, or by France - and especially if the capitalists of those countries make a point either for the sake of the Mexican mines or of the commerce of the Pacific - to furnish "ready rhino" to their negotiators our ministers would find them to be ugly customers.

Would it not have been well to have allowed this negotiation with Mexico to progress beyond the danger of its failure, before our president undertook officially to lecture the governments of Europe on their broaching the subject of "a balance of power" -or the concerns of this continent?  The introduction at such a moment, of anything that, without intimidating, might provoke the monarchies of Europe to attempt an interference, was we fear, impolitic. We shall rejoice to learn that Mr. Slidell has succeeded in his mission before he dose administered shall have time to operate to our disadvantage.   [BAH]


NR 69.256   20Dec1845:  Gen. Mariano Arista's appointment to treat with the US on Texas boundary and other matters

            MEXICO. General Arista has been appointed by the Mexican government to treat respecting the boundary of Texas and other matters in dispute, between the United States and Mexico.

            A correspondent of the New Orleans Delta, writing from Pensacola, under date of the 3d inst. announces the arrival there of Mr. Parrot, bearer of dispatches to the United States minister in Mexico, and he was to sail that day from Vera Cruz in the U.S. brig Porpoise.   [BAH]


NR 69.258    20Dec1845:  relations with Mexico take an unfavorable turn, remarks

RELATIONS WITH MEXICO. There is reason to apprehend that affairs are to assume a more unfriendly aspect between Mexico and this country. Mr. Slidell, our new envoy to that republic, landed at Vera Cruz on the 29th ult. from Pensacola, and proceeded immediately we presume for the city of Mexico, but whether he would find that capital in the possession of the President of eh republic lately installed, and the authorities who had consented to treat with the United Sates for a settlement of all existing difficulties, and an adjustment of new boundaries between Mexico and the United Sates, was very doubtful. It appears that General Paredes, the commandant of the district of San Louis Potosi, which has between the city of Mexico and the Texas frontier near the coast of the gulf, had issued a manifesto denouncing the existing government for entertaining a design of parting with valuable portions of he republic by cession to the United States, and that at the head of 8000 men he was marching to the capital to arrest and defeat the project, maintain the integrity of their territory and no doubt with design to dire the incumbents form per and take authority in his own hands - possibly with a view of recalling Santa Anna. We are indebted to a British steamer for this intelligence - brought from Vera Cruz to Cuba, from whence it reaches us - Our government have, it is stated in the Washington papers, received important dispatches from Mr. Slidell, dated immediately after his arrival at Vera Cruz, but nothing of their import has transpired. It is quite possible that this movement of Paredes upon the capital of Mexico with the avowed design of frustrating the proposed negotiation with this country may have been if not prompted, at least encouraged by rivals for the possession of the mines of Santa Fe and for the possession of the California. We await the result with anxiety. If this negotiation failed, according to the tenor of president Polk's message to congress, war in that direction would seem to be inevitable.   [BAH]


January 1846

NR 68.273   03Jan1846:  letter from an officer at Corpus Christi

            Army of Occupation. A New Orleans correspondent of the Charleston Courier says in one of his late letters - "I have just seen a letter from an officer of the United States army at Corpus Christi, which gives a dreadful picture of the state of affairs there he says the place is crowded with outlaws, thieves, and murders, who daily commit robbery and murder with impunity; that over thirty grogshops have been opened by the vultures who follow the army to prey on the poor soldiers; that two men, one belonging to the 4th and the other to ht 2d artillery, were recently murdered and other have been drugged and robbed; that the country being in dispute, there are no civil officers, and that much chagrin is felt that gen. Taylor has taken no steps to discover the murderers and to put an end to the deplorable condition of affairs.

            "The writer says it has excited some surprise that general Taylor has not proclaimed martial law, but according to his belief, it is not for want of firmness or lack of feeling for his command that the general has so acted, but because he is faltered by the department at Washington, which has already given sufficient proof of its utter incapability. The writer goes on to represent the situation of the army as truly deplorable. He says that while by day the men suffer from the sultry heat, at night they are nearly perished with cold; that the tents provided them are worthless and no protection against the drenching rains; that dysentery and catarrhal fever have make sad havoc among the troops; that one third of them dare now on the sick list, and not one fifth have escaped sickness altogether.

            Much murmuring, he says, is now heard in the camp at the unnecessary hardships endured. Only wood enough for cooking purposes is supplied by the quartermaster, none being allowed for camp fires, and the men have to sit shivering with cold in their wet tents, when not on duty or drill, while ever and anon a comrade is hurried to his final resting place. Truly, this is a state of things of which we had no idea, especially as the newspapers have been constantly stating that the army was in fine health. - Some measures should be at once adopted to remedy the evils complained of. It is to be hoped the situation of the troops at Corpus Christi will be brought to the notice of congress, and if the facts are as stated, which I fully believe, that a severe reprimand will be administered to those who are answerable."   [BAH]


NR 69.291   10Jan1846:  relations with Mexico take an unfavorable turn, remarks

RELATIONS WITH MEXICO. The last intelligence we have had from our southern neighbors, left affairs in a very delicate position as regards the reception of our minister who had just landed and was on his way to the capital by one route, whilst the most formidable part of the Mexican army was on their march for the made destination by another route, for the avowed purpose of preventing the conclusion of the treaty he was on his way with powers to conclude. The latest dates, were those of Vera Cruz to the 4th De. - exactly the same day of our latest dates from Europe. If it were to for the absorbing interest of our relations with England, every eye would new be diverted to the south; that point seems almost forgotten, for the moment. It is full time we had further accounts from thence. We await them with deep anxiety.   [BAH]


NR 69.304   10 Jan 1846 John Slidell not recognized, quits the city

LATER. The barque Ann Louisa, arrived at New York, brings Vera Cruz dates to the 14th; files of papers from thence to the 10th, and from the city of Mexico to the 4th December. Our readers will be equally surprised and gratified, to ascertain formal these sources that the report of a counter revolution having been attempted by Gen. Paredes, and his pronouncing against a treaty with the United States, and this marching upon Mexico, are unfounded aspersions of that officer's character, for which he has ordered legal proceedings to be commenced at Mexico. The American Minister, Mr. Slidell, had left Vera Cruz for Mexico. Verbal accounts say he had reached that city. Mr. Parrot, secretary of legation, had reached Vera Cruz in the U.S. brig Porpoise. The U.S. ship St. Mary's was to sail from Vera Cruz for Pensacola on the15th ult.   [BAH]


NR 69.304   10Jan1846:  relations with Mexico take an unfavorable turn, remarks

MEXICO. The New York Sun says it has received letters a few days later from the city of Mexico, but they contain no certain information of the actual result of General Paredes' revolt. There were rumors in Washington last week that he had overthrown Herrera's government, and these rumors appear only to be repeated I the intelligence received by the Sun. It says, "He had pronounced against the administration of President Herrera, and was marching rapidly towards the capital, having thrown he government off their guard by writing to them, on the Texan frontiers to 'chastise the Americans.'  H was carrying all before him n the road, being joined by the forces in he departments. 'Herrera has fallen,' says one of our correspondents, "and a fierce tyrant of the order of Santa Anna has ascended the throne of the Montezumas.'  We infer from this that the capital has submitted to Paredes. The rumored movements of France and England in Mexico indicate an alliance between them and Paredes. An officer of the Society for the Union from the North American Republics writes encouragingly of the society's prospects, and says, 'the revolution of Paredes is only the first of a long series of revolutions, planned in Europe for a purpose which the people of mexico will yet discover, in time to defeat the whole scheme and save the country."    [BAH]


NR 69.304  10Jan1846:   Mexico, departments assaulted by Indians

The department of Durango had suffered dreadfully by an attack from the Indians. The city of San Juan del Rey, had been taken by them after a severe fight in which 58 of the citizens were left dead upon the field. The Indians were threatening the department of Coahuilla, and also others. On the 9t December the steamship Guadeloupe left the above port for Tabasco, having on board General M. Cela, governor and commandant of the department, with officers and suite, and battalion of infantry.   [BAH]


NR 69.305   10Jan1846:  gloomy reports from Mexico about the reception of John Slidell and the possibility of a movement by Gen. Mariano Paredes y Arillaga against the government of Jose Joaquin Herrera on the basis of declaring war against the US over the annexation of Texas

This very serious question is now asked on every hand, and alike in relation to both Mexico and Great Britain.

Relations with Mexico. The week commenced with a gloomy aspect. Various reports circulated indicating that unpleasant information had reached Washington from Mexico. The Washington correspondent of the Baltimore Sun wrote expressly that a messenger had arrived here with voluminous dispatches from Mr. Slidell, our minister and bringing Mexico, dates to the 4th, which sated that a revolution would be effected either the next day or the day after, in favor of gen. Paredes, upon the avowed basis of his declaring war against the United States in less than thirty days.

            These rumors were in a measure confirmed by New York papers of Saturday last, stating that though the papers brought by the Ann Louisa, from Vera Cruz, (as noticed in lour last) went to discredit the report of any attempt at revolution by gen. Paredes, yet the statements of persons who had arrived in that vessel were to the contrary. They now represent that affairs looked unfavorable.

            Tuesday morning's southern mail brought confirmation of the reports. It was said that a messenger from Mr. Slidell had arrived at Pensacola, on the 2d inst. in the U.S. ship St. Marys and had reached Washington. Pensacola and Mobile journals all agree that the intelligence brought by this arrival from Mexico is unfavorable.. Some state that Mr. Slidell "had not been well received" - others, "that he had not been received at all" - others again hat "he had been badly received."  The fact appears to be, hat a revolution was impending, unfavorable to the purposes of his mission.

            The union of Monday Evening, contradicts the rumor of a messenger having arrived from Mr. Slidell, and is silent as to the import of the dispatches received from him.

            The New Orleans Courier of January 3, with some information not possessed by other papers of that city, discusses at large the probability of the success of Mr. Slidell's mission to Mexico. According to its views, (as translated and condensed for the Picayune) this success must depend upon the ability of the government of president Herrera to withstand the attack of Paredes. The Courier enters a t length into the circumstances and position of both the chieftains, as well as of generals Arista and Bustamente, and thence it deduces the almost certain triumph of Paredes. But the principle upon which Paredes will go into power is that of unqualified resistance to the annexation of Texas to the United States, and to the dismemberment of the Mexican republic. Hence, the Courier argues, his supremacy will be fatal to the hopes entertained of success for the American minister. The latest account received at New Orleans brought a report that Paredes had declared against Herrera, and was marching upon the capital: but in the mean time at the government organ at Mexico has officially announced that Paredes had assured the president that he would stand by and support the government in negotiating with the United States, in case the popular clamor against making peace should endanger the safety of he government.

            The New Orleans Courier, said to be well informed as to Mr. Slidell's movements, states that the minister reached Mexico on the 8th, and was still there on the 17th unaccredited as minister.

            The New Orleans Times published an extract of a letter from Mexico dated the 18th , which says - "Mr. Slidell has been refused by the ministry to enter upon the negotiations respecting Texas, as he came here with credentials as a resident minister, instead of as a commissioner for the arrangement of a particular question."

            The Times adds - "Private letters mention that Mr. Slidell has written on to Washington for full powers; we know not on what authority this statement is made, but it would seem a singular one, in his capacity of minister plenipotentiary."   [BAH]


NR 69.320  24Jan1846:  Gen. Mariano Paredes y Arillaga approaches Mexico

            Mexico. - Latest. There remains no doubt of "the army of reserve" under Paredes being on their march for Mexcio. The project of the usurpation was approved by the army at San Louis Potosi, on the 14th, and at Tampico on the 20th. The prupose avowed is, to prevent the dismemberment of the republic by treating with the United States.   [BAH]


NR 69.320  24Jan1846:  unpleasant rumors of sickness, &c., among US troops

            "The Army of Occupation" What few paragraphs we have this week from Corpus Christi, to confirm unpleasant accounts and rumors as to the want of health and comforts amongst the men and officers, but are too indefinite for insertion. We hope they may prove to be exaggerations.   [BAH]


NR 69.350   31Jan1846:  reference to relations with Mexico by Gov. Silas Wright of New York

            "We learn from the last message of the president of the United States, that the relations of the federal government, with all the powers of the earth are also peaceful. Considerable sensation has been experienced, at various periods during the past year, from the prospect of an interruption of those relations with the republic of Mexico; but as that government has concluded to re-establish the diplomatic intercourse between the tow countries, which had been suspended by its action, and as the measure which induced that suspension has progressed so far as to leave no doubt of its final consummation, the reasonable presumption is that all difference will be amicably adjusted, and the peace of the two nations continue unbroken."   [BAH]


NR 69.323   24Jan1846:  Gen. Mariano Paredes y Arillaga approaches Mexico
69.323  24Jan1846:  cabinet declines to recognize John Slidell, who retires to Jalapa
69.323   24Jan1846:  Jose Joaquin Herrera's circular to the provinces

Relations with Mexico. That Presidnt Polk's reliances for preseving peace with Mexcio, shold be  suddenly interruped by a reoluion in the Mexican administration, at the same moment that a revolution in the British administration at least suspends his demonstrations towrds England, is somewhat of a peculiar fate. It would be the more remarkable if it should turn out that both of those revolutions were produced by measures emanating from Washington. It is much easier for those entrused with executive power to raise a tempest, than it is to rule the storm when at its maddest.

The clouds lowering in the southern horizon, have gathered gloom by every arrival from thence since our last, and now really look portentous. Our government have advices from Mr. Slidell, hte import of which we can judge of by one fact, - Orders have issued from our navy department which indicate that an immediate concentraiton of a much larger force than is at present in teh Gulf, is to be made in tha direction.

For the latest intelligence from Mexico, we are indebted to the Mexican schooner Julia, which reached New Orleans on the 13th, briniging Vera Cruz dates to the 30th. And Mexican dated to the 23d, ult. Previous arrivals had furnished us with the declaratoins of several southern provinces and chiefs in favorur of Paredes, and of the march of his army upon Mexico, for the avowed prupose of preventing president Herrera from concluding an arrangement by which a part of the empire was to government was hesitating to recognize Mr. Slidell as residnet Minister, on finding that he was without adequate specail poers to treat upon the questions which they had signified a disposition to open negotiations on. Herrera was not doubt compelled to respect to a considerable extent the popular impulse of the moment.

He seems determined however to make an effort against Paredes. The Moniteur of the 21st ult. says that the supreme government has appointed Gen. Bustamente Commander in Chief, and Gen. Rorregon his second in command, of the Army to oppose Gen. Paredes, and adds, that the government is indefatigable working to quell the revolt, and that it has already taken the necessary measures to put the Capital in a state of defense, and had given out 3,000 guns to be distributed among the citizens.

On the 21st ult., the senate concurred with the government in giving dictatorial powers to President Herrera.

El Siglo says, that Paredes had seized upon the public treasury of the Fair at St. Juan, which had been committed to his charge.

El Verocruzana on the 24th says, that on the 23d, a salute from the Castle of San Juan de Ulloa, under the command of Cassanova, announced the first movement of the Army and Navy in favor of the proclamation of San Louis Potosi, by Gen. Paredes, and that it was immediately seconded by the garrison of the place at whose head is the brave Laudero, with the exception of a part of the battalion Sigero, numbering about 100 men, who left their barracks with their officers, refusing to join their companions. This body, as they were marching out fired a volley on those wo remained, killing a captain and ten veterans, and wounding three others. It then marched to the government palace, and was ordered to quarter in the Convent of San Francisco, where they remained at the latest dates. The same paper says that at a later hour it learned that the city and garrison of Jalapa had pronounced in favor of Paredes, and that it was momentarily waiting for a similar movement in Orisana and the fortress of Perote.

On the 23d, the forces of Paredes were said to be only three days march from the city of Mexico.

On the 24th, the troops at Puebla under Gen. Inclan, who had received orders to march to the Capital, refused to depart, and it was certain that, notwithstanding the efforts of the General to the contrary, they would soon declare in favor of Paredes.

Mexico, it was said, would in a few days open its gates to Paredes.

The Vera Cruzano of the 29th, says that it learns by letters, of responsible persons, from Mexico, that the imbecile and short sighted Cabinet had mortgaged to England the department of Yucatan, on condition that she would pay its immense debt. There, says that paper, are facts that will soon be divulged.

A Circular of the 24th , transmitted by President Herrera to the governors of the different Departments, delegates to said governors the tremendous extraordinary powers with which Congress had invested him, and already had the Capital of the Republic begun to feel the weight of such despotism, as imprisonments, irrespective of persons or characters, had become common, and even the archbishop Garduna, had been obliged to fly from the persecutions that awaited him. Gen. Ampudia had gone over to the revolutionists, and the Government troops had publicly espoused their cause.

Gen. Almonte was concealed, fearing persecutions.

The latest intelligence is to the effect that the numerous cavalry of that General were in the near vicinity of the Capital. His artillery and infantry were between the city and Arroya-Sareo. The cities of Orisava and Guanajuato had also declared for Paredes at the approach of his forces.

Gen. Urrea, says El Eiglo of the 19th, has been defeated by the forces of General Campuxaua and Cuesta, each party having lost about 60 persons.

The paper says that the Government Council, after long deliberation, had determined not to receive Mr., Slidell in his ordinary official capacity, notwithstanding its previous engagement to receive a Plenipotentiary from the United States with special powers to treat on the subject of Texas. This conclusion of the Government took place after Mr. Parrott had reached Mexico on his return from the United States.

In the Moniteur of the 23d is published Herrera's proclamation calling upon his compatriots to rally in defense of the laws. It is a long document, and concludes as follow? - "it is my duty to defend our liberties and yours to sustain me!"

Mr. J. Tilghman Hoffman, bearer of dispatches from our minister, Mr. Slidell, for the government at Washington, came passenger in the Julia. The impression seems to be, that Parades, who is said to have 9000 men on the march, will succeed in revolutionizing the government. Puebla and some interior towns side with the government, while Vera Cruz, Tampico, and Jalapa favor Paredes. The movement was commenced at Vera Cruz on the 23d ultimo.

The nomination of Mr. Slidell, as minister, when made to the U.S. senate, gave rise to a very warm debate. The nomination was confirmed on Tuesday last, by, it is said, a strict party vote. He will have an opportunity for the display of diplomatic tact. - if he succeeds in the object of his mission, through difficulties which now appear to surround the case, he will deserve credit. We like his decision in remaining at his post in Mexico, notwithstanding the coldness of his reception by Herrera, or the approach of Paredes, and have some doubts whether a little consideration, "a second sober thought," may not influence Paredes himself, in case of his succeeding to power, to accept the terms and considerations which he is endeavoring to drive Hererra from power for considering. Mr. Peel played that some game upon the Whig administration of England, without apparently, half so good an apology as Paredes would have, on carefully reviewing the responsibilities of a war with the United States, on the one hand, and the convenient settlement of many embarrassments which we offer them the means of affection, on the other hand.

So much for this week, on the question of peace or war.   [BAH]


February 1846

NR 69.352   07Feb1846:  uncertainty about attitude of the new Mexican government toward the US

            Affairs with Mexico. The rival at Pensacola of the United States brig porpoise, furnished Vera Cruz dates t he 1st inst.

            The revolution in favor of Paredes is affected. On his approach at eh head of between 6 and 8000 men, to the vicinity of he City of Mexico, the regular army there pronounced in his favor and Herrera's presidency was terminated. Mr. Slidell the United States Minister, and Mr. Parrott, attaché to the legation, retired to Jalapa, to await instructions from home, for which the Porpoise was immediately dispatched.

            The Union contradicts the rumor that a messenger had reached Washington from Mexico a few days since. The Washington correspondent of the Charleston Mercury re-asserts not withstanding, that an agent had reached Washington from Mexico. We infer from some hints, that the idea was entertained by some that it had been suggested that the United Sates should make an immediate disposition to sustain Herrera and prevent Paredes from effecting the revolution.

            The additional forces which our government have directed towards the Gulf, it is more likely are designed to meet the contingency which has occurred. From the direction of those forces as well as from the tone of the administration journals on the subject, there can be little doubt of Paredes having very speedily the alternative presented, of treating with Mr. Slidell, or defending himself.

            The intelligence that Paredes had entered Mexico, and been received with open arms, reached Washington on the 22d. On the 24th the union announced the fact, but intimated at the same time that Paredes was understood to be more favorable to the reception of a minister from the United States, than his predecessor.

            From Havanna, we have by way of New Orleans, fresh rumors relative to the intrigues of Santa Anna, who according to the notion of the correspondent of the New Orleans paper, must think that he can play upon the English, French, and Spanish authorities on one hand, and upon Herrera, Paredes, Almonte and the Mexican people on the other, with inimitable slight of hand. No doubt he is an arch intriguer, capable of playing a bold game, but - he has occasionally failed.   [BAH]


NR 69.353   07Feb1846:  affairs with the US more gloomy, various reports about the reception or rejection of the American minister

            The indications of the week, in relation to our, affairs with Mexico, continue to be portentous, but by no means as decidedly so, as reports, rumors, and various publications have represented. At one time indeed, it was assisted that Mr. Slidell, our minister at Mexico, had been assassinated, - other accounts, published at New Orleans as from Mexico, represented him as having demanded his passports, and being told in reply, that as he had never been recognized, there were no passports to return. Then we had him asking for an escort to protect him on his return to Vera Cruz, and being told that he was no more entitled to such a favor than any other foreigner. Next we are told that a detachment from the United States sloop-of-war St. Mary's, on learning Mr. Slidell's embarrassment, had immediately started for Jalapa, to escort him from thence to Vera Cruz. These are but mere instances from the general assortment of rumors, which have been afloat during the week, from this direction.

            The Washington Union plays havock with all these tales, by assuring the public that the dispatches received by government, indicate nothing of the kind. Mr. Slidell has not been recognized, but hopes are expressed that when President Paredes comes to a careful review of all the responsibilities which now surround him in his new sphere, he will distinguish, as his predecessor did, that the true interest of Mexico will be best consulted by preserving peace in the United States, instead of allowing herself to become the victim of European diplomacy on one hand, or of ill-judging antipathies on the other.

            We see it stated in New York paper; that letters have been received there from the late Mexican minister Almonte, now the right hand man of Paredes' administration, which state that Mr. Slidell will not be recognized, and that a formidable movement will immediately be make upon Texas. We do not believe Almonte would have so committed himself. A few days no doubt will acquaint us with the determination of the new government. Meantime, all our disposable naval force are under orders for the Gulf of Mexico, to be ready for contingencies.   [BAH]


NR 69.371   14Feb1846:  strength of the Army of Occupation

            Army of occupation. The documents of the war department accompanying the message, state the strength of this army as follows:

Officers.
Privates.
Total.
Sick.
General Staff
24
.
24
2d dra'gs 10 companies,
41
555
596
80
Artillery, 12 "
81
842
923
97
Infantry, 50 "
200
2336
2536
324
Total
246
3732
4079
501
Total Absent
58
140
198
0
With the colors
288
3592
3881
0

            This force is under command of brevet brigadier general Zachary Taylor.   [BAH]


NR 69.384   14 Feb 1846:  notice of American ships of war off the coast of California

California, October 8, 1845. "The news of the day here in California is, that we must soon have a bout with Mexico; but you may think differently, from the better information you must have of the political relations now pending between that and other powers. - Should there be a war we are bound here till it is over. I trust it may not be so.

            Our (American) vessels of war are hovering about the coast, altogether too thickly for the quiet feelings of the natives. Their guns have bristled at Monterey during the last month, and in case of a declaration of war, there would be half a dozen of them here in no time, and then California is ours. This year is a most unfortunate one for business, it having rained only on one half the coast, the windward part."   [BAH]


NR 69.384   14Feb1846:  difficulties in the advance of the Army of Occupation to the Rio del Norte

            "Army of Occupation."  Nothing new that can be relied upon from Corpus Christi this week. A paragraph in the New York Journal of Commerce states, that the army has orders to take a position on the Rio del Norte, but the richness of the soil renders the mud so 'exquisite.' As to prevent a movement.   [BAH]


NR 69.416   28Feb1846:  Army of Occupation ordered to the Rio del Norte

            "The Army of Occupation."  Accounts from Corpus Christi state, have received orders to proceed to take up a position at the mouth of the Rio del Norte - and are making dispositions accordingly - though apparently without some reluctance. It is a sad season we should judge for movements of troops, munitions, and stores, in that alluvial soil.   [BAH]


March 1846

NR 70.018   14Mar1846:  number of ships, men, guns, etc.

            Gulf squadron - The sloops of war Falmouth, John Adams, and St. Mary's, and the brig Porpoise, were all at Vera Cruz on the 16th ult. The steamer Mississippi and the brig Somers were at Pensacola, the latter to sail for Vera Cruz on the afternoon of the 2d instant.

            The schooner Flirt, at Norfolk, is to be fitted for a dispatch vessel for the gulf.   [BAH]


NR 70.050    28Mar1846:  Army of Occupation quits Corpus Christi and advances to the Rio Grande

            Army of occupation - Advance from Corpus Christi to the Rio Grande. The first brigade under the command of brevet brig. Gen. W.J. Worth, composed of the battalion of artillery, commanded by lieut. col. Thomas Childs, and the 8th regiment of infantry, commanded by lieut. Col. W.G. Belknap left their encampment on the morning of the 9th for their destination.

The second brigade commanded by lieut. Col. J.S. McIntosh, of the 5th regiment of infantry, under major T. Brown, struck their tents on the morning of the 10th, and took up their line of march for the Rio Grande.

            The third brigade commanded by col. W. Whistler, composed of the 3d regiment of infantry, commanded by lieut. Col. E.A. Hitchcock, and the 4th infantry, commanded by lieut. Col. J. Garland, were to take final leave of their old Corpus Christi encampment, on Wednesday, the 11th instant, to join the main army.

            The squadron of transports was to leave on the 20th inst. under convoy of the U.S. cutter Woodbury, captain Foster, and the steamer Monmouth.    [BAH]


NR 70.050-70.051  28Mar1846:  Gen. Zachary Taylor's general order on respecting the rights of Mexicans

Head quarters army of occupation, Corpus Christi, Texas March 8, 1846.

Orders. No 30. the army of occupation being bout to take position on the left bank of the Rio Grande, under the orders of the executive of the U. States, the commanding general deems it proper to express his hope that the movement will prove beneficial to all concerned; and that nothing may be wanting on his part to insure so desirable a result, he strictly enjoins upon his command the most scrupulous regard for the rights of all persons who may be found in the peaceful pursuits of their respective avocations, residing on the both banks of the Rio Grande. No persons, under any pretense whatever, will interfere in any manner with the civil rights and religious privileges of the people, but will pay the utmost respect to both. Whatever may be required for the use of the army will be purchased by the paper departments at the highest market price. The general commanding is happy to say that he has entire confidence in the patriotism and discipline of the army under his command, and feels assured that his orders, as above expressed, will be strictly observed.

Z. Taylor, brig. Gen. U.S. army, commanding.   [BAH]


NR 70.051   28Mar1846:  Gen. Jose Antonio Mejia returns to Matamoros

the Mexican gen. Mejia is said to have returned to Matamoras on the 2d instant. The Mexican troops this side the Rio Grande - if any - are said to be under the command of Garcia, Canales and Severiego. It was reported in Galveston that gen. Taylor had made a requistion for more troops, but the repoort was doubted.

Four companies of volunteers called out at New Orleans, by gen. Gaines, for Texas, without any orders from the war department, and without any occasion for their services, were paid $51,600 for three months' service.   [BAH]


April 1846

NR 70.096   11Apr1846:  Mexican efforts to protect Point Isabel
70.096     11Apr1846suggestion that Mexico cede Texas, New Mexico, and California to the US

MEXICO. Vera Cruz dates to the 19th March, have been receive. Mr. Slidell was still at Jalapa. The New Orleans Times says, that on the 4th March, Senor Castillo Lanzas received a note from Mr. Slidell, requiring peremptorily a definitive answer to the demand to be received as minister plenipotentiary, not only to arrange the question of Texas, but to settle every other matter in dispute between the two countries, such as payment of the installments due on the debt, and a satisfactory remuneration for the losses sustained by our citizens, by the delay in those payments. The supreme government immediately convoked the council, and submitted Mr. Slidell's note for their opinion. They advised the government not to receive Mr., Slidell, except as envoy extraordinary to settle the difficulty about Texas, leaning all other affairs unattended to, until that shall have been adjusted. It is not known whether the government will conform to the wishes of the council, but it is supposed it will, since the president and his cabinet find in its favor, not only the recorded opinions of the preceding administration and the late chambers, but the whole of the Mexican press.

On the other side, it is asserted in the Mexican prints that Mr. Slidell will not abate one jot of his pretensions, and will quit the republic immediately after the receipt of Senor Lanzas' reply, if it be not perfectly satisfactory.

The La  Hesperia of the 7th, confirms the above.

Mexican dates are to the 7th, at which time rumors of the advance of General Taylor to the Rio Grande had reached there. It was even said that the advanced troops had seized the pilots at Matamoras, to force them into the service of the vessels of war collecting about the Bazos, Santiago, and Boca Chica. From every quarter - the Pacific, the Gulf and by the Rio Grande - the prospect to Mexico from the United States, according to the paper, was deemed most hostile.

Gen. Mejia, had pushed 400 infantry to protect Point Sta. Isabel and Gen, Parrodi was very busy in drumming up pupils to repel invasion. All these movements have reference only to our reconnoitering parties, which having made their observations, immediately retired. - The Mexicans think they will be able to concentrate 8,00 men on the Rio Bravo by the 1st of April.

A private letter, dated on the 7th ult., informs us that some twenty United States soldiers, who had deserted from Corpus Christi, had arrived at the city Mexico and been set at liberty by the government. They are represented by our correspondent as in a most wretched condition, many of them going about begging, and despised by both Mexicans and foreigners. They say they have been much deceived about Mexico, and heartily wish themselves back in Gen. Taylor's camp again. Good enough for them.

Gen. Ampudia is said to have reached as far as St. Louis Potosi, on his way to the command of the "Army of the North."

The correspondent of the Locomotor of the 11th ult., writing from the city of Mexico, states:  "Ij this event there is no doubt that the maritime forces of the Anglo-Americans situated in the gulf, and in the Pacific, will attack our ports, and Gen. Taylor will commence operations on the Rio Bravo."   [BAH]


NR 70.098    18Apr1846:  comments on the failure of John Slidell's mission

MR. SLIDELL'S MISSION, has been unfortunate as well as unsuccessful. No one regrets this result more than ourselves. It is unfortunate that the appointment of a minister was delayed beyond the moment, which would have been most favorable for success. The instant the Mexicans ascertained that neither England nor France were disposed to incur a war with the U. States in order to prevent the annexation of Texas, an American minister should have been upon the spot to take advantage of the reaction produced by that discovery. Both of those governments had prompted Mexico. - alone in her glory. Incensed at the desertion, a reaction took place, which should have been restored. It was a stickling about etiquette, we fear, which lost us the tide, which would have led to fortune.

There was a resort to secrecy, too, in the premises, which was probably unfortunate. The motive for this no doubt was to steal a march upon European governments. No one was aware, until the president in his annual message announced the fact to congress, that Mr. Slidell had received such an appointment or left home on such an errand. The advantage gained by this mystery, in any whatever was gained, was overbalanced far by a want of that countenance and respectability which would have especially marked the mission. The manner of Mr. Slidell's approach aroused patriotic as well as popular prejudice. The character of his embassy was questioned. Unfortunately, according to President Herrera's construction, Mr. Slidell's credentials were not in accordance with the preliminary understanding, and etiquette interposed another delay. Further instructions ere now forwarded to Mr. Slidell, but in the meantime a revolution in the Mexican government predicated expressly with the view of defeating the object of Mr. Slidell's embassy had been accomplished, his errand failed, and he has returned home.

Our naval and military forcers were concentrated upon the Mexican frontier and coast, in anticipation of Mr. Slidell's mission. On its being suggested by President Herrera's government, that this would interpose an obstacle to his reception or to a pacification, the squadron was recalled, and the army was continued to "observation."  On the indications of a revolution at Mexico, these counter-maneuvers were retraced. The squadron was augmented and again ordered to the Mexican coast and the army was ordered to advance to "occupation."  If these orders were designed to sustain Herrera, they were to late. If designed to intimidate Paredes to recognize Mr. Slidell, they have failed.

The commanders of both army and squadrons have now arrived at the very borders of the Rubicon.   [BAH]


NR 70.112    18Apr1846:  Army of Occupation takes post on the Rio Grande
70.112   18Apr1846:   numbers and position of Mexican forces

"ARMY OF OCCUPATION."

TAKES POST ON THE RIO GRANDE. - The revenue cutter Woodburry, left the Brazos St. Jago on the 30th ultimo, and reached Galveston, on the 4th instant, with intelligence from the army,  the steamship New York reached N. Orleans on the 8th from Galveston bringing intelligence of the arrival of the pilot boat Hitchcock which left Brazos St. Jago on the 1st inst. Those sources furnish us with details from which we abbreviate the following. It will be recollected that our previous accounts left the army en route from Corpus Christi for the Rio Grande;  distance 119 miles.

Two reconnoitering detachments, one commanded by Capt. Hardee, the other by Lieut. Hamilton, preceded the movement. The one approached opposite Brazos Santiago via Isla del Padre, the other by the old Matamoras road, near Sal Colorado. Gen'l Mejia, in command at Matamoras, on hearing of their approach, mustered every soldier there, and crossed the Rio Grande in person, under the impression that he should meet the advance of the army. He Marched as far as the Colorado creek, with all possible dispatch, and discovered that both these detachments had returned to the camp at Corpus Christi.

The account from Matamoras of the 13th March goes on the say: --"his anger at this unexpected 'no find you there' knew no bounds - as he had boasted upon his departure from Matamoras, of the laurels that he his troops would win before their return to their old quarters. His excellency was, however, compelled to put back without a single trophy to grace his unwelcome return."

It will best to show, here as far as we are able the

DISPOSITON OF THE MEXICAN FORCES ON THE FRONTIER.

We extract from the above letter from Matamoras:

"All the forces late under the command of General Arista, at Monterey, and now under the orders of Gen. La Vega, about 1,800 strong, have arrived at Matamoras, and it is said, will march forthwith for the Salt Lakes and the Sal Colorado, to arrest the march of Gen. Taylor upon the Rio Grande. Gen. Canales, of Comargo, with his regiment, nearly 1,00 strong, has received orders from the advance of our forces, to march the movements of you r army, and is now occupying a position in a direct line between Comargo and Corpus Christi, about 22 leagues from the former place, at the north western extremity of the great Salt Lake. General Ampudia (the gentlemen who boiled Sentmanat's head) is within two days march of us, with 3,500 men, mostly cavalry. We know very little of what is going on in the country or interior as General Paredes has stopped the transmission of all newspapers as dangerous. You, who know pretty well all the movements upon the political draft board, will be able to judge of the times by the signs. What is here stated id true, and you may assure your friends of that fact. I might state many other matters, but they are too delicate for discussion. - in my next you will have further particulars, and before you get this, the questions of fight or not fight between us and Gen. Taylor will have been decided upon, and the independence of the northern provinces declared, or their future connection with the parent state, quietly, tamely, basely, acquiesced in. Our present armed force and station are as follows: --

Gen. Canales with 900 to 1,000 troops at head of Salt Lakes, sixty miles from Comargo.

Gen. Mejia on Al Colorado, where the old Matamoras road crosses that river, about 60 or 70 miles from Matamoras, about 750 men.

Gen. Garcia, at Point Isabel, with 280 men, mostly infantry and artillery.

Gen. Savereigo, with some 200 men, is upon the Colorado, between Gen. Mejia is the lower ford, which is from 10 to 15 miles from the gulf.

Gen. La Vega, at Matamoras, with 1,800 troops, late commanded by Gen. Arista, detained to reinforce Mejia. Total force, say 4,000 men, about half of whom are on the east side of the Rio Grande.

Arista, is still keeping himself in reserve at his hacienda. Don La Gaixa y Flores, governor of the Tamaulipas, arrived here last night, with an intention, as it is said, of organizing the rancheros, veterans, &c., for defensive operations, should they unfortunately be required."

To resume of account of Gen. Taylor's movement.

Gen Taylor, with a company of dragoons under the command of Col. Twiggs, in advance of the main army, reached Point Isabel on the 24th of March. Isabel is a bluff or promontory of sixty feet elevation, on the north side of the Rio Grande, a few miles below the Mexican city of Matamoras, which is situated upon the southern side of that river.

The fleet of transports from Aransas reached the point by within half an hour after the arrival of the commanding general.

When near Point Isabel with the dragoons, General Taylor was met by a deputation of 30 or 40 men, bearing a proclamation and message from Gen. Meia, protesting against the invasion, and gasconading of defense. At the same moment, the conflagration to the custom house and several other buildings at Point Isabel, which Rodriguiz, the commandant had set fire to on the approach of the fleet of transports, was discovered. Gen. Taylor dismissed the deputation, informing them that he would reply to Gen. Mejia on the 28th opposite to Matamoras. Rodriguez was pursued some distance, but made good his retreat to the river.

The only opposition experienced by the army on their march, was first, at the little Colorado, where a Mexican officer, with about 150 mounted men, threatened to fire upon Gen. Taylor if he attempted to cross that stream, stating that such were his positive orders, and that Mexicans knew no fear. The artillery was immediately ordered up, where the troops formed and commenced fording in perfect order, the water being nearly to the arm-pits, whereupon the gallant Mexicans retreated without executing his "positive orders."  The only other show of opposition had been previously made by a party of 50 or 60, who met the army in the prairie, informed Gen. Taylor that he must proceed no farther in that direction. By order of Gen. Taylor the army opened and this party were permitted to march through to the rear, and then depart.

The country was in a highly favorable condition for the march of the army - more rain would have made the traveling bad, less would have occasioned a scarcity of water.

Col. McCrea was disappointed in his attempt to take the barges across the Laguna la Madre, for the want of sufficient water. They will, in consequence, have to be taken by land. The average depth of water on the bar at Brasos St. Iago is eight and a half feet; from thence to Point Isabel, a distance of about three miles due west, the uniform depth is about five feet. Extraordinary successes attended getting the vessels over a difficult bar, without pilots. The schooner Belle del mar was however driven on the South side. After beating heavily on the bar, and lies into feet water. She cannot be saved. The Louisiana, Capt. Eddy, had her rudder unshipped, but she received no other damage. The U.S. brig Lawrence, Com't Mercer, remained at anchor off the bar. The brig Porpoise, Com't Hunt, sailed for Pensacola on the 26th ult.

Forty wagons with supplies for the arm, left point Isabel on the morning of the 26th in fine condition, and having an excellent road twenty-eight miles to the army opposite Matamoras, and on the morning after Gen. Taylor followed, leaving a company of artillery at Pont Isabel in command of Maj. Munroe.

On the 28th of March, the army of occupation, numbering in all about 3,500 arrived and encamped opposite Matamoras. On the appearance of the American army, the Mexican forces were drawn out on the opposite bank of the river, making a great display of martial music, with trumpets, bugles, &c., which mode of salutation was duly reciprocated in kind by a similar sounding of trumpets and drums in the American lines. Thus ended the first day's reencounter between the two armies on the opposite banks of the Rio Grande, and within two or three hundred yards of each other.

On the next morning, 29th, the American troops discovered the Mexican artillery of eighteen pounders, lining the opposite bank, and pointing directly into their camp, whereupon the American army moved their encampment four miles below. This step, says the account, was doubtless taken by Gen. Taylor in order to avoid every appearance of any disposition to commit aggressions upon the west bank of the river, and to maintain strictly the defensive character of his operations.

The most reliable statements represent the regular army in Matamoras to consist of 2000 soldiers and 500 rancheros.

We are bound to presume that in some way or other, the above hasty accounts have done injustice to our commanding general. Whatever of approbation we might bestow upon his forbearance in the premises, must be at the expense of his claims to generalship, which make this instance of forbearance necessary. Gen. Taylor has been entrusted with the command of the "army of occupation" and will be too circumspect to lose the appellation, by occupying a post which prudence requires him to evacuate so soon as an opposing army show a battery in his front.  [BAH]




The information on this site is intended for personal, non-profit, and/or educational purposes only.

VT Logo | Department of History | Site Map | Contact Us |
©2005 Linda Arnold